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Sample records for elderly postoperative patients

  1. Major postoperative complications and survival for colon cancer elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased life expectancy has led to elevating the mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis of colon cancer and subsequent treatment. Differences in complication rates and outcome between elderly and younger patients have been investigated. Methods We retrospectively analysed a database containing the information of patients who underwent surgery for stage I-III colorectal cancer from January 2004 to January 2012 at our institution and compared demographic, cancer-related, and outcomes data of 235 elderly patients with 211 patients ≤65 years old. Results Intraoperative complications did not differ between young and old patients whereas some differences have been found in postoperative and late complications: elderly patients suffered more by ileus (P = 0.024), peritonitis or septic shock (P = 0.017), pelvic abscess (P = 0.028), wound infection (P = 0.031), and incisional/port herniation (P = 0.012) compared with younger patients. Moreover, elderly patients suffered by systemic complications such as cardiovascular (4.7% vs. 1.4%, P = 0.049), renal (4.7% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.006), and respiratory (10.6% vs. 5.2%, P = 0.036). The multivariate analysis assessing the odds of having a complication revealed that older age (Odd Ratio [OR] 2.75, 95% Confidential Interval [CI]: 1.67-4.52) and open surgery (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62) are significantly and independently associated with having a complication. Conclusions In our series, elderly patients have presented a slight higher incidence of comorbidities that may affect the incidence rates of postoperative complications. These results have implications in increasing the hospital stay as well as a higher rate of death. PMID:23173563

  2. Impact of surgical approach on postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrectomy: laparoscopic versus open approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and is associated with a poor outcome. We compared postoperative delirium in elderly patients following laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus open gastrectomy (OG). Methods In total, 130 patients aged ≥ 65 years with gastric cancer undergoing LG and OG were enrolled prospectively. Postoperative delirium and cognitive status were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), respectively, for 3 days postoperatively. For CAM-positive patients, delirium severity was then assessed using the Delirium Index (DI). Results In total, 123 subjects (LG, n = 60; OG, n = 63) were included in the analysis. In both groups, the overall incidences of postoperative delirium were similar: 31.6% (19/60) in the LG group and 41.2% (26/63) in the OG group. When considering only those with delirium, the severity, expressed as the highest DI score, was similar between the groups. A decline in cognitive function (reduction in MMSE ≥ 2 points from baseline) during 3 days postoperatively was observed in 23 patients in the LG group (38.3%) and 27 patients in the OG group (42.9%) (P = 0.744). In both groups, postoperative cognitive decline was significantly associated with postoperative delirium (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that, compared with traditional open gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy did not reduce either postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26257851

  3. Parecoxib prevents early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang-Zi; Yao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Wang, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trial design neuroinflammation and postoperative pain after surgery are increasingly reported in association with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is used for postoperative analgesia for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to evaluate parecoxib's effects on POCD in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Around 134 elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into parecoxib (group P) and control (group C) groups, and treated with parecoxib sodium and saline, respectively, shortly after induction of general anesthesia and 12-h postsurgery, respectively. Perioperative plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 1evels were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed following surgery. Neuropsychological tests were performed before surgery, and 1 week and 3 months postoperation. Results: POCD incidence in group P was significantly lower compared with that of group C at 1 week after surgery (16.7% vs 33.9%; P < 0.05); no significant difference was found between groups C and P at 3-month follow-up (9.7% vs 6.7%). Compared with group C values, visual analog pain scale (VAS) scores at 3, 6, and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in group P(P < 0.05). Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were lower in group P than in group C after the operation (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the plasma CRP level was found between groups P and C. Conclusions: Parecoxib sodium decreases POCD incidence after total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients and may explain how this drug suppresses inflammation and acute postoperative pain caused by surgical trauma. PMID:27428192

  4. Risk Factors and Outcomes for Postoperative Delirium after Major Surgery in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raats, Jelle W.; van Eijsden, Wilbert A.; Crolla, Rogier M. P. H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van der Laan, Lijckle

    2015-01-01

    Background Early identification of patients at risk for delirium is important, since adequate well timed interventions could prevent occurrence of delirium and related detrimental outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate prognostic factors for delirium, including factors describing frailty, in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. Methods We included patients of 65 years and older, who underwent elective surgery from March 2013 to November 2014. Patients had surgery for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) or colorectal cancer. Delirium was scored prospectively using the Delirium Observation Screening Scale. Pre- and peri-operative predictors of delirium were analyzed using regression analysis. Outcomes after delirium included adverse events, length of hospital stay, discharge destination and mortality. Results We included 232 patients. 51 (22%) underwent surgery for AAA and 181 (78%) for colorectal cancer. Postoperative delirium occurred in 35 patients (15%). Predictors of postoperative delirium included: delirium in medical history (Odds Ratio 12 [95% Confidence Interval 2.7–50]), advancing age (Odds Ratio 2.0 [95% Confidence Interval 1.1–3.8]) per 10 years, and ASA-score ≥3 (Odds Ratio 2.6 [95% Confidence Interval 1.1–5.9]). Occurrence of delirium was related to an increase in adverse events, length of hospital stay and mortality. Conclusion Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication after major surgery in elderly patients and is related to an increase in adverse events, length of hospital stay, and mortality. A delirium in the medical history, advanced age, and ASA-score may assist in defining patients at increased risk for delirium. Further attention to prevention of delirium is essential in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. PMID:26291459

  5. [Dietary prevention of protein-energy malnutrition during early postoperative period in elderly patients with gastroduodenal diseases].

    PubMed

    Baranovskiĭ, A Iu; Protopopova, O B

    2012-01-01

    The modified diet of postoperative rehabilitation program in elderly patients with gastroduodenal ulcers and prognosis of development of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is presented. It is shown that early initiated special diet in postoperative period, blocks mechanisms of malnutrition and can significantly improve the functional status of the small intestine and activate, thus, membrane digestion, which leads to normalization of all types of metabolism in elderly patients. In comparison with control group, where 72% of patients in postoperative period had malnutrition, malnutrition in the study group revealed a mild degree in only 17.3% of patients.

  6. Postoperative Treatment of Primary Glioblastoma Multiforme With Radiation and Concomitant Temozolomide in Elderly Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephanie E. Wagner, Johanna; Bischof, Marc; Welzel, Thomas; Wagner, Florian; Debus, Juergen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate efficacy and toxicity in elderly patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ). Patients and Methods: Forty-three patients aged 65 years or older were treated with postoperative with radiochemotherapy using TMZ for primary GBM. Median age at primary diagnosis was 67 years; 14 patients were female, 29 were male. A complete surgical resection was performed in 12 patients, subtotal resection in 17 patients, and biopsy only in 14 patients. Radiotherapy was applied with a median dose of 60 Gy, in a median fractionation of 5 x 2 Gy/wk. Thirty-five patients received concomitant TMZ at 50 mg/m{sup 2}, and in 8 patients 75 mg/m{sup 2} of TMZ was applied. Adjuvant cycles of TMZ were prescribed in 5 patients only. Results: Median overall survival was 11 months in all patients; the actuarial overall survival rate was 48% at 1 year and 8% at 2 years. Median overall survival was 18 months after complete resection, 16 months after subtotal resection, and 6 months after biopsy only. Median progression-free survival was 4 months; the actuarial progression-free survival rate was 41% at 6 months and 18% at 12 months. Radiochemotherapy was well tolerated in most patients and could be completed without interruption in 38 of 43 patients. Four patients developed hematologic side effects greater than Common Terminology Criteria Grade 2, which led to early discontinuation of TMZ in 1 patient. Conclusions: Radiochemotherapy is safe and effective in a subgroup of elderly patients with GBM and should be considered in patients without major comorbidities.

  7. Effects of intravenous analgesia with combined dezocine and butorphanol on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Ren, B X; Zong, J; Tang, J C; Sun, D P; Hui, X; Li, R Q; Zhang, J L; Ji, Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the analgesic effects of the combination of dezocine and butorphanol on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients. Forty elderly patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries or thoracotomies with general anesthesia were randomly divided into the dezocine and butorphanol group or the butorphanol group (20 patients per group). A visual analog scale was used to evaluate analgesia and the degree of malignant vomiting. The Ramsay scoring method was used to evaluate sedation. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to evaluate cognitive function. Forty-eight hours after the operation, the pain score of the dezocine and butorphanol group (means ± SD, 1.75 ± 0.44) was lower than that of the butorphanol group (2.25 ± 0.79; P < 0.05), and the nausea and vomiting score of the dezocine and butorphanol group (0) was lower than that of the butorphanol group (0.70 ± 1.30; P < 0.05). Six hours after the operation, the sedative score of the butorphanol group (3.75 ± 0.79) was higher than that of the dezocine and butorphanol group (2.15 ± 0.75; P < 0.05). Compared to 1 day before the operation, the MMSE scores of both groups decreased 6 h after the operation, and the MMSE score of the butorphanol group (15.00 ± 2.00) was lower than that of the dezocine and butorphanol group (20.95 ± 1.54; P < 0.05). Dezocine and butorphanol analgesia had transient effects on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients, and the effect of the combination was superior than butorphanol only. PMID:26125754

  8. [Current Status of Preoperative Professional Oral Care by Dentists for Elderly Patients Undergoing Lung Resection and Occurrence of Postoperative Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Tanda, Naoko; Matsuda, Yasushi; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Notsuda, Hirotsugu; Watanabe, Tatsuaki; Niikawa, Hiromichi; Noda, Masafumi; Sakurada, Akira; Kondo, Takashi; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia in elderly people is mainly caused by silent aspiration due to an age-related impairment of cough and swallowing reflexes. Because most of the patients with lung cancer are elderly people, we hypothesized that the age-related impairment of these protective reflexes might exist or occur in patients undergoing lung surgery, and cause postoperative pneumonia. We revealed that many elderly patients showed depressed swallowing reflex even before surgery and transient attenuation of cough reflex after surgery, and that postoperative pneumonia occurred only in the patients whose cough and/or swallowing reflex was abnormal postoperatively. Then, we prospectively showed that 30 elderly patients who received perioperative intensive oral care, including professional assessment of oral status, dental cleaning, and patient education for self-oral care by dentists, followed by intensive oral care by intensive care unit nurses, and encouragement of self-oral care by floor nurses, did not develop pneumonia after lung resection. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the execution status of professional oral care by dentists and the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia in 159 consecutive patients aged 65 or older undergoing lung resection from 2013 to 2014. Thoracic surgeons in our institute asked dentists to provide professional oral care before lung resection only in 30.3% of the subjects in 2013, and 45.8% in 2014. Postoperative pneumonia occurred in 3 out of 76 subjects(3.9%)in 2013, and 1 out of 83(1.2%) in 2014. In 2013, 1 patient who did not receive preoperative professional oral care developed aspiration pneumonia postoperatively followed by acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in-hospital death. We need to make an effective system to provide preoperative professional oral care by dentists especially for elderly patients and high-risk patients before lung resection.

  9. Do Elderly Patients Experience Increased Perioperative or Postoperative Morbidity or Mortality When Given Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Before Esophagectomy?

    SciTech Connect

    Fogh, Shannon E.; Yu, Anthony; Kubicek, Gregory J.; Scott, Walter; Mitchell, Edith; Rosato, Ernest L.; Berger, Adam C.

    2011-08-01

    Background: The use of induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery has been widely used for the treatment of esophageal cancer. The presumed risk of increased postoperative morbidity and mortality with this regimen has led to reluctance to offer this therapy to elderly patients. We compared the perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients 70 years old and older with those of patients younger than 70 who received CRT followed by esophagectomy and sought to identify preoperative risk factors that may predict higher risk of postoperative death or complications. Methods and Materials: We identified 260 patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy. The association of age with postoperative death and complications was evaluated. The Charlson index, prior cardiac history, and diabetes were identified as preoperative risk factors and were evaluated as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results: Cardiac disease and the Charlson index were potential modifiers of the effect of age on length of hospital stay (p = 0.08 and p = 0.07, respectively) and postoperative complications (p = 0.1 and p = 0.2) but were not statistically significant. There was a slight nonsignificant decrease in the risk of death in elderly patients after adjustment for the Charlson index (p = 0.2). Conclusion: No significant differences were detected with respect to morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. The presence of cardiac disease, higher scores on the Charlson index, or diabetes did not significantly influence length of stay, postoperative complications, or postoperative death. Given the potential to improve outcomes, this regimen should not be discounted in elderly patients.

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Intravenous Lidocaine on Early Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Elderly Patients Following Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kui; Wei, Penghui; Zheng, Qiang; Zhou, Jinfeng; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effects of lidocaine treatment on cognitive impairment in aged patients undergoing spine surgery and to explore the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Patients were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups: (1) saline (control) and (2) lidocaine. After induction of anesthesia, the lidocaine group received lidocaine as a bolus of 1 mg/kg over 5 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion at 1.5 mg/kg/h until the end of the surgery. We examined the effects of lidocaine treatment on the improvement of cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at preoperation and 3 days postoperation. Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, S100β, and NSE before inducing anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and 3 days after the end of surgery. Results We found that the MMSE scores in the lidocaine group were markedly higher than those in the control group at 3 days after surgery. Moreover, lidocaine treatment markedly suppressed the release of IL-6, S100β, and NSE into the serum at the end of surgery and 3 days after the end of surgery. In the control group, serum MDA levels increased by 3 days after the end of surgery. The lidocaine group had lower serum MDA levels than those in the control group. Conclusions Lidocaine may be an effective neuroprotective agent in treating early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery. PMID:25975969

  11. [Integrative management of operation, perioperative rehabilitation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Jiao, Yurong; Ding, Kefeng

    2016-05-01

    With the aging of the Chinese population, it seems obvious that the number of elderly patients with the disease of colorectal carcinoma grows significantly. Meanwhile, no evidence-based practical guideline for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma are available in this particular age group. Therefore, the concept of integrative management has been brought up by the Colorectal Cancer Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, which combines the processes of surgery, perioperative rehabilitation and adjuvant chemotherapy together. In this way, the cooperation and complementarity between different clinical departments could cooperate and complete tasks together to integrate the treatment processes into a cohesive one. To achieve the goal of integrative management, the project is divided into horizontal and vertical aspects. The horizontal integration means the cooperation between different clinical departments, which is also known as multi-discipline treatment (MDT). The vertical integration reflects the completeness of the entire treatment under the goal of consistency, strictness and job separation, which could also be explained as the clinical pathway. Furthermore, this review stresses on the integrative strategy of both clinical and biochemical indexes rehabilitation, as well as the operation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy which has been put in execution several years by the Colorectal Cancer Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. PMID:27215515

  12. [Integrative management of operation, perioperative rehabilitation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Jiao, Yurong; Ding, Kefeng

    2016-05-01

    With the aging of the Chinese population, it seems obvious that the number of elderly patients with the disease of colorectal carcinoma grows significantly. Meanwhile, no evidence-based practical guideline for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma are available in this particular age group. Therefore, the concept of integrative management has been brought up by the Colorectal Cancer Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, which combines the processes of surgery, perioperative rehabilitation and adjuvant chemotherapy together. In this way, the cooperation and complementarity between different clinical departments could cooperate and complete tasks together to integrate the treatment processes into a cohesive one. To achieve the goal of integrative management, the project is divided into horizontal and vertical aspects. The horizontal integration means the cooperation between different clinical departments, which is also known as multi-discipline treatment (MDT). The vertical integration reflects the completeness of the entire treatment under the goal of consistency, strictness and job separation, which could also be explained as the clinical pathway. Furthermore, this review stresses on the integrative strategy of both clinical and biochemical indexes rehabilitation, as well as the operation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy which has been put in execution several years by the Colorectal Cancer Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University.

  13. Low Serum Albumin Level, Male Sex, and Total Gastrectomy Are Risk Factors of Severe Postoperative Complications in Elderly Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Chan; Kim, Hyun Il

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that old age is a risk factor for postoperative complications. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the risk factors for poor postoperative surgical outcomes in elderly gastric cancer patients. Materials and Methods Between January 2006 and December 2015, 247 elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy were reviewed. In this study, an elderly patient was defined as a patient aged ≥65 years. All possible variables were used to explore the risk factors for poor early surgical outcomes in elderly gastric cancer patients. Results Based on multivariate analyses of preoperative risk factors, preoperative low serum albumin level (<3.5 g/dl) and male sex showed statistical significance in predicting severe postoperative complications. Additionally, in an analysis of surgery-related risk factors, total gastrectomy was a risk factor for severe postoperative complications. Conclusions Our study findings suggest that low serum albumin level, male sex, and total gastrectomy could be risk factors of severe postoperative complications in elderly gastric cancer patients. Therefore, surgeons should work carefully in cases of elderly gastric cancer patients with low preoperative serum albumin level and male sex. We believe that efforts should be made to avoid total gastrectomy in elderly gastric cancer patients. PMID:27104026

  14. Perioperative Psychological and Music Interventions in Elderly Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia: Effect on Anxiety, Heart Rate Variability, and Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Youjing; Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of perioperative psychological and music interventions in elderly patients undergoing elective surgery on anxiety, post-operative pain, and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) to ascertain if perioperative psychological and music interventions can affect overall anxiety levels. Materials and Methods Fourty elderly patients undergoing elective surgery were randomized to two groups; one group received psychological and music intervention, and the other was the control. The intervention group underwent psychological intervention and listening to music for 30 min before surgery. Results The mean change in HRV as determined by low frequency (LF) power measurements. After the intervention, the ratio of mean LF to high frequency (HF) power decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to before the intervention (p<0.05). In the control group, mean LF measurements and the ratio of LF:HF did not change significantly. In the intervention group, mean HF power was significantly higher after the procedure than before (p<0.01). Moreover, the mean self-rating anxiety score of the intervention group decreased after the procedure compared to before (p<0.05). The mean visual analogue score of the intervention group 6 hours after surgery was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.01). Conclusion Perioperative psychological and music interventions can reduce anxiety and postoperative pain in elderly patients. PMID:24954343

  15. Effect of dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and peri-operative inflammation in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    LI, YUHONG; HE, RUI; CHEN, SHUNFU; QU, YULIAN

    2015-01-01

    The use of intravenous dexmedetomidine during surgery has been shown to suppress inflammatory cytokines peri-operatively. It has also been demonstrated that dexmedetomidine may benefit cognitive function in elderly patients following surgery; however, it is not clear whether dexmedetomidine reduces postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) via the suppression of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on early POCD and inflammatory cytokines in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The study comprised 120 elderly patients undergoing selective LC, who were randomly allocated to receive either dexmedetomidine intravenously (DEX group, n=60) or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n=60). Cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores 1 day prior to surgery, 6 h following surgery and postoperatively on days 1 and 2. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also measured at these time-points. On the basis of whether the patients had POCD on the first day after surgery, patients were divided into a POCD group and a non-POCD group. Blood cytokine levels were compared between the patients with and without POCD. A total of 100 patients completed both pre- and postoperative MMSE tests. At 1 day following surgery, POCD occurred in 10/50 (20%) patients in the DEX group and in 21/50 (42%) patients in the control group (P=0.017). At 6 h following surgery, IL-1β, IL-6 and CRP levels showed significant increases (P<0.01) compared with the baseline levels in the two groups. Furthermore, in the control group, CRP levels showed a significant increase on day 1 (P<0.001) and day 2 (P=0.017) postoperatively. In the DEX group compared with the control group, IL-1β, IL-6 and CRP levels were markedly decreased at 6 h and 1 day after surgery (P<0.01). Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and CRP were significantly higher in patients who

  16. A Comparision of the Effect of Sugammadex on the Recovery Period and Postoperative Residual Block in Young Elderly and Middle-Aged Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Emine; Yılmaz, Canan; Bilgin, Hülya; Karasu, Derya; Bayraktar, Selcan; Apaydın, Yılmaz; Sayan, Halil Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of the characteristics of anesthesia and postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in the elderly population should be a growing concern in this century. Aims: To investigate the effect of sugammadex on the duration of the recovery from neuromuscular blocking agents and postoperative residual curarization in the young elderly and middle-aged elderly patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed by a train of four (TOF) watch monitorization. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial study. Methods: Sixty patients over the age of 65 with American Society of Anesthesiologists I–III were divided into two groups according to their age (65–74 years old and ≥75 years old). Patients received sugammadex (2.0 mg/kg iv) at the reappearance of the second twitch of the TOF as an agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockage at the end of surgery. Patients were extubated at the time of TOF ≥0.9. The patients’ TOF responses were evaluated with regards to PORC in at the 5th minute and were followed up for one hour in the recovery room. Reintubation was applied for those patients who developed PORC and had peripheric oxygen saturation <90% despite being given 6 L oxygen per min with a face mask. Results: The onset time of neuromuscular blocking agent and time from T2 to achieve TOF ratio 90% (the duration of sugammadex effect) or over were found to be longer in the middle-aged elderly group than in the young elderly group. A statistically significant relationship was found between age and the duration of TOF ratio to reach 0.9 in the same direction. The PORC incidence and rate of reintubation were found to be 1.7% in all patients. Conclusion: In our opinion, it is necessary to remember that the duration of sugammadex effect on the recovery period is prolonged for patients who are aged ≥75 years compared to patients aged between 65–74 years. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12615000758505) PMID:27403387

  17. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Ziyu; Wang, Kunpeng; Tu, Chuanquan; Wang, Xiangbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD) in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and to identify those factors associated with delirium. Methods From July 2010 to February 2015, 358 patients, aged ≥65 years and undergoing TURP were prospectively enrolled. Personal, medical and cognitive data, laboratory assessments, pain intensity, preoperative medications, and details of hemodynamic control were collected as predictors of delirium. POD was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method. Results In the present study, POD occurred in 28 out of 358 cases (7.8%) after TURP, with duration of 1–4 days. The multivariate analysis showed that old age and visual analog scale pain scores were associated with POD. Marital status, body mass index, education, alcohol consumption, smoking history, preoperative psychotropic medication usage, activities of daily living scores, preoperative Mini-Mental Status Examination score, anesthesia type, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, or hypotensive episodes during surgery did not significantly correlate with the occurrence of POD. Conclusion Old age and pain intensity after surgery were found as the risk factors for the development of delirium in elderly patients undergoing TURP. These findings might help develop preventive strategies to decrease POD through targeted evaluation. PMID:26834475

  18. The effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ning, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture after undergoing intramedullary nail fixation surgery.We collected medical records of elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years with femoral shaft fracture between 03/2010 and 03/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. Totally, 160 patients were identified and divided into the intervention group (n = 80) and the control group (n = 80). During the postoperative period, the intervention group received lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics treatment for 3 months, but the control group did not. All patients were routinely asked to return hospital for a check in the 1st postoperative week, as well as the 2nd week, the 1st month, and the 3rd month, after surgery. The clinical rehabilitation effect was evaluated by checking lower limb action ability, detecting the lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT), scoring muscle strength of quadriceps and visual analog scale (VAS) score, and performing satisfaction survey.At the 1st week and 2nd week after surgery, the clinical rehabilitation effect in the intervention group was better regarding lower limb action ability, lower limb DVT, muscle strength of quadriceps, VAS score, and patient satisfaction, as compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference at the 1st month and the 3rd month after surgery when comparing the intervention group to the control group.In the early postoperative stage, lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics can effectively improve the recovery of lower limb function, beneficial to reducing postoperative complications such as lower limb DVT and muscle atrophy, and increasing patient satisfaction rate. PMID:27537579

  19. The effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ning, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture after undergoing intramedullary nail fixation surgery.We collected medical records of elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years with femoral shaft fracture between 03/2010 and 03/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. Totally, 160 patients were identified and divided into the intervention group (n = 80) and the control group (n = 80). During the postoperative period, the intervention group received lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics treatment for 3 months, but the control group did not. All patients were routinely asked to return hospital for a check in the 1st postoperative week, as well as the 2nd week, the 1st month, and the 3rd month, after surgery. The clinical rehabilitation effect was evaluated by checking lower limb action ability, detecting the lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT), scoring muscle strength of quadriceps and visual analog scale (VAS) score, and performing satisfaction survey.At the 1st week and 2nd week after surgery, the clinical rehabilitation effect in the intervention group was better regarding lower limb action ability, lower limb DVT, muscle strength of quadriceps, VAS score, and patient satisfaction, as compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference at the 1st month and the 3rd month after surgery when comparing the intervention group to the control group.In the early postoperative stage, lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics can effectively improve the recovery of lower limb function, beneficial to reducing postoperative complications such as lower limb DVT and muscle atrophy, and increasing patient satisfaction rate.

  20. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further. PMID:26921505

  1. The impact of nutritional status and appetite on the hospital length of stay and postoperative complications in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis before aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Jagielak, Dariusz; Wernio, Edyta; Bramlage, Peter; Gruchała-Niedoszytko, Marta; Rogowski, Jan; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with the reduction of physical activity and muscle mass and may be associated with decreased appetite. Aim To assess the nutritional status and the impact of nutritional status and appetite on the hospital length of stay and postoperative complications in elderly patients with severe AS before aortic valve replacement. Material and methods Ninety-nine patients (55 male, 44 female; 74.3 ±5.2 years old) with severe AS and an indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) were included. The nutritional status was assessed by different questionnaires (7-point Subjective Global Assessment Score – 7-SGA, full-Mini Nutritional Assessment – full-MNA) and anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) kg/m2). Body composition was estimated using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Appetite was assessed by the Simplified Nutrition Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). Results The average BMI of patients was 28.8 ±5.8 kg/m2. Results of the 7-SGA and f-MNA questionnaires revealed that 39 patients (39.4%) were at risk of malnutrition. The mean SNAQ score was 15.8 ±1.8. The average length of hospital stay was 10 ±5.8 days. There was a positive correlation of LOS with age (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) and a negative correlation with fat mass (kg) (r = –0.28, p = 0.04) and BMI (r = –0.22, p = 0.03). Postoperative complications were observed in 37 patients (37.4%). Patients who developed complications were older and had poorer nutritional status according to the results of the 7-SGA. Conclusions Despite many patients undergoing AVR being overweight and obese, a considerable proportion displayed clinical signs of malnutrition. The results suggest that an assessment of nutritional status and appetite in this group of patients should be conducted regularly and that the 7-SGA scale could represent a reliable tool to assess malnutrition. PMID:27516781

  2. Pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for an elderly patient with severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress.

    PubMed

    Otera, Masako; Machida, Takatsugu; Machida, Tomomi; Abe, Mai; Ichie, Masayoshi; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Here we present a case of successful treatment employing a mixed approach including pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for a 72-year-old woman who experienced severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress from gastric cancer surgery. This case demonstrates that appropriate provision of psychosomatic treatments, including a psychotherapeutic session and autogenic training, enhances the efficacy of pharmacotherapy.

  3. Perception of barriers to postoperative pain management in elderly patients in Polish hospitals with and without a “Hospital Without Pain” Certificate – a multi-center study

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowski, Sebastian; Basiński, Andrzej; Pilch, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2005–2050, the global population of elderly people will increase by 12%. This will lead to increased demand for such healthcare services as hospital care or surgical interventions. Pain in elderly patients is a substantial problem. Insufficiently controlled postoperative pain continues to be a widespread phenomenon. Pain management in Poland is usually based on nursing care supervised by an anesthesiologist or surgeon. The aim of the study was to identify barriers to effective nurse-controlled analgesia in postoperative pain management in elderly patients in hospitals with and without a Hospital Without Pain certificate. Material and methods The study was conducted after the approval of the study protocol by the Independent Bioethics Committee for Scientific Research of the Medical University of Gdansk. The study project was multicenter and was conducted from July 2012 to December 2013. The research was questionnaire-based and used the Polish version of the Nurses’ Perceived Obstacles to Pain Assessment and Management Practices questionnaire. The project included 676 nurses from hospitals awarded the Hospital Without Pain Certificate and 926 respondents from hospitals without the certificate. Results After calculating the overall average result in particular groups, healthcare system-related problems were first among the barriers hindering pain management in elderly patients M = (C = 3.81, N/C = 3.87). Patient-related barriers were second (M = 3.77). Physician- and nurse-related barriers took the subsequent positions, with very similar scores M = (C = 3.47, N/C = 3.44) and M = (C = 3.46, N/C = 3.44), respectively. Conclusions The greatest barriers to pain management in elderly patients are related to the healthcare system. Nurses from Hospital Without Pain certified hospitals devoted significantly more time to relieving pain through non-pharmacological methods. PMID:27478463

  4. Evaluation of an enhanced recovery protocol after pancreaticoduodenectomy in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Partelli, S.; Crippa, S.; Castagnani, R.; Ruffo, G.; Marmorale, C.; Franconi, A.M.; De Angelis, C.; Falconi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has shown that enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols decrease hospital stay following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility and to evaluate the effect of introducing ERAS principles after PD in elderly patients. Methods Patients ≥75 years were defined as elderly. Comparison of postoperative outcome was performed between 22 elderly patients who underwent ERAS (elderly ERAS + patients) and a historical cohort of 66 elderly patients who underwent standard protocols (elderly ERAS-patients). Results The lowest adherence with ERAS among elderly patients was observed for starting a solid food diet within POD 4 (n = 7) and early drains removal (n = 2). The highest adherence was observed for post-operative glycemic control (n = 21), epidural analgesia (n = 21), mobilization (n = 20) and naso-gastric removal in POD 0 (n = 20). Post-operative outcomes did not differ between elderly ERAS+ and elderly ERAS- patients. In patients with an uneventful postoperative course, the median intention to discharge was earlier in elderly ERAS + patients as compared to the elderly ERAS- patients (4 days versus 8 days, P < 0.001). Conclusion An ERAS protocol following PD seems to be feasible and safe among elderly although it is not associated with improved postoperative outcomes. PMID:26902134

  5. [Treatment of hip fractures in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hack, Juliana; Bliemel, Christopher; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Bücking, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Hip fractures are among the most common fractures in elderly people. The annual number of femoral fractures is even expected to increase because of an aging society. Due to the high number of comorbidities, there are special challenges in treating geriatric hip fracture patients, which require a multidisciplinary management. This includes surgical treatment allowing full weight bearing in the immediate postoperative period, osteoporosis treatment and falls prevention as well as an early ortho-geriatric rehabilitation program.

  6. [Incidence of the post-operative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients with general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and patient-controlled epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Haiying

    2016-08-01

    目的:探讨全麻联合硬膜外麻醉及硬膜外自控镇痛对老年患者术后认知功能障碍(post-operative cognitive dysfunction,POCD)发生率的影响。方法:选取2012年3月至2015年3月于延安市人民医院行胃癌根治术的老年患者共100例,采用随机数字表法将其分为3组:全麻+静脉自控镇痛(patient-controlled intravenous analgesia,PCIA)组(I组,n=35) 、全麻联合硬膜外麻醉+PCIA组(II组,n=30)和全麻联合硬膜外麻醉+硬膜外自控镇痛(patient-controlled epidural analgesia,PCEA)组(III组,n=35)。3组患者年龄、性别、BMI和手术时长及美国麻醉师协会(American Society of Anesthesiologists,ASA)分级和术前简易精神状态量表(Mini-Mental State Examination,MMSE)评分等各项指标相比较,差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05)。于术前1 d以及术后6 h,12 h,2 d和6 d对患者进行MMSE认知功能评价,比较3组POCD发生率。同时考察患者手术过程中各时间点平均动脉压(mean arterial pressure,MAP)、血糖、皮质醇及TNF-α含量变化,记录术中七氟醚(sevoflurane, SEVO)用量,随访患者术后6,12和24 h的疼痛评分。结果:对患者术POCD的发生率进行比较,I组术后6 h发生率为45.71%,II组为34.28%,均高于III组(10.00%);I组12 h发生率为34.29%,II组为28.57%,均高于III组(3.33%);I组2 d发生率为28.57%,II组为17.14%,均高于III组(0);I组6 d发生率为17.14%,II组为2.85%,均高于III组(0)。血糖值、皮质醇以及TNF-α含量与POCD发生率各组趋势一致,差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。II组、III组术中MAP波动幅度显著小于I组,III组的术后镇痛效果明显优于其他两组(均P<0.05)。结论:全麻联合硬膜外麻醉与硬膜外镇痛相结合的方式可有效稳定患者的血流状态,对患者认知功能的影响较小,可作为一种值得推荐的麻醉及手术方式。.

  7. Mastocytosis among elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available. The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features. The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available. Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis. PMID:27310990

  8. Physical therapy in the postoperative of proximal femur fracture in elderly. Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Mariana Barquet; Alves, Débora Pinheiro Lédio; Mercadante, Marcelo Tomanik

    2013-01-01

    The proximal femoral fracture in the elderly is a serious public health problem. Surgical treatment of this fracture is used to reduce morbidity, together with postoperative physical therapy. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of physical therapy protocols in postoperative for fractures of the proximal femur in elderly. We selected randomized controlled trials in elderly in the past 10 years, in Portuguese and English. There were 14 articles in the literature. Physical therapy has an important role in functional recovery of the elderly. Level of Evidence I, Systematic Review RCTs (Study results were homogenous). PMID:24453665

  9. Infective endocarditis in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Vinod K

    2002-03-15

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in elderly patients presents a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Atypical presentations frequently lead to delayed diagnosis and poor outcome. IE in elderly persons is somewhat more common among men. Underlying degenerative valvular disease, mitral valve prolapse, and the presence of a prosthetic valve are important risk factors predisposing elderly persons to IE. Streptococci and staphylococci are the predominant organisms, which are recovered from approximately 80% of elderly patients with IE. In older patients, IE occurs somewhat more frequently on the mitral valve than it does on the aortic valve. The presence of calcific valvular lesions and the prosthetic valves often confound the echocardiographic findings in elderly patients. A high index of suspicion and an aggressive diagnostic approach are required to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy.

  10. Total hip arthroplasty revision in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gasbarra, Elena; Perrone, Fabio Luigi; Celi, Monica; Rao, Cecilia; Feola, Maurizio; Cuozzo, Nicola; Tarantino, Umberto

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, the number of total hip arthroplasty is increased both in young patients and elderly with a poor bone quality due to extension of surgical indications. According to this trend, also revision surgery showed a growth of its number, especially in elderly patients, because of implant loosening, failed osseointegration of prosthetic components, errors in biomechanical restoration and infections. The aim of this study is to analyze life quality improvement through evaluation of articular functionality and postoperative pain, and to examine osseointegration of implant components with periprosthetic bone. During total hip arthroplasty revision, the orthopedic surgeon often has to face complex cases, especially in elderly patients with a preexisting status of poor bone quality and sarcopenia. In these cases, a correct planning and a surgical procedure well-executed are able to ensure a good outcome that led to pain relief and functional recovery. Furthermore anti-osteoporotic therapy surely represents a useful resource both in primary total hip arthroplasty and in revisions, mainly for elderly patients with a poor bone quality. PMID:24046034

  11. Factors Related to Morbidity in Elderly Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Gastrectomies

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ha Song; Suh, Byoung Jo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of gastric cancer in the elderly is increasing. The purpose of this study was to clarify factors related to morbidity following gastric cancer surgery in elderly patients. Materials and Methods For this study, data from 411 patients who underwent curative gastrectomies with lymph node dissections between March 2010 and January 2013 were retrospectively studied using a prospectively designed database. Patients were divided into 2 groups (<70 years vs. ≥70 years). For each group, perioperative factors were analyzed to determine if they were associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results Comorbidities were more prevalent in the elderly group (≥70 years). Intraoperative and postoperative transfusions were also more frequently required in the elderly group. There was no significant difference in the number of retrieved lymph nodes between the 2 groups (44.3 vs. 46.6 nodes). In a comparison of the elderly versus non-elderly groups, the postoperative morbidity rates were 22.7% versus 8.9% (P<0.001) and the postoperative mortality rates were 4.2% versus 0% (P=0.002), respectively. Of the possible non-surgical complications, pulmonary problems were predominately found in the elderly group (P<0.001). Surgical complications were evenly distributed between the 2 groups (P=0.463). Postoperative morbidity was significantly associated with older age and postoperative transfusion. Multivariate analysis showed that higher body mass index (BMI) and postoperative transfusion were important factors associated with postoperative complications in the elderly group. Conclusions Pulmonary complications were frequently problematic in elderly patients. Higher BMI and postoperative transfusion were significant risk factors for postoperative complications in elderly patients with gastric cancer. PMID:25328762

  12. Neuromuscular blockade in the elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Luis A; Athanassoglou, Vassilis; Pandit, Jaideep J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular blockade is a desirable or even essential component of general anesthesia for major surgical operations. As the population continues to age, and more operations are conducted in the elderly, due consideration must be given to neuromuscular blockade in these patients to avoid possible complications. This review considers the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of neuromuscular blockade that may be altered in the elderly. Compartment distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs may vary due to age-related changes in physiology, altering the duration of action with a need for reduced dosage (eg, aminosteroids). Other drugs (atracurium, cisatracurium) have more reliable duration of action and should perhaps be considered for use in the elderly. The range of interpatient variability that neuromuscular blocking drugs may exhibit is then considered and drugs with a narrower range, such as cisatracurium, may produce more predictable, and inherently safer, outcomes. Ultimately, appropriate neuromuscular monitoring should be used to guide the administration of muscle relaxants so that the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade postoperatively can be minimized. The reliability of various monitoring is considered. This paper concludes with a review of the various reversal agents, namely, anticholinesterase drugs and sugammadex, and the alterations in dosing of these that should be considered for the elderly patient. PMID:27382330

  13. [Prophylaxis of complications after radical surgical intervention for mammary gland cancer in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hrybach, S M; Borodaĭ, N V

    2014-10-01

    Surgical treatment of 80 patients, suffering mammary gland cancer (MGC), was conducted. The complications rate in elderly and young patients after radical surgical treatment was analyzed. There was established, that while preparation Traumastem P application in elderly patients, suffering MGC, the lymphorrhea volume and duration are reducing, what prevents complications in postoperative period.

  14. [Deglutition disorders in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Menasria, Feriel; Lakroun, Samia; David, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Deglutition disorders are frequent in elderly patients and can lead to serious consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Despite an easy screening test with the water, they are ignored or underestimated. Moreover, early detection and treatment focused essentially on the adaptation of textures, postures as well as the provision of information and training to all the people involved in feeding the elderly person require few resources and provide a real benefit.

  15. Communication and the Elderly Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasek, George

    Successful management of the elderly patient is related in part to how effectively he and members of the health care team can communicate with each other. If comprehension and/or expressive abilities are impaired, as they frequently are in the geriatric population, then efficient patient management becomes difficult. Unfortunately, this difficulty…

  16. [Hemiarthroplasty for treatment of comminuted trochanteric fractures in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Grzegorz; Górski, Radosław; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Górecki, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Successful operative stabilization of the comminuted, trochanteric fractures in elderly patients is problematic due to advanced osteoporosis and poor physical activity excluding the cooperation in the postoperative rehabilitation. Stable fixation with dynamic hip screw or gamma nail, or flexible Ender nailing requires relieve of load during forthcoming several postoperative weeks needed for bone union, that reduced their usefulness in elderly patients. The aim of study was to analyze the usefulness of the cemented hemiartrhoplasty for the treatment of patients with comminuted trochanteric fractures. We analyzed 18 patients (16 women and 2 men, aged 69- 93-years-old (mean 83.3 years) treated in our Department in 2007 with cemented hemiathroplasty due to comminuted trochanteric fractures. Patients were intensively rehabilitated bearing their body weights from 3rd-5th, and consequently discharged on 9th-12th postoperative day. Due to the possibility of almost immediate mobilization in the postoperative period, cemented hemiathroplasty could be a method of choice for the treatment of the comminuted trochanteric fractures in elderly patients. PMID:20201331

  17. Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy in Elderly Patients (≥70 Years) with Gastric Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hong Sung; Park, Young Kyu; Ryu, Seong Yeob

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the surgical outcomes of laparoscopic total gastrectomy between elderly and non-elderly patients. Materials and Methods Between 2008 and 2015, a total of 273 patients undergoing laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma were divided into two age groups: elderly (≥70 years, n=71) vs. non-elderly (<70 years, n=172). Postoperative outcomes, including length of hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality were compared between the groups. Results The elderly group showed a significantly higher rate of comorbidities and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores than those in the non-elderly group. No significant differences were found with respect to lymphadenectomy or combined organ resection between the groups. After surgery, the elderly group showed a significantly higher incidence of grade III and above complications than the non-elderly group (15.5% vs. 4.1%, P=0.003). Among the complications, anastomosis leakage was significantly more common in the elderly group (9.9% vs. 2.9%, P=0.044). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that old age (≥70 years) was an independent risk factor (odds ratio=4.42, 95% confidence interval=1.50~13.01) for postoperative complications of grade III and above. Conclusions Elderly patients are more vulnerable to grade III and above complications after laparoscopic total gastrectomy than non-elderly patients. Great care should be taken to prevent and monitor the development of anastomosis leakage in elderly patients after laparoscopic total gastrectomy. PMID:26468415

  18. [Ankle fractures in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Crevoisier, Xavier; Baalbaki, Rayan; Dos Santos, Tiago; Assal, Mathieu

    2014-12-17

    Ankle fractures in adults are usually managed by open reduction internal fixation. In elderly patients the surgical dilemma relates to bone quality. Osteoporosis is the enemy of internal fixation, and secure purchase of screws in osteopenic bone may be difficult to achieve. Insufficient screw purchase may lead to loss of reduction, wound breakdown, and infection. Postoperative management after osteosynthesis usually requires an extended period of restricted weight bearing. However, this is not feasible in older patients as a result of their lack of strength in the upper extremities and frequent comorbidities. Therefore, augmen- ted methods of internal fixation and specific surgical techniques have been developed using metal and bone cement. This permits this fragile population to begin early full weight bearing in a removable brace. PMID:25752013

  19. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Euler de Medeiros Ázaro; Galvão, Thales Delmondes; Ettinger, João Eduardo Marques de Menezes; Silva Reis, Jadson Murilo; Lima, Marcos; Fahel, Edvaldo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute cholecystitis is the major complication of biliary lithiasis, for which laparoscopic treatment has been established as the standard therapy. With longer life expectancy, acute cholecystitis has often been seen in elderly patients (>65 years old) and is often accompanied by comorbity and severe complications. We sought to compare the outcome of laparoscopic treatment for acute cholecystitis with special focus on comparison between elderly and nonelderly patients. Method: This study was a prospective analysis of 190 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis or chronic acute cholecystitis, comparing elderly and nonelderly patients. Results: Of 190 patients, 39 (21%) were elderly (>65 years old) and 151 (79%) were not elderly (≤65 years), with conversion rates of 10.3% and 6.6% (P=0.49), respectively. The incidence of postoperative complications in elderly and nonelderly patients were the following, respectively: atelectasis 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27); respiratory infection 5.1% and 2.7% (P=0.6); bile leakage 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27), and intraabdominal abscess 1 case (0.7%) and no incidence (P=1). Conclusion: According to our data, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in patients older than 65 years of age. PMID:17575761

  20. Effect of Oral Taurine on Morbidity and Mortality in Elderly Hip Fracture Patients: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Bruins, Arnoud A.; Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Witlox, Joost; Teerlink, Tom; Schoorl, Margreet G.; De Bandt, Jean Pascal; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative outcome. We hypothesized that taurine, an antioxidant, could improve clinical outcome in the elderly hip fracture patient. A double blind randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted on elderly hip fracture patients. Supplementation started after admission and before surgery up to the sixth postoperative day. Markers of oxidative status were measured during hospitalization, and postoperative outcome was monitored for one year after surgery. Taurine supplementation did not improve in-hospital morbidity, medical comorbidities during the first year, or mortality during the first year. Taurine supplementation lowered postoperative oxidative stress, as shown by lower urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels (Generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis average difference over time; regression coefficient (Beta): −0.54; 95% CI: −1.08–−0.01; p = 0.04), blunted plasma malondialdehyde response (Beta: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.00–3.15; p = 0.05) and a trend towards lower lactate to pyruvate ratio (Beta: −1.10; 95% CI: −2.33–0.12; p = 0.08). We concluded that peri-operative taurine supplementation attenuated postoperative oxidative stress in elderly hip fracture patients, but did not improve postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:26035756

  1. [Treatment of elderly diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic disease over the past 50 years. Its incidence increases the most rapidly in the senior population, i.e. among people older than 65. In a number of countries 1/4 of the people with diabetes are now older than 65 years. Geriatrics now examines numerous differences regarding the senior patients, which often lead to somewhat different therapeutic procedures as compared to the treatment of other adult patients. This paper aims to show some different aspects of the treatment of an elderly patient with diabetes. The intensity of diabetes treatment in the elderly is mainly defined by the incidence of symptoms caused by diabetic decompensation which negatively affect quality of life and are likely to increase mortality. The treatment goals expressed by HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial glycemia, should be set individually based on age, initial HbA1c, present comorbidities and the level of frailty of an elderly patient. An effort to reduce weight regarding people at an older age is probably inappropriate and maybe even harmful, while physical activity reduces mortality and slows muscle catabolism at every age. Ideal is normal walking for 20-30 minutes a day. Except for "very fit elders" without renal insufficiency, the sulfonylurea treatment is unsuitable and perhaps even harmful. It significantly increases the incidence of different types of hypoglycemia and very likely overall mortality as well. The basis of diabetes treatment for the elderly is the effort to perform any regular exercise. In regard to medication treatment it is recommended to choose metformin or gliptin following the rule "start low, go slow", i.e. start with low medication doses and increase them at a slow pace. The main goal of the treatment is to maintain the good quality of life as long as possible, without symptoms associated with hyperglycemia with minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia development. PMID:25894262

  2. [Lung cancer in elderly patients: lung cancer and lung function].

    PubMed

    Tanita, Tatsuo

    2005-07-01

    The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma is increasing as life expectancy rises. With increase in the aged population in Japan, the number of patients suffering from lung cancer and candidates for lung resections are increasing. In this paper, the author lists up indispensable procedures for diagnosis, namely, lung function tests, unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion test and exercise tolerance test. The cut-offs for identifying candidates for elderly patients for lung resections can be applied the same cut-offs for younger patients. Also the author indicates the importance of postoperative management for lung lobe resections. In order to prevent postoperative problems such as congestive heart failure that might be a fetal complication, the most useful check values after the lung surgery for elderly patients are rate of transfusion and urine volume. In conclusion, when elderly patients assert their rights to undergo lung surgery, we, the thoracic surgeons, should reply their requests under the equal quality of safe surgery as that for younger patients. Besides, it is desirable that even elderly patients, over 80 years old, who undergo lung surgery should guarantee their quality of daily life after surgery.

  3. Falls in elderly hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, E M; Turgut, F; Turkmen, K; Balogun, R A

    2011-10-01

    The elderly, (age ≥ 65 years) hemodialysis (HD) patient population is growing rapidly across the world. The risk of accidental falls is very high in this patient population due to multiple factors which include aging, underlying renal disease and adverse events associated with HD treatments. Falls, the most common cause of fatal injury among elderly, not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also increase costs to the health system. Prediction of falls and interventions to prevent or minimize fall risk and associated complications will be a major step in helping these patients as well as decreasing financial and social burdens. Thus, it is vital to learn how to approach this important problem. In this review, we will summarize the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology and complications of falls in elderly HD patients. We will also focus on available methods to assess and predict the patients at higher risk of falling and will provide recommendations for interventions to reduce the occurrence of falls in this population.

  4. DENGUE INFECTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Tiawilai, Thawat; Tiawilai, Anongrat; Nunthanid, Somboon

    2015-01-01

    From 2005 to 2013, there were 15 dengue patients aged over 60 years old who were admitted to Photharam Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand. Ten were females and five were males. Nine had dengue fever (DF), and 6 had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). A trending shift in age group towards adults has been seen during the past decades. No deaths were seen in these elderly patients with dengue disease, indicating early recognition and effective management of these dengue patients. The trend towards higher age in dengue patients is a problem of concern, which needs further elaboration.

  5. [Chronic heart failure in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Chivite, David; Franco, Jhonatan; Formiga, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing, especially in the elderly population, and is becoming a major geriatric problem. Elderly patients with HF usually show etiopathogenic, epidemiological, and even clinical characteristics significantly different from those present in younger patients. Their treatment, however, derives from clinical trials performed with only a few elderly subjects. Moreover, beyond the cardiovascular disease itself, it is essential to evaluate the patient as a whole, given the interrelationship between HF and the characteristic geriatric syndromes of the elderly patient. This review examines the peculiarities in the most prevalent "real world" HF patient.

  6. Postoperative epilepsy in patients undergoing craniotomy for glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Telfeian, A E; Philips, M F; Crino, P B; Judy, K D

    2001-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has associated with it one of the poorest prognoses among brain tumors. Postoperative seizures and the side effects of anticonvulsants, routinely given for prophylactic purposes, add to patient morbidity. The primary goal of this study was to determine who, of those undergoing craniotomy for GBM resection, is at risk for epilepsy. We studied 72 consecutive patients who underwent craniotomy and palliative resection for GBM. Twenty-nine presented with seizures and 17 had postoperative seizures. All patients were treated with a postoperative anticonvulsant for at least six months; anticonvulsants were continued longer if there was a postoperative seizure. Patient factors examined for an association with risk for postoperative seizure included age, sex, tumor size, tumor location, adjuvant therapy, postoperative complications and history of preoperative seizures. The majority of patients with no prior seizure history and who seized postoperatively had their first seizure after withdrawal from their anticonvulsant medication. All, but one, of the patients with both pre- and postoperative seizures had their first postoperative seizure while still on anticonvulsants. Smaller tumor size and frontal resection were associated with an increased risk of postoperative seizures. Our data suggests that those who do not present with seizures and undergo GBM resection may still be prone to seize but more easily protected from postoperative seizures with anticonvulsant therapy than patients who present with seizures; resection of frontal tumors and smaller tumors seemed to indicate an increased risk for postoperative seizures. PMID:11370829

  7. Postoperative conversion disorder in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Judge, Amy; Spielman, Fred

    2010-11-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV), conversion disorder is classified as a somatoform illness and defined as an alteration or loss of physical function because of the expression of an underlying psychological ailment. This condition, previously known as hysteria, hysterical neurosis, or conversion hysteria occurs rarely, with an incidence of 11-300 cases per 100,000 people (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Presentation after an anesthetic is exceptional. After thorough review of the literature, fewer than 20 cases have been documented, with only two instances in patients younger than 18 years of age after general anesthesia; both were mild in nature. We present a severe case of postoperative conversion disorder that developed upon emergence from anesthesia in a previously healthy 16-year-old girl following direct laryngoscopy with vocal fold injection.

  8. Urological surgery in elderly patients: results and complications

    PubMed Central

    Brodak, Milos; Tomasek, Jan; Pacovsky, Jaroslav; Holub, Lukas; Husek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Owing to the large aging population, a growing number of elderly patients are undergoing surgical treatment. Surgical procedures in elderly patients are associated with a higher risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of urological surgeries in old patients. Methods The authors carried out a retrospective study, evaluating results and early postoperative complications in patients aged 75 years and older. The cohort of patients included 221 patients who underwent surgical procedures in the department of urology between January 2011 and December 2012. The average age of patients was 78. The results and complications were categorized based on the type of surgery performed, and the Dindo–Clavien scale. Results The median follow-up was 18 months. All surgeries for malignant tumors were performed successfully with no residual disease. Totally, 48 (22%) complications were recorded. The most serious were as follows: one patient (<0.5%) died; and four (<2%) patients underwent reoperation. The most common complications involved infection, mainly sepsis and surgical site infections. Other complications included mild respiratory insufficiency, delirium, bleeding, etc. Conclusion Surgeries in elderly patients were effective and safe. The cornerstone of safety is careful preparation and treatment of comorbidities. Complications occurred mainly as a result of emergency procedures during emergency procedures and in major surgeries such as cystectomy and nephrectomy. The standard use of low molecular-weight heparin caused no incidence of thromboembolic disease. PMID:25673978

  9. Promoting safety of postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Veney, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at risk for postoperative complications related to administration of pain medications, anxiolytics, and antiemetics. They are more likely to experience respiratory and cardiac complications, be transferred to an intensive care unit, or have an increased length of stay in the hospital. This informational article is for nurses who care for postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The focus is on promoting patient safety through communication, vigilant postoperative sedation assessment, and nursing interventions that include appropriate patient positioning, patient education, and involving patients and their families in care. PMID:24247310

  10. Evaluating psychosocial function in elderly dental patients.

    PubMed

    Gironda, Melanie W

    2007-03-01

    Comprehensive dental care for older adults includes an understanding of, and sensitivity to, the psychosocial changes with age that can influence oral health care, including emotional functioning, anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning, alcohol and substance use, social support, and elder abuse and neglect. A case vignette highlights the contribution of an interdisciplinary psychosocial assessment to the oral health care of elderly patients.

  11. [Management of postoperative analgesia in patients after craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Imaev, A A; Dolmatova, E V; Lubnin, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    In a review paper, an analysis of publications in the world literature on the problem of acute postoperative pain in neurosurgical patients who underwent craniotomy is performed. Is shown that problem of acute postoperative pain in patients after craniotomy was underestimated for a long time. Mistakenly was thought that these patients do not experience any pain in the early postoperative period. Results of recent studies have shown that up to 80% of these patients may experience acute pain in the range from mild to severe. Unarrested postoperative pain could cause a number of serious secondary complications. This article demonstrates basic approaches to the prevention and treatment of acute postoperative pain in neurosurgical patients after craniotomy--first of all, the use of narcotic analgesics, NSAIDs, and other approaches. PMID:23866579

  12. [Full attention to several key issues in surgical treatment for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-05-01

    With the development of population aging in our country, the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer is increasing. The risk of developing gastrointestinal cancer in elderly over 75 years was 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal cancer was 7-8 times of the general population. As compared to non-elderly, the incidence of gastric cancer was not decreased obviously but the total incidence of colorectal cancer was increased more quickly. Therefore, screening of gastrointestinal cancer should be performed in the elderly for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Because of the insidious onset of the illness in elderly patients, gastrointestinal cancers are mostly diagnosed at advanced or late stage (stage III or IV). Well differentiated cancer is more common, such as papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma. Lauren type, Borrmann II or III are more common in gastric cancer, which are relatively favorable. Compared with non-elderly patients, many elderly patients also suffer from comorbid diseases with higher operation risk and postoperative complication rates. Therefore, we must pay great attention to the perioperative management and the surgical operation for the elderly patients. In this paper, several key issues involved the development trend of incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancer, the clinicopathological characteristics, the comorbidity and surgical treatment in the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer will be elaborated, aiming at promoting further attention to the clinical therapeutic strategies, management measures and prognostic factors for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  13. Deinstitutionalizing Elderly Patients: A Program of Resocialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Barry; Lasker, Judith

    1978-01-01

    In a program of deinstitutionalization 61 elderly state hospital patients were successfully placed outside the institution. Changes in definition of the patients' situation, collective approach to resocialization, careful medical evaluation, and familiarity of patients with possible alternatives help reduce patients' commitment to the institution…

  14. Prevalence of dementia in elderly patients with hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Yiannopoulou, Konstantina G; Anastasiou, Ioannis P; Ganetsos, Theodore K; Efthimiopoulos, Petros; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2012-01-01

    Hip fractures occur commonly and are a cause of disability for older adults and lead to increased dependence and requirements for social support. Dementia is one of the possible risk factors for falling and hip fracture, a potential source for complications during surgery and during the postoperative period, difficulties in rehabilitation and a risk factor for hip fracture reccurence. However, in previous studies of hip fracture patients, cognitive status has not been formally assessed during the inpatient stay and diagnosis was based only on previous history. Additionally, no previous studies have compared prevalence of dementia between elderly patients with hip fracture and patients with other surgical pathology. Our aim was to define whether dementia was more prevalent in older subjects with hip fracture than in other elderly patients undergoing surgery. In this study, we prospectively assessed all patients aged 68 and older admitted to our hospital for hip fracture surgery during a one year period and compared them with age and gender matched patients attending other surgical departments. 80 hip fracture patients and 80 controls were assessed for dementia. Dementia was common in both groups, presumably reflecting the advanced mean age of both groups and cognitive deterioration due to hospitalization-status. Dementia was significantly higher in the hip fracture group (85%) compared to the control group (61.5%; p=0.002). Dementia is very common in older patients admitted for surgery to a general hospital and extremely common in those with hip fracture. It seems that dementia is under diagnosed in elderly hospitalised patients. Our data confirm that dementia is a major risk factor for hip fracture in the elderly.

  15. Documentation of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Milisen, Koen; Foreman, Marquis D; Wouters, Bert; Driesen, Ronny; Godderis, Jan; Abraham, Ivo L; Broos, Paul L O

    2002-11-01

    This study determined the accuracy of diagnosis and documentation of delirium in the medical and nursing records of 55 elderly patients with hip fracture (mean age = 78.4, SD = 8.4). These records were reviewed retrospectively on a patient's discharge for diagnosis of delirium, and for description of clinical indicators or symptoms of delirium. Additionally, all patients were monitored by one of the research members on days 1, 3, 5, 8, and 12 postoperatively for signs of delirium, as measured by the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Clinicians were blinded to the purpose of the study. According to the CAM criteria, the incidence of delirium was 14.5% on postoperative Day 1; 9.1% on postoperative Day 3; 10.9% on postoperative Day 5; 7.7% on postoperative Day 8; and 5.6% on postoperative Day 12. For those same days, no formal diagnosis of delirium or a description of clinical indicators was found in the medical records. In the nursing records, a false-positive documentation of 8.5%, 4%, 4.1%, 4.2%, and 5.9%, respectively was noted. False-negative documentation was found in 87.5%, 80%, 66.7%, 75%, and 50% of the cases on the respective days. Documentation of essential symptoms--namely onset and course of the syndrome--and disturbances in consciousness, attention, and cognition, were seldom or never found in the nursing records. However, behaviors of the hyperactive variant of delirium and which are known to interfere with nursing care were documented more often (e.g., 13.4% restless, 10.3% fidget with materials, 7.2% annoying behavior). Both medical and nursing records showed poor documentation and under-diagnosis of delirium. However, a correct diagnosis and early recognition of delirium may enhance the management of this syndrome.

  16. Analysis of surgeries for Degenerative lumbarstenosis in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bin; Li, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of decompression alone and combined decompression, fusion and internal fixation procedure for degenerative lumbar stenosis in elderly patients. Methods: We reviewed 168 lumbar stenosis patients treated using decompression alone or with combined procedures in the department of orthopaedics of Tianjin 4th Centre Hospital from October 2010 to January 2014. The clinical data including age, gender, procedure type, operation time, follow-up period, blood loss, preoperative and postoperative JOA and ODI scores were recorded. The patients were divided into decompression alone group and combined surgeries group according to the procedure type. Results: The combined surgeries group presented with larger blood loss (p<0.05) and more operation time (p<0.05), compared with the group of decompression alone. The preoperative and postoperative JOA scores were significantly higher (p<0.05), and the ODI scores significantly lower in the decompression alone group (P<0.05), but at the final follow-up, there were no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The complication rate was lower in the group of decompression alone, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Both the decompression alone and combined surgeries can result in a satisfactory effects in elderly patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, but the combined surgeries presented with a relatively higher complication rate. PMID:27022361

  17. Elderly patients and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Nimmons, Danielle; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. Coupled with an ageing population, the number of older patients with IBD is set to increase. The clinical features and therapeutic options in young and elderly patients are comparable but there are some significant differences. The wide differential diagnosis of IBD in elderly patients may result in a delay in diagnosis. The relative dearth of data specific to elderly IBD patients often resulting from their exclusion from pivotal clinical trials and the lack of consensus guidelines have made clinical decisions somewhat challenging. In addition, age specific concerns such as co-morbidity; loco-motor and cognitive function, poly-pharmacy and its consequences need to be taken into account. In applying modern treatment paradigms to the elderly, the clinician must consider the potential for more pronounced adverse effects in this vulnerable group and set appropriate boundaries maximising benefit and minimising harm. Meanwhile, clinicians need to make personalised decisions but as evidence based as possible in the holistic, considered and optimal management of IBD in elderly patients. In this review we will cover the clinical features and therapeutic options of IBD in the elderly; as well as addressing common questions and challenges posed by its management. PMID:26855812

  18. Zinc deficiency in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Fitzgerald, J T; Hess, J W; Kaplan, J; Pelen, F; Dardenne, M

    1993-01-01

    Zinc is needed for growth and development, DNA synthesis, neurosensory functions, and cell-mediated immunity. Although zinc intake is reduced in elderly people, its deficiency and effects on cell-mediated immunity of the elderly have not been established. Subjects enrolled in "A Model Health Promotion and Intervention Program for Urban Middle Aged and Elderly Americans" were assessed for nutrition and zinc status. One hundred eighty healthy subjects were randomly selected for the study. Their mean dietary zinc intake was 9.06 mg/day, whereas the recommended dietary allowance is 15 mg/day. Plasma zinc was normal, but zinc in granulocytes and lymphocytes were decreased compared with younger control subjects. Of 118 elderly subjects in whom zinc levels in both granulocytes and lymphocytes were available, 36 had deficient levels. Plasma copper was increased, and interleukin 1 (IL-1) production was significantly decreased. Reduced response to the skin-test antigen panel and decreased taste acuity were observed. Thirteen elderly zinc-deficient subjects were supplemented with zinc, and various variables were assessed before and after zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation corrected zinc deficiency and normalized plasma copper levels. Serum thymulin activity, IL-1 production, and lymphocyte ecto-5'-nucleotidase increased significantly after supplementation. Improvement in response to skin-test antigens and taste acuity was observed after zinc supplementation. A mild zinc deficiency appears to be a significant clinical problem in free-living elderly people. PMID:8353362

  19. Postoperative patient falls on an orthopedic inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Duncan B; Trousdale, Robert T; Bieber, Patti; Henely, Joan; Pagnano, Mark W; Berry, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    We are not aware of any data looking specifically at inpatient falls in an orthopedic ward. We reviewed all postoperative orthopedic patients who fell during 2003 and 2005 on a single postoperative orthopedic unit. Seventy patients (1%) fell, resulting in 2.5 falls per 1000 musculoskeletal inpatient days. Most (n = 45, 64%) were bathroom related, were unassisted (n = 54, 77%), and occurred during the evening or night shift (n = 46, 66%). Thirteen (19%) patients acquired an injury as a consequence. Female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9), patient age greater than 65 years (OR = 1.7), prolonged admission (OR = 1.7), and admission for primary or revision knee arthroplasty (OR = 5.0) were all significant risk factors for a postoperative inpatient fall. This information has provided us with some insight to direct the development of a fall prevention program specific to postoperative orthopedic patients.

  20. Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy does not completely mitigate increased perioperative risks in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Tee, May C; Croome, Kristopher P; Shubert, Christopher R; Farnell, Michael B; Truty, Mark J; Que, Florencia G; Reid-Lombardo, KMarie; Smoot, Rory L; Nagorney, David M; Kendrick, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background Elderly patients undergoing open pancreatoduodenectomy (OPD) are at increased risk for surgical morbidity and mortality. Whether totally laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy (TLPD) mitigates these risks has not been evaluated. Methods A retrospective review of outcomes in patients submitted to pancreatoduodenectomy during 2007–2014 was conducted (n = 860). Outcomes in elderly patients (aged ≥70 years) were compared with those in non-elderly patients with respect to risk-adjusted postoperative morbidity and mortality. Differences in outcomes between patients submitted to OPD and TLPD, respectively, were evaluated in the elderly subgroup. Results In elderly patients, the incidences of cardiac events (odds ratio [OR] 3.21, P < 0.001), respiratory events (OR 1.68, P = 0.04), delayed gastric emptying (DGE) (OR 1.73, P = 0.003), increased length of stay (LoS, 1 additional day) (P < 0.001), discharge disposition other than home (OR 8.14, P < 0.001) and blood transfusion (OR 1.48, P = 0.05) were greater than in non-elderly patients. Morbidity and mortality did not differ between the OPD and TLPD subgroups of elderly patients. In elderly patients, OPD was associated with increased DGE (OR 1.80, P = 0.03), LoS (1 additional day; P < 0.001) and blood transfusion (OR 2.89, P < 0.001) compared with TLPD. Conclusions Elderly patients undergoing TLPD experience rates of mortality, morbidity and cardiorespiratory events similar to those in patients submitted to OPD. In elderly patients, TLPD offers benefits by decreasing DGE, LoS and blood transfusion requirements. PMID:26294338

  1. Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent malignant diseases in the elderly. Systemic chemotherapy showed an improvement of quality of life and survival benefit compared to supportive care alone in patients with advanced GC. Because comorbidities or age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may lead to higher toxicity, however, many oncologists hesitate to recommend elderly patients to receive chemotherapy. Available data suggest that elderly patients with GC are able to tolerate and benefit from systemic chemotherapy to the same extent as younger patients. The age alone should not be the only criteria to preclude effective chemotherapy. However, proper patient selection is extremely important to deliver effective treatment safely. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a useful method to assess life expectancy and risk of morbidity in older patients and to guide providing optimal treatment. Treatment should be personalized based on the nature of the disease, the life expectancy, the risk of complication, and the patient's preference. Combination chemotherapy can be considered for older patients with metastatic GC who are classified as non-frail patients by CGA. For frail or vulnerable patients, however, monotherapy or only symptomatic treatment may be desirable. Targeted agents seem to be promising treatment options for elderly patients with GC considering their better efficacy and less toxicity. PMID:26722364

  2. Predictors of morbidity and mortality after hepatectomy in elderly patients: analysis of 7621 NSQIP patients

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Cooper, Amanda B; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Curley, Steven A; Aloia, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasingly, surgeons are performing hepatectomies in older patients. This study was designed to analyse the incidences of and risk factors for post-hepatectomy morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. Methods All elective hepatectomies for the period 2005–2010 recorded in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database were evaluated. Factors associated with 30-day rates of morbidity and mortality were compared between patients aged ≥75 years and those aged <75 years. Results Elderly patients accounted for 894 of 7621 (11.7%) hepatectomies. These patients more frequently had comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular or lung disease, lower albumin, elevated creatinine, anaesthesia risk; all P < 0.05) and were more likely to undergo partial or left rather than right or extended hepatectomies (P = 0.013). Despite the lesser surgical magnitude of these procedures, elderly patients experienced higher rates of severe complications (23.9% versus 18.4%; P < 0.001) and overall postoperative mortality (4.8% versus 2.0%; P < 0.001). The occurrence of any severe complication was associated with a mortality rate of 20.1% in elderly patients and 10.8% in non-elderly patients (P < 0.001). This disparity in mortality was more pronounced in patients with two or more (31.7% versus 20.2%; P < 0.001) and three or more (46.3% versus 31.1%; P < 0.001) severe complications. Independent risk factors for severe complications and/or mortality included an albumin level of < 4 g/dl, lung disease, intraoperative transfusion, a concurrent intra-abdominal operation, and an operative time of >240 min (all P < 0.05). Conclusions Given their lower physiologic reserve, elderly patients are at much greater risk for mortality after severe complications. To improve outcomes, surgeons should balance age and preoperative comorbidities with magnitude of hepatectomy. PMID:24033514

  3. Bleeding gastric cancer in young and elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Pucheanu, X; Beuran, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study tried to find the differences between gastric cancer in young and elderly, in addition through the importance of the presence of the upper gastrointestinal bleeding, with two examples of clinical cases. Methods: Two groups of patients divided by age were compared. The first group consisted of 13 cases of patients aged between 32 and 41, and the second consisted of 15 cases, aged 80 to 87 years. The variables considered were: sex, personal history and family history, onset-admission interval, number of days of hospitalization after surgery, the number of days until discharge, personal history/ family history, tumor location, admission diagnosis, intervention type, value hemoglobin on admission, the way externalizing hemorrhage appeared, stage, tumor type/ degree of differentiation of its kind lymph dissection, postoperative complications and deaths. Results: The interval from symptom onset to hospital admission was higher in young people with a greater weight loss and malignant ulcer history or upload family were smokers, but apparently with a lower complication rate. In the elderly, the anemic syndrome was the main event and the complications were more related to comorbidities. Conclusions: Prolonged gastric distress in young patients, associated with smoking, personal history of ulcer and family history of neoplasia should guide the diagnosis to gastric cancer. Anemic syndrome in the elderly may be due to the gastric cancer, and complications are due to comorbidities. PMID:26351541

  4. Elderly patients with glioblastoma: the treatment challenge.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Alba; De Bonis, Pasquale; Chiesa, Silvia; Balducci, Mario; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    The treatment for elderly patients affected by glioblastoma represents a challenge in neuro-oncology. The recent randomized trials (the NOA-8 and the NCBTSG trials) showed an advantage of temozolomide for patients with O6-methylguanine methyltransferase methylated tumors. To date, no randomized trials compared the standard treatment (radiochemotherapy) with other therapeutic approaches, due to the idea that elderly patients do not tolerate aggressive therapy. Nonetheless, with the increased lifespan and the better quality of life, the nihilism in the treatment of elderly with cancer is obsolete. Molecular (including O6-methylguanine methyltransferase) and clinical tools (including the geriatric evaluation) are needed for choosing the proper therapy for patients over 70. PMID:24117272

  5. Postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pahor, D; Pahor, A; Gracner, B

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of preoperative activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on early postoperative anterior chamber inflammation after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Twenty-three eyes in 18 patients were included in our study. On the first postoperative day, anterior chamber inflammation was observed in 11 eyes (47.8%). Five days after surgery, we found postoperative inflammation only in 1 eye (4.3%). Keratic precipitates were observed in 1 eye (4.3%) on the second postoperative day. We found no correlation between the extent of anterior chamber inflammation and the preoperative activity of RA. Postoperative anterior chamber inflammation was also not associated with the medical management of RA.

  6. [Lifestyle of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yuki; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-11-01

    In elderly people, glucose tolerance is deteriorated and the incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased, due to decreased muscle mass and physical activity, declining pancreatic beta cell function, and other factors. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis development in the elderly. Precise diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases. Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus are characteristically afflicted with more complications, impaired activities of daily living, cognitive function decline, and family environment problems, as compared with young and middle-aged diabetics. Therefore, tailor-made rather than uniform therapy becomes important. Lifestyle modification is the basis of diabetes treatment. Herein, we describe "prevention and management" of diabetes mellitus, focusing on the lifestyles of elderly diabetics.

  7. One-Year Postoperative Resource Utilization in Sarcopenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Peter S.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Cron, David C.; Terjimanian, Michael N.; Wang, Stewart C.; Campbell, Darrell A.; Englesbe, Michael J.; Werner, Nicole L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that sarcopenic patients are at higher risk of postoperative complications and short-term healthcare utilization. Less well understood is how these patients fare over the long-term after surviving the immediate postoperative period. We explored costs over the first postoperative year among sarcopenic patients. Methods We identified 1,279 patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database who underwent inpatient elective surgery at a single institution from 2006 to 2011. Sarcopenia, defined by gender-stratified tertiles of lean psoas area, was determined from preoperative CT scans using validated analytic morphomics. Data were analyzed to assess sarcopenia’s relationship to costs, readmissions, discharge location, intensive care unit admissions, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Multivariate models adjusted for patient demographics and surgical risk factors. Results Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased adjusted costs at 30, 90, and 180 but not 365 days. The difference in adjusted postsurgical costs between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients was $16,455 at 30 days and $14,093 at one year. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be discharged somewhere other than home (p <0.001). Sarcopenia was not an independent predictor of increased readmission rates in the postsurgical year. Conclusion The effects of sarcopenia on healthcare costs are concentrated in the immediate postoperative period. It may be appropriate to allocate additional resources to sarcopenic patients in the perioperative setting to reduce the incidence of negative postoperative outcomes. PMID:25990695

  8. Postoperative red blood cell transfusion strategy in frail anemic elderly with hip fracture. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Merete

    2016-04-01

    Hip fracture in the elderly is associated with poor recovery from physical disability and mortality. Perioperative blood loss is common, and anemia might be fatal in the frail elderly. Red blood cell transfusions might increase the risk of infection. In an observational study, a liberal transfusion strategy with hemoglobin (Hb) target of 7 mmol/l (11.3 g/dl) seemed to improve survival in nursing home residents with hip fracture compared to the recommended restrictive strategy with a Hb target of 6 mmol/l (9.7 g/dl) according to the Danish Health Authority. Our aim was to compare these two strategies in the frail elderly in a randomized controlled trial on the outcomes: recovery from physical disabilities, mortality, infection, infection biomarkers, and overall Quality of Life (OQoL). We included 284 elderly admitted to hospital for surgical hip fracture repair from nursing homes or sheltered housing facilities. The anemic patients were assigned postoperatively to the liberal or the restrictive transfusion strategy. Randomization divided each transfusion group into two equal blocks with regard to type of the residence. Hb was measured daily during the first three postoperative days, at least once during the following 4-6 days, then at least once a week during the subsequent three weeks. The transfusions were administered according to group assignments, but no later than 24 hours after the Hb determination, one unit at a time, and no more than two units per day. The intervention lasted for 30 days after surgery. Outcome measurements were performed on days 10, 30, 90, and 365. Blinded assessors evaluated physical performance and OQoL. The liberal transfusion strategy did not improve recovery from physical disabilities, mortality, infection rate, or OQoL compared to the restrictive strategy. However, in nursing home residents, 90-day mortality rate (20%) following the liberal strategy was statistically significantly lower than that (36%) after the restrictive strategy

  9. Caring for the elderly female psychiatric patient.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudhasir; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2010-06-01

    With the growth of the elderly population, and the female elderly population in particular, healthcare providers will see increasing numbers of elderly women with psychiatric disorders. To properly care for this group of patients, better understanding is needed not only of group differences in this patient population but also of the differences in each individual, as they age, given their unique life experiences, cohort effects, medical comorbidity, social situation, and personality traits. Understandably, these characteristics will interact with psychiatric disorders in ways that may increase the challenge to correctly diagnose and treat these patients. In addition, understanding late life changes, the prevalence of various mental disorders and the sometimes unique presentation of mental disorders in this age group is required to better diagnose and treat this population.

  10. Emergence in Elderly Patient Undergoing General Anesthesia with Xenon

    PubMed Central

    Wefki Abdelgawwad Shousha, Ahmed Abdelgawwad; Paparazzo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is a consensus that the postoperative cognitive function is impaired in elderly patients after general anaesthesia, and such category patient takes more time to recover. Xenon is a noble gas with anesthetic properties mediated by antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. With a minimum alveolar concentration of 0.63, xenon is intended for maintaining hypnosis with 30% oxygen. The fast recovery after xenon anaesthesia was hypothesized to be advantageous in this scenario. Case Presentation. We report the case of 99-year-old woman who underwent sigmoid colon carcinoma resection with colorectal anastomosis. We carried out the induction phase by propofol, oxygen, fentanil, and rocuronium bromide, and then we proceeded to a rapid sequence endotracheal intubation consequently. The patient was monitored by IBP, NIBP, ECG, cardiac frequency, respiratory rate, capnometry, TOF Guard, blood gas analysis, and BIS. For maintenance we administrated oxygen, remifentanil, rocuronium bromide, and xenon gas 60–65%. Shortly after the end of surgery the patients started an autonomous respiratory activity, and a high BIS level was also recorded. Decision was made by our team to proceed into the emergence phase. The residual neuromuscular block was antagonized by sugammadex, modified Aldrete score was implicated, and we got our patient fully awake without any cognitive dysfunction or delirium. Conclusion. The rapid emergence to full orientation in very elderly patient who had been anesthetized by xenon shows concordance to the high BIS values and the clinical signs of the depth of anesthesia. PMID:23762640

  11. Total Ankle Replacement for Treatment of End-Stage Osteoarthritis in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hintermann, Beat; Knupp, Markus; Zwicky, Lukas; Barg, Alexej

    2012-01-01

    End-stage osteoarthritis of the ankle is a disabling problem, particularly in elderly patients who experience an overall loss of mobility and functional impairment and who then need compensatory adaption. Ankle arthrodesis, which has been demonstrated to provide postoperative pain relief and hindfoot stability, leaves the patient with a stiff foot and gait changes. For elderly patient, these changes may be more critical than generally believed. Additionally, the long duration of healing and rehabilitation process needed for ankle arthrodesis may be problematic in the elderly. In contrast to ankle arthrodesis, total ankle replacement has significant advantages including a less strenuous postoperative rehabilitation and preservation of ankle motion which supports physiological gait. Recently, total ankle replacement has evolved as a safe surgical treatment in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis with reliable mid- to long-term results. Total ankle replacement needs less immobilization than arthrodesis and does allow for early weight-bearing and should be considered as a treatment option of first choice in many elderly patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the ankle, especially in elderly patients with lower expectations and physical demands. PMID:22720158

  12. [Geriatric intervention in oncology for elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Saint-Jean, O; LeGuen, J

    2015-10-01

    Half of all cancers occur in patients older than 70 years. National cancer plans in France promote the emergence of geriatric oncology, whose aim is that every elder cancer patient receives a pertinent treatment, according to his frailty. Geriatric intervention has been evaluated in various conditions or patients since 30 years. Meta-analysis has shown the benefits on autonomy and mortality. But benefits are related to the organization of geriatric care, especially when integrated care is provided. Literature on geriatric oncology is relatively poor. But it is certain that a geriatric comprehensive assessment provided a lot of important information for the care of cancer patients, leading to a modification of cancer treatment in many cases. Randomized trials will soon begin to evaluate the benefits of geriatric integrated care for elder cancer patients, in terms of mortality and quality of life. Actually, in oncogeriatic coordination units, pilot organizations are developed for the satisfaction of patients and professionals.

  13. Dezocine Prevents Postoperative Hyperalgesia in Patients Undergoing Open Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Suyun; Xu, Huan; Wang, Xiangrui

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Postoperative hyperalgesia is very frequent and hard to treat. Dezocine is widely used and has a modulatory effect for thermal hyperalgesia in animal models. So, this study was designed to investigate the potential role of dezocine in decreasing postoperative hyperalgesia for patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Methods. This is a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. 50 patients for elective open gastrectomy were randomly allocated to either a true treatment group (0.15 mg/kg intravenous dezocine at the end of surgery) or a sham treatment group (equivalent volume of saline) in a 1 : 1 ratio. Patients were followed up for 48 hours postoperatively and pain threshold to Von Frey filaments, pain scores, PCIA consumption, rescue analgesics use, sedation score, and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded. Results. Patients in the true treatment group experienced statistically significantly higher pain threshold on forearm and smaller extent of peri-incisional hyperalgesia than the sham treatment group. Rescue analgesic use, cumulative PCIA consumption, and pain scores were statistically significantly decreased in the true treatment group compared to the sham treatment group. Conclusions. Dezocine offers a significant antihyperalgesic and analgesic effect in patients undergoing elective open gastrectomy for up to 48 hours postoperatively. PMID:26170890

  14. Endoscopic Evaluation and Management of the Postoperative Crohn's Disease Patient.

    PubMed

    Hashash, Jana G; Binion, David G

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 70% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) undergo surgical resection for the treatment of medically refractory disease or its complications. The sickest cohort of CD patients experience rapid postoperative relapse at the anastomotic site. Over the past 2 decades, the types of surgical anastomoses used in CD reconstruction have changed; end-to-side and end-to-end anastomoses have been surpassed by the more rapidly created side-to-side anastomoses. This article provides a review of the timing and purpose of endoscopic evaluation in postoperative CD patients and pragmatic information regarding interpretation of endoscopic findings at the different types of surgical anastomoses after ileocecal resection. PMID:27633596

  15. Presentation and surgery outcomes in elderly with pheocromocytoma: a comparative analysis with young patients

    PubMed Central

    Srougi, Victor; Chambo, Jose L.; Tanno, Fabio Y.; Soares, Iracy S.; Almeida, Madson Q.; Pereira, Maria A. A.; Srougi, Miguel; Fragoso, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the presentation and early surgical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Patients and Methods: A retrospective search was performed of our adrenal disorders database for patients who underwent surgery for phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma between 2009 and 2014. Patients >60 years old were classified as elderly. The clinical manifestations, intraoperative course, and early postoperative outcomes of elderly patients were compared to those of younger individuals (<60 years old). Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age in the older (n=10) and younger (n=36) groups was 69.6±5.3 years and 34.0±12.9 years. Germ-line mutations were more common in younger patients (50.0% versus 0%; p=0.004), whereas incidental lesions were more common in the elderly (40.0% versus 5.3%; p=0.003). In both groups, surgery was most commonly performed by videolaparoscopy (90% in the elderly and 82% in the younger group), with similar intraoperative anesthetic and surgical outcomes. Postoperatively, the older group more commonly received vasoactive drugs (60.0% versus 10.5%; p<0.001) and had a longer intensive care unit stay (3.1±2.8 versus 1.4±1.0 days; p=0.014), more clinical complications (60% versus 18.9%; p=0.01), and longer hospital stay (10.2±8.4 versus 5.7±4.9 days; p=0.028). Conclusions: Although all patients received the same preoperative preparation, the elderly group exhibited a slower and more complicated recovery after adrenalectomy. Meticulous perioperative care should be used in the elderly when treating phaeochromocytoma; nevertheless, adrenalectomy is a relatively safe procedure in this patient population. PMID:27564276

  16. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M

    1994-03-01

    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  17. Patient-controlled modalities for acute postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Miaskowski, Christine

    2005-08-01

    Although numerous clinical practice guidelines for pain management have been published throughout the last 12 years, inadequate pain relief remains a significant health care issue. Several patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) modalities are currently available for the treatment of acute postoperative pain, including intravenous (IV) PCA, epidural (PCEA), and oral PCA. Although PCEA and IV PCA are both commonly used modalities, IV PCA is considered the standard of care for postoperative pain management. Limitations of this modality do exist, however. Consequently, noninvasive PCA systems are under development to circumvent many of these limitations, including the fentanyl hydrochloride patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS); (IONSYS Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ) and a number of patient-controlled intranasal analgesia (PCINA) delivery systems. The objective of this article is to review the PCA modalities currently in use and to discuss those in development for the treatment of acute postoperative pain.

  18. [Management of diabetes in elderly cardiac patients].

    PubMed

    Raccah, D

    2006-11-01

    In 1998, data from the Assurance Maladie (national health insurance) showed that 11.2% of people over 65 years old, and thus corresponding to the World Health Organisation's definition of being elderly, were diabetic. More recently the Entred trial, a national sample representative of diabetics, clarified the characteristics, the state of health and the medical management of diabetes in patients aged over 65 years. Among the randomly selected 10,000 adults in this study, 5350 subjects (54% of the Entred population) were over 65 years old. Other studies indicate that more than a million subjects aged over 65 years are diabetic and that 25% of diabetics are aged over 75 years. The growing proportion of elderly people in the French population, plus the improvement in the detection and the better management of diabetes are bound to contribute to a further increase in the prevalence of diabetes in elderly subjects.

  19. Surgical Management in Elderly Patients with Tuberculous Spondylodiscitis: Ten Year Mortality Audit Study

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Manish Kundanmal; Tikoo, Agnivesh; Nene, Abhay Madhusudan

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the factors affecting immediate postoperative mortality in elderly patients with tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Overview of Literature Treatment of spinal tuberculosis in the elderly involves consideration of age and co-morbidities, and often leads to an extended conservative management. Surgical intervention in these patients becomes a complex decision. There are no studies on risk factors of mortality in surgically treated elderly with tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Methods Two hundred and seventy-six patients with spondylodiscitis were operated between 2005 and 2015. 20 consecutive patients over 70 years of age with and proven tuberculosis who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included. Demographic, clinical and radiological profile data with operative details of instrumentation, blood loss, surgical duration, and mortality were noted. There were 20 patients (6 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 73.5 years. The patients were divided into those with mortality (M) and those who survived (non-mortality, NM). Various variables were statistically tested for immediate postoperative medical complications and mortality. Results There were four mortalities (20%). Age, sex, number of medical co-morbidities, American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade, Frankel grade C or worse, number of vertebrae involved, number of levels fused, blood loss and operative time did not have statistically significant impact on immediate postoperative mortality. Only preoperative immobility duration was statistically higher in the M group (p=0.016) than in the NM group. Conclusions Preoperative immobility is associated with immediate postoperative mortality in elderly patients with spinal tuberculosis undergoing surgery. The findings identify preoperative immobility as a risk factor for mortality, which could contribute to a more detailed prognostic discussion between surgeon and patient before surgery. PMID:27790320

  20. [Oropharyngeal candidiasis in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Laurent, Marie; Gogly, Bruno; Tahmasebi, Farzad; Paillaud, Elena

    2011-03-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The prevalence in the hospital or institution varies from 13 to 47% of elderly persons. The main clinical types are denture stomatitis, acute atrophic glossitis, thrush and angular cheilitis. Diagnosis is usually made on clinical ground. Culture and sensitivity testing should be undertaken if initial therapy is unsuccessful. Predisposing factors of oral candidiasis could be local and/or systemic. Local factors include wearing dentures, impaired salivary gland function and poor oral health. Systemic factors include antibiotics and some other drugs, malnutrition, diabetes, immunosuppression and malignancies. Management involves an appropriate antifungal treatment and oral hygiene. Predisposing factors should be treated or eliminated where feasible. Oral hygiene involves cleaning the teeth and dentures. Dentures should be disinfected daily and left out overnight.

  1. Postoperative Care of the Transplanted Patient

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Gajarski, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The successful delivery of optimal peri-operative care to pediatric heart transplant recipients is a vital determinant of their overall outcomes. The practitioner caring for these patients must be familiar with and treat multiple simultaneous issues in a patient who may have been critically ill preoperatively. In addition to the complexities involved in treating any child following cardiac surgery, caretakers of newly transplanted patients encounter multiple transplant-specific issues. This chapter details peri-operative management strategies, frequently encountered early morbidities, initiation of immunosuppression including induction, and short-term outcomes. PMID:22548034

  2. Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine Promotes Postoperative Analgesia in Patients After Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24 hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397

  3. [Ethical problems in dialysis in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Alloatti, S; Gabrielli, D; Molino, A; Venturella, E; Mattioni, A

    2003-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of elderly patients are progressively increasing in most dialysis facilities with consequent medical assistance difficulties and the need to find a suitable care unit. Particularly in this age group, the clinical assessment is often difficult and the selection criteria vary widely, not only from country to country, but also from one dialysis unit to another unit in the same area. The authors discuss some of the more complex arguments for and against dialysis in elderly patients. For some of the more difficult cases, Kantian deontology and its three ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and autonomy can facilitate the decision-making process regarding the acceptance or refusal of the therapy. The central role of the patients themselves, the involvement of the family, the discussion of the individual case within the dialysis team, and the good performance of the pre-dialysis program are particularly important. In certain cases it is possible to actually discontinue the treatment, or not initiate it, by using different arguments in competent or incompetent patients. In conclusion, the difficult choice of whether to treat or turn down an elderly patient must depend exclusively on the medical clinical assessment of each case, whereas economical considerations can incorrectly influence that choice. PMID:12647283

  4. Can reduction mammoplasty patients be promised a particular size postoperatively?

    PubMed

    Dal Cin, Arianna; Jeans, Elizabeth Rose

    2005-01-01

    This retrospective study used self-reported bra sizes, heights and weights pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent reduction mammoplasty by one surgeon between 2001 and 2003. Preoperative data were collected on 91 patients. Postoperative data were collected from 69 respondents by telephone survey. Bra sizes were standardized according to cup size. In bra-making, the cup is the same size for decreasing cup letter size as the band size increases. The most common standardized cup size was seven, representing bra sizes 34 F, 36 E, 38 D, 40 C, etc. The range of preoperative cup sizes was five (34 D) to 17 (42 L). The mass of tissue removed from each breast was averaged for each patient and ranged from 147 g to 2453 g (mean 522 g). The average body mass index was 29.6 kg/m(2) preoperatively and 29.3 kg/m(2) postoperatively, with six patients reporting weight gain, 13 reporting weight loss and 50 reporting no change at all. Postoperative standardized cup sizes ranged from five (34 D) to 14 (44 H). The difference between pre- and postoperative cup size ranged from zero to eight as follows: for no cup size change (n=17), mean tissue removed per breast was 577.1 g; decrease by one cup size (n=23), 489.2 g; decrease by two cup sizes (n=25), 425.8 g. These data indicate that when self-reported data from patients are used, a plastic surgeon may find that as many as 25% report no change in bra size after reduction mammoplasty, even when more than 500 g of tissue is removed from each breast, which may adversely affect patients' satisfaction with the surgical results. Future studies will determine the cause of the apparent discrepancy between operative and self-reported results.

  5. Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mue; Mohammed, Salihu; Francis, Awonusi; William, Yongu; Joseph, Kortor; Cornilius, Elachi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:25657497

  6. Head and neck cancer in elderly patients: is microsurgical free-tissue transfer a safe procedure?

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, A; Pizzigallo, A; Sgarzani, R; Oranges, C M; Cipriani, R; Marchetti, C

    2012-12-01

    The safety and success of microvascular transfer have been well documented in the general population, but the good results achieved with the use of free flaps in elderly patients have received little attention. This study sought to identify differences in complications, morbidity and functional outcomes between elderly (≥ 75 years) and younger (< 75 years) patients treated surgically for advanced head and neck cancer using the Head and Neck 35 module of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire. Patient treatment consisted of composite resection, including excision of the primary tumour with ipsilateral or bilateral neck dissection and microvascular reconstruction. Eighty-five microvascular tissue transfers were performed to reconstruct major surgical defects. Postoperative radiation therapy was performed when indicated. Total flap loss occurred in three cases in elderly patients and two cases in younger patients. The rates of major surgical complication were 9% in young patients and 11% in elderly patients. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the rates of major and minor flap complications, morbidity or long-term functional outcome. The results of the present analysis indicate that free-flap microvascular reconstruction can be considered a safe procedure in elderly patients with head and neck cancer.

  7. Pharmacological pain management in the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    McCleane, Gary

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing number of elderly patients the issue of pain management for older people is of increasing relevance. The alterations with aging of the neurobiology of pain have impacts of pain threshold, tolerance and treatment. In this review the available evidence from animal and human experimentation is discussed to highlight the differences between young and older subjects along with consideration of how these changes have practical effect on drug treatment of pain. Cognitive impairment, physical disability and social isolation can also impact on the accessibility of treatment and have to be considered along with the biological changes with ageing. Conventional pain therapies, while verified in younger adults cannot be automatically applied to the elderly without consideration of all these factors and in no other group of patients is a holistic approach to treatment more important. PMID:18225465

  8. [Nursing iatrogenic events in hospitalized elderly patients].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Jussara Carvalho; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to identify iatrogenic nursing events involving elderly patients hospitalized in two nursing wards of a university hospital (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil). Data was collected among 100 patient records (50 men, 50 women) using an instrument created by the authors. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics in addition to Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results were significant at p < 0.05. Latrogenic events in the 26 files included: loss of intravenous site (14), pressure ulcers (8) and falls (2), among others. Reports were not detailed and failed to indicate interventions to prevent new occurrences. The findings suggest the importance of creating ways to encourage nursing professionals to accurately report iatrogenic events, as well as creating wards specifically for the elderly population.

  9. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beheydt, Lieve Lia; Schrijvers, Didier; Docx, Lise; Bouckaert, Filip; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, clinical ratings of PR, and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method multivariate analysis of variance to compare the clinical, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients performed worse on all clinical, cognitive, and PR measures. Both groups showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: Due to the restrictive inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric patients was found. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive load), it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression. PMID:25674065

  10. [Application thymogen for preoperative preparation of elderly patients with tumor processes in abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, V S; Petlenko, S V; El'tsin, S S

    2011-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Thymogen preparation for elderly patients for surgery on the solid tumors in abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space was carried out. The drug has been administered by intranasal instillation of 100 mg once a day for 7 days before surgery. The isotonic sodium chloride solution for the placebo group in the same scheme was used. The preoperative use of Thymogen proved to be useful to restore the structural and functional parameters of cellular immunity. Immunomodulatory therapy resulted in the significant decrease in the number and range of post-operative complications and the shorting of the postoperative period.

  11. How patients fare after anaesthesia for elective surgery: a survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain and confusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Zhi; Lee, Ruth Qianyi; Thinn, Kyu Kyu; Poon, Keah How; Liu, Eugene Hern Choon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and postoperative pain are common during the early postoperative period. In addition to these problems, elderly patients risk developing postoperative confusion. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with these problems, and the extent of these problems, in a Singapore inpatient surgical population. METHODS Over a period of six weeks, we surveyed 707 elective surgical inpatients aged ≥ 18 years who received general anaesthesia and/or regional anaesthesia. RESULTS The incidence of PONV was 31.8%(95% confidence interval [CI] 34.8–41.9). The incidence increased with increasing Apfel score (p < 0.001) and were higher in female patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% CI 1.28–2.36), non-smokers (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04–2.88), patients with a history of PONV and/or motion sickness (OR 3.45, 95% CI 2.38–5.24), patients who received opioids (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03–1.88), and patients who received general anaesthesia (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.11–2.79). Moderate to severe pain at rest and with movement were reported in 19.9% and 52.5% of patients, respectively. Among the patients who were predicted to experience mild pain, 29.5% reported moderate pain and 8.1% reported severe pain. The prevalence of postoperative confusion was 3.9% in the geriatric population. CONCLUSION Higher Apfel scores were associated with a higher risk of PONV and multimodal treatment for postoperative pain management was found to be insufficient. The incidence of postoperative confusion was low in this study. PMID:25640098

  12. Management of Elderly Patients With Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The current progressive aging of the population is resulting in a continuous increase in the incidence of gliomas in elderly people, especially the most frequent subtype, glioblastoma (GBM). This sociohealth shift, known as the “silver tsunami,” has prompted the neuro-oncology community to investigate the role of specific antitumor treatments, such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and other targeted therapies, for these traditionally undertreated patients. Advanced age, a widely recognized poor prognostic factor in both low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma patients, should no longer be the sole reason for excluding such older patients from receiving etiologic treatments. Far from it, results from recent prospective trials conducted on elderly patients with GBM demonstrate that active management of these patients can have a positive impact on survival without impairing either cognition or quality of life. Although prospective studies specifically addressing the management of grade 2 and 3 gliomas are lacking and thus needed, the aforementioned tendency toward acknowledging a therapeutic benefit for GBM patients might also apply to the treatment of patients with LGG and anaplastic gliomas. In order to optimize such etiologic treatment in conjunction with symptomatic management, neuro-oncology multidisciplinary boards must individually consider important features such as resectability of the tumor, functional and cognitive status, associated comorbidities, and social support. PMID:25342314

  13. Pre and post-operative needs of patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holt, Paula

    The incidence of diabetes is rising rapidly and individuals with the condition often have complex comorbidities, which may increase the need for surgical procedures such as amputation and cardiac, renal and eye surgery. Patients with diabetes undergoing surgery may have specific needs, particularly in relation to blood glucose control, and healthcare professionals need to be able to assess and manage these individuals to ensure optimum surgical outcomes. This article considers the potential effects of anaesthesia and surgery on blood glucose control. Diabetes-related complications, particularly signs and symptoms, and effects of these complications on patient safety during surgery are discussed. Specific pre and post-operative care of patients with type land type 2 diabetes is described, with reference to nil-by-mouth practices, blood glucose control, and post-operative infection and pain.

  14. [Isolated chest trauma in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Yersin, Bertrand; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Pasquier, Mathieu; Zingg, Tobias

    2015-08-12

    In elderly patients, a blunt trauma of the chest is associated with a significant risk of complications and mortality. The number of ribs fractures (≥ 4), the presence of bilateral rib fractures, of a pulmonary contusion, of existent comorbidities or acute extra-thoracic traumatic lesions, and lastly the severity of thoracic pain, are indeed important risk factors of complications and mortality. Their presence may require hospitalization of the patient. When complications do occur, they are represented by alveolar hypoventilation, pulmonary atelectasia and broncho-pulmonary infections. When hospitalization is required, it may allow for the specific treatment of thoracic pain, including locoregional anesthesia techniques. PMID:26449103

  15. Clinical assessment of the elderly patient.

    PubMed Central

    Skrastins, R.; Merry, G. M.; Rosenberg, G. M.; Schuman, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The examination of an elderly patient often requires special techniques and attention to the patient's comfort and ease. This paper outlines a reasonable approach to each phase of the interview and discusses the particular medical problems of this age group. Older people are often slow to bring their troubles to medical attention because their symptoms are vague or because they accept their disability as part of old age. Sometimes they have difficulty in communicating effectively with the physician. Simple patience can ease an otherwise frustrating situation. PMID:7104901

  16. Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Valentina; Mentz, Robert J.; Fiuzat, Mona; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age. While clinical trials suggest that contemporary evidence-based HF therapies have reduced morbidity and mortality, these trials largely excluded the elderly. Questions remain regarding the clinical characteristics of elderly HF patients and the impact of contemporary therapies on their outcomes. This review presents the epidemiology of HF in the elderly and summarizes the data on the pathophysiology of the ageing heart. The clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of elderly HF patients are explored. Finally, the main gaps regarding HF therapies in the elderly and the opportunities for future trials are highlighted. PMID:23429975

  17. Effect of intravascular cellular aggregate dissolution in postoperative patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dawidson, I; Barrett, J; Miller, E; Litwin, M S

    1975-01-01

    It was the purpose of this study to confirm whether the increase in packed cell (PC) viscosity that occurs in humans after elective surgery is accompanied by a decrease in total body O2 consumption as previously noted in animals, and further to define the effect of resolution of intravascular cellular aggregates (ICA) on these parameters. Thirty nine patients were studied. Total body O2 consumption was 76% of normal 6 hours postop, 81% of normal 24 hours postop and 87% of normal 48 hours postop. Twenty four hours after operation PC viscosity and increased markedly. Saline infusion had no significant effect on total body O2 consumption or PC viscosity, either pre- or postop, but WB viscosity decreased linearly in proportion in the drop in hematocrit. Resolution of ICA by dextran-40 infusion was associated with return of total body O2 consumption and PC viscosity to normal; a decrease in WB viscosity was disproportionately greater than would have been seen had the decrease been due solely to the drop in hematocrit. It is concluded that in humans surgical trauma causes an increase in PC viscosity and microcirculatory impairment as evidenced by a decrease in total body O2 consumption. Resolution of ICA by dextran-40 infusion reverses that detrimental changes. PMID:1190882

  18. Transurethral resection syndrome in elderly patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves the risk of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome owing to hyponatremia. Irrigation fluid type, duration of operation, and weight of resected mass have been evaluated as risk factors for TUR syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors related to TUR syndrome in the elderly. Methods After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, data on all elderly males (aged 70 years and older) who underwent TURP under regional anesthesia over a 6-year period at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. TUR syndrome was defined as evidence of a central nervous system disturbance such as nausea, vomiting, restlessness, confusion, or even coma with a circulatory abnormality both intra- and post-operatively. Patients were divided into two groups, positive and negative, for the occurrence of the syndrome. Data such as previous medical history, preoperative and postoperative serum data, weight of resected mass, duration of operation, irrigation fluid drainage technique, anesthetic technique, operative infusion and transfusion volume, and neurological symptoms were collected. Only observational variables with p < 0.05 on univariate analyses were included in the multivariate logistic regression model to ascertain their independent effects on TUR syndrome. Results Of the 98 patients studied, 23 had TUR syndrome (23.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.9–32.0%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that volume of plasma substitute ≥ 500 ml (odds ratio [OR] 14.7, 95% CI 2.9–74.5), continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3–16.7), and weight of resected mass > 45 g (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.7) were associated with significantly increased risks for TUR syndrome (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p = 0.94, accuracy 84.7%). Conclusions These results suggest that the use of a plasma substitute and continuous irrigation through a

  19. [Effective Dexmedetomidine Administration for the Prevention of Emergence Agitation and Postoperative Delirium in Patients with a History of Postoperative Delirium].

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takanobu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We successfully performed intraoperative dexmedetomidine (DEX) administration for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium after lung resection in four patients (71.3 ± 5.7 year old, 3 males and 1 female) with a past history of postoperative delirium. DEX was started at 0.35-0.45 μg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) continuously without loading. The average time from DEX initiation to extubation was 141.3 ± 94.4 minutes. No patient had emergence agitation, and DEX administration was continued until the following morning with monitoring in all patients without any symptoms of delirium. Intraoperative DEX administration may be beneficial for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium in patients with a past history of postoperative delirium. PMID:27188116

  20. [Effective Dexmedetomidine Administration for the Prevention of Emergence Agitation and Postoperative Delirium in Patients with a History of Postoperative Delirium].

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takanobu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We successfully performed intraoperative dexmedetomidine (DEX) administration for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium after lung resection in four patients (71.3 ± 5.7 year old, 3 males and 1 female) with a past history of postoperative delirium. DEX was started at 0.35-0.45 μg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) continuously without loading. The average time from DEX initiation to extubation was 141.3 ± 94.4 minutes. No patient had emergence agitation, and DEX administration was continued until the following morning with monitoring in all patients without any symptoms of delirium. Intraoperative DEX administration may be beneficial for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium in patients with a past history of postoperative delirium.

  1. Predictors of psychiatric rehospitalization among elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chun Yin Terry

    2015-01-01

    The population of Hong Kong and the proportion of elderly people have been increasing rapidly. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to determine predictive factors for psychiatric rehospitalization within 2 years among elderly patients who were discharged from psychiatric wards, in attempt to reduce their rehospitalization rate and to reintegrate them into the community. Patients aged 65 and over, who were discharged from psychiatric wards of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital from 1 March 2010 to 29 February 2012, were identified. Rehospitalization within 2 years after discharge was the primary outcome measure, and the time to rehospitalization was measured as the secondary outcome. Patients were subgrouped into readmitted and non-readmitted groups. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were applied to the potential predictive factors with odds ratios and hazard ratios obtained, respectively, for the significant findings. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted for graphical representation of the study results in survival analysis. 368 individuals satisfying the study criteria were identified. The same four factors were shown to be significantly associated with rehospitalization in both multiple logistic regression and Cox regression survival analysis. Referral to other psychiatric disciplines upon discharge (p< 0.001, OR=0.325, HR=0.405) was associated with a lower rehospitalization risk and correlated to a longer time to rehospitalization. History of suicidal behaviors (p< 0.001, OR=4.906, HR=3.161), history of violent behaviors (p< 0.001, OR=5.443, HR=3.935) and greater number of previous psychiatric admissions (p< 0.001, OR=1.250, HR=1.121)  were associated with a higher rehospitalization risk and predicted earlier rehospitalization. The rehospitalization rate of elderly patients was 5.2% at 1 month, 9.5% at 3 months, 15.0% at 6 months, 17.1% at 1 year, 18.8% at 1.5 year and 20.9% at 2 years. PMID:26870319

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma in elderly patients: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brunot, Angélique; Le Sourd, Samuel; Pracht, Marc; Edeline, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of death by cancer in the world. Due to the delayed HCC development in hepatitis C carriers and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the incidence of HCC in the elderly is increasing and is becoming a global health issue. Elderly patients with HCC should be assessed through proper oncologic approach, namely, screening tools for frailty (Geriatric-8 or Vulnerable Elders Survey-13) and comprehensive geriatric assessment. This review of the literature supports the same treatment options for elderly patients as for younger patients, in elderly patients selected as fit following proper oncogeriatric assessment. Unfit patients should be managed through a multidisciplinary team involving both oncological and geriatrician professionals. Specific studies and recommendations for HCC in the elderly should be encouraged. PMID:27574587

  3. Predicting postoperative visual outcomes in cataract patients with maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Macky, Tamer A; Mohamed, Abdel Moniem Hasaballah; Emarah, Ahmed M; Osman, Amr Abdellatif; Gado, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of the potential acuity meter (PAM) in predicting postcataract surgery visual acuity outcome in patients with healed inactive maculopathies. Study Design: Prospective interventional clinical trial. Patients and Methods: Patients scheduled for phacoemulsification had preoperative and 1 month postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), PAM test, fluorescein angiography, and macular optical coherence tomography. Patients were grouped to following preoperative BCVA: PRE1: 0.29 and better, PRE2: 0.25–0.13, and PRE3: 0.1 or worse; age: G1 <60, G2 = 60–70, and G3 >70 years. PAM accuracy was divided into: Grade 1: Postoperative BCVA ≤1 or less line error of the PAM score, Grade 2: Between 1 and 2 lines error, and Grade 3: ≥3 lines or more error. Results: This study enrolled 57 patients with a mean age of 71.05 ± 6.78 years where 34 were females. There were 21 (36.84%) patients with diabetic maculopathy and 36 (63.16%) with age-related macular degeneration. The mean preoperative BCVA was 0.198 ± 0.12 (0.1–0.5). The mean PAM score was 0.442 ± 0.24 (0.1–1.3). The mean postoperative BCVA was 0.4352 ± 0.19 (0.17–1.00). The PAM score was in Grade 1, 2, and 3 in 46 (80.7%), 54 (94.7%), and 56 (98.2), respectively. There was a highly significant correlation between the PAM score and the postoperative BCVA (P < 0.001, Chi-square test). There was no correlation between the PAM test accuracy and age, gender, diagnosis, and preoperative BCVA (P = 0.661, 0.667, 0. 0.991, 0.833, Chi-square test; respectively). Conclusion: The PAM is an accurate method of predicting postoperative visual acuity for eyes with nuclear cataracts Grade I and II and inactive maculopathies. PMID:26655002

  4. Preoperative Cognitive Intervention Reduces Cognitive Dysfunction in Elderly Patients after Gastrointestinal Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Amin J.; Tang, Guan-Xiu; Hadi, Sally M.; Yan, Liao; Chen, Ming-Hua; Duan, Kai-Ming; Tong, Jianbin; Ouyang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Preoperative conditions may play a significant role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) development in elderly patients. We aimed to investigate whether preoperative cognitive training could lower the incidence of POCD one week after surgery. Material/Methods A total of 141 ASA I–III elderly patients who underwent gastrointestinal surgery were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomized into either the Intervention group (69 analyzed) or the Control group (72 analyzed). Patients in the intervention group were instructed and trained in a cognition mnemonic skill for a total of three 1-hour sessions with the method of loci (MoL). Controls did not receive any cognitive training during hospitalization. All patients were tested using neuropsychological battery tests (NPTs) on admission and one week after surgery. Result The incidence of POCD in the intervention group (15.9%) was significantly lower than in the controls (36.1%) (P<0.05). Patients’ performance in Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised and Symbol-Digit Modalities Test were improved by the cognitive training. Increasing age, longer length of anesthesia and surgery, and lack of cognitive training were associated with a significantly higher risk of POCD (P<0.05). Conclusions Cognitive training with MoL can reduce the decline of early postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. PMID:25782136

  5. Surgical outcomes of elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a meta-analysis of studies reporting on 2868 patients.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Karthik; Chieng, Lee Onn; Foong, Hanyao; Wang, Michael Y

    2016-06-01

    group had lower Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores (MD -1.36, 95% CI -1.62 to -1.09; p < 0.00001) to begin with compared with the nonelderly group. The nonelderly group also had a higher postoperative JOA score (MD -1.11, 95% CI -1.44 to -0.79; p < 0.00001), therefore demonstrating a higher recovery rate from surgeries (MD -11.98, 95% CI -16.16 to -7.79; p < 0.00001). The length of stay (MD 4.14, 95% CI 3.54-4.73; p < 0.00001) was slightly longer in the elderly group. In terms of radiological outcomes, the elderly group had a smaller postoperative Cobb angle but a greater increase in spinal canal diameter compared with the nonelderly group. The complication rates were not significant. CONCLUSIONS Cervical myelopathy is a disease of the elderly, and age is an independent factor for recovery from surgery. Postoperative and long-term outcomes have been remarkable in terms of improvement in mobility and independence requiring reduced nursing care. There is definitely a higher potential risk while operating on the elderly population, but no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications was noted. Withholding surgery from the elderly population can lead to increased morbidity due to rapid progression of symptoms in addition to deconditioning from lack of mobility and independence. Reduction in operative time under anesthesia, lower blood loss, and perioperative fluid management have been shown to minimize the complication rate. The authors request that neurosurgeons weigh the potential benefit against the risks for every patient before withholding surgery from elderly patients. PMID:27246483

  6. Maori Elder-patient relationship as a therapeutic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P S

    1989-11-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of teh psychotherapeutic relationship between a Maori Elder and Maori psychiatric patients. The functioning of an Elder was examined over a period of 9 months in a psychiatric unit. A content analysis was performed on audiovisual records of 10 interviews conducted by the Elder on five psychiatric patients. The results of this analysis were used to construct a theoretical paradigm of the Elder-Patient Transaction and to contrast it with psychodynamic psychotherapy and pastoral counseling. Distinctive features of relationship, content of the sessions and the issues of dominance and dependence are discussed, and possible mechanisms of change are mentioned. PMID:2587677

  7. Postoperative wound infections after a proctectomy--Patient experiences.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Karin; Andersson, Kristin; Koinberg, Inga-Lill; Wennström, Berith

    2016-01-01

    Poor perineal wound healing and infections after proctectomy surgery cause a significant proportion of physical and psychological morbidities, such as pain, leakage, and abscesses. In the long run, some of these symptoms will lead to extended periods of hospitalization. These kinds of postoperative complications are also associated with delays in possible chemotherapy treatment. The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of perineal wound infections following proctectomy due to rectal cancer, and the importance of the communication with and the self-care support from the nurse for these patients. Five women and five men (61-87 years, median age 71 years) were included and interviewed. A qualitative content analysis of the interviews was carried out and the following main categories emerged: "Managing postoperative complications," "Being independent," "Feeling safe," and "Accepting the situation." A perineal wound infection after a proctectomy is devastating for the individual patient. The limitations and changes to the patients' lives turn into new daily routines, which force them to find new ways to live and to accept the situation. For many of them, the infections remained for several months and, sometimes, for years. The ability to lead an independent life is drastically reduced, but through continuity in care it is possible to create a feeling of safety. Information, communication, and self-care support are all important and valuable factors for recovery. Specialized care containing an action plan is therefore needed in clinical practice to reduce the number of perineal wound infections postoperatively and should be initiated when the patient is discharged from the ward and continue until recovery.

  8. Efficacy of laparoscopic transversus abdominis plane block for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Tihan, Deniz; Totoz, Tolga; Tokocin, Merve; Ercan, Gulcin; Calikoglu, Tugba Koc; Vartanoglu, Talar; Celebi, Fatih; Dandin, Ozgur; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block technique seems to offer one of the most efficient methods for a local pain control. Our aim is to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of TAP block for post-operative pain control under laparoscopic vision in elderly patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients aged more than 65 years old, who had cholecystectomy due to symptomatic cholelithiasis, were retrospectively evaluated. The patients that were operated under general anesthesia + laparoscopic TAP block and those who were operated only under only general anesthesia were compared according to their’ age and gender, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and length of stay in the hospital. Median (±interquartile range) values of post-operative 24th-hour-VAS for pain was found consecutively 2 (±1-3) in TAP block + group and 3 (±2-5) in TAP block - group. The median post-operative 24th-hour-VAS value in overall patients was three. Patients’ VAS values were higher in the TAP block – group with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001). Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found for other parameters in two groups. The laparoscopic-guided TAP block can easily be performed and has potential for lower visceral injury risk and shorter operational time. Efficacy, safety and other advantages (analgesic requirements, etc.) make it an ideal abdominal field block in elderly patients. PMID:26773187

  9. Communication in dental medicine: importance in motivating elderly dental patients.

    PubMed

    Scutariu, Mihaela Monica; Forna, Norina

    2013-01-01

    Dental services for elderly patients are characterized by a series of particularities related to the vulnerability of this age group, which is affected by various co morbidities, and the diminished physical, cognitive and financial capacities. Finding ways to keep elderly patients coming to a dental office is possible by improving the dentist-patient relationship and implicitly the quality of care by increasing the self-esteem of the elderly and their place in society, by increasing the role of oral health in the quality of life, and here we refer to the pleasure of eating, the pleasant physical aspect and normal diction. The present paper presents the psychological aspects that interfere in the communication process between the dentist and the elderly patient and the changes motivation undergoes when people are in pain. These data can sometimes change the reticent attitude of the dentist towards the elderly patient which is often considered to be a risk patient. PMID:24502052

  10. Postoperative wound infections after a proctectomy—Patient experiences

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Kristin; Koinberg, Inga-Lill; Wennström, Berith

    2016-01-01

    Poor perineal wound healing and infections after proctectomy surgery cause a significant proportion of physical and psychological morbidities, such as pain, leakage, and abscesses. In the long run, some of these symptoms will lead to extended periods of hospitalization. These kinds of postoperative complications are also associated with delays in possible chemotherapy treatment. The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of perineal wound infections following proctectomy due to rectal cancer, and the importance of the communication with and the self-care support from the nurse for these patients. Five women and five men (61–87 years, median age 71 years) were included and interviewed. A qualitative content analysis of the interviews was carried out and the following main categories emerged: “Managing postoperative complications,” “Being independent,” “Feeling safe,” and “Accepting the situation.” A perineal wound infection after a proctectomy is devastating for the individual patient. The limitations and changes to the patients’ lives turn into new daily routines, which force them to find new ways to live and to accept the situation. For many of them, the infections remained for several months and, sometimes, for years. The ability to lead an independent life is drastically reduced, but through continuity in care it is possible to create a feeling of safety. Information, communication, and self-care support are all important and valuable factors for recovery. Specialized care containing an action plan is therefore needed in clinical practice to reduce the number of perineal wound infections postoperatively and should be initiated when the patient is discharged from the ward and continue until recovery. PMID:26900139

  11. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in elderly patients – analysis of outcome and complications

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Jan; Haak, Susanne; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing discussion about age limits for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Current indications for DBS are tremor-dominant disorders, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Electrode implantation for DBS with analgesia and sedation makes surgery more comfortable, especially for elderly patients. However, the value of DBS in terms of benefit-risk ratio in this patient population is still uncertain. Methods Bilateral electrode implantation into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was performed in a total of 73 patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Patients were analyzed retrospectively. For this study they were divided into two age groups: group I (age <65 years, n = 37) and group II (age ≥ 65 years, n = 36). Examinations were performed preoperatively and at 6-month follow-up intervals for 24 months postoperatively. Age, UPDRS motor score (part III) on/off, Hoehn & Yahr score, Activity of Daily Living (ADL), L-dopa medication, and complications were determined. Results Significant differences were found in overall performance determined as ADL scores (group I: 48/71 points, group II: 41/62 points [preoperatively/6-month postoperatively]) and in the rate of complications (group I: 4 transient psychosis, 4 infections in a total of 8 patients, group II: 2 deaths [unrelated to surgery], 1 intracerebral hemorrhage, 7 transient psychosis, 3 infections, 2 pneumonia in a total of 13 patients), (p < 0.05). Interestingly, changes in UPDRS scores, Hoehn & Yahr scores, and L-dopa medication were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusion DBS of the STN is clinically as effective in elderly patients as it is in younger ones. However, a more careful selection and follow-up of the elderly patients are required because elderly patients have a higher risk of surgery-related complications and a higher morbidity rate. PMID:17367531

  12. Comparative analysis of survival between elderly and non-elderly severe sepsis and septic shock resuscitated patients

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Henrique; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Silva, Eliézer; Pardini, Andreia; de Assuncao, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes between elderly (≥65 years old) and non-elderly (<65 years old) resuscitated severe sepsis and septic shock patients and determine predictors of death among elderly patients. Methods Retrospective cohort study including 848 severe sepsis and septic shock patients admitted to the intensive care unit between January 2006 and March 2012. Results Elderly patients accounted for 62.6% (531/848) and non-elderly patients for 37.4% (317/848). Elderly patients had a higher APACHE II score [22 (18-28) versus 19 (15-24); p<0.001], compared to non-elderly patients, although the number of organ dysfunctions did not differ between the groups. No significant differences were found in 28-day and in-hospital mortality rates between elderly and non-elderly patients. The length of hospital stay was higher in elderly compared to non-elderly patients admitted with severe sepsis and septic shock [18 (10-41) versus 14 (8-29) days, respectively; p=0.0001]. Predictors of death among elderly patients included age, site of diagnosis, APACHE II score, need for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors. Conclusion In this study population early resuscitation of elderly patients was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Prospective studies addressing the long-term impact on functional status and quality of life are necessary. PMID:26313436

  13. Flurbiprofen axetil reduces postoperative sufentanil consumption and enhances postoperative analgesic effects in patients with colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Ruiqin; Xing, Jingchun; Gao, Xiaocui; Chang, Pan; Li, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different strategies of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) administration on postoperative pain and sufentanil (SF) consumption after open colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Forty patients undergoing elective CRC resection were divided into two groups (n = 20 each). Patients in the F50+50 group received 50 mg of intravenous FA 30 min before skin incision and six hours after the first dose; patients in the F100 group received 100 mg of intravenous FA 30 min before skin incision. Perioperative plasma FA (CFA) and SF concentrations (CSF) were determined. Analgesic and sedative efficacy were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Bruggman Comfort Scale (BCS), and Ramsay sedation scale. The time to the first PCIA trigger, the number of patients that pressed the PCIA trigger within 24 h after surgery, and the cumulative doses of SF consumption within 6 and 24 h after surgery were recorded. At postoperative 6 and 24 h, CFA was significantly higher, CSF was significantly lower, and the number of patients that pressed the PCIA trigger and the consumption of SF were significantly lower in the F50+50 group compared with the F100 group. At postoperative 4 h, VAS and BCS were significantly lower in the F50+50 group compared with the F100 group (P < 0.05). An administration strategy that maintains a relatively high plasma FA concentration at 6-24 h post-operatively may reduce postoperative inflammatory pain and SF-requirement in patients undergoing CRC resection.

  14. Flurbiprofen axetil reduces postoperative sufentanil consumption and enhances postoperative analgesic effects in patients with colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Ruiqin; Xing, Jingchun; Gao, Xiaocui; Chang, Pan; Li, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different strategies of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) administration on postoperative pain and sufentanil (SF) consumption after open colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Forty patients undergoing elective CRC resection were divided into two groups (n = 20 each). Patients in the F50+50 group received 50 mg of intravenous FA 30 min before skin incision and six hours after the first dose; patients in the F100 group received 100 mg of intravenous FA 30 min before skin incision. Perioperative plasma FA (CFA) and SF concentrations (CSF) were determined. Analgesic and sedative efficacy were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Bruggman Comfort Scale (BCS), and Ramsay sedation scale. The time to the first PCIA trigger, the number of patients that pressed the PCIA trigger within 24 h after surgery, and the cumulative doses of SF consumption within 6 and 24 h after surgery were recorded. At postoperative 6 and 24 h, CFA was significantly higher, CSF was significantly lower, and the number of patients that pressed the PCIA trigger and the consumption of SF were significantly lower in the F50+50 group compared with the F100 group. At postoperative 4 h, VAS and BCS were significantly lower in the F50+50 group compared with the F100 group (P < 0.05). An administration strategy that maintains a relatively high plasma FA concentration at 6-24 h post-operatively may reduce postoperative inflammatory pain and SF-requirement in patients undergoing CRC resection. PMID:25663985

  15. The Evaluation of Postoperative Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the standard surgical treatment modality for patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis who require colectomy. Normally staged pouch surgery is performed. Endoscopy plays an important role in postoperative monitoring of disease status and delivery of therapy, if necessary. Therefore, ileal pouch surgery significantly alters bowel anatomy, with new organ structures being created. Endoscopy of the altered bowel includes the evaluation of end ileostomy, Hartmann pouch or diverted rectum, loop ileostomy, diverted pouch, and pouchoscopy. Each segment of the bowel has unique landmarks. PMID:27633595

  16. Probiotic use in preventing postoperative infection in liver transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jim; Wu, Jinshan; Chalson, Helen; Merigan, Lynn; Mitchell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation has been widely practised, post-operative bacterial infection is still a frequent complication which contributed to an increased risk of fatality. There were studies on preoperative use of probiotics for liver transplant patients and acquired reduction in postoperative sepsis and wound infection, but the relevant clinical experience with pre- and probiotics is still limited. Objectives This study is to assess fibre and probiotic use aimed at preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Study methods There were a total of sixty-seven adult patients scheduled for liver transplantation were included in a public teaching hospital. From January to December 2011, 34 continuous patients following liver transplantation were put on fibre + probiotics. In retrospectively, from January to December 2010, 33 continuous patients were collected as a control group and they were only received fibre post operation. The incidence of bacterial infections was compared in patients receiving either fibre and lactobacillus or fibre only. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15. The t test, fisher’s and chi- square test was used to compare discrete variables. Results In summary, in the analysis of 67 liver transplant recipients, 8.8% group A patients developed infections compared to 30.3% group B patients. The difference between groups A and B was statistically significant in both cases. In addition, the duration of antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter in the lactobacillus-group. Wound infection was the most frequent infections and enterococci the most frequently isolated bacteria. Fibre and lactobacilli were well tolerated in most cases. The operating time, amount of intra- and post-operatively transfused units of blood, fresh frozen plasma and albumin did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Combined fibre and probiotics could lower the incidence of

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Postoperative Neurosurgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; Wu, Yuanxing; Sun, Shusen; Mei, Shenghui; Wang, Jiaqing; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Zhigang

    2015-11-01

    Neurosurgical procedures may damage the blood-brain barrier to allow more vancomycin distribution into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from blood after intravenous administration. However, a large intersubject variability in CSF vancomycin concentration was observed. We aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to guide vancomycin dosing in patients after neurosurgical operation. Blood and CSF samples were collected and determined from postoperative neurosurgical patients after vancomycin administration. A three-compartment (central, peripheral, and CSF) model was proposed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was applied to fit the blood and CSF data simultaneously. The covariate analysis found that the CSF albumin level was strongly associated with the clearance between central and CSF compartment. Visual predictive check indicated that the proposed population pharmacokinetic model agrees well with the observed vancomycin concentrations. Individualized vancomycin dosage regimens could be developed for postoperative neurosurgical patients with different CSF albumin levels through model simulations. The CSF albumin level is a determinant of CSF vancomycin concentration.

  18. Postoperative management of heart failure in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yuerek, Mahsun; Rossano, Joseph W; Mascio, Christopher E; Shaddy, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a well-described entity occurring in 25-65% of pediatric patients undergoing open-heart surgery. With judicious intensive care management of LCOS, most patients have an uncomplicated postoperative course, and within 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass, the cardiac function returns back to baseline. Some patients have severe forms of LCOS not responsive to medical management alone, requiring temporary mechanical circulatory support to prevent end-organ injury and to decrease myocardial stress and oxygen demand. Occasionally, cardiac function does not recover and heart transplantation is necessary. Long-term mechanical circulatory support devices are used as a bridge to transplantation because of limited availability of donor hearts. Experience in usage of continuous flow ventricular assist devices in the pediatric population is increasing. PMID:26560361

  19. Postoperative management of heart failure in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yuerek, Mahsun; Rossano, Joseph W; Mascio, Christopher E; Shaddy, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a well-described entity occurring in 25-65% of pediatric patients undergoing open-heart surgery. With judicious intensive care management of LCOS, most patients have an uncomplicated postoperative course, and within 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass, the cardiac function returns back to baseline. Some patients have severe forms of LCOS not responsive to medical management alone, requiring temporary mechanical circulatory support to prevent end-organ injury and to decrease myocardial stress and oxygen demand. Occasionally, cardiac function does not recover and heart transplantation is necessary. Long-term mechanical circulatory support devices are used as a bridge to transplantation because of limited availability of donor hearts. Experience in usage of continuous flow ventricular assist devices in the pediatric population is increasing.

  20. Fast-track surgery protocol in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guozheng; Jian, Fengguo; Wang, Xiuqin; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the efficacy of the fast-track surgery (FTS) program combined with laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for elderly gastric cancer (GC) patients. Methods Eighty-four elderly patients diagnosed with GC between September 2014 and August 2015 were recruited to participate in this study and were divided into four groups randomly based on the random number table as follows: FTS + laparoscopic group (Group A, n=21), FTS + laparotomy group (Group B, n=21), conventional perioperative care (CC) + laparoscopic group (Group C, n=21), and CC + laparotomy group (Group D, n=21). Observation indicators include intrasurgery indicators, postoperative recovery indicators, nutritional status indicators, and systemic stress response indicators. Results Preoperative and intraoperative baseline characteristics showed no significant differences between patients in each group (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between each group in nausea and vomiting, intestinal obstruction, urinary retention, incision infection, pulmonary infection, and urinary tract infection after operation (P>0.05). Time of first flatus and postoperative hospital stay time of FTS Group A were the shortest, and total medical cost of this group was the lowest. For all groups, serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin significantly decreased, while CRP and interleukin 6 were significantly increased postoperative day 1. From postoperative day 4–7, all indicators of the four groups gradually recovered, but compared with other three groups, those of Group A recovered fastest. Conclusion FTS combined with laparoscopic surgery can promote faster postoperative recovery, improve early postoperative nutritional status, and more effectively reduce postoperative stress reaction, and hence is safe and effective for elderly GC patients. PMID:27330314

  1. How to optimally manage elderly bladder cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Francesco; Moschini, Marco; Korn, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is a disease of the elderly and as the population is aging, BCa will become an even bigger public health challenge in the future. Nowadays the correct management of BCa in the elderly remains controversial. The purpose of this article was to review the previous literature to summarize the current knowledge. Using Medline, a non-systematic review was performed including articles between January 2000 and February 2016 in order to describe the management of BCa in the elderly in all its aspects. English language original articles, reviews and editorials were selected based on their clinical relevance. In the literature, the definition of elderly is variable and based on chronological, not biological, age. BCa seems to be more aggressive in the elderly. The management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) does not strongly differ from younger patients, except for the role of adjuvant immunotherapy. In patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) the role of a multidisciplinary geriatric evaluation is potentially beneficial. The curative treatment in MIBC remains radical cystectomy (RC) and elderly patients should not be withheld a potentially life-saving intervention only based on chronological age. Patients unsuitable to a major surgical approach may be eligible for bladder-sparing techniques. Geriatric assessment could help identify the frail elderly and customize their perioperative care (i.e., pre and re habilitation). In conclusion the treatment of BCa in the elderly has to be patient-centered and focused on biological age and functional reserves.

  2. Pain assessment and management strategies for elderly patients.

    PubMed

    MacSorley, Robyn; White, Jill; Conerly, Vicki H; Walker, Jean T; Lofton, Susan; Ragland, Gaye; Davey, DeBrynda; Robertson, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Home healthcare nurses play a critical role in pain assessment and management in elderly patients. People 65 years of age and older are the largest consumers of prescription and nonprescription pain medications in the United States and are at increased risk for adverse reactions and inadequate pain management. This article seeks to explore strategies to assist hospice and home healthcare nurses in assessing and managing elderly patients' pain. The goal is to provide tools to assist nurses in streamlining elderly patient care and improving quality of life while decreasing mortality and morbidity for this patient population. PMID:24802598

  3. One-year mortality after isolated pelvic fractures with posterior ring involvement in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Kadakia, Rishin J; Wegner, Adam; Richards, Justin E; Mir, Hassan R

    2013-06-01

    Previous 1-year mortality studies of pelvic fractures in elderly patients have focused on pubic rami fractures, in elderly patients with multiple injuries, or both. Baseline information on the 1-year mortality of isolated pelvic fractures in elderly patients is unavailable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 1-year mortality of elderly patients (aged 60 years or older) after isolated pelvic fractures with posterior ring involvement (Orthopaedic Trauma Association type 61-B and C). All patients aged 60 years or older treated for pelvic injuries at a single Level I trauma center over a 12-year period were retrospectively reviewed (N=1223). Exclusion criteria were associated injuries to other body systems (Abbreviated Injury Scale greater than 2), ballistic injuries, long bone fractures, concurrent acetabular fractures, and type 61-A fractures or isolated pubic rami fractures without posterior involvement. Mortality data were obtained from the Social Security Death Index. Seventy patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients treated nonoperatively were significantly older compared with those treated operatively. However, the Charlson Comorbidity Index did not significantly differ between treatment groups. A significantly higher percentage of type-B fractures (83.0%) were treated nonoperatively compared with type-C fractures, which were treated operatively 88.2% of the time. Mortality rates at 3 and 6 months and 1 year postoperatively were 7.1%, 11.4%, and 12.9%, respectively. These results suggest that the 1-year mortality rates of isolated pelvic fractures in elderly patients are lower than those reported previously for hip fractures and pelvic fractures with concurrent injuries. Although age was identified as a significant variable differing between patients treated operatively vs nonoperatively, comorbidities were not. PMID:23746012

  4. [Innovative therapies for metastatic melanoma in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Du-Thanh, A; Lesage, C; Ferreira, E; Dereure, O; Guillot, B

    2015-10-01

    The mortality rate for malignant melanoma is higher in elderly patients aged 75 years or more, with over 25% of melanomas being diagnosed in this population. This poorer prognosis might perhaps be improved by emerging targeted therapies and immunotherapy, although these agents must be prescribed with care in this rather fragile population. The purpose of our review of the literature concerning phase-2 and -3 published trials of these innovative molecules was to examine their optimal use in elderly patients presenting metastatic malignant melanoma. Most of the trials examined included elderly patients and some were analyzed by age sub-groups. In conclusion, elderly patients with ECOG 0/1 status can be given ipilimumab or vemurafenib as first-line therapy depending on tumoral BRaf mutation status. The benefit of combined targeted therapies does not seem to apply consistently in elderly patients and their use must be discussed. Further specific data must be collected in elderly patients concerning anti-PD1 molecules. For more fragile patients, risk scales or scores should enable more accurate use of innovative therapies in metastatic melanoma. Moreover, physicians must be aware of the common drug interactions with targeted therapies, since elderly patients are often taking several concomitant drugs.

  5. Postoperative nausea and vomiting. A retrospective analysis in patients undergoing elective craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Fabling, J M; Gan, T J; Guy, J; Borel, C O; el-Moalem, H E; Warner, D S

    1997-10-01

    Nausea and vomiting are important complications after craniotomy, for which there are little published epidemiologic data. We retrospectively examined the incidence of postcraniotomy nausea and vomiting to define risk factors. Medical records from 199 adults undergoing elective craniotomy were identified. Data extracted from surgery and the initial 48 hours postoperatively included gender, age, supratentorial versus infratentorial craniotomy, type of anesthesia (general versus monitored anesthesia care), intraoperative fentanyl dose, duration of anesthesia, antiemetic administration intraoperatively and postoperatively, and incidence of postoperative nausea, emesis, and opioid use. Postoperative nausea was recorded in 99 patients (50%) and emesis in 78 patients (39%). Postoperative opioids were administered to 170 patients (85%). Antiemetics were given intraoperatively to 13 patients (7%) and postoperatively to 121 patients (61%). More women (61%) than men (37%) had nausea (P = 0.001); emesis (women = 46%; men = 31%, P = 0.03); and postoperative antiemetic use (women = 69%; men = 51%, P = 0.013). The incidence of postoperative nausea (P = 0.04) and vomiting (P = 0.06) was greater in patients having infratentorial surgery. Emesis was more frequent in younger patients (P = 0.03). Postoperative nausea and vomiting were independent of anesthetic duration, fentanyl dose, or postoperative opioid use and occurred with similar frequency after general anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care. We conclude that postoperative nausea and vomiting occur frequently after craniotomy. Infratentorial surgery, female gender, and younger age are significant risk factors for this complication. PMID:9339401

  6. Prostate cancer in the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chunkit; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya Gupta

    2014-08-20

    Treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) has evolved significantly over the last decade. PCa is the most prevalent non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men, and it has an increased incidence and prevalence in older men. As a result, physicians and patients are faced with the challenge of identifying optimal treatment strategies for localized, biochemical recurrent, and advanced PCa in the older population. When older patients are appropriately selected, treatment for PCa results in survival benefits and toxicity profiles similar to those experienced in younger patients. However, underlying health status and age-related changes can have an impact on tolerance of hormonal therapy and chemotherapy in men with advanced disease. Therefore, the heterogeneity of the elderly population necessitates a multidimensional assessment to maximize the benefit of medical and/or surgical options. Providing clinicians with the requisite health status data on which to base treatment decisions would help ensure that older patients with PCa receive optimal therapy if it will benefit them and/or active surveillance or best supportive care if it will not. We provide a review of the existing evidence to date on the management of PCa in the older population. PMID:25071137

  7. Quality of sleep in postoperative surgical oncologic patients.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Elizabeth; Sawada, Namie Okino; Sonobe, Helena Megumi; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate surgical-oncologic patients' quality of sleep through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. It is an exploratory study with transversal-observational design, in 46 postoperative head & neck and urology cancer patients. The PSQI questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective quality of sleep and the occurrence of sleep disorders. Six PSQI components were statistically significant and 78.3% of the interviewees had impaired subjective quality of sleep. Among factors leading to sleep disorders we point out: taking too long to fall asleep; waking up in the middle of the night; getting up to go to the bathroom and napping during the day. This study is expected to sensitize the nursing team regarding the need to investigate quality of sleep and causes of its disorders in cancer survivors for an effective course of action. PMID:19820854

  8. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do Hoon

    2012-12-01

    In gastric adenocarcinoma, high rates of loco-regional recurrences have been reported even after complete resection, and various studies have been tried to find the role of postoperative adjuvant therapy. Among them, Intergroup 0116 trial was a landmark trial, and demonstrated the definite survival benefit in adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, compared with surgery alone. However, the INT 0116 trial had major limitation for global acceptance of the INT 0116 regimen as an adjuvant treatment modality because of the limited lymph node dissection. Lately, several randomized studies that were performed to patients with D2-dissected gastric cancer were published. This review summarizes the data about patterns of failure after surgical resection and the earlier prospective studies, including INT 0116 study. Author will introduce the latest studies, including ARTIST trial and discuss whether external beam radiotherapy should be applied to patients receiving extended lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23346491

  9. Corpus callosum involvement and postoperative outcomes of patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ko-Ting; Wu, Tai-Wei Erich; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chang, Chen-Nen; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Pai, Ping-Ching; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Corpus callosum involvement is associated with poorer survival in high grade glioma (HGG), but the prognostic value in low grade glioma (LGG) is unclear. To determine the prognostic impact of corpus callosum involvement on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in HGG and LGG, the records of 233 glioma patients treated from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to identify corpus callosum involvement. Age, sex, preoperative Karnofsky performance scale, postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score and extent of resection (EOR) were evaluated with respect to PFS and OS. The incidence of corpus callosum involvement was similar among HGG (14 %) and LGG (14.5 %). Univariate analysis revealed that PFS and OS were significantly shorter in both WHO grade II and grade IV glioma with corpus callosum involvement (both, p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that grade II glioma with corpus callosum involvement have shorter PFS (p = 0.03), while EOR, instead of corpus callosum involvement (p = 0.16), was an independent factor associated with PFS in grade IV glioma (p < 0.05). Corpus callosum involvement was no longer significantly associated with OS after adjusting age, gender, EOR, preoperative and postoperative performance status (p = 0.16, 0.17 and 0.56 in grade II, III and IV gliomas, respectively). Corpus callosum involvement happened in both LGG and HGG, and is associated with lower EOR and higher postoperative ECOG score both in LGG and HGG. Corpus callosum involvement tends to be an independent prognostic factor for PFS in LGG, but not for OS in LGG or in HGG.

  10. [Role of surgery for lung cancer in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Benko, István; Horváth, Ors Péter; Nagy, Klára; Sárosi, Veronika; Balikó, Zoltán; Potó, László; Molnár, F Tamás

    2008-02-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of death in the civilised world. Surgical resection, which play a crucial role in the complex oncological treatment, has to be offered in older ages than it was done before, due to an ageing population. Results of surgical treatment of patients older than 75 years are investigated retrospectively in the present paper. A retrospectively analysis was carried out of 54 from a total of 884 lung resections for primary lung cancer performed for patients older than 75 years between 1995-2005. Twelve of these patients were above 80 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to calculate survival and multifactor analysis for the risk factors. Average age was 77.5 years (75-85). Two pneumonectomies, two bilobectomies, 41 lobectomies, seven sublobar resections and two lobectomies with chest wall resections were performed. The average hospital stay was 11.4 days (8-36). Mortality: 7.4% (n = 4), morbidity: 52% (n = 28) including: sputum retention: 43%, arrhythmia 33%, atelectasia: 15%. There were two bronchial stump insufficiencies (4%) and three reoperations were performed (5%). The average follow up was: 32 months and the five year survival 33.7% (median 43 months). Multifactorial analysis show that extended resection, male gender, age above 80 years are risk factors for adverse outcome. Female gender, stage Ia and lobectomy are considered as predictive factors for long survival. We conclude, that with proper patient selection (below ASA3, early stage) and with carefully conducted postoperative care (physiotherapy, monitoring) surgical resection should be offered to elderly lung cancer patients as well. PMID:18296283

  11. Iranian nursing students' perspectives regarding caring for elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nursing students' perspectives regarding caring for elderly patients. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect and analyze the perspectives of 25 senior nursing students who were providing care for elderly patients in the medical and surgical wards of two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. After using purposeful sampling to select the participants, semistructured interviews were held in order to collect the data. During the data analysis, two main themes and six subthemes emerged. The first theme was "the barriers to caring for elderly patients", with the subthemes of "policies and rules of the organization", "a lack of educational preparation", and "an inappropriate physical environment", and the second theme was "the facilitators to caring for elderly patients", with the subthemes of "religion and cultural norms", "role modeling", and "previous exposure to elderly patients". This study informs international audiences of the factors that influence the quality of care of elderly patients so that strategies can be devised in order to prepare nursing students to meet the physical and psychological needs of elderly patients.

  12. Rotator Cuff Tears in the Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCT) are a common clinical problem in the geriatric population, and debate exists over how to best provide pain relief and restore shoulder function. Treatment options can be broadly divided into nonsurgical and surgical, with the majority of patients initially placed on a trial of conservative therapy. For those with irreparable RCT, low functional demand, or interest in nonoperative management, there are a number of nonsurgical treatments to consider, including rehabilitation and injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronate, and platelet-rich plasma. Surgical treatment is increasingly common, as geriatric patients remain active with high functional demands. Studies in elderly populations have demonstrated satisfactory healing and clinical results following surgical repair. Predictors of poor outcome after repair are large tear size as well as higher stages of fatty infiltration. Decompression is a less invasive surgical option that has been shown to provide short-term pain relief, though the lasting effects may deteriorate over time. A number of factors must be weighed when considering which patients are likely to benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:26328240

  13. Assessment of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio in postoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Leckie, P A; Ferreira, P; Debas, H T

    1980-08-01

    The value of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) in the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis was prospectively assessed. In 77 patients undergoing operations known to have a significant incidence of postoperative pancreatitis (gastric, biliary or pancreatic) i.e. "high risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 36 patients (47%). However, overt clinical pancreatitis occurred in only eight patients (10%). In 60 other patients undergoing nonabdominal operations (orthiipedic, head and neck, varicose vein surgery etc.) i.e. "low risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 23 patients (38%). No patient in this group developed clinical pancreatitis. We conclude, therefore, the ACCR is often abnormally elevated nonspecifically following any type of surgery, and cannot be used as evidence of postoperative pancreatitis. These data do suggest, however, that a normal ACCR, especially on successive daily determinations, might help to exclude the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis.

  14. Assessment of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio in postoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Leckie, P A; Ferreira, P; Debas, H T

    1980-08-01

    The value of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) in the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis was prospectively assessed. In 77 patients undergoing operations known to have a significant incidence of postoperative pancreatitis (gastric, biliary or pancreatic) i.e. "high risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 36 patients (47%). However, overt clinical pancreatitis occurred in only eight patients (10%). In 60 other patients undergoing nonabdominal operations (orthiipedic, head and neck, varicose vein surgery etc.) i.e. "low risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 23 patients (38%). No patient in this group developed clinical pancreatitis. We conclude, therefore, the ACCR is often abnormally elevated nonspecifically following any type of surgery, and cannot be used as evidence of postoperative pancreatitis. These data do suggest, however, that a normal ACCR, especially on successive daily determinations, might help to exclude the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis. PMID:6157370

  15. Colorectal cancer care in elderly patients: Unsolved issues.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Thomas; Pamoukdjian, Frederic; Quero, Laurent; Manfredi, Sylvain; Wind, Philippe; Paillaud, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Colorectal cancers are common in elderly patients. However, cancer screening is poorly used after 75. Elderly patients form a heterogeneous population with specific characteristics. Standards of care cannot therefore be transposed from young to elderly patients. Tumour resection is frequently performed but adjuvant chemotherapy is rarely prescribed as there are no clearly established standards of care. In a metastatic setting, recent phase III studies have demonstrated that doublet front-line chemotherapy provided no survival benefit. Moreover, several studies have established the benefit of bevacizumab in association with chemotherapy. There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of anti-epidermal growth factor antibodies in elderly patients. Geriatric assessments could help to select the adequate treatment strategy for individual patients. Geriatric oncology is now the challenge we have to face, and more specific trials are needed.

  16. Influence of different anesthetic and analgesic methods on early cognitive function of elderly patients receiving non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Shuijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss over influence of two different anesthetic and analgesic methods on early cognitive function of elderly patients who received non-cardiac surgery. Methods: Two hundred and six elderly patients who underwent non-cardiac surgery were selected as research subjects. They were randomly divided into observation group (103 cases) and control group (103 cases). Patients in observation group were given combined spinal and epidural anesthesia and epidural analgesia, while patients in control group adopted general anesthesia and intravenous analgesia. Neurological function test was carried out one day before surgery and on the 7th day after surgery. Moreover, changes of postoperative pain degree, neuropsychological function and cognitive function were observed and compared. Results: On the 7th day after surgery, incidence of cognition impairment in observation group and control group was 48.50% (50/103 cases) and 44.70% (46/103 cases), and difference between groups had no statistical significance. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Score of observation group was much lower than control group in the 12th, 24th and 48th h after surgery (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis suggested that, short education years and general surgery were independent risk factors for early cognition impairment. Conclusion: About 46.60% elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery developed cognition impairment, but influence of different anesthetic and analgesic methods on incidence of postoperative cognition impairment of elderly patients had no significant difference. PMID:27182242

  17. Unplanned Reoperations in Neurosurgical Patients Due to Postoperative Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin-Rui; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yue-Fan; Rao, Wei; Wang, Guan-Ying; Zhang, Shan-Hong; Fei, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of unplanned reoperations from all causes due to bleeding in neurosurgical patients. The medical records of patients who received neurosurgical procedures at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed and data of patients who received reoperations were extracted and summarized. A literature review was conducted of the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases up to November 2013. The main outcome measure was the rate of unplanned reoperations due to bleeding. At our hospital, 68 patients with a mean age of 41.5 ± 21.5 years (range, 7 months to 76 years) received an unplanned reoperation. More than 70% of the patients were older than 18 years, 64.7% were males, and 94.1% had cranial surgery. Almost 60% of the patients received >1 blood transfusion (58.8%) after the first surgery. Of the 68 patients, 35 (51.5%) received a second operation due to bleeding. Univariate logistic regression analysis only showed that an increasing time interval between the first and second surgery was associated with a decreased chance of the reoperation being performed due to bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 0.843, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.720–0.987; P = .033). Of 229 studies identified, 5 retrospective reports with a total of 1375 patients were included in the analysis. The rate of reoperations for bleeding in the 5 studies ranged from 4.2% to 31.5%. Employing measures to reduce postoperative bleeding may help reduce the rate of unplanned neurosurgical reoperations. PMID:26061301

  18. Postoperative glucose metabolism in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Copeland, G P; Leinster, S J; Davis, J C; Hipkin, L H

    1988-12-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal malignancy demonstrate impaired postoperative glucose disposal (17.5 +/- 1.4 mumol/kg min vs 28.9 +/- 2.5 mumol/kg min; P less than 0.001) and a reduced insulin response, during steady state hyperglycaemia, when compared with control. Analysis of glucose disposal when compared with insulin concentration suggested insulin resistance as a factor in the causation of impaired glucose disposal. In the control group both glucose disposal and insulin response demonstrated a negative correlation with malnutrition score (as assessed by a 13 factor, three grade scoring system), whereas in the cancer group only the insulin response was related to malnutrition score. However, the insulin response in the cancer group was quantitatively different from control subjects. The possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Factors Related to Hospital Readmission of Elderly Cardiac Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkman, Barbara; Abrams, Ruth D.

    1986-01-01

    Elderly patients with cardiac disease are at high risk for physical deterioration during posthospital recovery and suffer frequent early readmission. Study results found that mental status and posthospital stress were significantly related to early readmission. (Author)

  20. Dabigatran use in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Avgil-Tsadok, Meytal; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Essebag, Vidal; Eisenberg, Mark J; Rahme, Elham; Behlouli, Hassan; Pilote, Louise

    2016-01-01

    In elderly patients (≥ 75 years), evidence of dabigatran efficacy is lacking and increased vigilance is warranted. We aimed to assess dabigatran effectiveness and safety in elderly patients in real-world practice. We conducted a population-based study using administrative databases, in Quebec (1999-2013). Dabigatran users (110/150 mg) were compared with matched warfarin users with regard to stroke and bleeding events. Age was categorised into < 75 or ≥ 75 years. Propensity score adjusted models were used. The cohort consisted of 15,918 dabigatran users and 47,192 matched warfarin users, with 67.3% being elderly patients. The elderly predominantly used the lower dose (80.1%) while younger patients mainly used the higher dose (80.0%). In multivariable analyses adjusted for propensity score, the risk of stroke in elderly patients using dabigatran, was no different than the risk in warfarin users (HR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.19) regardless of dabigatran dose. However, dabigatran was associated with lower rates of intracranial haemorrhage (HR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.47-0.76) and higher rates of gastrointestinal bleeding (HR 1.30 95% CI: 1.14-1.50) when compared to warfarin. Based on real-life experience, dabigatran can offer an alternative to warfarin in elderly patients, with fewer intracranial bleeding events. However, caution is warranted for gastrointestinal bleeding.

  1. Predictors of Postoperative Aftercare Attrition among Gastric Bypass Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khorgami, Zhamak; Zhang, Chi; Messiah, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor adherence to post-bariatric surgery aftercare continues to challenge surgical practices. The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict poor aftercare attendance among patients who underwent Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery. Method: A retrospective medical chart review of patients who underwent RYGB from 2002 to 2011 was conducted. Patients with four visits or more in the first 2 years (>50%) were categorized as “acceptable follow-up” and with ≤50% as “poor follow-up.” Demographics, presurgical body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities were compared using multivariate analysis. Results: Out of 2,658 patients, 1,092 (41.1%) had acceptable follow-up. Preoperative factors that predicted acceptable follow-up included female gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–1.72]), older age (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.03–1.04]), higher BMI at surgery (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01–1.03]), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15–1.72]). Conversely, presence of diabetes mellitus (OR 0.58 [95% CI 0.39–0.88]), hypertension (OR 0.53 [95% CI 0.39–0.72]), and obstructive sleep apnea (OR 0.39 [95% CI 0.26–0.57]) predicted less adherence to RYGB aftercare. Conclusion: These findings suggest RYGB patients' age, gender, ethnicity, preoperative BMI, and certain comorbidities should be considered to maximize postoperative aftercare attendance. PMID:26155436

  2. [Sick day management in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Susumu

    2013-11-01

    A bad cold, the flu or a serious illness can make blood glucose too high in elderly person with diabetes. Gastrointestinal illnesses may cause hypoglycemia for individuals treated with insulin, sulfonylureas or glitinides. When the persons with diabetes discontinue insulin or diabetes medications because of appetite loss and reduced food intake, they may fall into diabetic crises, such as ketoacidosis, or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The elderly patients need to take extra precautions on sick days to avoid diabetic crises or hypoglycemia. Key principles of sick day management are (1) maintaining hydration and carbohydrate intake, (2) monitoring blood glucose and ketone levels, (3) adjusting diabetes medications according to carbohydrate intake, blood glucose and ketone levels. In Japan, the numbers of frail elderly diabetic patients is markedly increased, effective and efficient sick day management for frail elderly diabetic patients is requested.

  3. Dexmedetomidine in Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunguang; Chi, Meiying; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Zongwang; Qi, Feng; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both dexmedetomidine and sufentanil modulate spinal analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet no human studies are available on their combination for analgesia during the first 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. This CONSORT-prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of dexmedetomidine and sufentanil in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. Ninety women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were divided into 3 equal groups that received sufentanil (Group C; 0.02 μg/kg/h), sufentanil plus dexmedetomidine (Group D1; 0.02 μg/kg/h, each), or sufentanil (0.02 μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) (Group D2) for 72 hours after surgery in this double-blinded, randomized study. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative sufentanil consumption, whereas the secondary outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale), requirement of narcotic drugs during the operation, level of sedation, Bruggrmann comfort scale, and concerning adverse effects. The postoperative sufentanil consumption was significantly lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C during the observation period (P < 0.05), but lower in Group D2 than in Group D1 at 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery (P < 0.05). The heart rate after intubation and incision was lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C (P < 0.05). On arrival at the recovery room, Groups D1 and D2 had lower mean blood pressure than Group C (P < 0.05). The intraoperative requirement of sevoflurane was 30% lesser in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C. The sedation levels were greater in Groups D1 and D2 during the first hour (P < 0.05). Compared with Groups C and D1, Group D2 showed lower levels of the overall incidence of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05). Among the tested PCA options, the addition of dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) and sufentanil (0

  4. Prevention of Post-operative Delirium in the Elderly Using Pharmacological Agents

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Patrice; Gold, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-operative delirium (POD) is a serious surgical complication that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay, delayed admission to rehabilitation programs, persistent cognitive deficits, marked health-care costs, and more. The pathophysiology is multi-factorial and not completely understood, which complicates the optimal management. Non-pharmacological measures have been the mainstay of treatment, but there has been an ongoing interest in the medical literature on the prevention of post-operative delirium using medications. The purpose of this review is to critically analyze the current evidence on pharmacological prevention of POD. Methods A literature review was conducted using PubMed and Embase databases, using the following search terms: delirium, anti-psychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and statins. Results A total of 1,152 articles were screened and 25 articles were reviewed. Fourteen articles found a reduced incidence of post-operative delirium using pharmacological agents: eight with antipsychotics, two with statins, one with melatonin, one with dexamethasone, one with gabapentin, and one with diazepam. However, study designs, methodological issues, or authors’ interpretations raise questions on these conclusions. Conclusions Further double-blinded randomized clinical trials should be conducted before administering pharmacological agents to reduce POD in a non-research setting. PMID:27729950

  5. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer in elderly patients: a single-center, case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keqiang; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weiqiang; Tan, Jian; Ma, Jingbo; Pei, Yingxin

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of non-small-cell lung cancer among elderly patients has increased; therefore, older patients are increasingly being considered for radical pulmonary resection. However, data regarding the outcome of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in elderly patients are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of VATS in elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. From January 2008 to January 2014, a total of 78 patients aged ≥ 70 years (elderly group) undergoing VATS for NSCLC were matched with 78 patients < 70 years (young group) by demographics, tumor characteristics, and details of surgical procedures. The elderly group was characterized by a higher incidence of hypertension (P = 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.014), and ≥ 2 comorbidities (P = 0.009). Intraoperative variables, such as surgical duration blood loss, and transfusion rate, were not notably different between the groups. Postoperative 30-day mortality, 30-day complications, and 30-day major complications were comparable between the groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 69% in the young group and 64% in the elderly group, respectively (P = 0.258). The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 65% in the young group and 60% in the elderly group, respectively (P = 0.327). Our results clearly demonstrated that VATS for non-small-cell lung cancer could be safely and efficacy performed in elderly patients; thus, advanced age itself should not be regarded as a contraindication for VATS.

  6. Results of distal revascularization in elderly patients for critical ischemia of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1999-04-01

    Thirty eight patients over 75 years of age were operated upon of 40 distal arterial revascularizations for critical ischaemia of the lower limbs. Arterial reconstruction was proposed to ambulatory, self sufficient patients, with a patent artery of the leg or the foot in continuity with pedal arch, at arteriography. The revascularized artery was the peroneal in 14 cases, the anterior tibial in 11, the posterior tibial in 9, the dorsalis pedis in 5, and the external plantar artery in 1 case. Postoperative mortality was 2.6%. No postoperative arterial occlusion occurred and no postoperative amputation needed to be performed. The mean follow-up of 37 patients surviving operation was 21 months (ext. 2-52 months). At 36 months interval, patients' survival was 43%, primary patency rate was 57%, and limb salvage rate was 76%, at life-table analysis. Distal revascularization enables a good number of elderly patients in critical ischaemia of the lower limb, to enjoy an active, independent life, with a viable limb.

  7. Nursing postoperative visit as a quality indicator for surgical patient care.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; Martins, M M; Jardim, H G

    2016-06-01

    The postoperative visit as a quality indicator for surgical patient care, demands some consideration from perioperative nurses. We evaluated the nursing perioperative interventions on postoperative visits, and adjusted them to the needs of the patients with postoperative pain. Our study indicated that 73% of patients visited didn't have postoperative pain whereas 27% had pain. The pain is aggravated when the patient is mobilised, one of the most common signs and symptoms being gastrointestinal changes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures were used in pain management. The results showed that the percentage of patients with postoperative visits needs to be improved. We aim to have high quality perioperative nursing interventions which raise levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:27498440

  8. Which elderly newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients can benefit from radiotherapy and temozolomide? A PERNO prospective study.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Enrico; Depenni, Roberta; Paccapelo, Alexandro; Ermani, Mario; Faedi, Marina; Sturiale, Carmelo; Michiara, Maria; Servadei, Franco; Pavesi, Giacomo; Urbini, Benedetta; Pisanello, Anna; Crisi, Girolamo; Cavallo, Michele A; Dazzi, Claudio; Biasini, Claudia; Bertolini, Federica; Mucciarini, Claudia; Pasini, Giuseppe; Baruzzi, Agostino; Brandes, Alba A

    2016-05-01

    The role of temozolomide concurrent with and adjuvant to radiotherapy (RT/TMZ) in elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains unclear. We evaluated the outcome of patients >70 years in the context of the Project of Emilia-Romagna Region in Neuro-Oncology (PERNO), the first Italian prospective observational population-based study in neuro-oncology. For this analysis the criteria for selecting patients enrolled in the PERNO study were: age >70 years; PS 0-3; histologically confirmed GBM; postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after surgery with or without concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) or postsurgical TMZ alone. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 76 GBM elderly patients were identified in the prospective PERNO study. Twenty-three patients did not receive any treatment after surgery, and 53 patients received postsurgical treatments (25 patients received RT alone and 28 patients RT/TMZ). Median survival was 11.1 months (95 % CI 8.8-13.5), adding temozolomide concomitant and adjuvant to radiotherapy it was 11.6 months (95 % CI 8.6-14.6), and 9.3 months (95 % CI 8.1-10.6) in patients treated with RT alone (P = 0.164). However, patients with MGMT methylated treated with RT/TMZ obtained a better survival (17.2 months, 95 % CI 11.5-22.9) (P = 0.042). No difference in terms of survival were observed if patients with MGMT unmethylated tumor received RT alone, or RT/TMZ or, in MGMT methylated tumor, if patients received radiotherapy alone. In elderly patients RT/TMZ represent a widely used approach but it is effective with methylated MGMT tumors only. PMID:26943851

  9. Which elderly newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients can benefit from radiotherapy and temozolomide? A PERNO prospective study.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Enrico; Depenni, Roberta; Paccapelo, Alexandro; Ermani, Mario; Faedi, Marina; Sturiale, Carmelo; Michiara, Maria; Servadei, Franco; Pavesi, Giacomo; Urbini, Benedetta; Pisanello, Anna; Crisi, Girolamo; Cavallo, Michele A; Dazzi, Claudio; Biasini, Claudia; Bertolini, Federica; Mucciarini, Claudia; Pasini, Giuseppe; Baruzzi, Agostino; Brandes, Alba A

    2016-05-01

    The role of temozolomide concurrent with and adjuvant to radiotherapy (RT/TMZ) in elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains unclear. We evaluated the outcome of patients >70 years in the context of the Project of Emilia-Romagna Region in Neuro-Oncology (PERNO), the first Italian prospective observational population-based study in neuro-oncology. For this analysis the criteria for selecting patients enrolled in the PERNO study were: age >70 years; PS 0-3; histologically confirmed GBM; postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after surgery with or without concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) or postsurgical TMZ alone. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 76 GBM elderly patients were identified in the prospective PERNO study. Twenty-three patients did not receive any treatment after surgery, and 53 patients received postsurgical treatments (25 patients received RT alone and 28 patients RT/TMZ). Median survival was 11.1 months (95 % CI 8.8-13.5), adding temozolomide concomitant and adjuvant to radiotherapy it was 11.6 months (95 % CI 8.6-14.6), and 9.3 months (95 % CI 8.1-10.6) in patients treated with RT alone (P = 0.164). However, patients with MGMT methylated treated with RT/TMZ obtained a better survival (17.2 months, 95 % CI 11.5-22.9) (P = 0.042). No difference in terms of survival were observed if patients with MGMT unmethylated tumor received RT alone, or RT/TMZ or, in MGMT methylated tumor, if patients received radiotherapy alone. In elderly patients RT/TMZ represent a widely used approach but it is effective with methylated MGMT tumors only.

  10. Postoperative hospital course of patients with history of severe psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; McCartney, J R; Saravay, S M; Katz, E

    1987-09-01

    The postoperative hospital course of 54 patients with a past history of psychiatric illness was studied through chart review. Both chronic schizophrenics and chronic depressives tolerated surgical procedures well, without any unusual difficulties or exacerbation of psychiatric illness. They represented no management problems. Patients with acute, severe upset in the preoperative period (regardless of diagnosis) presented most of the management problems postoperatively. PMID:3678811

  11. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) as a Mortality Predictor after Surgery in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Laor, Anat; Tal, Sari; Guller, Vladimir; Zbar, Andrew P; Mavor, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The increasing range of surgery in elderly patients reflects the changing demography where in the next 10 years one quarter of the population will be 65 years of age or older. There is presently no consensus concerning the optimal predictive markers for postoperative morbidity and mortality after surgery in older patients with an appreciation that physical frailty is more important than chronological age. In this retrospective analysis, we have compared the impact of age and the calculated preoperative Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) on early (30-day) and late (one-year) mortality in a group of patients >75 years of age dividing them into an "older old" cohort (75-84 years of age, Group A) and an "oldest old" group (≥85 years of age, Group B). Increased age was associated with a higher death rate after emergency surgery, with late deaths after elective surgery exceeding those after emergency operations. A higher mean CCI was noted in both age groups in early nonsurvivors after both elective and emergency surgery with a more significant effect of the preoperative CCI than chronological age for the prediction of late postoperative death for both groups after elective and emergency operations. Although the CCI was not designed to predict perioperative mortality in surgical cohorts, it correlates with a greater risk than age for perioperative death in the elderly. PMID:26802847

  12. Antiviral Therapy in Elderly Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rheem, Justin; Sundaram, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has revolutionized the treatment schema for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. From cure rates to tolerability, DAA agents have shown outstanding profiles compared with the prior therapy of pegylated interferon with ribavirin. However, the efficacy and safety profiles of DAA therapy in older patients, particularly the elderly, have been unclear, and patients in the 1945 to 1965 birth cohort constitute the largest proportion of the HCV population in the United States. Treating elderly patients with pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been challenging due to the frequent presence of multiple comorbidities in the elderly and high discontinuation rates caused by adverse events. Now, as more DAA agents have become widely studied and approved, subgroup analyses for the elderly population are being elucidated. Analysis of the current literature shows that these agents have been effective, well tolerated, and safe in the elderly population. This article highlights the efficacy and safety differences in interferon-based therapy and interferon-free regimens for elderly patients with HCV infection. PMID:27482173

  13. A winter survey of domestic heating among elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Blair, A; King, D

    1996-02-01

    Elderly people have a greater need for domestic heating given the time they spend at home and the decline in the body thermoregulation that occurs with ageing. The use of domestic heating by 200 mentally competent newly admitted elderly in patients was evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey. Most patients (69%) were aware of the addition of value added tax (VAT) to their fuel bill and 31% said they had reduced the amount of heating they use because of this. A third of patients (29.5%) said they had difficulty keeping warm prior to this admission. The majority of patients said they could not manage to keep warm in the winter without financial hardship. In addition, 29% said they had reduced the amount spent on food in order to pay for fuel bills. This study suggests that cold may contribute to hospital admissions in elderly patients. This should have implications for government spending and taxation policy on domestic heating. PMID:8683507

  14. Activation of Massive Transfusion for Elderly Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Murry, Jason S; Zaw, Andrea A; Hoang, David M; Mehrzadi, Devorah; Tran, Danielle; Nuno, Miriam; Bloom, Matthew; Melo, Nicolas; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is used to resuscitate patients in hemorrhagic shock. Our goal was to review MTP use in the elderly. All trauma patients who required activation of MTP at an urban Level I trauma center from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Elderly was defined as age ≥ 60 years. Sixty-six patients had MTP activated: 52 nonelderly (NE) and 14 elderly (E). There were no statistically significant differences between the two cohorts for gender, injury severity score, head abbreviated injury scale, emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale, initial hematocrit, intensive care unit length of stay, or hospital length of stay. Mean age for NE was 35 years and 73 years for E (P < 0.01). Less than half (43%) of E patients with activation of MTP received 10 or more units of blood products compared with 69 per cent of the NE (P = 0.07). Mortality rates were similar in the NE and the E (53%vs 50%, P = 0.80). After multivariate analysis with Glasgow Coma Scale, injury severity score, and blunt versus penetrating trauma, elderly age was not a predictor of mortality after MTP (P = 0.35). When MTP is activated, survival to discharge in elderly trauma patients is comparable to younger patients.

  15. Intracranial capillary hemangioma in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Ai; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capillary hemangiomas are neoplasms involving skin and soft tissue in infants. These lesions rarely involved an intracranial space and reported age distribution ranges from infancy to middle age. We report an extremely rare case of rapidly rising intracranial capillary hemangioma in an elderly woman. Case Description: The 82-year-old woman presented with vomiting, reduced level of consciousness, and worsening mental state. Computed tomography showed a contrast-enhanced extra-axial lesion in the left frontal operculum, although no intracranial mass lesion was identifiable from magnetic resonance imaging taken 2 years earlier. Complete surgical excision was performed and histopathological examination diagnosed benign capillary hemangioma consisting of a variety of dilated capillary blood vessels lined by endothelial cells. Conclusion: This is the first description of rapid growth of an intracranial capillary hemangioma in an elderly woman. These lesions are exceedingly rare in the elderly population, but still show the capacity for rapid growth. Complete excision would prevent further recurrence. PMID:26664868

  16. Role of eosinophilic inflammation and atopy in elderly asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Siripongpun, Sitthisak; Rerkpattanapipat, Ticha

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma in the elderly is severe and associated with poor treatment outcome. Although atopy has an important role in pathogenesis, its role in the elderly is unclear, partly due to immune senescence. Objective We aimed to examine the associations of Th2-mediated inflammation with asthma severity in the elderly. Methods Consecutive asthmatics older than 60 years without severe exacerbation within 8 weeks were enrolled. Atopic status was determined by positive serum specific IgE or skin prick test to common aeroallergens. Serum total IgE was measured simultaneously to exhaled fractional concentration of nitric oxide (FeNO). Asthma control level was assessed by using Thai Asthma Control Test (ACT) score. Results Total of 44 elderly asthmatic patients were enrolled. The mean age was 68.9 years and mean age of asthma diagnosis was 46.6 years. Seventy-seven percent of patients were female. Atopic status was found in 45.5% of patients. Uncontrolled asthma classified as ACT score < 20 was noted in 25% of elderly asthma, but its association with either high serum total IgE (≥120 IU/mL), high FeNO (≥50 ppb) or atopic status was not detected. Conclusion One-fourth of elderly asthmatics were clinically uncontrolled, while atopy was confirmed in 45.5%. Neither high total IgE, high FeNO nor atopic status was associated with uncontrolled asthma in the elderly. Other factors might play role in asthma severity in the elderly, and has to be further investigated. PMID:27489791

  17. Knowledge discovery: Detecting elderly patients with impaired mobility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Der-Fa; Street, William Nick; Delaney, Connie

    2006-01-01

    Immobility is an important health concern for the elderly patients and healthcare providers who care for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to test a knowledge discovery method to detect elderly patients with impaired mobility in a large clinical dataset. The research method applied an exploratory design and a data mining classification method (cost sensitive Decision Tree J48 from WEKA) to classify patients. Important factors were identified by the Feature Selection method. The Decision Tree algorithm classified patients in the dataset with 65% sensitivity and 72% specificity for a reduced model. The results were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. Examples of decision rules were also extracted. The study can be applied to classify different health problems in different populations and serves as a foundation for the development of healthcare decision support systems.

  18. [Preoperative evaluation, management and outcome in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Ueki, Masaaki; Maekawa, Nobuhiro

    2010-09-01

    Two principles should be kept in mind when performing preoperative evaluation of the elderly patient. First, we should suspect the disease processes commonly associated with aging. Second, we should assess the degree of functional reserve of specific, pertinent organ systems. Preoperative risk assessment is focused on detailed review from anamnesis and physical examination together with the assessment of functional status. Especially, it is important to examine the cardiovascular and respiratory functions in the elderly patient. Further, this also includes assessment of consumed drugs, physiological function, cognitive function, competency, availability of social support, and sign of depression. Surgical risk and outcome in the elderly patient depend primarily on four factors: age, the patient's physiological status and coexisting disease, whether the surgery is elective or urgent, and the type of procedures.

  19. Proficiency of eye drop instillation in postoperative cataract patients in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Murdoch, Amanda; Bassett, Ken; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative instruction on proficiency of eye drop instillation following cataract surgery, and to determine whether such proficiency correlates with the prevalence and/or duration of irritation and pain experienced in operated eyes. Design This was a prospective, nonrandomized control trial with an educational intervention conducted via a single eye clinic in Accra, Ghana. Participants The 218 subjects who completed the study were postoperative cataract surgery patients whose surgery had been funded by the nongovernmental organization Unite for Sight. Methods Patients were evaluated on their ability to administer eye drops correctly on their first attempt on postoperative day one. If unsuccessful, patients were given an educational session that consisted of verbal instructions and an educational video. Both groups (successful and unsuccessful) on the first postoperative day were tested again for proficiency on postoperative day 30. The baseline group was evaluated only on postoperative day 30 and consisted of 36 patients. Results Of the 133 patients who received the educational session on eye drop instillation, 112 (84%) exhibited proficiency on postoperative day 30 as compared with 29 of 49 patients (59%) who did not receive the intervention. Additionally, there were fewer reports of pain and irritation following cataract extraction in the patients who received the educational session. Conclusion This study supports the efficacy of patient education in improving proficiency in eye drop instillation and in reducing pain and irritation following cataract extraction surgeries. PMID:24194638

  20. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia to manage the postoperative pain in patients undergoing craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyo-Seok; An, Sang-Bum; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Lim, Young-Jin; Hwang, Jung-Won; Jeon, Young-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Background This randomized controlled study evaluated the efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with fentanyl and ketorolac for neurosurgical patients, and compared the effectiveness of IV-PCA with intermittent analgesics injection. Methods The patients undergoing craniotomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients of group P (n = 53) received fentanyl (0.2 µg/kg/hr) and ketorolac (0.3 mg/kg/hr) via IV-PCA, and those of group N (n = 53) received intermittent fentanyl or ketorolac injection as needed. Pain was evaluated using a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) at postoperative 1, 4, and 24 hr. The amount of infused analgesic drugs, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and the incidence of nausea and miosis were measured at the same time points. Results Although VAS of pain (VASp) was comparable at postoperative 1 hr (P = 0.168) between the two groups, the group P had significantly lower VASp at postoperative 4 hr (P = 0.007) and 24 hr (P = 0.017). In group P, less analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 1 hr, and more analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 24 hr. There were no differences between two groups with respect to nausea, GCS, systolic arterial pressure, and heart rate. IV-PCA did not further incur respiratory depression or miosis. Conclusions IV-PCA with fentanyl and ketorolac after craniotomy is more effective analgesic technique, without adverse events, than the intermittent administration of analgesics. PMID:21359078

  1. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  2. Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with Elderly Hemodialysis Patients and Younger Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Competing Risk Analysis of a Korean Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsuk; An, Jung Nam; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Ki Soo; Oh, Yun Kyu; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in elderly patients have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and risk factors associated with PD in elderly patients. We conducted a prospective observational nationwide adult end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohort study in Korea from August 2008 to March 2013. Among incident patients (n = 830), patient and technical survival rate, quality of life, and Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of elderly PD patients (≥65 years, n = 95) were compared with those of PD patients aged ≤49 years (n = 205) and 50~64 years (n = 192); and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 315). The patient death and technical failure were analyzed by cumulative incidence function. Competing risk regressions were used to assess the risk factors for survival. The patient survival rate of elderly PD patients was inferior to that of younger PD patients (P<0.001). However, the technical survival rate was similar (P = 0.097). Compared with elderly HD patients, the patient survival rate did not differ according to dialysis modality (P = 0.987). Elderly PD patients showed significant improvement in the BDI scores, as compared with the PD patients aged ≤49 years (P = 0.003). Low albumin, diabetes and low residual renal function were significant risk factors for the PD patient survival; and peritonitis was a significant risk factor for technical survival. Furthermore, low albumin and hospitalization were significant risk factors of patient survival among the elderly. The overall outcomes were similar between elderly PD and HD patients. PD showed the benefit in BDI and quality of life in the elderly. Additionally, the technical survival rate of elderly PD patients was similar to that of younger PD patients. Taken together, PD may be a comparable modality for elderly ESRD patients. PMID:26121574

  3. Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with Elderly Hemodialysis Patients and Younger Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Competing Risk Analysis of a Korean Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsuk; An, Jung Nam; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Ki Soo; Oh, Yun Kyu; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in elderly patients have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and risk factors associated with PD in elderly patients. We conducted a prospective observational nationwide adult end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohort study in Korea from August 2008 to March 2013. Among incident patients (n = 830), patient and technical survival rate, quality of life, and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of elderly PD patients (≥65 years, n = 95) were compared with those of PD patients aged ≤49 years (n = 205) and 50~64 years (n = 192); and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 315). The patient death and technical failure were analyzed by cumulative incidence function. Competing risk regressions were used to assess the risk factors for survival. The patient survival rate of elderly PD patients was inferior to that of younger PD patients (P<0.001). However, the technical survival rate was similar (P = 0.097). Compared with elderly HD patients, the patient survival rate did not differ according to dialysis modality (P = 0.987). Elderly PD patients showed significant improvement in the BDI scores, as compared with the PD patients aged ≤49 years (P = 0.003). Low albumin, diabetes and low residual renal function were significant risk factors for the PD patient survival; and peritonitis was a significant risk factor for technical survival. Furthermore, low albumin and hospitalization were significant risk factors of patient survival among the elderly. The overall outcomes were similar between elderly PD and HD patients. PD showed the benefit in BDI and quality of life in the elderly. Additionally, the technical survival rate of elderly PD patients was similar to that of younger PD patients. Taken together, PD may be a comparable modality for elderly ESRD patients.

  4. Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with Elderly Hemodialysis Patients and Younger Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Competing Risk Analysis of a Korean Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsuk; An, Jung Nam; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Ki Soo; Oh, Yun Kyu; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in elderly patients have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and risk factors associated with PD in elderly patients. We conducted a prospective observational nationwide adult end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohort study in Korea from August 2008 to March 2013. Among incident patients (n = 830), patient and technical survival rate, quality of life, and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of elderly PD patients (≥65 years, n = 95) were compared with those of PD patients aged ≤49 years (n = 205) and 50~64 years (n = 192); and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 315). The patient death and technical failure were analyzed by cumulative incidence function. Competing risk regressions were used to assess the risk factors for survival. The patient survival rate of elderly PD patients was inferior to that of younger PD patients (P<0.001). However, the technical survival rate was similar (P = 0.097). Compared with elderly HD patients, the patient survival rate did not differ according to dialysis modality (P = 0.987). Elderly PD patients showed significant improvement in the BDI scores, as compared with the PD patients aged ≤49 years (P = 0.003). Low albumin, diabetes and low residual renal function were significant risk factors for the PD patient survival; and peritonitis was a significant risk factor for technical survival. Furthermore, low albumin and hospitalization were significant risk factors of patient survival among the elderly. The overall outcomes were similar between elderly PD and HD patients. PD showed the benefit in BDI and quality of life in the elderly. Additionally, the technical survival rate of elderly PD patients was similar to that of younger PD patients. Taken together, PD may be a comparable modality for elderly ESRD patients. PMID:26121574

  5. Antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, C; Camafort, M; Cepeda Rodrigo, J M; Díez-Manglano, J; Formiga, F; Pose Reino, A; Tiberio, G; Mostaza, J M

    2015-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly is a complex condition due to the high number of frequently associated comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and kidney disease, cognitive disorders, falls and polypharmacy. Except when contraindicated, anticoagulation is necessary for preventing thromboembolic events in this population. Both vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) are indicated in this context. Renal function should be closely monitored for this age group when these drugs are used. In recent years, various clinical practice guidelines have been published on patients with AF. The majority of these guidelines make specific recommendations on the clinical characteristics and treatment of elderly patients. In this update, we review the specific comments on the recommendations concerning antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with nonvalvular AF. PMID:25618495

  6. Antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, C; Camafort, M; Cepeda Rodrigo, J M; Díez-Manglano, J; Formiga, F; Pose Reino, A; Tiberio, G; Mostaza, J M

    2015-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly is a complex condition due to the high number of frequently associated comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and kidney disease, cognitive disorders, falls and polypharmacy. Except when contraindicated, anticoagulation is necessary for preventing thromboembolic events in this population. Both vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) are indicated in this context. Renal function should be closely monitored for this age group when these drugs are used. In recent years, various clinical practice guidelines have been published on patients with AF. The majority of these guidelines make specific recommendations on the clinical characteristics and treatment of elderly patients. In this update, we review the specific comments on the recommendations concerning antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with nonvalvular AF.

  7. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer is beneficial to elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has short or long-term benefits in elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer compared with open surgery. Between June 2007 and December 2014, 579 patients older than 70 years underwent radical pulmonary resection for non-small-cell lung cancer, including 138 who received VATS and 441 who received open surgery. A retrospective pair-matched study was performed to compare 194 patients (97 pairs) who underwent either VATS or open resection. Patients were matched by age, sex, comorbidity, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, tumor location, clinical TNM stage, and extent of pulmonary resection. Short and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. The overall incidence of postoperative 30-day complications was significantly lower in the VATS group than in the open surgery group. The major postoperative 30-day complication trended lower in the VATS group but was not significantly different. The length of postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival was similar between the two groups. In summary, in surgical management of elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, VATS is associated with lower rates of morbidity as well as comparable disease-free survival and overall survival outcomes. PMID:26550301

  8. 10 years results of an uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Basilio J; Chaparro, Manuel; Romanillos, Juan O; Zarzoso, Sara; Mosquera, Margarita; Rodriguez, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are concerns with regard to the femoral fixation in cementless total hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. We report a retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological results of uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients irrespective of anatomic characterstics of proximal femur. Materials and Methods: This study reviews the outcomes of 60 primary hip replacements using a metaphyseal fit modular stem (third-generation Omniflex stem) conducted in 54 patients, of age 75 years or older. After a mean follow-up of 10,4 years, complete clinical and radiographic records were available for 52 hips of 48 patients. The patients were evaluated by Harris Hip Score (HHS). Results: There was a significantly improved pain score and Harris Hip Score (41,6 to 83,2). Six stems (11.53%) were revised: four because of periprosthetic fracture; one stem was well fixed, but presented a large osteolytic lesion in the metaphyseal area and the last stem was revised because of aseptic loosening. Stem survival taking aseptic loosening as the end-point was 98%. Bone atrophy in the proximal femur caused by stress shielding was observed in 39 stems (75%), but there was no case of subtrochanteric stress shielding. Moreover, atrophy appeared within two years postoperatively, with no extension thereafter. Conclusions: We achieved good clinical and radiographic results by uncemented metaphyseal fit femoral stem regardless of patient's age and femoral canal type. PMID:21772630

  9. Tolerability of Combined Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer in Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years and Older

    SciTech Connect

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ryan, David P.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Clark, Jeffrey; Willett, Christopher G.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of treatment deviations during combined modality therapy for rectal cancer in elderly patients aged 75 years and older. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of consecutively treated patients with rectal cancer aged 75 years and older treated with combined modality therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2002 to 2007. The primary endpoint was the rate of treatment deviation, defined as a treatment break, dose reduction, early discontinuation of therapy, or hospitalization during combined modality therapy. Patient comorbidity was rated using the validated Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 Test (ACE-27) comorbidity index. Fisher's exact test and the Mantel-Haenszel trend test were used to identify predictors of treatment tolerability. Results: Thirty-six eligible patients had a median age of 79.0 years (range, 75-87 years); 53% (19/36) had no or mild comorbidity and 47% (17/36) had moderate or severe comorbidity. In all, 58% of patients (21/36) were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and 33% (12/36) with postoperative CRT. Although 92% patients (33/36) completed the planned radiotherapy (RT) dose, 25% (9/36) required an RT-treatment break, 11% (4/36) were hospitalized, and 33% (12/36) had a dose reduction, break, or discontinuation of concurrent chemotherapy. In all, 39% of patients (14/36) completed {>=}4 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, and 17% (6/36) completed therapy without a treatment deviation. More patients with no to mild comorbidity completed treatment than did patients with moderate to severe comorbidity (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.66). The rate of deviation did not differ between patients who had preoperative or postoperative CRT (19% vs. 17%, p = 1.0). Conclusions: The majority of elderly patients with rectal cancer in this series required early termination of treatment, treatment interruptions, or dose reductions. These data suggest that further intensification of

  10. Kerion mimicking bacterial infection in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Wani, GH Mohiuddin; Khursheed, Bilques

    2014-01-01

    Tinea capitis is generally thought to be a common disease in children but not in adults. When infection does occur in adults, it may have an atypical appearance. We report an elderly female with inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. She had numerous pustular lesions throughout the scalp with alopecia, initially treated for bacterial infection. We concluded that tinea capitis should remain in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients with alopecia and pyoderma like presentations and culture test should be routinely done in such patients to avoid complications. PMID:25396139

  11. Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gerdner, L A; Swanson, E A

    1993-10-01

    The Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold Model in conjunction with an identified theoretical basis provides a framework for the use of individualized music in individuals with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT). The effects of individualized music is explored in five elderly patients who are confused and agitated and residing in a long-term care facility. The Modified Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory is used to measure the outcome. The immediate and 1-hour residual effects suggest the potential of individualized music as an alternative approach to the management of agitation in confused elderly patients.

  12. Oral flora of elderly patients following acute medical admission.

    PubMed

    Preston, A J; Gosney, M A; Noon, S; Martin, M V

    1999-01-01

    The human oral microflora is diverse and is usually predominately composed of Gram-positive bacteria. It is uncommon to find Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in healthy mouths. The incidence of infection with GNB rises in institutionalised, frail elderly subjects. There is also evidence of an association between intra-oral GNB presence and denture wearing. There have been few studies which have investigated intra-oral GNB carriage in acutely ill elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral flora of a group of elderly patients during an acute medical admission and to investigate any associations between the oral microflora and existing medical or oral factors. A total of 28 patients (17 females and 11 males; age: 74-93 years) on a care for the elderly ward were studied. Epidemiological data, detailed medical histories and oral examinations were undertaken. In addition, oral swabs of the palate area were taken to determine their oral flora. Twelve (43%) of the patients had GNB in their oral cavities. These patients were suffering from a variety of medical conditions and were on various drug regimes. There was a correlation between oral GNB presence and denture use. There was no association between GNB presence and denture hygiene. As oropharyngeal GNB colonisation can be associated with infections such as aspiration pneumonia, it is important in patients at risk that intra-oral organisms are identified and managed.

  13. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    PubMed

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, P<0.0005). Highly similar differences were observed between microbiota profiles of young adult pneumonia patients and their healthy controls. Clustering resulted in 11 (sub)clusters including 95% (386/405) of samples. We observed three microbiota profiles strongly associated with pneumonia (P<0.05) and either dominated by lactobacilli (n=11), Rothia (n=51) or Streptococcus (pseudo)pneumoniae (n=42). In contrast, three other microbiota clusters (in total n=183) were correlated with health (P<0.05) and were all characterized by more diverse profiles containing higher abundances of especially Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella and Leptotrichia. For the remaining clusters (n=99), the association with health or disease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with

  14. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    PubMed

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, P<0.0005). Highly similar differences were observed between microbiota profiles of young adult pneumonia patients and their healthy controls. Clustering resulted in 11 (sub)clusters including 95% (386/405) of samples. We observed three microbiota profiles strongly associated with pneumonia (P<0.05) and either dominated by lactobacilli (n=11), Rothia (n=51) or Streptococcus (pseudo)pneumoniae (n=42). In contrast, three other microbiota clusters (in total n=183) were correlated with health (P<0.05) and were all characterized by more diverse profiles containing higher abundances of especially Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella and Leptotrichia. For the remaining clusters (n=99), the association with health or disease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with

  15. Evaluation and management of the patient with postoperative facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hadlock, Tessa

    2012-05-01

    Postoperative facial paralysis comprises a spectrum of injuries ranging from mild, temporary weakness to severe, permanent paralysis, affecting as little as one muscle group to as much as the full hemiface. Herein is presented an introductory review of iatrogenic facial paralysis, from initial evaluation and decision making to the full range of conservative and operative management.

  16. Comparison of unilateral spinal and continous spinal anesthesia for hip surgery in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Leyla T.; Sivrikaya, G. Ulufer; Eksioglu, Birsen; Hanci, Ayse; Dobrucali, Hale

    2013-01-01

    Background: Continous spinal anesthesia (CSA) and frequently unilateral spinal anesthesia (USpA) are usually preferred for lower extremity surgeries. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of these anesthetic techniques, on hemodynamic parameters, quality of anesthesia and complications in elderly patients undergoing hip surgeries. Methods: Forty patients aged 65 years and older, assigned to receive either CSA or USpA with 7.5 mg (1.5 cc) 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine initially. In CSA group, additional doses of 2.5 mg bupivacaine were applied until sensory block reach to T10. Maximum sensorial block level, time to reach the level of T10 (defined as onset time) and to regress to T12, hemodynamic parameters and ephedrine requirements were recorded peroperatively and during 2 h postoperatively. Results: Hemodynamic parameters, ephedrine requirements and regression of sensory block by two levels were similar in two groups. The onset time of anesthesia was significantly longer in USpA group than CSA group. Neuraxial anesthesia had to be converted to general anesthesia in 5 patients (25%) in CSA group and 1 patient (5%) in USpA group. Conclusions: We conclude that both USpA and CSA techniques have similar effects in elderly high risk patients. On the other hand, USpA is more preferable for surgeries with shorter durations due to its low cost and high success rate. PMID:24348291

  17. Ethical Consideration in Wound Treatment of the Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Prachi; Aung, Thet Han; Ferguson, Richard; Ortega, Gerardo; Shah, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Today, an advance in clinical medicine and public health has given patients the opportunity to live longer and more productive lives despite progressive illnesses. For some patients, however, this progress has resulted in prolonged dying which is associated with huge emotional and financial expenses. A review article is written based on proceedings of panel discussion on Ethical Consideration in wound treatment of the elderly patient on July 25, 2015, Baptist Wound Symposium at Marriot Northwest, San Antonio, Texas. PMID:27104145

  18. Salmonella-related urinary tract infection in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Scott Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An elderly female patient with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection from Salmonella newport is presented. Radiological and laboratory studies were performed because of her systemic and exposure risk factors as well as prior urinary tract abnormalities. While this patient was successfully treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, complications and recurrence are common and deserve close follow-up with repeat urine cultures at a minimum. Further laboratory and radiological testing should be guided by patient gender, risk factors and recurrence. PMID:25193813

  19. Postoperative elevation of amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in patients without pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gross, J B; Levitt, M D

    1979-09-01

    An elevated CAm/CCr ratio has been used as evidence for the frequent occurrence of acute pancreatitis in the postoperative period. We measured CAm/CCr pre and postoperatively in 28 patients undergoing extraperitoneal surgical procedures. None of the patients had clinical evidence of pancreatitis, although 2 of the 28 patients had elevated CAm/CCr ratios preoperatively. Mean CAm/CCr rose from a preoperative level of 2.3 +/- 0.3% (1 SE) to 3.2 +/- 0.3% on the first postoperative day (P less than 0.001). Of the 26 patients with normal preoperative CAm/CCr, 12% (3 of 26) developed a clearly abnormal ratio and 12% (3 of 26) developed borderline elevated values. An elevated CAm/CCr appears to be a nonspecific postoperative finding and cannot be used as evidence of acute pancreatitis during this period.

  20. Vestibular disorders in elderly patients: characteristics, causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele; Ariba, Adekunle Joseph; Otulana, Taibat Olusola; Osalusi, Bamidele Sanya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study assessed vestibular disorders in elderly patients, describing the causes, clinical characteristics, therapies and treatment outcomes. Methods Five-year hospital-based prospective study, conducted at the ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Subjects were consecutive elderly patients with dizziness, treated and followed-up for a minimum of six months. Data was generated using structured questionnaire and case record files. Analyzed results were presented in simple descriptive forms as graphs and tables. Results Among the elderly patients, prevalence of vestibular disorders was 18.6%, 49.1% were retired, 71.9% were married, M:F was 1:1.1. Mean age ±SD were 69.4±1.1 and 69.0±0.8 years for males and females respectively. 56.9% of the patients presented early on experiencing the vestibular symptoms. The symptoms were associated with nausea or vomiting in 26.3%, with an aura in 12.3%. While 50.9% of the patients experienced intermittent symptoms, laterality of the symptoms was not clear in 45.6%. Positional vertigo was diagnosed in 33.3% while in 17.5%, the symptoms could be attributable to previous trauma or assaults. 31.6% of the elderly were referred to ENT surgeons by other specialties, 45.6% were managed with multidisciplinary approach, while 82.5% had the vestibular symptoms initially controlled with labyrinthine sedatives. At follow-up, 43.9% had intermittent periods of recurrence of symptoms. Conclusion Prevalence of vestibular disorders in elderly patients is high, most patients present early with intermittent, relatively innocuous symptoms which may be difficult to lateralize. Positional vertigo was the most common cause, it is frequently relieved with labyrinthine sedatives but tends to recur intermittently. PMID:25767666

  1. Postoperative Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Asthma: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Shun; Chang, Chuen-Chau; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chung, Chi-Li; Chen, Ta-Liang; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Outcome after surgery in patients with asthma remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate postoperative major complications and mortality in surgical patients with asthma.Using reimbursement claims from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, the authors identified 24,109 surgical patients with preoperative asthma and 24,109 nonasthma patients undergoing major surgeries using matching procedure with propensity score by sociodemographics, coexisting medical conditions, and surgical characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 30-day postoperative complications and mortality associated with asthma were analyzed in the multivariate logistic regressions.Asthma increased postoperative pneumonia (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.34-1.64), septicemia (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), and urinary tract infection (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.09-1.26). Preoperative emergency care for asthma was significantly associated with postoperative 30-day in-hospital mortality, with an OR of 1.84 (95% CI 1.11-3.04). Preoperative emergency service, hospitalizations, admission to intensive care unit, and systemic use of corticosteroids for asthma were also associated with higher postoperative complication rates for asthmatic patients.Postoperative complications and mortality were significantly increased in asthmatic patients. We suggest urgent efforts to revise protocols for asthma patients' perioperative care.

  2. Patient refusal for regional anesthesia in elderly orthopedic population: A cross-sectional survey at a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Asma Abdus; Afshan, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Improvements in pain management techniques in the last decade have had a major impact on the practice of orthopedic surgeries, for example, total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Although there are a number of treatment options for postoperative pain, a gold standard has not been established. In our institution, both general anesthesia and regional anesthesia (RA), are being offered to the elderly orthopedic population but RA is not frequently accepted by elderly population. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of various reasons for refusal of RA in elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries. Material and Methods: A prospective study conducted over a period of 1 year, had 549 patients with ages above 60 years who underwent different types of elective orthopedic procedures 182 patients who refused RA were interviewed according to a structured questionnaire designed to assess the reasons of refusal. Results: Most common reason for the refusal of RA was surgeon's choice (38.5%), whereas 20.3% of the patients were unaware about the RA. There was a significant association between female gender and refusing RA due to backache (17.2%) and fear of being awake during the operation (24.1%) respectively. Conclusion: This survey showed that the main reasons among elderly female population were the fear of remaining awake and backache. However, overall it was the surgeon's choice which made patients refuse RA, and the anesthesiologists were the main source of information. PMID:27006550

  3. [MORPHOMETRIC AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES OF TISSUES IN PATIENTS, WHO UNDERWENT OPERATIONS FOR POSTOPERATIVE ABDOMINAL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Brek, O O

    2015-05-01

    The impact of hernioplasty on postoperative morphometric and histological changes in tissues of patients, suffering postoperative abdominal hernias (POAH), was studied. For POAH 135 patients were operated, in 85 of them (the main group)--combined methods of hernial gate plasty in accordance to procedures proposed, and in 50 (control group)--classical methods of hernial gate were applied. The most favorable course of the wound process of the inflammatory, changes reduction and stabilization of the tissues reaction on implant already on the 7th postoperative day was noted after application of a sub lay method in original modification.

  4. Tibial Plateau Fractures in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Rozell, Joshua C; Vemulapalli, Krishna C; Gary, Joshua L; Donegan, Derek J

    2016-09-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common in the elderly population following a low-energy mechanism. Initial evaluation includes an assessment of the soft tissues and surrounding ligaments. Most fractures involve articular depression leading to joint incongruity. Treatment of these fractures may be complicated by osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and medical comorbidities. Optimal reconstruction should restore the mechanical axis, provide a stable construct for mobilization, and reestablish articular congruity. This is accomplished through a variety of internal or external fixation techniques or with acute arthroplasty. Regardless of the treatment modality, particular focus on preservation and maintenance of the soft tissue envelope is paramount. PMID:27551570

  5. Oral care of elderly patients: nurses' knowledge and views

    PubMed Central

    Preston, A; Punekar, S; Gosney, M

    2000-01-01

    It is important that healthcare professionals caring for the elderly in hospitals have a core knowledge of the orodental care requirements of their patients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and views of nurses working on acute and rehabilitation care of the elderly wards about orodental care. One hundred nurses and healthcare assistants took part in this questionnaire study of which 58 were qualified nurses and 70 had been employed on care of the elderly wards for two or more years. Although the majority of the respondents were registered with a dentist and attended regularly, 40 did have `some anxiety' about visiting their dentist. Approximately half of the study population regularly gave advice to their patients about dental care but their knowledge of and reasons for providing oral care and advice was often incorrect. The group's understanding of the availability of dental treatment provided by the National Health Service was also often inaccurate. It was concluded that a better core knowledge of the orodental care of older patients is required by all healthcare professionals who care for this group. It is also important that individuals in whom anxiety is associated with their own dental experience do not neglect to give orodental health advice to their patients.


Keywords: oral care; elderly; nurses' knowledge PMID:10644385

  6. [Speech therapy for cognitive disorders in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Marquis, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The aim of providing speech therapy to elderly patients, in the framework of a personalised approach, is to help them maintain their autonomy and delay their move to a specialised hospital. The family and caregivers play an essential role in ensuring the success of this therapy. PMID:25137959

  7. [Speech therapy for cognitive disorders in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Marquis, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The aim of providing speech therapy to elderly patients, in the framework of a personalised approach, is to help them maintain their autonomy and delay their move to a specialised hospital. The family and caregivers play an essential role in ensuring the success of this therapy.

  8. Effects of an Individualized Activity Program on Elderly Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carlota de Lerma; Salter, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined program of Reality Orientation, Activities of Daily Living, and Recreational Activities, together with environmental stimulation, was applied on an individualized basis to 21 elderly patients suffering from both psychological disorders and long-term physical illness. The motivation to participate in the available activities increased…

  9. [The elderly patient during medical rehabilitation - problems and needs].

    PubMed

    Deck, R; Richter, S; Hüppe, A

    2009-12-01

    The German population faces an increasing proportion of the elderly. These changes are also reflected in the age composition seen in clinics for medical inpatient rehabilitation. The disease-related discomforts of elderly rehabilitants differ from the troubles faced by younger age-groups. Age-specific rehabilitation programmes and therapies play a key role in enabling long-term participation in occupational and societal life. This article explores age-specific expectations and aims towards medical rehabilitation among members of statutory pension funds aged 55 and above, their health-related problems and the status-quo of rehabilitative programmes. Using the data of 1 008 patients of orthopaedic medical inpatient rehabilitation, we assessed age-specific differences in the utilisation, provision and success of rehabilitation programmes, and in the satisfaction with rehabilitative measures. The data indicate distinctive health-related problems and higher strains among elderly rehabilitants. However, they enter the rehabilitation process with less and rather impeding expectations, their rehabilitation aims primarily focussing on their dominant health problems. Current medical inpatient rehabilitation programmes and treatments seem to lack patient-orientation, obviously they do not address the specific needs of the elderly. Instead of serving individual needs, the rehabilitative treatments seem to be administered evenly across all patients. Compared to younger age-groups, older patients benefit less from rehabilitation programmes. Their expectations concentrate very much on retirement, thus increasing their risk to retire from work. A patient-centred rehabilitation programme should at an early stage take on the specific strains and expectations of elderly rehabilitants and develop manageable solutions. The process could be supported by stronger involvement of and cooperation with the patient's general practitioner. Further suggestions are being developed by an ongoing

  10. Effectiveness and Safety of Ureteroscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Upper Urinary Tract Calculi in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Takashi; Otsuki, Hideo; Uehara, Shinya; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Murao, Wataru; Fujio, Koji; Fujio, Kei; Wada, Koichiro; Araki, Motoo; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2016-06-01

    Upper urinary tract calculi are common; however, there is no recommended treatment selection for elderly patients. Ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy (URS lithotripsy) is minimally invasive, and it provides a high stone-free rate (SFR) treatment for upper urinary tract calculi. Here, we retrospectively evaluated the surgical outcomes of URS lithotripsy after dividing the 189 cases into 3 groups by patient age: the '<65 group' (<65 years old, n=108), the '65-74 group' (65-74 years old, n=42), and the ' 75 group' ( 75 years old, n=39). The patients' characteristics, stone status, and perioperative outcomes were assessed. The 65-74 group and the 75 group had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension compared to the<65 group. Compared to the<65 group, the 65-74 group had a significantly higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia, and the 75 group had significantly higher the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores. Despite these preoperative risk factors, SFR and postoperative pyelonephritis in the 65-74 group and the 75 group were similar to those of the<65 group. In conclusion, URS lithotripsy is the preferred treatment for upper urinary tract calculi, even for elderly patients who have multiple preoperative risk factors. PMID:27339204

  11. Discharge planning for the elderly ambulatory surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Burden, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Discharge planning for the elderly ambulatory surgery patient should begin as soon as the patient's procedure is booked. Successful discharge planning relies on 1) comprehensive preoperative assessment; 2) effective communication among the surgical facility's caregivers, the physician's office, the patient, and the family; 3) consideration of the patient's preoperative status; and 4) a strong patient and family education plan. The challenges of planning the aftercare are compounded by the physical, social, financial, cognitive, and sensory changes related to the normal aging process as well as to systemic diseases, which are more prevalent in the older population than in younger patients. The elderly patient's discharge plan should identify and address age-related barriers to communication, incorporate the patient's existing physical and medical condition, diminish the negative effects of social support challenges, and address environmental issues that can be improved to support recovery. The elderly population often deals with the imperfect: isolation from family or friends, aging bodies, hearing and visual loss, financial limitations, and emotional challenges. Although the nurse cannot reverse these challenges of old age, he or she can still make a difference by providing guidance and resources to blunt the potential complications of surgery and anesthesia. PMID:15801349

  12. The Renal Histopathology Spectrum of Elderly Patients with Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Fu-de; Zhao, Ming-hui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The elderly population has significantly increased in China. However, data regarding renal histopathology in this population is lacking. The present study retrospectively analyzed renal disease spectrum of 430 elderly patients who had received renal biopsy at Peking University First Hospital between January 2003 and December 2012. Among 6049 patients receiving renal biopsies during the same period, 430 (7.10%) were elderly (≥65 years). The ratio of male (263 patients) to female (167 patients) was 1.57:1, with an age of 70.29 ± 3.99 (range 65–82) years at the time of biopsy. The most common indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (59.53%), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI, 19.53%) and chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN, 16.05%). The most common renal histopathology in primary glomerular disease was idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN, 61.02%), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.22%), minimal change disease (MCD, 9.32%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (6.78%). ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, 43.95%) was the leading secondary glomerular disease, followed by HBV-related glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN, 24.2%), and amyloidosis (14.01%). In patients with nephrotic syndrome, iMN (50%) was the leading cause, followed by HBV-GN (16.02%), MCD (7.81%), and amyloidosis (7.81%). In patients with iMN, 89.5% presented as nephrotic syndrome, 8.39% as CGN. In patients with AKI, the leading cause was AAV (48.12%), followed by acute interstitial nephritis (20.48%) and acute tubular necrosis (8.43%). In conclusion, in elderly Chinese patients, the most common renal histopathology pattern was iMN in patients with nephrotic syndrome, and AAV in patients with AKI. PMID:25526441

  13. Decision making by elderly patients with cancer and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M; Pearson, V; Corcoran-Perry, S; Narayan, S

    1997-12-01

    This study explored the scope of decisions encountered by elderly cancer patients and/or their family caregivers, and the types of decision-making assistance requested and required within one practice setting. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five cancer center nurse coordinators (CCNCs). The CCNCs were interviewed weekly for 16 weeks to identify decision-making topics addressed, assistance requested, and perceptions of assistance required during telephone conversations. The CCNCs' reports of 41 telephone conversations revealed 44 specific decision-making topics. Content analysis uncovered 11 categories: symptom management, use of chemotherapy, ancillary choices selection of a medical provider, planning for end-of-life care, alternative therapy, vacation planning, weekend-pass planning, discharge planning, family survivor issues, and involvement of adult children in the elder's care. Elderly patients and/or their family caregivers requested information and assistance with making decisions. CCNCs perceived that callers also needed information clarification, reassurance about their decisions, a listener, permission to change the treatment regimen, and help with communication among health professionals, the elderly patient, and the family.

  14. [Analysis of Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years or Older].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Shimizu, Junzo; Koga, Chikato; Hitora, Toshiki; Kawabata, Ryohei; Oda, Naofumi; Hirota, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato; Morishima, Hirotaka; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Matsunami, Nobuteru; Hasegawa, Junichi

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for elderly patients is controversial. Of 51 patients with pancreatic or bile duct tumor who underwent PD (except portal vein resection), the surgical results of 27 elderly patients aged 75 years or older (elderly group) we retrospectively evaluated and compared with those of 24 patients younger than 75 years (younger group). Although ASA-PS was significantly higher in the elderly group, we did not observe any significant difference in other background characteristics, complications, or length of hospital stay between the two groups. This study suggests that PD is probably safe and feasible with the appropriate surgical indication for elderly patients.

  15. Hot climate and perioperative outcome in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Kathuria, Sunit; Chhabra, Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is well known that heat wave is a major cause of weather related mortality in extreme of ages. While auditing our hospital mortality record, we found higher surgical mortality in the months of summer season which inspired us to look into the impact of hot climate in elderly surgical patients. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective cohort study was undertaken to study the impact of hot climate on elderly (age > 60 yrs) surgical patients over one year when outside temperature was more than 20°C. 98 elderly patients requiring general anaesthesia for surgery were enrolled. Patients were grouped on the basis of peak outdoor temperature with a cut off value of 30°C. Group I- when peak outdoor temperature ranged between 20-30°C (comfortable zone) and Group II - when peak outdoor temperature ranged above 30°C. To reduce the bias, inclusion and exclusion criterion were defined. Meteorological factors, patient characteristics, surgical risk factors and other related data were noted. Data was analyzed using student's‘t’ and z-test for statistical significance. Results: There were statistically significant complications and prolonged hospital stay in group II as compared to I (13.21±6.44 Vs 9.81±3.54 days, P value =0.01) on univariate analysis. High risk patients had more complications in hot weather. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed higher adverse impact of poor physical and cardiac status than hot climate. Conclusion: Hot and humid weather adversely affect the perioperative outcome in elderly surgical patients. Patients with poor reserves are at greater perioperative risk during hot and humid climate. PMID:21814372

  16. Overprotective caregivers of elderly cancer patients: a case report.

    PubMed

    Basso, Umberto; Brunello, Antonella; Magro, Cristina; Favaretto, Adolfo; Monfardini, Silvio

    2006-01-01

    The essential role of the caregiver in the management of elderly cancer patients is still poorly documented. This case report concerns a woman with metastatic lung carcinoma who was sincerely informed and successfully treated with chemotherapy and gefitinib only after gaining the trust of her overprotective daughter. Devoting time to the relatives represents a key element to create a communicative and efficient relationship with older cancer patients. PMID:17036533

  17. Levetiracetam seizure prophylaxis in craniotomy patients at high risk for postoperative seizures

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Khan, Shariq Ali; Agrawal, Abhishek; Friedman, Allan H.; McDonagh, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing immediate postoperative seizures in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor surgery without anti-epileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis is 15-20%. Patients who present with pre-operative seizures and patients with supratentorial meningioma or supratentorial low grade gliomas are at significantly higher risk. There is little data on the efficacy of levetiracetam as a prophylactic AED in the immediate postoperative period (within 7 days of surgery) in these patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 165 adult patients classified as higher risk for postoperative seizures who underwent brain tumor resection at Duke University Hospital between time May 2010 and December 2011. All patients had received levetiracetam monotherapy in doses of 1000-3000 mg/day in the immediate postoperative period. Results: We identified 165 patients with following tumor locations: Frontal 83 (50.3%), Temporal 37 (22.4%), Parietal 30 (18.2%), Occipital 2 (1.2%) and 13 (7.8%) with single lesions involving more than one lobe. Histology revealed: Glioma 98 (59.4%), Meningioma 57 (34.5%) and Brain Metastases 6 (3.6%). Preoperatively, 88/165 (53.3%) patients had presented with seizures. 12/165 patients (7.3%) developed clinical seizures (generalized 10, partial 2) in the immediate post-operative period. Other than somnolence in 7 patients (4.2%), no major side-effects were noted. Conclusions: The incidence of seizures was significantly lower in patients treated with levetiracetam (7.3%) when compared with the expected (15-20%) rate without AED prophylaxis based on the previous literature. Levetiracetam appears effective and safe for seizure prevention in patients undergoing brain tumor resection and who are at significantly higher risk of developing post-operative seizures. These findings warrant confirmation in a prospective randomized trial. PMID:24550999

  18. A study of patient experience and perception regarding postoperative pain management in Chinese hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weiran, Liu; Lei, Zhang; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Anliu, Tang; Shumin, Xie; Jing, Zhang; Kai, Zhang; Zhen, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze the current status of postoperative pain management in the People’s Republic of China’s provincial-level hospitals, and the existing knowledge and opinions held by patients regarding these methods. Methods The 128 participants in this study were urology and hepatobiliary patients from three provincial-level hospitals in Hunan. The questionnaire assessing postoperative pain was designed using the typical pain assessment scales and pain management guidelines as references. Results 82.8% of study participants claimed that their postoperative pain was relieved within 3 days of their operations. However, while 91.4% of surveyed patients experienced moderate to severe pain, 51.6% received no treatment for their postoperative pain, and 14.9% complained that medical personnel failed to manage their pain. 20.2% were unsatisfied with their pain management, indicating that treatment did not meet their expectations. Furthermore, participants demonstrated a great misunderstanding of pain and analgesics, as 72.6% of patients were unfamiliar with morphine, 51.6% of patients believed only certain types of pain required management, and 18.5% refused to use morphine. Conclusion In most Chinese provincial-level hospitals, current postoperative pain management methods are able to alleviate the pain experienced by the majority of patients, though pain assessment and therapy procedures are still not standardized. Furthermore, most patients lack a proper understanding of postoperative pain and analgesics. Therefore, pain management education for doctors and patients and their relatives should be implemented in order to improve the quality of postoperative pain management. PMID:24235819

  19. Avoiding Opioids and Their Harmful Side Effects in the Postoperative Patient: Exogenous Opioids, Endogenous Endorphins, Wellness, Mood, and Their Relation to Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Bradley C; Parsa, Fereydoun D

    2016-03-01

    Prescribed opioids are routinely used for many postoperative patients. However, these medications have daunting adverse effects on the body's innate pain management system--the action of the beta-endorphins. The prescribed opioids not only severely impair the function of the mu-opioid receptors, but also inhibit the release of beta-endorphin. This is unfortunate, because beta-endorphin appears to be a much more potent agonist of the mu-opioid receptor than opioids. In addition, beta-endorphin indirectly elevates dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to feelings of euphoria. Therefore, by prescribing opioids, practitioners may inadvertently prolong and increase the overall intensity of the postoperative patients' pain as well as herald anhedonia. This article highlights the relationships between prescribed (exogenous) opioids, beta-endorphins, mu-opioid receptors, wellness, mood, and postoperative pain. The role of patient education, opioid alternatives, and additional recommendations regarding pain control in the postoperative patient are also discussed. PMID:27011886

  20. Avoiding Opioids and Their Harmful Side Effects in the Postoperative Patient: Exogenous Opioids, Endogenous Endorphins, Wellness, Mood, and Their Relation to Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Fereydoun D

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed opioids are routinely used for many postoperative patients. However, these medications have daunting adverse effects on the body's innate pain management system - the action of the beta-endorphins. The prescribed opioids not only severely impair the function of the mu-opioid receptors, but also inhibit the release of beta-endorphin. This is unfortunate, because beta-endorphin appears to be a much more potent agonist of the mu-opioid receptor than opioids. In addition, beta-endorphin indirectly elevates dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to feelings of euphoria. Therefore, by prescribing opioids, practitioners may inadvertently prolong and increase the overall intensity of the postoperative patients' pain as well as herald anhedonia. This article highlights the relationships between prescribed (exogenous) opioids, beta-endorphins, mu-opioid receptors, wellness, mood, and postoperative pain. The role of patient education, opioid alternatives, and additional recommendations regarding pain control in the postoperative patient are also discussed. PMID:27011886

  1. Mortality in elderly patients with acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, F; Barreto, S; Mayor, M M; Cabrera, W; Breuer, N

    1996-07-01

    In a retrospective study, we identified 55 elderly patients with acute renal failure (ARF) admitted to our hospital during an 8-year period from 1985 to 1993. Information about the etiology, complications, laboratory data, and treatment course were obtained from the clinical history. Of the 200 patients with ARF admitted to the hospital during this period, 28% were patients more than 60 years old (41 male and 14 female) with an average age of 68.5 +/- 7 years. The main causes of ARF were sepsis, volume depletion, low cardiac output, arterial hypotension, nephrotoxicity by antibiotics, and obstructive uropathy. The global mortality of elderly patients with ARF was 53%. The mortality rate of the different types of the ARF were: prerenal 35%, intrinsic 64% (oliguric 76%, nonoliguric 50%), and postrenal 40%. Mortality as a result of sepsis occurred in 18 patients (62%), by cardiovascular disease in 4 patients (13%), by acute respiratory failure in 2 patients (7%), and by other causes in 5 patients (18%). In the cases of sepsis, Pseudomonas was detected in 7 cases (39%), Escherichia coli in 2 cases (11%), Gram-negative nonspecific in 3 cases (17%), Klebsiella in 1 case (5%), and in 5 cases (16%), the hemoculture was negative. The patient survival rate was 47% (26 of 55 patients). Of these patients, 19 recovered their normal renal function (73%), but 7 patients remained with renal failure (27%). In conclusion, the global mortality in the elderly patients without considering the types of ARF was 53%. The oliguric form had the highest mortality rate with 76%. The main causes for mortality were sepsis with 62%, cardiovascular disease with 13%, and other causes 18%.

  2. Clinical features, comorbidity, and cognitive impairment in elderly bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Rise, Ida Vikan; Haro, Josep Maria; Gjervan, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data specific to late-life bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. Current research is sparse and present guidelines are not adapted to this group of patients. Objectives We present a literature review on clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and cognitive impairment in patients with late-life BD. This review discusses common comorbidities that affect BD elders and how aging might affect cognition and treatment. Methods Eligible studies were identified in MedLine by the Medical Subject Headings terms “bipolar disorder” and “aged”. We only included original research reports published in English between 2012 and 2015. Results From 414 articles extracted, 16 studies were included in the review. Cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, type II diabetes, and endocrinological abnormalities were observed as highly prevalent. BD is associated with a high suicide risk. Bipolar elderly had an increased risk of dementia and performed worse on cognitive screening tests compared to age-matched controls across different levels of cognition. Despite high rates of medical comorbidity among bipolar elderly, a systematic under-recognition and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease have been suggested. Conclusion There was a high burden of physical comorbidities and cognitive impairment in late-life BD. Bipolar elderly might be under-recorded and undertreated in primary medical care, indicating that this group needs an adapted clinical assessment and specific clinical guidelines need to be established. PMID:27274256

  3. Epidemiology and management of chronic constipation in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez Roque, Maria; Bouras, Ernest P

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, with prevalence in the general population of approximately 20%. In the elderly population the incidence of constipation is higher compared to the younger population, with elderly females suffering more often from severe constipation. Treatment options for chronic constipation (CC) include stool softeners, fiber supplements, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, and the secretagogues lubiprostone and linaclotide. Understanding the underlying etiology of CC is necessary to determine the most appropriate therapeutic option. Therefore, it is important to distinguish from pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), slow and normal transit constipation. Evaluation of a patient with CC includes basic blood work, rectal examination, and appropriate testing to evaluate for PFD and slow transit constipation when indicated. Pelvic floor rehabilitation or biofeedback is the treatment of choice for PFD, and its efficacy has been proven in clinical trials. Surgery is rarely indicated in CC and can only be considered in cases of slow transit constipation when PFD has been properly excluded. Other treatment options such as sacral nerve stimulation seem to be helpful in patients with urinary dysfunction. Botulinum toxin injection for PFD cannot be recommended at this time with the available evidence. CC in the elderly is common, and it has a significant impact on quality of life and the use of health care resources. In the elderly, it is imperative to identify the etiology of CC, and treatment should be based on the patient’s overall clinical status and capabilities. PMID:26082622

  4. Multiple myeloma in the very elderly patient: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Willan, John; Eyre, Toby A; Sharpley, Faye; Watson, Caroline; King, Andrew J; Ramasamy, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of myeloma in the very elderly patient is challenging. Treatment options have vastly improved for elderly myeloma patients but still require the clinician to personalize therapy. In this paper, we offer evidence-based, pragmatic advice on how to overcome six of the main challenges likely to arise: 1) diagnosis of myeloma in this age group, 2) assessment of the need for treatment, and the fitness for combination chemotherapy, 3) provision of the best quality of supportive care, 4) choice of combination chemotherapy in those fit enough for it, 5) treatment of relapsed myeloma, and 6) provision of end of life care. With an increased burden of comorbidities and a reduced resilience to treatment and its associated toxicities, the management of myeloma in this age group requires a different approach to that in younger patients to maximize both quality and length of life. PMID:27143866

  5. Orthostatic Hypotension and Mortality in Elderly Frail Patients

    PubMed Central

    Freud, Tamar; Punchik, Boris; Yan, Press

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common problem in the elderly age group, and some studies have reported an association between OH and increased mortality. We evaluated possible associations between OH and mortality in a retrospective study of frail elderly patients who came for a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The study included all patients ≥65 years who were assessed in the outpatient Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Unit. Data were collected from the computerized medical record, including blood pressure, sociodemographic data, lifestyle, falls, pulse rate, body mass index, functional and cognitive status, and comorbidity. Data on mortlaity were also collected. The study population consisted of 571 patients who underwent assessment over a 9-year study period. The mean age was 83.7 ± 6.1, 35.9% were males, and 183 (32.1%) were diagnosed with OH. Systolic OH (OHS) was more common than diastolic OH (25.2% vs 15.6%). In univariate analyses, OHS was associated with increased overall mortality. Over the follow-up period, 30.2% of the OHS patients died compared with 22.3% (P = 0.037), but in the Cox models there was no statistically significant associations between OHS and overall mortality. In contrast, age, burden of comorbidity, a low high-density lipoprotein level, and low creatinine clearance were independent predictors of increased overall mortality. In a population of frail elderly patients with a high burden of comorbidity, OH was not an independent risk factor for overall mortality.

  6. [Hospitality for elderly patients in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Boulet, Marie-Claude; Dami, Fabrice; Hugli, Olivier; Renard, Delphine; Foucault, Eliane; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Demographic evolution results in a growing use of emergency department by elderly patients. They require special care to avoid any further degradation of cognitive and functional abilities already compromised by the disease or injury that led them to hospital in the first place. Through a clinical case, we list the risks related to the care of these particular patients in the emergency department. Early recognition of those risks and careful management of these patients' specific needs can significantly contribute to reduce lengths of stay, an important outcome from both the individual patient's and society's perspective.

  7. [Hospitality for elderly patients in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Boulet, Marie-Claude; Dami, Fabrice; Hugli, Olivier; Renard, Delphine; Foucault, Eliane; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Demographic evolution results in a growing use of emergency department by elderly patients. They require special care to avoid any further degradation of cognitive and functional abilities already compromised by the disease or injury that led them to hospital in the first place. Through a clinical case, we list the risks related to the care of these particular patients in the emergency department. Early recognition of those risks and careful management of these patients' specific needs can significantly contribute to reduce lengths of stay, an important outcome from both the individual patient's and society's perspective. PMID:26790241

  8. Zolpidem Use and Risk of Fracture in Elderly Insomnia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong-Yoon; Park, Soyoung; Rhee, Chul-Woo; Kim, Ye-Jee; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the risk of fractures related with zolpidem in elderly insomnia patients. Methods Health claims data on the entire South Korean elderly population from January 2005 to June 2006 were extracted from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. We applied a case-crossover design. Cases were defined as insomnia patients who had a fracture diagnosis. We set the hazard period of 1 day length prior to the fracture date and four control periods of the same length at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks prior to the fracture date. Time independent confounding factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, cognitive function level, mobility, socioeconomic status, residential environment, and comorbidity could be controlled using the casecrossover design. Time dependent confounding factors, especially co-medication of patients during the study period, were adjusted by conditional logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the risk of fracture related to zolpidem. Results One thousand five hundred and eight cases of fracture were detected in insomnia patients during the study period. In our data, the use of zolpidem increased the risk of fracture significantly (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.16). However, the association between benzodiazepine hypnotics and the risk of fracture was not statistically significant (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.21). Likewise, the results were not statistically significant in stratified analysis with each benzodiazepine generic subgroup. Conclusions Zolpidem could increase the risk of fracture in elderly insomnia patients. Therefore zolpidem should be prescribed carefully and the elderly should be provided with sufficient patient education. PMID:22880153

  9. Effectiveness of Radiotherapy for Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jacob; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy plays a central role in the definitive treatment of glioblastoma. However, the optimal management of elderly patients with glioblastoma remains controversial, as the relative benefit in this patient population is unclear. To better understand the role that radiation plays in the treatment of glioblastoma in the elderly, we analyzed factors influencing patient survival using a large population-based registry. Methods and Materials: A total of 2,836 patients more than 70 years of age diagnosed with glioblastoma between 1993 and 2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Demographic and clinical variables used in the analysis included gender, ethnicity, tumor size, age at diagnosis, surgery, and radiotherapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using Cox regression. Results: Radiotherapy was administered in 64% of these patients, and surgery was performed in 68%. Among 2,836 patients, 46% received surgery and radiotherapy, 22% underwent surgery only, 18% underwent radiotherapy only, and 14% did not undergo either treatment. The median survival for patients who underwent surgery and radiotherapy was 8 months. The median survival for patients who underwent radiotherapy only was 4 months, and for patients who underwent surgery only was 3 months. Those who received neither surgery nor radiotherapy had a median survival of 2 months (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that radiotherapy significantly improved cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.49) after adjusting for surgery, tumor size, gender, ethnicity, and age at diagnosis. Other factors associated with Cancer-specific survival included surgery, tumor size, age at diagnosis, and ethnicity. Analysis using overall survival as the endpoint yielded very similar results. Conclusions: Elderly

  10. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386

  11. Postoperative Adverse Outcomes in Intellectually Disabled Surgical Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jui-An; Liao, Chien-Chang; Chang, Chuen-Chau; Chang, Hang; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Background Intellectually disabled patients have various comorbidities, but their risks of adverse surgical outcomes have not been examined. This study assesses pre-existing comorbidities, adjusted risks of postoperative major morbidities and mortality in intellectually disabled surgical patients. Methods A nationwide population-based study was conducted in patients who underwent inpatient major surgery in Taiwan between 2004 and 2007. Four controls for each patient were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Preoperative major comorbidities, postoperative major complications and 30-day in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without intellectual disability. Use of medical services also was analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analyses with 95% confidence intervals were applied to verify intellectual disability's impact. Results Controls were compared with 3983 surgical patients with intellectual disability. Risks for postoperative major complications were increased in patients with intellectual disability, including acute renal failure (odds ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 6.37), pneumonia (odds ratio 2.01, 1.61 to 2.49), postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 1.35, 1.09 to 1.68) and septicemia (odds ratio 2.43, 1.85 to 3.21) without significant differences in overall mortality. Disability severity was positively correlated with postoperative septicemia risk. Medical service use was also significantly higher in surgical patients with intellectual disability. Conclusion Intellectual disability significantly increases the risk of overall major complications after major surgery. Our findings show a need for integrated and revised protocols for postoperative management to improve care for intellectually disabled surgical patients. PMID:22046425

  12. Psychological nursing support for elderly patients undergoing chronic regular haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Triantaphillopoulou, E; Iphou, A; Arvaniti, P; Michalopoulos, D; Nousis, T; Tserkezis, G; Velissari, E; Iphos, C

    1998-01-01

    The elderly constitute a continuously increasing social group of the Hellenic, but also of the global population. This phenomenon is also evident in the haemodialysis patient population, which grows continually. Faced with this reality, Nursing is obliged to adapt itself and, in this effort that it is putting forward it has achieved many positive steps (geriatric nursing). It is imperative however for nursing that there is a particular way of dealing with the elderly, especially those that undergo chronic periodic haemodialysis, which regards as much the problems stemming from the disease, as it regards their grave psychological condition. The objective of our study was to develop the need for the presence of the Nephrology Nurse in the psychological support of the elderly renal patient and we have been able to define: level of communication, level of dietetic information, psycho-social condition and restrictions imposed by the disease. 30 patients (age 65-80, mean 72.92 years) were included with an observation time of 3 years, less than 60% responded positively to the efforts for psychological support, on the basis of the studied factors. The rest did not show any willingness to answer. We conclude that psychological support is of paramount importance for these patients but also that the Nephrology Nurse has not yet discovered and detected some unknown aspects of the different problems arising due to insufficient knowledge of geriatric caring.

  13. The role of the routine pre-operative chest X-ray in the elderly general surgical patient

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, David Gwyn; Pringle, Robert; Shaw, James William

    1982-01-01

    In an unselected group of 233 patients aged 65 years and over undergoing non-cardiopulmonary surgery, 57·5% had some abnormality on routine pre-operative chest X-ray and 40·3% had an abnormality which was regarded as clinically significant. Of all patients, 32·2% subsequently required a postoperative chest film for diagnostic purposes, and in these cases the pre-operative X-ray was invaluable as a baseline. During the study period there were ten occasions where the discovery of an abnormality on a routine pre-operative chest film directly affected the treatment plan. Pre-operative chest radiology proved ineffective as a method of predicting postoperative respiratory complications and was of only limited effectiveness in predicting postoperative cardiac morbidity. It is concluded that a routine pre-operative chest X-ray should be available in all elderly surgical patients (a) as a baseline measurement and (b) to exclude unsuspected disease. The prediction of postoperative cardiac and respiratory morbidity, however, is best achieved by non-radiological means. PMID:7170281

  14. Effect of body mass index on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shohab, Durre; Ayub, Ramsha; Alam, Muhammad Umar; Butt, Amna; Sheikh, Sanam; Assad, Salman; Akhter, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of body mass index (BMI) on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by comparing three BMI groups. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of 129 patients who underwent PCNL from January 2010 to August 2013. All the patients underwent PCNL by a standard technique. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having a BMI ≤24 kg/m2 were included in the normal group, those having a BMI of 24.1–30.0 kg/m2 were included in the overweight group, and those having a BMI >30 kg/m2 were included in the obese group. Three groups were compared for operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement. Results A total of 129 patients including 44 females and 85 males were included with a mean age of 45.00±1.44 years. The mean age in the normal group was 43.29±1.69 years, 47.08±1.29 years in the overweight group, and 43.61±1.25 years in the obese group. The mean stone size in the normal group was 25.46±8.92 mm, 28.01±8.40 mm in the overweight group, and 26.84±7.41 mm in the obese group. Our results showed no statistically significant difference with respect to mean operative time, mean hospital stay, and stone clearance in the normal, obese, and overweight patients undergoing PCNL. Postoperative complications and analgesia requirement were also similar in all the three groups. Conclusion There was no effect of BMI on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing PCNL. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of renal stones in obese patients. PMID:26623145

  15. Treating the elderly diabetic patient: special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kezerle, Louise; Shalev, Leah; Barski, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rising in the >65 year-old group. The challenge of defining the goals of therapy arises from the heterogeneity of the aging process and the sparse clinical data in this patient population. In light of these challenges, the clinician should be aware of the pitfalls of caring for the older diabetic patient and prioritize an individualized treatment plan to ensure an optimal glycemic control, without placing the patient at unnecessary risk. We present a review of the current guidelines and literature that deal specifically with the treatment of the older diabetic patient in order to establish the principles of treatment in this age group and help the clinician make decisions regarding the care of these patients. PMID:25210468

  16. Impact of Nursing Educational Program on Reducing or Preventing Postoperative Complications for Patients after Intracranial Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmowla, Rasha Ali Ahmed Abd; El-Lateef, Zienab Abd; El-khayat, Roshdy

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial surgery means any surgery performed inside the skull to treat problems in the brain and surrounding structures. Aim: Evaluate the impact of nursing educational program on reducing or preventing postoperative complications for patients after intracranial surgery. Subjects and methods: Sixty adult patients had intracranial surgery (burr…

  17. [Anticonvulsants treatment of psychiatric disorder in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    Agents introduced for the treatment of epilepsy have also been usedsimultaneously for psychiatric indications. The therapeutic effects of anticonvulsants are recognized in many psychiatric disorders. Growing literature suggests that anticonvulsant medication have efficacy in treating acute mania, bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, behavioral disturbances especially agitation and impulsive aggression and anxiety, alcohol withdrawal and dependence. However, study of anticonvulsants among elderly patients has been limited. Further research in the field of psychogeriatry is needed to clarify the efficacy and tolerance of anticonvulsants. PMID:17203814

  18. Video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy with a single utility port is feasible in the treatment of elderly patients with peripheral lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang; Xu, Chun; Ma, Haitao; Ni, Bin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Tengfei; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy with a single utility port has emerged as a new technology in recent years. The aim of this study is to review the technology in the treatment of elderly patients with peripheral lung cancer. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 21 elderly patients with peripheral lung cancer who underwent single utility port VATS lobectomy from February 2011 to February 2013 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (VATS group). The clinical outcomes and postoperative complications were then compared to data from 32 elderly patients who underwent lobectomy by thoracotomy (TL group). Results No mortality occurred during the postoperative period in either group. There was no statistical difference in surgery duration, the quantity of lymph node dissection or intraoperative blood loss between the VATS and TL groups. However, significant differences existed in the postoperative hospital stay (6.19 ± 1.69 days vs. 8.22 ± 2.55 days), time to first activity out of bed (20.57 ± 7.72 hours vs. 26.81 ± 9.27 hours), chest drainage duration (4.24 ± 1.04 days vs. 5.22 ± 1.29 days), and total postoperative drainage volume (642.86 ± 158.18 mL vs. 787.81 ± 211.55 mL) between the VATS and TL groups (P <0.05). The percentage of patients with no complications in the VATS group (85.71%) is significantly higher when compared with the TL group (56.25%, P <0.05). Conclusion VATS lobectomy with a single utility port is a safe and feasible surgical procedure for selected elderly patients with peripheral lung cancer. PMID:26767004

  19. Management of acute heart failure in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antonio; Arrigo, Mattia; Tolppanen, Heli; Gayat, Etienne; Laribi, Said; Metra, Marco; Seronde, Marie France; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is the most common cause of unplanned hospital admissions, and is associated with high mortality rates. Over the next few decades, the combination of improved cardiovascular disease survival and progressive ageing of the population will further increase the prevalence of AHF in developed countries. New recommendations on the management of AHF have been published recently, but as elderly patients are under-represented in clinical trials, and scientific evidence is often lacking, the diagnosis and management of AHF in this population is challenging. The clinical presentation of AHF, especially in patients aged>85years, differs substantially from that in younger patients, with unspecific symptoms, such as fatigue and confusion, often overriding dyspnoea. Older patients also have a different risk profile compared with younger patients: often heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and infection as the most frequent precipitating factor of AHF. Moreover, co-morbidities, disability and frailty are common, and increase morbidity, recovery time, readmission rates and mortality; their presence should be detected during a geriatric assessment. Diagnostics and treatment for AHF should be tailored according to cardiopulmonary and geriatric status, giving special attention to the patient's preferences for care. Whereas many elderly AHF patients may be managed similarly to younger patients, different strategies should be applied in the presence of relevant co-morbidities, disability and frailty. The option of palliative care should be considered at an early stage, to avoid unnecessary and harmful diagnostics and treatments. PMID:27185193

  20. [Comparison of the Ender's nailing and Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) fixation in the treatment of trochanteric fractures in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Sliwka, Andrzej; Zgoda, Marcin; Górski, Radosław; Purski, Karol; Wasilewski, Piotr; Górecki, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was an evaluation which operative method of treatment: stabilisation with the Dynamic Hip Screw or with Ender's nails is less invasive procedure in elderly patients with trochanteric fractures. 100 consecutive patients with trochanteric fracture were enrolled into the study, of which 53 patients (49 women, 4 men; mean age 89 years) were stabilised intramedullarily with the use of Ender's nails and 47 patients (26 women, 21 men; mean age 76 years) were treated operatively with the use of Dynamic Hip Screw. The factors compared the mean length of hospital stay, the mean duration of the surgery, post-operative blood loss, early local and general complication rate and mortality in both groups. We took into account their general health and coexisting illnesses according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, type of fracture according to AO and Evan's classifications and the surgeon's experience. The mean duration of the surgery was 27 minutes longer in the case of DHS stabilisation. The complication rate was higher and the mean length of postoperative hospital stay was longer after Ender nailing. The mean blood loss: the drop in Red Blood Cells (RBC), Haematocrit (Ht) and the Mean Haemoglobin Concentration (Hb) was also higher in patients treated with the use of Ender nails. The mean rate of blood units that had to be transfused postoperatively was also higher in "Ender" group. The difference was statistically significant, especially in the group of patients treated as emergency procedure at the day of admission (p < 0.05). The operative treatment of trochanteric fractures in elderly patients with the use of DHS device showed to be a less invasive procedure in comparison to Ender nailing. In conclusion, the indications for this method of trochanteric fractures' treatment should be expanded, especially in the case of unstable fractures. PMID:17455526

  1. The prevalence of long QT interval in post-operative intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Banks, Michael C; Narotsky, David L; Dorman, Todd; Winters, Bradford D

    2016-08-01

    The severity of patient illnesses and medication complexity in post-operative critically ill patients increase the risk for a prolonged QT interval. We determined the prevalence of prolonged QTc in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. We performed a prospective cross-sectional study over a 15-month period at a major academic center. SICU pre-admission and admission EKGs, patient demographics, and laboratory values were analyzed. QTc was evaluated as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome (prolonged QTc > 440 ms). 281 patients were included in the study: 92 % (n = 257) post-operative and 8 % (n = 24) non-operative. On pre-admission EKGs, 32 % of the post-operative group and 42 % of the non-operative group had prolonged QTc (p = 0.25); on post-admission EKGs, 67 % of the post-operative group but only 33 % of the non-operative group had prolonged QTc (p < 0.01). The average change in QTc in the post-operative group was +30.7 ms, as compared to +2 ms in the non-operative group (p < 0.01). On multivariable adjustment for long QTc as a dichotomous outcome, pre-admission prolonged QTc (OR 3.93, CI 1.93-8.00) and having had an operative procedure (OR 4.04, CI 1.67-9.83) were associated with developing prolonged QTc. For QTc as a continuous outcome, intra-operative beta-blocker use was associated with a statistically-significant decrease in QTc duration. None of the patients developed a lethal arrhythmia in the ICU. Prolonged QTc is common among post-operative SICU patients (67 %), however lethal arrhythmias are uncommon. The operative experience increases the risk for long QTc.

  2. Anemia in the frail, elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Röhrig, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and frailty are two common findings in geriatric patients and have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in this patient group. Recent studies have contributed to the growing evidence of a possible association with the age-related chronic inflammatory status known as “inflammaging”. These findings do not only give a better insight into the pathogenesis of anemia in frailty, but also offer new treatment options. The present article focuses on this assumed association between anemia, frailty, and inflammaging and summarizes current management options for anemia in frail patients. PMID:27051279

  3. [Comparison of pre- and postoperative findings in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Kästner, C; Zott, H J

    1990-06-15

    The purpose of the study to compare the following factors pre- and postoperatively --cardiovascular risk factors (abuse of nicotine, obesity, disturbances of fat metabolism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension)--complaints, measured at the daily need of nitrangin, and functional capacity in watt. Apart from this the time of waiting for the operation, the pre- and postoperative medication and the problem of the fitness for work and the calculation of the pension were analysed postoperatively. In the study 61 patients were included, in whom an aortocoronary bypass operation was carried out in the period from 1980 to 1988. Postoperatively, the risk factor abuse of nicotine was reduced by most patients, whereas obesity and disturbances of the fat metabolism practically remained uninfluenced. Postoperatively a permanent need of nitrangin was existing only in exceptional cases. An improvement of the functional capacity could be proved only in about half the patients. This partly explained that only one third of the patients became again fit for work after operation. On the other hand, the long time of waiting for the operation which in most cases included a long preoperative inability to work was also decisive for the great number of calculations of the pension after operation.

  4. Treatment of anxiety with ketazolam in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bresolin, N; Monza, G; Scarpini, E; Scarlato, G; Straneo, G; Martinazzoli, A; Benincà, G; Cattoni, C; De Candia, R; Belloni, G

    1988-01-01

    In a multicenter, double-blind trial, 63 elderly patients who had experienced a generalized anxiety disorder for at least one month were randomly assigned to receive 15 mg of ketazolam (n = 31) or placebo (n = 32) daily for 15 days. At the end of this period, if their total scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale had decreased by at least 25%, treatment was continued unchanged for a further 15 days. Patients who did not respond to treatment were given an additional 15 mg of ketazolam daily. During the initial 15 days, 83% of the ketazolam-treated patients and 43% of the placebo patients responded to treatment (P < 0.01). During the second 15-day period, the anxiety scores of the ketazolam-treated patients continued to decline significantly, whereas the placebo patients showed no improvement. According to the investigators' assessments of severity of anxiety and patients' ratings of treatment effectiveness, ketazolam was significantly superior to placebo.

  5. [Insulin treatment in elder patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a highly expanding health problem in Japan, especially for older people. The prevalence of glucose intolerance and diabetes increases with age. A postprandial hyperglycemia is the primary clinical manifestation. In older diabetic patients, atherosclerotic complications (macroangiopathies), as well as microangiopathies, are significant problems, threatening their quality of life. Though insulin therapy requires some special considerations, insulin is indicated for any patients with a poor glycemic control with oral agents. Single or multiple dose (s) of insulin injection therapy is selected for each patient to prevent symptomatic hyperglycemia, or to achieve near-normal glycemic control. Also, to maintain the quality of life for these older patients, hypoglycemia, as well as hyperglycemia, should be avoided. Newly developed insulin analogue (s) may be more appropriate for preventing hypoglycemia. Another method of prevention and treatment of hypoglycemia are discussed in this article.

  6. [Surgical treatment of bronchiectases in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Danilov, G P; Makeeva, R P; Shornikov, V A; Zil'ber, E K; Akopov, A L

    2010-01-01

    The authors present experiences with surgical treatment of 29 patients (aged 50-64 years) with bronchiectases. Early and late results were analyzed. It was shown that complex approach to the estimation of the findings of radiography, spiral computed tomography, investigation of the external respiration function, fibrobronchoscopy and bronchoscopy, if necessary, allowed operating the patients older than 50 years with local forms of bronchiectases which gave good results. PMID:21137257

  7. Postoperative radiotherapy in patients with salivary duct carcinoma: clinical outcomes and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Shinoto, Makoto; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nakashima, Torahiko; Kunitake, Naonobu; Higaki, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the clinical outcome and the role of postoperative radiotherapy for patients with salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) who had undergone surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of 25 SDC patients treated between 1998 and 2011 with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 60 Gy (range, 49.5–61.4 Gy). The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the tumor bed in four patients, the tumor bed and ipsilateral neck in 14 patients, and the tumor bed and bilateral neck in six patients. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic variables were analyzed with the log-rank test. The 5-year LC, DFS and OS were 67%, 45% and 47%, respectively. Disease recurrence was found in 12 patients: seven as local, four as regional and eight as distant failure. Perineural and lymphovascular invasion was a significant prognostic factor for LC (P = 0.03). Local failure was common, and the presence of local recurrence significantly affected the OS (P < 0.05). We conclude that surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is expected to decrease the risk of local failure and contribute to good prognoses for patients with SDC. It might be advisable to have the CTV include the cranial nerves involved and the corresponding parts of the skull base in cases of pathologically positive perineural invasion. PMID:23559598

  8. [Conservative management option in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Guienne, Véronique; Parahy, Sophie; Testa, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    "Conservative management" is as an alternative care pathway offered to patients who elect not to start dialysis often because of a heavy burden of comorbid illness and advanced ages. Our research, characterized by a transdisciplinary medical and social investigation and based on a case by case analysis, intends to understand the reasons and the context in which this choice has to be made. On the first hand, the results show that all the studied cases can be explained by two variables, the latter can be combined: when the patient is suffering from important clinical pathologies; when the patient lives with this renal failure as a trouble linked to the age. On the second hand, two important questions are raised: the first one is about the medical practices and stems from the influence of criteria always present in the decisions to take (the paramedical exams and the clinical information from the interview, the patient's examination and the discussion with his/her close family member). The second one is about the patient's autonomy and can be analyzed regarding to his/her capacity to express his/her choices and share it with his close family. But also, to live in according to his age, that is to say the relation he/she has with his/her edged body and to the limits of his/her existence. The key notion of shared decision-making renewed is to refer in the consultation and the choices to take to the question of the advantages/drawbacks for the patient's life and not only to the question of the connection between the results and the medical risks, in order to exchange view with the patient on his/her future life and not only on the condition of his failed organ.

  9. A Practical Guide to Postoperative Delirium.

    PubMed

    Beck, Justin L; Tucker, Phebe

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, delirium is a common postoperative complication that especially impacts the elderly population. It contributes to a significant increase in morbidity, mortality, length of inpatient stay, and medical costs. Even with preventive efforts, many patients will develop postoperative delirium. While the gold standard treatment is to correct the underlying disorder, many therapies ranging from the use of antipsychotics to patient comfort measures are used to decrease the severity and duration of postoperative delirium. The most practical approach for physicians is continuous vigilance for the emergence of postoperative delirium. Movement toward increased use of multidisciplinary inpatient ward teams, early psychiatric consultation during postoperative delirium, larger clinical trials of prophylactic medications, and future research on delirium's pathogenesis will decrease complications of this common clinical problem. PMID:26638418

  10. [The problems with the use of benzodiazepines in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Bourin, M

    2010-09-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZD) are widely used to treat anxiety and insomnia in elderly patients. The interest of this prescription is discussed in this article. The discussion is based on the pharmacological properties and adverse effects of BZDs in the elderly. The conclusions are that BZDs should be rarely prescribed in this population; many patients treated by BZDs should be withdrawn and therapeutic strategies, other than BZDs, should be considered to treat anxiety and insomnia in these patients. Problems posed by BZD in the aged patient are both of a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic order. In comparison to young adult users, BZD users among the aged are essentially women; the latter take these medications during important periods in their lives and often have a strong comorbidity, such as cardiovascular or rhumatological problems or even psychiatric problems, such as depression or panic disorders. Aged patients who take BZD at high doses can also consume other drugs, such as alcohol, and often have a psychiatric history. Some important side effects are associated with the use of BZD; essentially concerning falls, and it has been noticed for some years that problems posed by aged car drivers can be enhanced by BZD. It is difficult to know if continual users of BZD really have an advantage over other users. However, instruments, such as an indicator in the form of an algorithm, have been developed to identify the appropriateness of prescribing BZD to elderly patients. It is obvious that it is essential, whenever possible, to have a recourse strategy for cessation, and as much as possible to use BZD with a short half-life that are not oxidised, i.e. essentially BZD that are not metabolised in the strictest sense of the term, such as lorazepam or temazepam. Daily doses must be extremely limited and duration of use should not exceed two or three months in young patients.

  11. Antihypertensive drugs for elderly patients: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ka Keat; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As the population ages, the prevalence of hypertension also increases. Although primary care is usually the patient’s first point of contact for healthcare, little is known about the management of hypertension among elderly patients at the primary care level. This study aimed to determine the antihypertensive prescription trend for elderly patients, the predictors of antihypertensive use and any inappropriate prescribing practices in both public and private primary care settings. METHODS Data on patient demographics, diagnosis, prescription pattern, payment mode and follow-up was extracted from a cross-sectional study involving 122 public primary care clinics and 652 private primary care clinics in Malaysia. Encounters with hypertensive patients aged ≥ 60 years were included. RESULTS A total of 1,017 antihypertensive medications were prescribed – calcium channel blockers (27.1%), beta blockers (25.5%), diuretics (23.3%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (14.9%) and angiotensin receptor blockers (6.3%). Out of the 614 patient encounters, 53.1% of the patients were prescribed monotherapy, 31.6% were prescribed dual therapy, 12.2% triple therapy, 2.8% quadruple therapy and 0.3% quintuple therapy. Type of primary care clinic and payment mode were significant predictors for the prescription of combination therapy and fixed-dose combination therapy, respectively. Four types of inappropriate prescriptions were identified. CONCLUSION Calcium channel blockers were the most common antihypertensive drug prescribed and more than half of the elderly patients were on monotherapy. Antihypertensive drug prescription was found to be associated with the type of primary care clinic and the payment mode, suggesting that prescription is influenced by the cost of the drug. PMID:25597751

  12. Radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression in very elderly patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Hoskin, Peter J.; Karstens, Johann H.; Rudat, Volker; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Owing to the aging of the population, the proportion of elderly patients receiving cancer treatment has increased. This study investigated the results of radiotherapy (RT) for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in the very elderly, because few data are available for these patients. Methods and Materials: The data from 308 patients aged {>=}75 years who received short-course (treatment time 1-5 days) or long-course RT (2-4 weeks) for MSCC were retrospectively analyzed for functional outcome, local control, and survival. Furthermore, nine potential prognostic factors were investigated: gender, performance status, interval from tumor diagnosis to MSCC, tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone or visceral metastases, ambulatory status, and speed at which motor deficits developed. Results: Improvement of motor deficits occurred in 25% of patients, with no further progression of MSCC in an additional 59%. The 1-year local control and survival rate was 92% and 43%, respectively. Improved functional outcomes were associated with ambulatory status and slower developing motor deficits. Improved local control resulted from long-course RT. Improved survival was associated with a longer interval from tumor diagnosis to MSCC, tumor type (breast/prostate cancer, myeloma/lymphoma), lack of visceral or other bone metastases, ambulatory status, and a slower development of motor deficits. Conclusion: Short- and long-course RT are similarly effective in patients aged {>=}75 years regarding functional outcome and survival. Long-course RT provided better local control. Patients with better expected survival should receive long-course RT and others short-course RT. The criteria for selection of an appropriate regimen for MSCC in very elderly patients should be the same as for younger individuals.

  13. An analysis of CPR decision-making by elderly patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, G M; Schofield, I; Aziz, M

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally clinicians have determined their patients' resuscitation status without consultation. This has been condemned as morally indefensible in cases where not for resuscitation (NFR) orders are based on quality of life considerations and when the patient's true wishes are not known. Such instances would encompass most resuscitation decisions in elderly patients. Having previously involved patients in CPR decision-making, we chose formally to explore the reasons behind the choices made. Although the patients were not upset, and readily decided at the time of initial consultation, on later analysing the decision-making we found poor understanding of the procedure, poor recall of information given and in some cases evidence of harm. This may be attributed to impaired decision-making capacity of elderly hospitalised patients as previously shown, or to the discomfort precipitated by having to contemplate the apparent immediacy of cardiac arrest by these patients. We propose that subscribing to autonomy as a general principle needs to be balanced against particular cases where distress may be caused by, or result in, diminished competence and limited autonomy. PMID:9279741

  14. HOSPITAL VARIATION IN SPHINCTER PRESERVATION FOR ELDERLY RECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dodgion, Christopher M.; Neville, Bridget A; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate hospital variation in the use of low anterior resection (LAR), local excision (LE) and abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of rectal cancer in elderly patients. Methods Using SEER-Medicare linked data, we identified 4,959 stage I–III rectal cancer patients over age 65 diagnosed from 2000–2005 who underwent operative intervention at one of 370 hospitals. We evaluated the distribution of hospital-specific procedure rates and used generalized mixed models with random hospital effects to examine the influence of patient characteristics and hospital on operation type, using APR as a reference. Results The median hospital performed APR on 33% of elderly rectal cancer patients. Hospital was a stronger predictor of LAR receipt than any patient characteristic, explaining 32% of procedure choice, but not a strong predictor of LE, explaining only 3.8%. Receipt of LE was primarily related to tumor size and tumor stage, which, combined, explained 31% of procedure variation. Conclusions Receipt of local excision is primarily determined by patient characteristics. In contrast, the hospital where surgery is performed significantly influences whether a patient undergoes an LAR or APR. Understanding the factors that cause this institutional variation is crucial to ensuring equitable availability of sphincter preservation. PMID:24750983

  15. Differential Postoperative Effects of Volatile Anesthesia and Intraoperative Remifentanil Infusion in 7511 Thyroidectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jun-Young; Choi, Seong-Soo; Yi, Jung Min; Joo, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Ung; Sim, Ji-Hoon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Ku, Seungwoo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although remifentanil is used widely by many clinicians during general anesthesia, there are recent evidences of opioid-induced hyperalgesia as an adverse effect. This study aimed to determine if intraoperative remifentanil infusion caused increased pain during the postoperative period in patients who underwent a thyroidectomy. A total of 7511 patients aged ≥ 20 years, who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Asan Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed. Enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups: group N (no intraoperative remifentanil and only volatile maintenance anesthesia) and group R (intraoperative remifentanil infusion including total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia). Following propensity score matching analysis, 2582 patients were included in each group. Pain scores based on numeric rating scales (NRS) were compared between the 2 groups at the postoperative anesthetic care unit and at the ward until 3 days postoperation. Incidences of postoperative complications, such as nausea, itching, and shivering were also compared. The estimated NRS pain score on the day of surgery was 5.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.97–5.19) in group N patients and 6.73 (95% CI 6.65–6.80) in group R patients (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in NRS scores on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 between the 2 groups. Postoperative nausea was less frequent in group R (31.4%) than in group N (53.5%) (P < 0.001). However, the incidence of itching was higher in group R (4.3%) than in group N (0.7%) (P < 0.001). Continuous infusion of remifentanil during general anesthesia can cause higher intensity of postoperative pain and more frequent itching than general anesthesia without remifentanil infusion immediately after thyroidectomy. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of continuous remifentanil infusion, volatile anesthesia without opioid may be a good choice for minor

  16. Effects of remifentanil versus nitrous oxide on postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain in patients receiving thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Yi, Myung Sub; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Remifentanil and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 2 commonly used anesthetic agents. Both these agents are known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, remifentanil and N2O have not been directly compared in a published study. Remifentanil can induce acute tolerance or hyperalgesia, thus affecting postoperative pain. The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the effects of remifentanil and N2O on PONV and pain in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after thyroidectomy. We analyzed the electronic medical records of 992 patients receiving fentanyl-based IV-PCA after thyroidectomy at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2016. We categorized the patients according to anesthetic agents used: group N2O (n = 745) and group remifentanil (n = 247). The propensity score matching method was used to match patients in the 2 groups based on their covariates. Finally, 128 matched subjects were selected from each group. There were no differences between groups for all covariates after propensity score matching. The numeric rating scale for nausea (0.55 ± 0.88 vs 0.27 ± 0.76, P = 0.01) was higher and complete response (88 [68.8%] vs 106 [82.8%], P = 0.001) was lower in group N2O compared with group remifentanil on postoperative day 0. However, the visual analog scale score for pain (3.47 ± 2.02 vs 3.97 ± 1.48, P = 0.025) was higher in group remifentanil than group N2O on postoperative day 0. In patients receiving IV-PCA after thyroidectomy, postoperative nausea was lower but postoperative pain was higher in group remifentanil. PMID:27741140

  17. Arthroscopic-Assisted Fixation of Tibial Plateau Fractures: Patient-Reported Postoperative Activity Levels.

    PubMed

    Kampa, John; Dunlay, Ryan; Sikka, Robby; Swiontkowski, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Tibial plateau fractures may result in significant limitations postoperatively. Studies have described outcomes of arthroscopic-assisted percutaneous fixation (AAPF) of these injuries but have rarely reported postoperative activity levels. Between 2009 and 2013, patients who sustained a lateral split, split depression, or pure depression type tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker types I-III fractures) and underwent outpatient AAPF were eligible for the study. Outcomes were assessed using Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm score, and Marx activity score. Twenty-five consecutive patients were eligible for the study, and 22 (88%) were included in the final analysis, with average follow-up of 2.5 years (range, 1-5.2 years). Thirteen women and 9 men with an average age of 48.3 years (range, 23-65 years) comprised the study population. Average number of screws used for fixation was 2 (range, 1-4). The average depression was 8 mm preoperatively and 0.9 mm (range, 0-3 mm) postoperatively. Four patients (18%) had complications: 2 with hardware removal and 2 with postoperative deep venous thrombosis. Average postoperative Marx activity score was 5.7. Average postoperative KOOS Symptoms, Sports, and Quality of Life scores were 88 (range, 68-100), 85 (range, 45-100), and 77 (range, 50-100), respectively. Average IKDC and Lysholm scores were 81 (range, 55-97) and 87 (range, 54-100), respectively. The AAPF surgical technique, which was performed in an outpatient setting, facilitated excellent postoperative range of motion, outcomes, and activity scores with minimal complications. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e486-e491.].

  18. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative patients. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of ventilatory support that is increasing in importance day by day in the management of postoperative respiratory failure. Its role in the prevention and treatment of atelectasis is particularly important in the in the period after thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Similarly, in the transplanted patient, NIV can shorten the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risk of infectious complications in these high-risk patients. It has been performed A systematic review of the literature has been performed, including examining the technical, clinical experiences and recommendations concerning the application of NIV in the postoperative period.

  19. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative patients. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of ventilatory support that is increasing in importance day by day in the management of postoperative respiratory failure. Its role in the prevention and treatment of atelectasis is particularly important in the in the period after thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Similarly, in the transplanted patient, NIV can shorten the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risk of infectious complications in these high-risk patients. It has been performed A systematic review of the literature has been performed, including examining the technical, clinical experiences and recommendations concerning the application of NIV in the postoperative period. PMID:25892605

  20. A Comparison of Internal Fixation and Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for the Treatment of Reverse Oblique Intertrochanteric Femoral Fractures in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bong-Ju; Min, Woong-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the clinical and radiological results between internal fixation using the proximal femoral nail system and bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA) in reverse oblique intertrochanteric hip fractures in elderly patients. Materials and Methods From January 2005 to July 2012, we reviewed the medical records of 53 patients who had been treated surgically for reverse oblique intertrochanteric fracture and had been followed-up on for a minimum of two years. All patients were ≥70 years of age, and divided into two groups for retrospective evaluation. One group was treated with internal fixation using the proximal femoral nail system (31 cases), and the other group was treated with BHA (22 cases). Results Early ambulation postoperatively and less pain at postoperative three month were significantly superior in the BHA group. However, by 24 months postoperatively, the internal fixation group exhibited higher Harris scores and correspondingly less pain than the BHA group. There were no significant differences in union rate, duration of hospitalization or lateral wall fracture healing between the two groups. Four patients in the internal fixation group underwent reoperation. Conclusion In the treatment of intertrochanteric fracture of the reverse oblique type, open reduction and internal fixation should be considered to be the better choice for patients with good health and bone quality. However, in cases of severe comminition of fracture and poor bone quality, BHA is an alternative offering advantages including early ambulation, less pain at early stages, and a lower risk of reoperation. PMID:27536619

  1. Can bedside patient-reported numbness predict postoperative ambulation ability for total knee arthroplasty patients with nerve block catheters?

    PubMed Central

    Mudumbai, Seshadri C.; Ganaway, Toni; Kim, T. Edward; Howard, Steven K.; Giori, Nicholas J.; Shum, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Background Adductor canal catheters offer advantages over femoral nerve catheters for knee replacement patients because they produce less quadriceps muscle weakness; however, applying adductor canal catheters in bedside clinical practice remains challenging. There is currently no patient-reported outcome that accurately predicts patients' physical function after knee replacement. The present study evaluates the validity of a relatively new patient-reported outcome, i.e., a numbness score obtained using a numeric rating scale, and assesses its predictive value on postoperative ambulation. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study pooling data from two previously-published clinical trials using identical research methodologies. Both studies recruited patients undergoing knee replacement; one studied adductor canal catheters while the other studied femoral nerve catheters. Our primary outcome was patient-reported numbness scores on postoperative day 1. We also examined postoperative day 1 ambulation distance and its association with postoperative numbness using linear regression, adjusting for age, body mass index, and physical status. Results Data from 94 subjects were included (femoral subjects, n = 46; adductor canal subjects, n = 48). Adductor canal patients reported decreased numbness (median [10th–90th percentiles]) compared to femoral patients (0 [0–5] vs. 4 [0–10], P = 0.001). Adductor canal patients also ambulated seven times further on postoperative day 1 relative to femoral patients. There was a significant association between postoperative day 1 total ambulation distance and numbness (Beta = –2.6; 95% CI: –4.5, –0.8, P = 0.01) with R2 = 0.1. Conclusions Adductor canal catheters facilitate improved early ambulation and produce less patient-reported numbness after knee replacement, but the correlation between these two variables is weak. PMID:26885299

  2. Patients' reasons for electing to undergo total knee arthroplasty impact post-operative pain severity and range of motion.

    PubMed

    Cremeans-Smith, Julie K; Boarts, Jessica M; Greene, Kenneth; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2009-06-01

    The present study examines the reasons cited by 103 patients for their electing to undergo total knee arthroplastic surgery and the relationship between these reasons and their post-operative pain and range of motion. Results suggest that individuals who describe different reasons for undergoing surgery vary in their post-operative recovery. Specifically, patients who cite pain as the reason they are undergoing surgery report greater levels of pain during the early post-operative period. In contrast, patients who describe goals of regaining mobility or a specific activity as their reason for undergoing surgery achieve a greater range of motion during early post-operative physical therapy. Individuals who express avoidance goals for undergoing total knee arthroplasty report more severe post-operative pain at 1 and 3 months following surgery compared to patients who express approach goals. Interventions targeted towards patients reporting pre-operative pain or avoidance goals may decrease subsequent post-operative pain and increase mobility.

  3. Increased Risk of Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome in Patients with Prolonged Hospitalization and Increased Postoperative Opioid Use

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Adam K.; Passe, Melissa A.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is unfortunately very common following thoracotomy and results in decreased quality of life. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine perioperative patient, surgical, and analgesic characteristics associated with the development of PTPS. Methods. Sixty-six patients who presented to the Mayo Clinic Rochester Pain Clinic were diagnosed with PTPS 2 months or more after thoracotomy with postoperative epidural analgesia. These patients were matched with sixty-six control patients who underwent thoracotomy with postoperative epidural analgesia and were never diagnosed with PTPS. Results. Median (IQR) hospital stay was significantly different between control patients (5 days (4, 6)) compared with PTPS patients (6 days (5, 8)), P < 0.02. The total opioid equivalent utilized in oral morphine equivalents in milligrams for the first three days postoperatively was significantly different between control patients and PTPS patients. The median (IQR) total opioid equivalent utilized was 237 (73, 508) for controls and 366 (116, 874) for PTPS patients (P < 0.005). Conclusion. Patients with a prolonged hospital stay after thoracotomy were at an increased risk of developing PTPS, and this is a novel finding. Patients who utilize higher oral morphine equivalents for the first 3 days were also at increased risk for PTPS. PMID:27340565

  4. The elderly patient on dialysis: geriatric considerations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Germain, Michael J; Cohen, Lewis; Unruh, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The burgeoning population of older dialysis patients presents opportunities to provide personalized care. The older dialysis population has a high burden of chronic health conditions, decrements in quality of life and a high risk of death. In order to address these challenges, this review will recommend routinely establishing prognosis through the use of prediction instruments and communicating these findings to older patients. The challenges to prognosis in adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) include the subjective nature of clinical judgment, application of appropriate prognostic tools and communication of findings to patients and caregivers. There are three reasons why we believe these conversations occur infrequently with the dialysis population. First, there have previously been no clinically practical instruments to identify individuals undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) who are at highest risk for death. Second, nephrologists have not been trained to have conversations about prognosis and end-of-life care. Third, other than hospitalizations and accrual of new diagnoses, there are no natural milestone guidelines in place for patients supported by dialysis. The prognosis can be used in shared decision-making to establish goals of care, limits on dialysis support or parameters for withdrawal from dialysis. As older adults with ESRD benefit from kidney transplantation, prognosis can also be used to determine who should be referred for evaluation by a kidney transplant team. The use of prognosis in older adults may determine approaches to optimize well-being and personalize care among older adults ranging from hospice to kidney transplantation.

  5. The elderly patient on dialysis: geriatric considerations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Germain, Michael J; Cohen, Lewis; Unruh, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The burgeoning population of older dialysis patients presents opportunities to provide personalized care. The older dialysis population has a high burden of chronic health conditions, decrements in quality of life and a high risk of death. In order to address these challenges, this review will recommend routinely establishing prognosis through the use of prediction instruments and communicating these findings to older patients. The challenges to prognosis in adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) include the subjective nature of clinical judgment, application of appropriate prognostic tools and communication of findings to patients and caregivers. There are three reasons why we believe these conversations occur infrequently with the dialysis population. First, there have previously been no clinically practical instruments to identify individuals undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) who are at highest risk for death. Second, nephrologists have not been trained to have conversations about prognosis and end-of-life care. Third, other than hospitalizations and accrual of new diagnoses, there are no natural milestone guidelines in place for patients supported by dialysis. The prognosis can be used in shared decision-making to establish goals of care, limits on dialysis support or parameters for withdrawal from dialysis. As older adults with ESRD benefit from kidney transplantation, prognosis can also be used to determine who should be referred for evaluation by a kidney transplant team. The use of prognosis in older adults may determine approaches to optimize well-being and personalize care among older adults ranging from hospice to kidney transplantation. PMID:23787545

  6. Efficacy of celecoxib for acute pain management following total hip arthroplasty in elderly patients: A prospective, randomized, placebo-control trial

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIA; ZHU, WEI; ZHANG, ZHENXIANG; ZHU, LIXIAN; ZHANG, WENJIE; DU, YAQING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether celecoxib is able to ameliorate pain intensity, provide a narcotic-sparing effect, achieve early ambulation and improve rehabilitation following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in elderly patients. Peri- and post-operative oral celecoxib was administered to verify the efficacy of celecoxib for acute pain management in a multimodal analgesic strategy. All 64 eligible patients were randomly allocated to either the celecoxib group, who took an oral 400 mg capsule of celecoxib peri-operatively and 200 mg per 12 h post-operatively for the first 5 days, or the control group, who were orally treated with a placebo capsule having the same appearance. A multimodal analgesic technique was used in which oral celecoxib or placebo capsule was combined with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) morphine pump for peri- and post-operative pain management. Pain assessments were recorded at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, and 7 and 14 days after THA using the visual analog scale (VAS). PCA morphine consumption; 6, 12, 24 and 48-h post-operative Harris hip score (HHS); time interval until initial ambulation; rates of urinary retention and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) within 72 h; and intra- and post-operative blood loss were also documented. The celecoxib and control groups comprised 34 and 30 patients, respectively. Baseline demographics were comparable between the two groups. The post-operative VAS in the celecoxib group was significantly lower than that in the control group at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after THA. The post-operative HHS had no significant difference between the two groups, while the time interval until initial ambulation in the celecoxib group (4.5±1.2 days) was significantly less than that in the control group (5.83±2.04 days; P<0.05). Morphine consumption was significantly decreased in the celecoxib group when compared with the control group at 6, 12, 24 and 24 h. Although the 72-h post-operative rates

  7. Pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccination among elderly patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Małgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Małgorzata; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2015-10-28

    Both seasonal influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended for elderly diabetics. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination over the previous twelve months, pneumococcal vaccination over a lifetime, and to identify predictors which affect likelihood of vaccination. 219 diabetics elders were detailed questioned 3 months after the end of 2012/2013 influenza season. 26.48% of patients have been vaccinated against influenza in the last year and only 9.13% of patients reported pneumococcal vaccination in the past. The logistic regression analysis revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: higher number of anti-hyperglycemic medications, increased number of co-morbidities, higher patients' income, recommendation of vaccination from General Practitioners (GPs) and specialist. Significant predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake included increased number of co-morbidities and recommendation of vaccination received from GPs and specialist. The commonest reasons given by those unvaccinated were lack of information about immunization and low perceived benefits of vaccination. Of patients who were not treated with influenza vaccine 86.7% had never received recommendation from specialist and 71.4% had never been advised by GPs. Influenza vaccination was too expensive to 24.85% of patients. The vaccination rate among elderly diabetics in Poland is low. Lack of knowledge and patients' income are the main barriers. Increased awareness of healthcare professionals to educate and encourage vaccination and propagation of free vaccinations to all people at risk may increase the rate of vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal disease.

  8. Pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccination among elderly patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Małgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Małgorzata; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Both seasonal influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended for elderly diabetics. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination over the previous twelve months, pneumococcal vaccination over a lifetime, and to identify predictors which affect likelihood of vaccination. 219 diabetics elders were detailed questioned 3 months after the end of 2012/2013 influenza season. 26.48% of patients have been vaccinated against influenza in the last year and only 9.13% of patients reported pneumococcal vaccination in the past. The logistic regression analysis revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: higher number of anti-hyperglycemic medications, increased number of co-morbidities, higher patients' income, recommendation of vaccination from General Practitioners (GPs) and specialist. Significant predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake included increased number of co-morbidities and recommendation of vaccination received from GPs and specialist. The commonest reasons given by those unvaccinated were lack of information about immunization and low perceived benefits of vaccination. Of patients who were not treated with influenza vaccine 86.7% had never received recommendation from specialist and 71.4% had never been advised by GPs. Influenza vaccination was too expensive to 24.85% of patients. The vaccination rate among elderly diabetics in Poland is low. Lack of knowledge and patients' income are the main barriers. Increased awareness of healthcare professionals to educate and encourage vaccination and propagation of free vaccinations to all people at risk may increase the rate of vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal disease. PMID:26561844

  9. Efficacy of continuous epidural analgesia and the implications for patient care in the early postoperative phase.

    PubMed

    Slack, J F; Faut-Callahan, M

    1990-06-01

    Management of postoperative pain has been shown to be inadequately controlled, and, in fact, can have significant deleterious effects on a patient's early postoperative recovery. Continuous epidural analgesia has recently been used to control postoperative pain. This mode of analgesia controls postoperative pain without the delays inherent in the PRN administration of systemic narcotics. This was a multidisciplinary, prospective, randomized, double-blind study of various epidural analgesic agents in 53 thoracic and 81 abdominal surgery patients. The focus of the study was to identify the benefits and problems of continuous epidural analgesia for postoperative pain management and the implications for the nursing care of the patients. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the analgesia was based on the following measures: (1) pain measured at regular intervals in the 72-hour period with a visual analog; (2) pain as measured after 72 hours with the word descriptor section of the McGill Pain Questionnaire; (3) amount of supplemental systemic narcotic analgesic needed; (4) recovery of ambulatory and respiratory function, including ability to perform coughing and deep-breathing exercises; (5) occurrence of adverse effects; and (6) the type and distribution of nursing care problems associated with continuous epidural infusions. The results of this study showed that the level of pain relief and recovery of postoperative function was superior to that provided by the more widely used (PRN) systemic administration of narcotics. With the exception of the report of back pain by patients receiving the normal saline epidural solution, complications did not occur in a significantly greater proportion when using the epidural route. Although some nursing care problems were identified, patients who received epidural analgesia were able to be cared for on general care units with no adverse effects reported. PMID:2285719

  10. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    PubMed Central

    Pintado, María-Consuelo; Villa, Patricia; González-García, Natalia; Luján, Jimena; Molina, Rocío; Trascasa, María; López-Ramos, Esther; Martínez, Cristina; Cambronero, José-Andrés; de Pablo, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%). Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P < 0.01), which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P < 0.01). High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years. PMID:24453879

  11. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in elderly patients with multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Maura; Iorio, Alfonso; Nobili, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Mauro; Pasina, Luca; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Marengoni, Alessandra; Salerno, Francesco; Corrao, Salvatore; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (TP) is known to reduce venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical inpatients, but the criteria for risk-driven prescription, safety and impact on mortality are still debated. We analyze data on elderly patients with multimorbidities admitted in the year 2010 to the Italian internal medicine wards participating in the REPOSI registry to investigate the rate of TP during the hospital stay, and analyze the factors that are related to its prescription. Multivariate logistic regression, area under the ROC curve and CART analysis were performed to look for independent predictors of TP prescription. Association between TP and VTE, bleeding and death in hospital and during the 3-month post-discharge follow-up were explored by logistic regression and propensity score analysis. Among the 1,380 patients enrolled, 171 (15.2 %) were on TP during the hospital stay (162 on low molecular weight heparins, 9 on fondaparinux). The disability Barthel index was the main independent predictor of TP prescription. Rate of fatal and non-fatal VTE and bleeding during and after hospitalization did not differ between TP and non-TP patients. In-hospital and post-discharge mortality was significantly higher in patients on TP, that however was not an independent predictor of mortality. Among elderly medical patients there was a relatively low rate of TP, that was more frequently prescribed to patients with a higher degree of disability and who had an overall higher mortality.

  12. Patient cost sharing and medical expenditures for the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kazuya; Mizuoka, Sou; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Iizuka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapidly aging population, relatively little is known about how cost sharing affects the elderly's medical spending. Exploiting longitudinal claims data and the drastic reduction of coinsurance from 30% to 10% at age 70 in Japan, we find that the elderly's demand responses are heterogeneous in ways that have not been previously reported. Outpatient services by orthopedic and eye specialties, which will continue to increase in an aging society, are particularly price responsive and account for a large share of the spending increase. Lower cost sharing increases demand for brand-name drugs but not for generics. These high price elasticities may call for different cost-sharing rules for these services. Patient health status also matters: receiving medical services appears more discretionary for the healthy than the sick in the outpatient setting. Finally, we found no evidence that additional medical spending improved short-term health outcomes. PMID:26603160

  13. Patient cost sharing and medical expenditures for the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kazuya; Mizuoka, Sou; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Iizuka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapidly aging population, relatively little is known about how cost sharing affects the elderly's medical spending. Exploiting longitudinal claims data and the drastic reduction of coinsurance from 30% to 10% at age 70 in Japan, we find that the elderly's demand responses are heterogeneous in ways that have not been previously reported. Outpatient services by orthopedic and eye specialties, which will continue to increase in an aging society, are particularly price responsive and account for a large share of the spending increase. Lower cost sharing increases demand for brand-name drugs but not for generics. These high price elasticities may call for different cost-sharing rules for these services. Patient health status also matters: receiving medical services appears more discretionary for the healthy than the sick in the outpatient setting. Finally, we found no evidence that additional medical spending improved short-term health outcomes.

  14. [Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Elderly Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Yokode, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Age-specific analyses of mortality rates in Japan show that cancer was the leading cause of death for the age group 40-89 years in the year 2013. Although the crude mortality rate from cancer has recently increased, the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate has shown a decreasing trend. This suggests that the increases in the crude mortality rate may have been caused by the aging of the population. Cancer patients who are old present many comorbidities and newly diagnosed geriatric problems. Several tools provide determinants of survival in cancer patients who are old (including the comprehensive geriatric assessment [CGA]) in order to improve the quality of cancer care in this population. PMID:27539034

  15. Surgical repair of Stanford type A aortic dissection in elderly patients: a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Guida, Gustavo; Vohra, Hunaid A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The results of surgical treatment of type A aortic dissection (AAD) in the elderly are controversial and aggravated by a higher operative mortality rate. The studies published in this subset of patients are mainly retrospective analyses or small samples from international registries. We sought to investigate this topic by conducting a contemporary meta-analysis of the most recent observational studies. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted for any study published in the last five years on aortic dissection treated surgically in patients 70 years and older. A pooled risk-ratio meta-analysis has been conducted three main post-operative outcomes: short-term mortality, stroke and acute kidney injury. Results A total of 11 retrospective observational studies have been included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Pooled meta-analysis showed an increased risk of short term mortality for the elderly population [relative risk (RR) =2.25; 95% CI, 1.79–2.83; I2=0%; P<0.0001], and this has been confirmed in a sub-analysis of patients 80 years and older. The risk of having stroke (RR =1.15; 95% CI, 0.89–1.5; I2=0%; P=0.28) and acute kidney injury (RR =0.79; 95% CI, 0.5–1.25, I2=14%, P=0.31) after surgery were comparable to the younger cohort of patients. Conclusions Although affected by an increased risk of short-term mortality in the elderly, surgical repair remains the treatment of choice for AAD. The main post-operative outcomes are comparable to younger patients and the mid-term survival rates are acceptable. PMID:27563539

  16. Extraperitoneal versus transperitoneal laparoscopic radical cystectomy for selected elderly bladder cancer patients: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lang; Song, Jian; Wu, Menghua; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Daoxin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study reports the initial experience of extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical cystectomy (ELRC) and compared with transperitoneal laparoscopic radical cystectomy (TLRC) in the treatment of selected elderly bladder cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of forty male bladder cancer patients who underwent ELRC (n=19) or TLRC (n=21) with ureterocutaneostomy were investigated. Demographic parameters, perioperative variables, oncological outcomes and follow-up data were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A significantly shorter time to exsufflation (1.5±0.7 vs 2.1±1.1 d; p=0.026) and liquid intake (1.8±0.9 vs 2.8±1.9 d; p=0.035) were observed in the ELRC group compared with the TLRC group. The incidence of postoperative ileus in the ELRC group was lower than the TLRC group (0 vs 9.5%). However, the difference had no statistical significance (p>0.05). The removed lymph node number in the ELRC group was significantly lower than the TLRC group (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in the overall and cancer-free survival rates (p>0.05). Conclusions: ELRC seems to be a safe and feasible surgical strategy for the selected elderly bladder cancer patients with ≤ T2 disease. The surgical and oncological efficacy of the ELRC is similar to that of the TLRC, but with faster intestinal function recovery. Further studies with a large series including different urinary diversions are needed to confirm our results and to better evaluate the benefit of ELRC in bladder cancer patients. PMID:27564274

  17. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods. PMID:27247165

  18. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods. PMID:27247165

  19. Orthostatic Hypotension and Mortality in Elderly Frail Patients

    PubMed Central

    Freud, Tamar; Punchik, Boris; Yan, Press

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common problem in the elderly age group, and some studies have reported an association between OH and increased mortality. We evaluated possible associations between OH and mortality in a retrospective study of frail elderly patients who came for a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The study included all patients ≥65 years who were assessed in the outpatient Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Unit. Data were collected from the computerized medical record, including blood pressure, sociodemographic data, lifestyle, falls, pulse rate, body mass index, functional and cognitive status, and comorbidity. Data on mortlaity were also collected. The study population consisted of 571 patients who underwent assessment over a 9-year study period. The mean age was 83.7 ± 6.1, 35.9% were males, and 183 (32.1%) were diagnosed with OH. Systolic OH (OHS) was more common than diastolic OH (25.2% vs 15.6%). In univariate analyses, OHS was associated with increased overall mortality. Over the follow-up period, 30.2% of the OHS patients died compared with 22.3% (P = 0.037), but in the Cox models there was no statistically significant associations between OHS and overall mortality. In contrast, age, burden of comorbidity, a low high-density lipoprotein level, and low creatinine clearance were independent predictors of increased overall mortality. In a population of frail elderly patients with a high burden of comorbidity, OH was not an independent risk factor for overall mortality. PMID:26091470

  20. Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum: Associated Conditions, Family History, and Postoperative Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Pinar; Cakiroglu, Aylin; Er, Aynur; Ozbakir, Hincal; Cinel, Ali Emin; Cangut, Busra; Iris, Merve; Canbaz, Berkay; Pıçak, Ebru; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common chest wall deformities. In this study, we aimed to characterize how patients obtained information about these deformities, as well as patients’ family history, associated medical problems, and postoperative satisfaction after the Nuss and Abramson procedures. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study included patients who were operated by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Follow-up calls were made after approval of our institution’s ethics committee. We reached 207 of the 336 PE patients (61.6%) and 73 of the 96 PC patients (76%). Results The majority of the patients were male (85% of the PE patients and 91.8% of the PC patients). The age of diagnosis of PE was 14.52±0.51 years and the age at the time of operation was 17.89±0.42 years; for PC patients, the corresponding ages were 15.23±0.55 years and 16.77±0.55 years, respectively. A total of 70% of the PE patients and 63.8% of the PC patients obtained information about pectus deformities through the Internet. In 27.1% of the PE patients with an associated anomaly, 57.1% (n=13) had scoliosis, while 41.1% of the PC patients with an associated anomaly had kyphosis (n=5). Postoperative satisfaction, as evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10, was 8.17±0.15 for PE patients and 8.37±0.26 for PC patients. The postoperative pain duration was 51.93±5.18 days for PE patients and 38.5±6.88 days for PC patients. Conclusion In this study, we found that most patients with pectus deformities were male. The Internet was an important resource for patients to learn about their deformities. Family history and associated anomalies were identified as important aspects for consideration in the clinical setting. The patients reported high levels of postoperative satisfaction, and pain management was found to be one of the most important elements of postoperative care. PMID:26889443

  1. Patient stress in intensive care: comparison between a coronary care unit and a general postoperative unit

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Douglas de Sá; Resende, Mariane Vanessa; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite Machado

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare stressors identified by patients of a coronary intensive care unit with those perceived by patients of a general postoperative intensive care unit. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units of a private hospital. In total, 60 patients participated in the study, 30 in each intensive care unit. The stressor scale was used in the intensive care units to identify the stressors. The mean score of each item of the scale was calculated followed by the total stress score. The differences between groups were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results The mean ages of patients were 55.63 ± 13.58 years in the coronary intensive care unit and 53.60 ± 17.47 years in the general postoperative intensive care unit. For patients in the coronary intensive care unit, the main stressors were “being in pain”, “being unable to fulfill family roles” and “being bored”. For patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit, the main stressors were “being in pain”, “being unable to fulfill family roles” and “not being able to communicate”. The mean total stress scores were 104.20 ± 30.95 in the coronary intensive care unit and 116.66 ± 23.72 (p = 0.085) in the general postoperative intensive care unit. When each stressor was compared separately, significant differences were noted only between three items. “Having nurses constantly doing things around your bed” was more stressful to the patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit than to those in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.013). Conversely, “hearing unfamiliar sounds and noises” and “hearing people talk about you” were the most stressful items for the patients in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.046 and 0.005, respectively). Conclusion The perception of major stressors and the total stress score were similar between patients

  2. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the elderly arthritic patient.

    PubMed

    Schutt, A H

    1977-02-01

    The basic conservative therapy programs for elderly patients with arthritis include adequate physical rest and mental relaxation, analgesics, aspirin, and physical rehabilitation consisting of occupational and physical therapy with a good home therapy program providing appropriate balance between rest and activity. Proper protection from trauma and overuse of the involved joints, and appropriate nutrition can afford optimal improvement in health status and general resistance. Proper orientation of the patient regarding the nature of his disease and treatment program usually is required to obtain his full cooperation. A kind, encouraging, and understanding approach is most helpful in the elderly patient. Physical rehabilitation can help to relieve pain, decrease edema and deformities, improve muscle weakness and incoordination, and increase stamina. Difficulties with gait, transfers, and self-care can be solved or improved. Physical medicine and rehabilitation measures are important components of the challenging treatment of patients of all age groups who are afflicted with severe arthritis. It is most important to tailor these components of the treatment program to the problem presented by geriatric arthritic patients.

  3. [Special features of physical therapy for elderly rheumatic patients].

    PubMed

    Hardt, R

    2012-07-01

    The demographic shift is leading to a rapid rise in the number of elderly citizens. Accordingly, the number of geriatric problems is also increasing within the population of rheumatic patients. Geriatric patients are characterized through the triad of high age, multimorbidity and functional deficits. Almost all will show signs of arthritis and other degenerative musculoskeletal illnesses. Inflammatory rheumatic diseases within the geriatric population are found to be mostly in the chronic stage or with defective conditions. Problems typical of this population, such as comorbidities especially in the cardiovascular sector, must be assessed prior to the application of therapeutic concepts. The focus is on activating therapies, such as physiotherapy and occupational therapy, where the functional usefulness is proven. The use of thermal therapy, especially applied in the form of heat, as well as electrotherapy and high frequency therapy are also useful when indicated. Balneotherapy and hydrotherapy, as well as massage therapy and lymphatic drainage, must be adapted to the cardiovascular function of geriatric patients; this applies especially to heart failure patients. Physical therapy concepts in elderly rheumatic patients should preferably be implemented and managed by a multidisciplinary geriatric team.

  4. Electro-acupuncture decreases postoperative pain and improves recovery in patients undergoing a supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    An, Li-Xin; Chen, Xue; Ren, Xiu-Jun; Wu, Hai-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We performed this study to examine the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on postoperative pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and recovery in patients after a supratentorial tumor resection. Eighty-eight patients requiring a supratentorial tumor resection were anesthetized with sevoflurane and randomly allocated to a no treatment group (Group C) or an EA group (Group A). After anesthesia induction, the patients in Group A received EA at LI4 and SJ5, at BL63 and LR3 and at ST36 and GB40 on the same side as the craniotomy. The stimulation was continued until the end of the operation. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) was used for the postoperative analgesia. The postoperative pain scores, PONV, the degree of dizziness and appetite were recorded. In the first 6 hours after the operation, the mean total bolus, the effective times of PCIA bolus administrations and the VAS scores were much lower in the EA group (p < 0.05). In the EA group, the incidence of PONV and degree of dizziness and feeling of fullness in the head within the first 24 hours after the operation was much lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the EA group, more patients had a better appetite than did the patients in group C (51.2% vs. 27.5%) (p < 0.05). The use of EA in neurosurgery patients improves the quality of postoperative analgesia, promotes appetite recovery and decreases some uncomfortable sensations, such as dizziness and feeling of fullness in the head. PMID:25169910

  5. Evaluation of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients undergoing R1 and R2 resections.

    PubMed

    Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Talabnin, Chutima; Pugkhem, Ake; Khuntikeo, Narong; Seow, O-Tur; Chur-in, Siri; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Sopit

    2012-01-01

    Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment and is considered the only potential cure for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, most of the patients present at a late stage of disease and positive margins are frequently encountered. Therefore, adjuvant therapeutic modalities, such as chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are needed to improve the survival time of CCA patients. In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the clinical features, overall survival and efficacy with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for 171 intrahepatic CCA patients. All those with histologically proved intrahepatic CCA diagnosed during 1998-2002, at Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kean University, Thailand, were included in this study. All patients were considered to have resectable tumors with curative intent, 114 patients received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, of which only 54 patients were given the full 6 cycle treatment. Mass forming type CCA was the major type found in our series. The predictive clinicopathological factors which influenced an unfavorable outcome were tumor size >4 cm, multiple masses, mass forming and periductal gross type, histology with poor differentiation, involvement of serosa, vasculature or diaphragm, advanced tumor stage and positive surgical margin. On the other hand, R0 resection, skeletonization of hepatoduodenal ligaments and complete postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy were predictive of a favorable outcome. Multivariate analysis Cox proportional hazards models revealed that sex, tumor size, serosa involvement, surgical margin status, skeletonization and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy were independently associated with long term survival post-surgery. Regardless of the surgical margin status, patients who received complete postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy had a significant survival advantage.

  6. Bone mineral density among elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Hattiholi, Jyothi; Gaude, Gajanan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is one of the major extra-pulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which limits the physical activity. The present study was undertaken to study the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in the elderly COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among elderly COPD patients. After a detailed clinical history spirometry was done to stage the severity of COPD. DEXA scan of the lumbar spine was performed using bone densitometer to determine osteoporosis. Statistical analysis was based on Chi-square test. Risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 70 elderly COPD patients were included. Fourty-six patients (65.7%) had osteoporosis and 13 (18.6%) had osteopenia. Majority of the osteoporosis patients had stage III or stage IV COPD disease (77.2%). As the severity grade of COPD increased, the risk of osteoporosis also increased. Also, with the increasing severity of COPD, BMD decreased. Patients with lower body mass index (BMI) had higher prevalence of osteoporosis (45.7%). Using multivariate regression analysis, stage IV COPD, number of acute exacerbations >3 and steroid cumulative dose >1000 mg were independent risk factors for osteoporosis in elderly COPD patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of osteoporosis was 65.7%, and 18.6% had osteopenia. Stage III and IV patients had significantly lower BMI in elderly COPD patients. High clinical suspicion and early diagnosis and treatment are required in the evaluation of osteoporosis in elderly COPD patients. PMID:24403704

  7. Premedication with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor meloxicam reduced postoperative pain in patients after oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Yamaguchi, H; Naito, H; Shiiki, K; Izawa, K; Ota, Y; Sakamoto, H; Kaneko, A

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam for treatment of postoperative oral surgical pain was assessed in a randomized controlled trial. Patients undergoing unilateral mandibular 3rd molar extraction surgery were allocated to 3 groups, A, B and C. After oral premedication of meloxicam 10 mg in group A, ampiroxicam 27 mg in group B and placebo in group C, surgery was completed within 30 min under local anaesthesia using 2% lidocaine. For postoperative pain relief the patients were allowed to take oral loxoprofen (60 mg per tablet). Postoperative pain was evaluated at the clinic on the 1st, 7th and 14th postoperative day (POD) using a visual analogue scale (VAS), as was the number of loxoprofen tablets consumed, and the results were compared among the 3 groups with statistical significance of P<0.05. VAS scores on 1 POD were significantly lower in group A than in group C. Loxoprofen consumption on the day of surgery and 1 POD was significantly lower in group A than in group C (P<0.01). Total analgesic consumption was significantly lower in groups A and B than in group C (P<0.02). The COX-2 inhibitor, meloxicam 10 mg used for premedication reduced postoperative pain compared with control in oral surgery. PMID:16540287

  8. Perioperative lung-protective ventilation strategy reduces postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracic and major abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of postoperative pulmonary complications is strongly associated with increased hospital mortality and prolonged postoperative hospital stays. Although protective lung ventilation is commonly used in the intensive care unit, low tidal volume ventilation in the operating room is not a routine strategy. Low tidal volume ventilation, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure, and repeated recruitment maneuvers, particularly for high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, can reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Facilitating perioperative bundle care by combining prophylactic and postoperative positive-pressure ventilation with intraoperative lung-protective ventilation may be helpful to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. PMID:26885294

  9. Clinical outcomes and mortality in elderly peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sakacı, Tamer; Ahbap, Elbis; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Sınangıl, Ayse; Sevınc, Mustafa; Kara, Ekrem; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu Ozdemır; Caglayan, Feyza Bayraktar; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Ünsal, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and identify the predictors of mortality in elderly patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including all incident peritoneal dialysis cases in patients ≥65 years of age treated from 2001 to 2014. Demographic and clinical data on the initiation of peritoneal dialysis and the clinical events during the study period were collected. Infectious complications were recorded. Overall and technique survival rates were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients who began peritoneal dialysis during the study period were considered for analysis, and 50 of these patients were included in the final analysis. Peritoneal dialysis exchanges were performed by another person for 65% of the patients, whereas 79.9% of patients preferred to perform the peritoneal dialysis themselves. Peritonitis and catheter exit site/tunnel infection incidences were 20.4±16.3 and 24.6±17.4 patient-months, respectively. During the follow-up period, 40 patients were withdrawn from peritoneal dialysis. Causes of death included peritonitis and/or sepsis (50%) and cardiovascular events (30%). The mean patient survival time was 38.9±4.3 months, and the survival rates were 78.8%, 66.8%, 50.9% and 19.5% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after peritoneal dialysis initiation, respectively. Advanced age, the presence of additional diseases, increased episodes of peritonitis, the use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and low albumin levels and daily urine volumes (<100 ml) at the initiation of peritoneal dialysis were predictors of mortality. The mean technique survival duration was 61.7±5.2 months. The technique survival rates were 97.9%, 90.6%, 81.5% and 71% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. None of the factors analyzed were predictors of technique survival. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was higher in elderly patients. Factors affecting mortality in elderly patients included advanced age, the presence of comorbid

  10. Classification of postoperative cardiac patients: comparative evaluation of four algorithms.

    PubMed

    Artioli, E; Avanzolini, G; Barbini, P; Cevenini, G; Gnudi, G

    1991-12-01

    Four classification algorithms based on Bayes' rule for minimum error are compared by evaluating their ability to recognize high- and normal-risk cardio-surgical patients. These algorithms differ in the modelling of the probability density function (pdf) for each class and include: (a) two parametric algorithms based on the assumption of normal pdf; (b) two non-parametric algorithms using Parzen multidimensional approximation of pdf with normal kernels. In each case, classes with both equal and different covariance matrices were considered. A set of 200 patients in the 6 h immediately following cardiac surgery has been used to test the performance of the algorithms. For each patient the three measured variables most effective in representing the difference between the two classes were considered. We found that the two algorithms which explicitly incorporate the information on the different sample covariance between the physiological variables existing in the two classes generally provide better recognition of high- and normal-risk patients. Of these two algorithms the parametric one appears extremely attractive for practical applications, since it exhibits slightly better performance in spite of its great simplicity.

  11. Vancomycin Dosing and Pharmacokinetics in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Benefield, Emily C.; Hagemann, Tracy M.; Allen, H. Christine; Farmer, Kevin; Burton, Michael E.; Chavez-Bueno, Susana

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study compared vancomycin trough concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters in pediatric cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) patients versus those in controls receiving 20 mg/kg/dose, intravenously, every 8 hours. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in children <18 years of age, following CTS, versus an age-and sex-matched control group. The primary objective was to determine differences in trough concentrations between groups. Secondary objectives included comparisons of pharmacokinetics between groups and development of vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as a doubling in serum creatinine from baseline. Also dosing projections were developed to target an area-under-the-curve-to-minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC:MIC) ratio of ≥400. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients in each group were evaluated. Mean trough concentrations were significantly different between groups (CTS: 18.4 mg/L; control: 8.8 mg/L; p < 0.01). Vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury AKI was significantly higher in the CTS group than in controls (25.9% versus 0%, respectively, p<0.01). There were significant differences in vancomycin elimination rates, with a high degree of variability, but no statistical differences in other parameters. Based on dosing projections, CTS patients would require 21 to 88 mg/kg/day, with a dosage interval determined by the child's glomerular filtration rate to achieve the target AUC:MIC ≥400. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin dosage of 20 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours achieved significantly higher trough concentrations in CTS patients than in controls. Pharmacokinetic parameters were highly variable in CTS patients, indicating more individualization of dosage is needed. A future prospective study is needed to determine whether the revised dosage projections achieve the AUC:MIC target and to determine whether these regimens are associated with less vancomycin-associated AKI. PMID:26997930

  12. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Post-Operative Outcome of Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release?

    PubMed Central

    Roshanzamir, Sharareh; Mortazavi, Sahameddin; Dabbaghmanesh, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome include repetitive use of hand and wrist, advanced age, obesity, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease. Decompression of the median nerve is the last treatment of choice usually indicated when negative results to conservative treatments remain for three months. In this study, we aimed to find out whether hypothyroid patients would respond to CTS surgical decompression differently in comparison to healthy individuals. Methods This case control study was conducted on patients with CTS in need of surgical release who were refered to Shahid Faghihi hospital, International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from January 2013 to January 2015. Twenty-five hypothyroid and 22 euthyroid patients were recruited. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and serum TSH level. All patients were followed for three weeks after surgery and a Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) was completed for them pre and post operation. An electrophysiological study was performed during the same follow up period. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. Results The CTS grade reported by electrophysiological study, decreased significantly 3 weeks after operation in comparison with preoperative grades (p<0.001). A significant decrease was observed in the immediate postoperative BCTQ scores compared to preoperative (p<0.001). Also a decrease was detected in the three weeks of postoperative follow up compared to immediate postoperative BCTQ scores (p<0.001) and preoperative BCTQ scores (p<0.001). Postoperative BCTQ scores of euthyroid patients decreased more in comparison to hypothyroid patients (p<0.001). Conclusion It seems that, hypothyroidism has an effect on postoperative outcome of carpal tunnel release. PMID:27790353

  13. Total hip arthroplasty with minimal invasive surgery in elderly patients with neck of femur fractures: our institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Bel, Jean-Christophe; Carret, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether minimal invasive surgery (MIS) in elderly patients with neck of femur fractures would reduce the peri-operative complications and improve the post-operative ambulation and length of hospital stay in his cohort of patients. Forty elderly patients were treated with either total hip arthroplasty (THA) or bipolar prosthesis using MIS transgluteal approach. A matched reference group treated with a conventional surgical approach formed the control group. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. Selection of acetabular component included Novae® uncemented press fit dual mobility concept socket or Bipolar Hemi-Arthroplasty (BHA). The femoral implant was Corail® uncemented stem or Fjord® cemented stem when primary instability was encountered. The follow-up was done for all patients and its minimum length was more than thirty-six months. The average length of the skin incision was 7 (6-8) SD 0.7 cm. Eighteen THA, twenty-two BHA, thirty-seven uncemented femoral stems and three cemented stems were implemented. The length of the procedure was the same as those of the reference group. The operative and post-operative blood loss and analgesic use were significantly decreased in the MIS group. Radiographic implants positioning was similar amongst the two groups. No skin complication, no primary infection, no death within ninety days and no dislocations were observed. MIS approach for implanting THA after a femoral neck fracture in the elderly appears to be a reliable procedure. PMID:26528934

  14. Inflammatory biomarker profiling in elderly patients with acute hip fracture treated with heparins.

    PubMed

    Knesek, Michael John; Litinas, Evangelos; Adiguzel, Cafer; Hopkinson, William; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Lassen, Michael; Fareed, Jawed

    2010-02-01

    Hip fracture is common in the elderly patients with associated high risk of venous thromboembolic complications. Pathogenic activation results in the generation of various surrogate markers in plasma. This study is designed to identify unique biomarkers in elderly patients with hip fracture using protein chip array enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Plasma from a randomized hip fracture study (PK-532; n = 341) treated with either enoxaparin (40 mg once daily) or unfractionated heparin (UFH; 5000 IU twice daily) were collected prior to and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. A total of 52 samples were analyzed using proteomic surface-enhanced laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to identify unique biomarkers in the molecular weight range of 0 to 150 kd. Twenty-nine healthy volunteer's and pooled plasma from total hip replacement/total knee replacement patients with a unique biomarker at 11.9 kd were used as quality controls. In the 29 healthy individuals, the biomarker profile did not reveal the presence of any unique peak in comparison to the reference normal human plasma (NHP). Plasma obtained prior to surgery exhibits unique biomarkers in 4 of 52 (7.6%) of the samples. On day 1 postoperatively, 41 of 51 (80.3%) showed a distinct peak at 11.9 kd. On day 3, 43 of 49 (87.8%) patients showed the presence of this biomarker most often at its strongest intensity. In all, 22 of 44 (50%) showed this biomarker on day 5 and 4 of 23 (17.9%) on day 7. C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and serum amyloid A were also increased after surgery. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) antigen levels were increased due to the treatment modalities.

  15. Use of Antithrombotic Medications among Elderly Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Judith H.; Naert, Lisa; Allen, Norrina B.; Watanabe, Emi; Jones, Sara B.; Barry, Lisa C.; Bravata, Dawn M.; Goldstein, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of antithrombotic medications after ischemic stroke is recommended for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis and secondary stroke prevention. We assessed the rate of receipt of these therapies among eligible ischemic stroke patients aged ≥65 years and determined the effects of age and other patient characteristics on treatment. Methods and Results The analysis included Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries discharged with ischemic stroke (ICD-9 433, 434, 436) randomly selected for inclusion in the Medicare Health Care Quality Improvement Program’s National Stroke Project 1998–1999, 2000–2001. Patients discharged from non-acute facilities, transferred, or terminally ill were excluded. Receipt of in-hospital pharmacological DVT prophylaxis, antiplatelet medication, anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation, and antithrombotic medications at discharge were assessed in eligible patients, stratified by age (65–74, 75–84, 85+ yrs). Descriptive models identified characteristics associated with treatment. Among 31,554 patients, 14.9% of those eligible received pharmacologic DVT prophylaxis, 83.9% antiplatelet drugs, 82.8% anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation, and 74.2% were discharged on an antithrombotic medication. Rates of treatment decreased with age, and were lowest for patients aged 85 years or older. Admission from a skilled nursing facility and functional dependence were associated with lower treatment rates. Conclusions There was substantial underuse of antithrombotic therapies among elderly ischemic stroke patients, particularly among the very elderly, those admitted from skilled nursing facilities, and patients with functional dependence. The reasons for low use of antithrombotic therapies, including the apparent underuse of DVT prophylaxis in otherwise eligible patients, require further investigation. PMID:21098780

  16. A Clinical Nurse Specialist-Directed Initiative to Reduce Postoperative Urinary Retention in Spinal Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Nicole; Bradway, Christine

    2016-08-01

    : Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is the inability to void when the bladder is full after surgery. It is a common complication in postoperative patients, especially in patients undergoing spinal surgery. At our institution, patients who were discharged from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to the inpatient surgical unit typically had bladder distention and a bladder volume of more than 450 mL. In an effort to address this situation, an interprofessional group of advanced practice RNs and physicians formed a team, reviewed the existing literature, examined the PACU nursing practice guideline for evaluating and managing POUR, and devised a quality improvement (QI) project to raise the PACU nursing staff's awareness of the potential for POUR among postoperative patients and to develop an updated nursing practice algorithm for the evaluation and management of POUR in spinal surgery patients. A description of the QI process, including the revised algorithm and pre- and postintervention results, is reported here. In the preintervention group (n = 42), 19 indwelling urinary catheterizations were documented in patient records; no use of intermittent catheterization was documented. In the postintervention group (n = 43), seven indwelling urinary catheterizations were documented in patient records; the use of intermittent catheterization was documented in 11. As a result of our intervention, we decreased the number of indwelling urinary catheters inserted in the PACU, and supported the PACU nursing staff in more frequent and appropriate use of intermittent catheterization in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

  17. Biomedical and psychosocial determinants of psychiatric morbidity among postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Akechi, T; Okuyama, T; Imoto, S; Yamawaki, S; Uchitomi, Y

    2001-02-01

    There has been much interest in the psychosocial issues faced by breast cancer patients because of the high prevalence of the disease and the severe psychological impact of the cancer itself, as well as its treatment. The objective of our study was to investigate the determinants of psychiatric morbidity among postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients. The variables examined included the patients' biomedical characteristics, demographic characteristics, current concerns, coping responses and social support factors. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale (MAC scale), and information pertaining to demographic variables, current concerns and social support factors was obtained by a specially designed questionnaire. Available data were obtained from 148 randomly selected postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (including clinical anxiety and depression) evaluated by using the HADS cut-off point was 23%. The results of univariate analyses indicated that pain, dyspnea, having children with health problems, various other concerns (about children, other family members, the patients' own health and future treatment) and poor coping responses (low fighting spirit, high anxious preoccupation, high fatalism and high helplessness/hopelessness) were significant determinants of the patients' psychiatric morbidity. Additionally, in the logistic regression analysis, having children with health problems and having a low fighting spirit and a high helplessness/hopelessness were final significant determinants. Postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients with these problems should be given careful attention, and psychosocial intervention may be beneficial for them.

  18. A Clinical Nurse Specialist-Directed Initiative to Reduce Postoperative Urinary Retention in Spinal Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Nicole; Bradway, Christine

    2016-08-01

    : Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is the inability to void when the bladder is full after surgery. It is a common complication in postoperative patients, especially in patients undergoing spinal surgery. At our institution, patients who were discharged from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to the inpatient surgical unit typically had bladder distention and a bladder volume of more than 450 mL. In an effort to address this situation, an interprofessional group of advanced practice RNs and physicians formed a team, reviewed the existing literature, examined the PACU nursing practice guideline for evaluating and managing POUR, and devised a quality improvement (QI) project to raise the PACU nursing staff's awareness of the potential for POUR among postoperative patients and to develop an updated nursing practice algorithm for the evaluation and management of POUR in spinal surgery patients. A description of the QI process, including the revised algorithm and pre- and postintervention results, is reported here. In the preintervention group (n = 42), 19 indwelling urinary catheterizations were documented in patient records; no use of intermittent catheterization was documented. In the postintervention group (n = 43), seven indwelling urinary catheterizations were documented in patient records; the use of intermittent catheterization was documented in 11. As a result of our intervention, we decreased the number of indwelling urinary catheters inserted in the PACU, and supported the PACU nursing staff in more frequent and appropriate use of intermittent catheterization in patients undergoing spinal surgery. PMID:27466926

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for postoperative spinal dural arterio-venous fistula patients: An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sichang; Ma, Yongjie; Liang, Peipeng; Wang, Xiaohui; Peng, Chao; Bian, Lisong; Liu, Jiang; Ding, Jianzhang; Zhang, Hongqi; Ling, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Spinal dural arterio-venous fistula (SDAVF) is a common type of spinal vascular malformation. Surgical obliteration of the fistula can cure SDAVF anatomically, but the functional outcome is unsatisfactory.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the functional recovery of postoperative SDAVF patients.This prospective cohort study included postoperative SDAVF patients. Patients were divided into control and HBOT groups. Patients in control group received conventional treatment, whereas those in the HBOT group received conventional treatment plus HBOT (2.0 atmospheric pressure absolute, 14 days). Follow-up was done at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery for evaluation, including symptoms. To assess the effectiveness of HBOT on SDAVF patients, we compared the postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and neurological outcomes of each group with respect to modified Aminoff-Lougue scale and modified Denis Pain and Numbness Scale.From September 1, 2013 to January 31, 2014, 33 SDAVF patients (27 male) treated by microsurgery were included in this study. Sixteen patients were in the HBOT group and 17 patients were in the control group. At 24 months follow-up, the improvement of mDPNS for the HBOT group was significantly larger than those of the control group (2.25 vs 0.88; P = 0.005). In the HBOT group, the average length of hypersignal in magnetic resonance imaging T2 image decrease at 3 months after surgery was 3.25 compared with 2.29 in the control group (P = 0.009). No major adverse effects were reported for all 16 patients who received HBOT.The current findings suggest that HBOT is an effective and safe treatment to relieve lower body pain and numbness for postoperative SDAVF patients. PMID:27631206

  20. Comparison between IV Paracetamol and Tramadol for Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Efforts to use safer drug with minimal side effects for postoperative analgesia are growing day by day for surgeries of shorter duration or which may require day care only, search for ideal agent has been a never ending process. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and Tramadol for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods This study was done at Department of Anaesthesiology, Era’s Medical College, Lucknow, India. Sixty ASA-I or II patients between 18-55 years of age, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups of 30 each. Group A received IV infusion of paracetamol 1g in 100 ml solution, while Group B received IV infusion of Tramadol 100 mg in 100 ml NS at 0 (first complain of pain postoperatively), 6, 12 and 18 hours respectively. Pain intensity was measured by a 10 point Visual Analogue Scale (0→no pain and 10→worst imaginable pain) VAS at T(0)→just before analgesic administration, at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours thereafter, in addition to HR, SBP, DBP. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, Student t-test and p-values <0.05 was considered significant. Results During postoperative follow-up intervals, paracetamol showed significantly lower VAS scores as compared to tramadol at 1.5 hour, 3 hour, 6 hour, 12 hour and 24 hour follow up intervals. One patient in tramadol group had nausea postoperatively (p>0.05). No adverse effect attributable to paracetamol was noticed. Conclusion Intravenous Paracetamol can be advocated as an effective and safe analgesic agent for postoperative pain relief. PMID:27656532

  1. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  2. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers.

  3. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  4. Fractures of the acetabulum in elderly patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Guerado, E; Cano, J R; Cruz, E

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of acetabular fractures in elderly patients is increasing. Poor bone quality and concomitant diseases are the main features of these patients. Fracture patterns are marked by a high degree of variability in terms of patient and fracture characteristics. Preoperative planning with plain radiographs and computed tomography, including 3-dimensional reconstructions, is recommended. Treatment remains challenging because of precarious general health, severe osteopenia, comminution, and associated femoral head damage. Treatment options available include closed management, open reduction with internal fixation, percutaneous fixation in situ, and acute or staged total hip arthroplasty (THA) whether alone or combined with osteosynthesis. In the case of significant destruction of the articular cartilage, primary THA may provide the best solution. Whichever surgical method is chosen, the objective is rapid mobilisation of the patient on a walker or crutches. Late local complications that may occur after nonoperative or operative treatment include posttraumatic arthritis, nonunion, malunion, wound infection, dislocation, intrusive hardware, nerve palsy, and heterotopic bone formation. In this article an overview of the current trends in the management of acetabulum fractures in the elderly is presented.

  5. Effect of scalp block on postoperative pain relief in craniotomy patients.

    PubMed

    Bala, I; Gupta, B; Bhardwaj, N; Ghai, B; Khosla, V K

    2006-04-01

    The efficacy of scalp nerve block using 0.5% bupivacaine with adrenaline for postoperative pain relief in craniotomy patients was evaluated in 40 ASA I or II adult patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. A standard general anaesthesia technique was followed. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group B received 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:400,000 adrenaline and group S received normal saline with 1:400,000 adrenaline, both after skin closure. Postoperative pain was assessed at 30 seconds and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours using a numerical rating scale. Diclofenac IM was administered as rescue analgesia if patients reported a numerical rating scale of 40 or more. Tramadol IV was administered as second rescue analgesia. Sixty per cent of patients in group S experienced moderate to severe pain (numerical rating scale of 40 or more) at some time during the first 12 postoperative hours in comparison to 25% patients in group B. Median pain scores were significantly lower in group B for up to 6 hours. Significantly more patients were pain free up to four hours in group B. Median duration for the requirement of first dose of diclofenac was longer in group B compared to group S (360 min vs 30 min, P < 0.01). The number of doses of diclofenac (5 vs 19) was significantly lower in group B compared to group S (P < 0.01). Tramadol was required by six patients in group S only. Scalp nerve block using 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:400,000 adrenaline decreases the incidence and severity of postoperative pain in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. PMID:16617645

  6. VFMSS findings in elderly dysphagic patients: our experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysphagia consists in alteration of the swallowing mechanism, due to different pathological conditions, which can occur at different levels. The exact prevalence of dysphagia is unclear, even if some AA suggest that 15% of the elderly population is affected. Aim of this study is to analyze the main VFMSS findings in elderly dysphagic patients. Materials and methods The VFMSS of 59 elderly dysphagic patients (32 women, 27 men, ranging in age from 68 to 89 years, mean 81 years) who undergone speech therapy assessment and videofluoromanometric (VFM) investigation of the swallowing process at our institution from January 2011 and December 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Results In the oral phase the preparation and the initial stage of swallowing should be explored by videofluoroscopy evaluating the ability to contain food in mouth and to form a bolus and whether there is an inadequate convergence of Passavant's ridge with preswallowing aspiration. In the pharyngeal phase is necessary to evaluate at videofluoroscopy if there is penetration and/or aspiration and the efficacy of laryngeal closure should be assessed too. The major manometric indicators are: proximal pharyngeal pressure (mmHg), distal pharyngeal pressure (mmHg), relaxation and coordination of upper esophageal sphincter (UES). In the esophageal phase is important to evaluate the esophageal motility and the presence of peristalsis. The manometric parameters used for LES were resting pressure, total length and percentage of post-deglutitive relaxation. Conclusion The VFSS represents a fundamental examination in the management of the dysphagic patient; this investigation may be associated with manometry providing anatomical and functional informations. PMID:24267870

  7. Treatment of humeral shaft aseptic nonunions in elderly patients with opposite structural allograft, BMP-7, and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Murena, Luigi; Canton, Gianluca; Vulcano, Ettore; Surace, Michele Francesco; Cherubino, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Humeral shaft aseptic nonunions occur in 2% to 10% of patients managed conservatively and 10% to 15% of patients treated surgically. The complex muscular and neurovascular anatomy of the upper limb makes the surgical approach to the fracture site demanding and risky, especially when previous surgeries have been attempted. The clinical consequence of atrophic humeral shaft nonunions is a severe functional limitation that may significantly affect activities of daily living, especially in the elderly. The surgical treatment of humeral shaft nonunions is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. Patients with atrophic nonunions require both a stable fixation and enhancement of the biologic response because of the weak biologic reaction observed at the fracture site. The gold standard of treatment in elderly patients has not been described. Nonetheless, older age and comorbidities are associated with potentially malignant nonunions. This study reports the authors' experience using opposite cortical allograft combined with bone morphogenetic protein 7 and mesenchymal stem cells to treat humeral shaft atrophic nonunions in 2 elderly patients. The nonunion site healed at 4 months (patient 1) and 8 months (patient 2) postoperatively, with full return to activities of daily living and no pain. Neither patient reported complications of the radial nerve, which is at high risk of injury during this type of surgery. The only reported complication (patient 2) was an intraoperative longitudinal partial distal humeral fracture, probably caused by compression screw overtightening. The use of a locking plate and opposite cortical allograft, combined with BMP-7 and mesenchymal stem cells, represents a safe and effective treatment for malignant nonunions in older patients. PMID:24679209

  8. Neuropsychological functioning among the elderly nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Faraone, S V; Seidman, L J; Kremen, W S; Toomey, R; Lyons, M J; Tsuang, M T

    1996-07-01

    In our prior work with a young sample (age < 60), we showed that three neuropsychological functions were impaired among relatives of schizophrenic patients: abstraction, verbal memory, and auditory attention. In the present work we show that these results do not generalize to an older sample aged 60 years and greater. Thus, although we and others have put forth measures of neuropsychological function as indicators of the schizophrenia genotype, the present study suggests that conclusions may be limited to non-elderly samples. Further work is needed to address this issue definitively.

  9. Preoperative oral health care reduces postoperative inflammation and complications in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111

  10. Effects of psychosocial education on adaptation in elderly hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mathers, T R

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this experimental field pilot study was to determine whether the application of psychosocial education sessions had an effect on the adaptation level of elderly hemodialysis patients. A pretest, posttest control group design with two randomly selected groups was used. Ten patients, 4 males and 6 females, age 65 years and older, were randomly selected and stratified according to gender, with 2 males and 3 females assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale, Self-Report (PAIS-SR) was administered as a pretest 1 week prior to implementation of the intervention with the experimental group. It was again given as a posttest 30 days after completion of the intervention. The intervention, 7 psychosocial educational sessions with 7 audiotapes and a companion text module, provided information. These sessions were conducted with the experimental group, 2 days a week, during the subjects' hemodialysis treatments, taking approximately 20 minutes each, over a period of 4 1/2 weeks. Data were analyzed utilizing t-tests and descriptive statistics. No significant differences were found between the scores of the pretest and posttest when comparing the two groups. However, a significant value of 0.035 (p < 0.05) was evident in one domain of the PAIS-SR, the domestic environment, when comparing the scores of the pretest and posttest of the experimental group. The application of psychosocial education sessions did not have a significant effect on the adaptation level of elderly hemodialysis patients.

  11. [Isosporiasis in an elderly patient with chronic diseases: case report].

    PubMed

    Ünal, Nevzat; Güney, Akif Koray; Bilgin, Kemal; Yavuz, Yücel; Hökelek, Murat; Günaydın, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Isospora belli is a coccidian protozoon that can cause serious diarrhea especially in immunocompromised patients. The laboratory diagnosis depends primarily on the identification of oocysts in stool specimens by direct microscopic examination with iodine or special stains. This case is presented in order to draw attention to isosporiasis among the diarrheas that can be seen in elderly patients with several chronic diseases. A 81 year-old debilitated male, who had a history of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, previous cerebrovascular accident and right hemiplegia, was admitted to our hospital complaining of malaise, anorexia, chills, abdominal pain, dysuria, cough, sputum and diarrhea of ten days duration. I. belli oocysts were detected by microscopic examination of the sample with iodine after concentration by formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation. Then, modified acid-fast and trichrome stains were performed and I. belli oocysts were detected with both methods. Similar to this case, infections caused by I. belli can occur in elderly immunocompromised patients with several chronic diseases and inadequate nutrition and care. Consequently, in individuals with persistent diarrhea, examinations and tests should be carried out by taking their immune status into consideration and stool examinations should be done at frequent intervals using the concentrations methods and special stains.

  12. Joint arthroplasty Perioperative Surgical Home: Impact of patient characteristics on postoperative outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Duy L; Ahn, Kyle; Rinehart, Joseph B; Calderon, Michael-David; Wu, Wei-Der; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of different characteristics on postoperative outcomes for patients in a joint arthroplasty Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) program. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for patients enrolled in a joint arthroplasty PSH program who had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients were preoperatively stratified based on specific procedure performed, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Classification System (ASA) score, and Charleston Comorbidity Index (CCI) score. The primary outcome criterion was hospital length of stay (LOS). Secondary criteria including operative room (OR) duration, transfusion rate, Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) stay, readmission rate, post-operative complications, and discharge disposition. For each outcome, the predictor variables were entered into a generalized linear model with appropriate response and assessed for predictive relationship to the dependent variable. Significance level was set to 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 337 patients, 200 in the TKA cohort and 137 in the THA cohort, were eligible for the study. Nearly two-third of patients were female. Patient age averaged 64 years and preoperative BMI averaged 29 kg/m2. The majority of patients were ASA score III and CCI score 0. After analysis, ASA score was the only variable predictive for LOS (P = 0.0011) and each increase in ASA score above 2 increased LOS by approximately 0.5 d. ASA score was also the only variable predictive for readmission rate (P = 0.0332). BMI was the only variable predictive for PACU duration (P = 0.0136). Specific procedure performed, age, gender, and CCI score were not predictive for any of the outcome criteria. OR duration, transfusion rate, post-operative complications or discharge disposition were not significantly associated with any of the predictor variables. CONCLUSION: The joint arthroplasty PSH model reduces

  13. Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis from patient selection through postoperative management: a review for the keratoprosthetic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Samantha L; Cortina, M Soledad

    2016-01-01

    For the anterior segment surgeon, the implantation of Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis is a multistep process that begins with careful patient selection. Success depends on thorough preoperative evaluation, detailed surgical planning, and frequent postoperative follow-up. New practice patterns have emerged for each of these phases as the international experience with keratoprosthesis grows. This review details special considerations that can improve outcomes and also allow surgeons to consider its use in challenging patient populations at each step. PMID:27041986

  14. Retrospective, Demographic, and Clinical Investigation of the Causes of Postoperative Infection in Patients With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Who Underwent Posterior Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Yaldiz, Can; Yaldiz, Mahizer; Ceylan, Nehir; Kacira, Ozlem Kitiki; Ceylan, Davut; Kacira, Tibet; Kizilcay, Gokhan; Tanriverdi, Taner

    2015-07-01

    Owing to the increasing population of elderly patients, a large number of patients with degenerative spondylosis are currently being surgically treated. Although basic measures for decreasing postoperative surgical infections (PSIs) are considered, it still remains among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present possible causes leading to PSI in patients who underwent surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylosis and highlight how it can be avoided to decrease morbidity and mortality. The study included 540 patients who underwent posterior stabilization due to degenerative lumbar stenosis between January 2013 and January 2014. The data before and after surgery was retrieved from the hospital charts. Patients with degenerative lumbar stenosis who were operated upon in this study had >2 levels of laminectomy and facetectomy. For this reason, posterior stabilization was performed for all the patients included in this study. Determining the causes of postoperative infection (PI) following spinal surgeries performed with instrumentation is a struggle. Seventeen different parameters that may be related to PI were evaluated in this study. The presence of systemic diseases, unknown glove perforations, and perioperative blood transfusions were among the parameters that increased the prevalence of PI. Alternatively, prolene sutures, double-layered gloves, and the use of rifampicin Sv (RIS) decreased the incidence of PI. Although the presence of systemic diseases, unnoticed glove perforations, and perioperative blood transfusions increased PIs, prolene suture material, double-layered gloves, and the use of RIS decreased PIs.

  15. Comparison of Pain Scores in Postoperative Patients: Intravenous Morphine Patient-Controlled Analgesia vs Iontophoretic Transdermal Fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony M; Patel, Nirav; Sandler, Hayden M

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative management of pain has traditionally utilized intravenous (IV) morphine for pain control. An alternative approach to the invasive patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) system is the administration of transdermal analgesics, such as fentanyl. In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the fentanyl hydrochloride (fentanyl HCl) iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS), which utilizes iontophoretic technology to produce a controlled electrical current that propels ionized fentanyl molecules into the systemic vasculature. Transdermal fentanyl has been shown to be equivalent or superior to IV morphine PCA in a variety of postoperative settings with patients experiencing decreased pain scores and a favorable side effect profile. PMID:27688989

  16. Comparison of Pain Scores in Postoperative Patients: Intravenous Morphine Patient-Controlled Analgesia vs Iontophoretic Transdermal Fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony M; Patel, Nirav; Sandler, Hayden M

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative management of pain has traditionally utilized intravenous (IV) morphine for pain control. An alternative approach to the invasive patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) system is the administration of transdermal analgesics, such as fentanyl. In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the fentanyl hydrochloride (fentanyl HCl) iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS), which utilizes iontophoretic technology to produce a controlled electrical current that propels ionized fentanyl molecules into the systemic vasculature. Transdermal fentanyl has been shown to be equivalent or superior to IV morphine PCA in a variety of postoperative settings with patients experiencing decreased pain scores and a favorable side effect profile.

  17. Comparison of Pain Scores in Postoperative Patients: Intravenous Morphine Patient-Controlled Analgesia vs Iontophoretic Transdermal Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Glaun, Gabriel D; Caram, Anthony M; Patel, Nirav; Sandler, Hayden M

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative management of pain has traditionally utilized intravenous (IV) morphine for pain control. An alternative approach to the invasive patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) system is the administration of transdermal analgesics, such as fentanyl. In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the fentanyl hydrochloride (fentanyl HCl) iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS), which utilizes iontophoretic technology to produce a controlled electrical current that propels ionized fentanyl molecules into the systemic vasculature. Transdermal fentanyl has been shown to be equivalent or superior to IV morphine PCA in a variety of postoperative settings with patients experiencing decreased pain scores and a favorable side effect profile. PMID:27688989

  18. Preoperative Versus Postoperative Radiotherapy in Soft-Tissue Sarcoma: Multi-Institutional Analysis of 821 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sagus; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hitchcock, Ying J.; Randall, R. Lor; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of radiotherapy (RT) sequencing with surgery on overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), local failure, and distant failure in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the National Oncology Database, a proprietary database of aggregated tumor registries owned by IMPAC Medical Systems (Sunnyvale, CA). Patients with STS of all major anatomic sites who received definitive surgery and either preoperative (preop) or postoperative (postop) RT were included. Patients were also required to have known stage and grade. Prognostic factors for survival were identified using multivariate techniques. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared for statistical significance (p < 0.05) using the log-rank test. Results: A total of 821 patients met inclusion criteria. The median follow-up time was 63 months. Age, stage, histology, gender, tumor size, and RT sequence were independent predictors for OS (p < 0.05). Preop RT was associated with significantly improved OS and CSS compared with postop RT (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.91, p < 0.01, and HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88, p < 0.01, respectively). The 5-year CSS was 79% and 74%, in favor of preop RT (log-rank, p < 0.05). Preop RT was also significantly associated with a reduced risk for local and distant relapse compared with postop RT. Conclusion: Preoperative RT is associated with a reduced cancer-specific mortality compared with postoperative RT in STS. The results of this study may serve as motivation to conduct future prospective studies with larger patient numbers.

  19. Revision Myringoplasty Using Thin-Sliced Cartilage for Postoperative Reperforation in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Koizumi, Hiroki; Kitamura, Takuro; Tabata, Takahisa; Kise, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Myringoplasty is one of the basic procedures in otologic surgery, and is important to achieve good hearing outcome. The temporal fascia is most widely used and considered to be a stable graft in this procedure, although 10-20% of patients develop reperforation after surgery, which is often hard to repair, even by revision surgery. We herein conducted revision myringoplasty using a cartilage graft to repair postoperative reperforation in 7 patients (8 ears) with chronic otitis media. The patients were 3 males and 4 females, aged 13-80 years with an average of 53.9 years. A cartilage graft was harvested from the tragus, sliced in 0.3 mm thickness with perichondrium attached on one side, and trimmed into an appropriate shape and size. The graft was then underlaid beneath the perforation and fixed with fibrin glue. The operation was Wullstein type I tympanoplasty in 5 ears and myringoplasty in 3 ears, using the temporal fascia in 7 ears and subcutaneous tissue in 1 ear. The postoperative follow-up period ranged from 16 to 44 months with an average of 30.0 months. Perforation of the tympanic membrane was successfully closed in 7 ears (87.5%). Hearing outcome was judged successful in 5 ears (62.5%) according to the criteria of the Otological Society of Japan (postoperative hearing level < 30 dB, hearing gain > 15 dB, or postoperative air-bone gap < 15 dB). These results indicate that cartilage is a stable and reliable graft material for revision myringoplasty to repair postoperative reperforation in patients with chronic otitis media. PMID:27627972

  20. The occurrence of postoperative atrial fibrillation according to different surgical settings in cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubová, Marta; Mitro, Peter; Stančák, Branislav; Sabol, František; Kolesár, Adrián; Cisarik, Paul; Nagy, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. The pathogenesis of postoperative atrial fibrillation is multifactorial. The aim of the study was to analyse preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative factors and their relationships with the occurrence and duration of atrial fibrillation. METHODS One hundred and ninety-six patients with coronary heart disease (152 men, age 62.7 ± 10.1 years) underwent surgical revascularization. Extracorporeal circulation was used in 64 patients and minimal extracorporeal circulation was used in 75 patients. Fifty-seven patients underwent surgery without extracorporeal circulation. During the first three postoperative days, subjects were monitored for the duration and incidence of atrial fibrillation, laboratory markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, leucocytes) and serum potassium. RESULTS Demographic data and associated cardiovascular diseases in the groups were not statistically different. The overall incidence of atrial fibrillation was 56% (110 patients). The highest incidence of atrial fibrillation was found in the extracorporeal circulation subgroup, with a significantly lower incidence using minimal extracorporeal circulation, and in patients operated on without extracorporeal circulation (75 vs 47 vs 46%, P <0.001). The longest duration of atrial fibrillation was found in patients operated on with extracorporeal circulation compared with minimal extracorporeal circulation, and without extracorporeal circulation (9.7 ± 11.6 vs 4.9 ± 8.3 vs 3.1 ± 5.2, P ≤0.001). The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation significantly correlated with elevation of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, leucocytes) compared with patients who were free of atrial fibrillation (P ≤0.001, P ≤0.05). The values of serum potassium were not significantly different. The relationship between postoperative atrial fibrillation and echocardiographic parameters was not confirmed

  1. Age differences in postoperative pain are scale dependent: a comparison of measures of pain intensity and quality in younger and older surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Gagliese, Lucia; Katz, Joel

    2003-05-01

    As the population ages, research into the assessment of postoperative pain in older patients is urgently needed. The reliability and validity of most pain scales for the assessment of acute postoperative pain in the elderly remain to be demonstrated. The present study reports the analysis of age-related patterns on three pain scales (McGill Pain Questionnaire, MPQ; Present Pain Intensity, PPI; and Visual Analog Scale, VAS) completed by younger (n=95, mean age=56.4+/-5.8 years) and older (n=105; mean age=66.8+/-2.7 years) men following radical prostatectomy. All patients received intravenous morphine via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) throughout the study. On the first 2 postoperative days (POD), patients completed the pain scales and PCA opioid intake was recorded. An interaction was found between amount of opioid self-administered and POD. In both groups, less opioid was administered on POD 2 than POD 1, but the decrease over time was greater in younger than older men. On both PODs, older men self-administered less opioid than younger men. Age differences in pain were dependent on the pain scale used. Older men had significantly lower scores than younger men on the MPQ and PPI but there were no differences on the VAS. Several age differences in the psychometric properties of the scales were evident. On both PODs, the correlation between VAS and MPQ scores was significantly lower in the older than younger group. POD effect sizes did not differ between the scales or age groups suggesting that all three scales have comparable sensitivity within an age group. However, the different results between the scales for the effect of age suggests that the VAS is not sufficiently sensitive to detect age differences. Therefore, age differences in postoperative pain are better captured by verbal descriptions of pain qualities than non-verbal measures of intensity.

  2. Is There Any Age Cutoff to Treat Elderly Patients with Head and Neck Cancer? Comparing with Septuagenarians and Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, age is no longer considered as a limitation for treatment. Nevertheless, the treatment of elderly patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) remains controversial. Here, we aimed to review our experience with the treatment for elderly patients, while particularly focusing on the differences among older old patients (septuagenarians vs. octogenarians). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 260 elderly patients who were assigned to 3 groups according to age: 70 years old ≤ group 1 < 75 years old, 75 years old ≤ group 2 < 80 years old, and group 3 ≥ 80 years old. The patients were assessed for comorbidities using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE)-27, and the American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) physical status was also compared. Group 1, 2, and 3, consisted of 97, 102, and 61 patients, respectively. No significant difference in demographic data was noted among the groups. However, group 3 showed more comorbidities than groups 1 and 2. With regard to the initial treatment for HNC, radiation therapy (RT) was more frequently performed in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2. Among 7 patients of non-compliant to treatment in group 3, 6 patients had have performed RT. In group 3, a total of 18 patients underwent surgery, including microvascular free flap reconstruction and no significant difference in complications was observed postoperatively compared with group 1 and 2. Moreover, no significant difference was noted in overall survival between the groups, regardless of the treatment modality chosen. In conclusion, octogenarians with HNC should be more carefully managed than septuagenarians with HNC. Surgical treatment can be considered in octogenarians with HNC, if it can be tolerated. PMID:27478343

  3. Giant angiolipoma of the arm in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, P E; Korkolopoulou, P; Lassithiotakis, D; Lolis, E D

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Angiolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma and is the most common neoplasm in the trunk and extremities of young adults. It is extremely rare in elderly people, and its size is ≤4cm. Few data are available for large angiolipomas. Case History An 86-year-old patient was admitted to our surgical department due to a large mass on his left arm, which was resected. The specimen measured 19.5 × 15 × 10.5cm. Histopathological examination revealed a benign non-infiltrating angiolipoma. This is the first report of a giant angiolipoma of the arm reported in an octogenarian patient. Conclusions Giant lipomas of the upper extremities are extremely rare. Resection is associated with cure in most patients, but regular follow-up should be considered.

  4. Management of hypertension in the very elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Elliott, William J

    2004-12-01

    This Hypertension Grand Rounds discusses pharmacological treatment of hypertension in individuals who have survived 9 decades on earth. This rapidly growing group of relatively active and healthy elderly people is at high risk for hypertension, its treatment, and its adverse consequences, including stroke and heart failure. In this age group, the most common abnormality is elevated systolic blood pressure, which is much more predictive of stroke and heart disease death after 53 years of age. With the possible exception of the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), recent clinical trials have emphasized the overriding importance of lowering blood pressure rather than the specific agent chosen to begin therapy. In 1999, a metaanalysis of 7 clinical trials that enrolled 1670 subjects >80 years of age indicated that active antihypertensive drug therapy significantly reduced stroke by 34% and heart failure by 39% but was associated with a nonsignificant 6% increase in mortality. The HYpertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET) will enroll 2100 patients >80 years of age and will compare 2 groups randomized to indapamide+/-perindopril versus placebo+/-placebo for incident stroke during 5 years of follow-up. This study should answer lingering questions about whether active antihypertensive therapy is associated with a major and significant reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this age group as it clearly does in younger hypertensives. Its choice of a diuretic as initial therapy is consistent with other trials, but chlorthalidone is the drug with the most compelling evidence in large US trials that included very elderly patients. PMID:15505119

  5. Cardiac toxicity of trastuzumab in elderly patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Denegri, Andrea; Moccetti, Tiziano; Moccetti, Marco; Spallarossa, Paolo; Brunelli, Claudio; Ameri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is diagnosed in ≥ 65 year old women in about half of cases. Experts currently recommend that systemic therapy is offered to elderly patients with BC, if, based on their overall conditions and life expectancy, it can be reasonably anticipated that the benefits will outweigh the risks of treatment. Like for young subjects, the monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), trastuzumab, represents a valid therapeutic option when BC over-expresses this receptor. Unfortunately, administration of trastuzumab is associated with the occurrence of left ventricular dysfunction and chronic heart failure (CHF), possibly because of interference with the homeostatic functions of HER-2 in the heart. Registry-based, retrospective analyses have reported an incidence of CHF around 25% in elderly women receiving trastuzumab compared with 10%–15% in those not given any therapy for BC, and the risk of CHF has been estimated to be two-fold higher in > 60–65 year old trastuzumab users vs. non-users. Extremely advanced age and preexisting cardiac disease have been shown to predispose to trastuzumab cardiotoxicity. Therefore, selection of older patients for treatment with trastuzumab should be primarily based on their general status and the presence of comorbidities; previous chemotherapy, especially with anthracyclines, should be also taken into account. Once therapy has started, efforts should be made to ensure regular cardiac surveillance. The role of selected biomarkers, such as cardiac troponin, or new imaging techniques (three-dimension, tissue Doppler echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging) is promising, but must be further investigated especially in the elderly. Moreover, additional studies are needed in order to better understand the mechanisms by which trastuzumab affects the old heart. PMID:27403145

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for depression in Korean adult patients with asthma: is there a difference between elderly and non-elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Choi, Gil-Soon; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Joo-Hee; Choi, Seon Yoon; Lee, Soo-Keol; Nam, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Mok; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-12-01

    Depression is an important comorbidity of asthma. However, little information is available about depression and its potential impact on asthma control in Korean adult asthma patients. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for depression in Korean adults with persistent asthma. The 127 non-elderly (20-64 yr) and 75 elderly (≥65 yr) patients with asthma were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were extracted, and the patients completed the Asthma Specific Quality of Life (AQOL) questionnaire and asthma control test (ACT). Depression status was defined using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Depression was more prevalent in non-elderly (18.9%) than in elderly patients with asthma (13.3%). Patients with depression were significantly younger, had lower economic status, shorter disease duration, poorer asthma control, and worse AQOL scores (P<0.05). Within the non-elderly group, younger age and shorter disease duration were significantly associated with depression (P<0.05). Within the elderly group, a higher body mass index and current smoking status were significantly associated with depression (P<0.05). The PHQ-9 score was significantly correlated with worse ACT and AQOL scores in both groups. In conclusion, depression is strongly associated with poor asthma control and quality of life in Korean adult asthma patients. Our results provide important clues that used to target modifiable factors which contribute to development of depression in asthma patients.

  7. Safety of robotic general surgery in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Addeo, Pietro; Bianco, Francesco M; Ayloo, Subhashini; Elli, Enrique F; Giulianotti, Pier C

    2010-08-01

    As the life expectancy of people in Western countries continues to rise, so too does the number of elderly patients. In parallel, robotic surgery continues to gain increasing acceptance, allowing for more complex operations to be performed by minimally invasive approach and extending indications for surgery to this population. The aim of this study is to assess the safety of robotic general surgery in patients 70 years and older. From April 2007 to December 2009, patients 70 years and older, who underwent various robotic procedures at our institution, were stratified into three categories of surgical complexity (low, intermediate, and high). There were 73 patients, including 39 women (53.4%) and 34 men (46.6%). The median age was 75 years (range 70-88 years). There were 7, 24, and 42 patients included, respectively, in the low, intermediate, and high surgical complexity categories. Approximately 50% of patients underwent hepatic and pancreatic resections. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of morbidity, mortality, readmission or transfusion. Mean overall operative time was 254 ± 133 min (range 15-560 min). Perioperative mortality and morbidity was 1.4% and 15.1%, respectively. Transfusion rate was 9.6%, and median length of stay was 6 days (range 0-30 days). Robotic surgery can be performed safely in the elderly population with low mortality, acceptable morbidity, and short hospital stay. Age should not be considered as a contraindication to robotic surgery even for advanced procedures. PMID:27628773

  8. Effective Patient-Physician Communication Based on Osteopathic Philosophy in Caring for Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Noll, Donald R; Ginsberg, Terrie; Elahi, Abdul; Cavalieri, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss effective communication strategies between elderly patients and their physicians from the perspective of osteopathic heritage. The patient-physician communication styles of Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, and early osteopathic physicians (ie, DOs) may have influenced how DOs today communicate with their patients. Historical literature describes how Still would discuss with his patients the causes of their health problems using analogies and language they would understand, and how, when caring for a patient at the end of life, he empathically provided emotional support for both patients and their families. Early DOs advocated setting clear expectations for patients regarding clinical outcomes and carefully listening to patients to build trust. The Osteopathic Oath, which calls for the DO to view the patient as a friend, may also affect patient-physician communication. Early osteopathic philosophy and culture, as modeled by Dr Still in his approach to elderly patients, should inspire today's DOs in their communication with their elderly patients. PMID:26745563

  9. Comparison of intraoperative and postoperative complications based on ASA risks in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Karakaş, Hüseyin Buğra; Çiçekbilek, İzzet; Tok, Adem; Alışkan, Tamer; Akduman, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to evaluate intraoperative and postoperative complications which developed according to pre-operative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) risk criteria in patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Material and methods Five hundred and sixty patients who had undergone PNL between 2002 and 2014 were included in the study. Patients operated on the ipsilateral kidney, those with solitary kidney or the cases who had previously undergone more than one access were excluded from this study. Preoperative anesthesia risks were determined according to preoperative classification developed by ASA. Postoperative complications were evaluated using Clavien Complication Grading Scale. Results The mean age of the cases was 47±14 years. The 57% (n=319) of the cases were male, 241 (43%) of them were female. The average indwell time of nephrostomy catheter was 2.88±1.00 (1–8), and length of hospital stay was 4.91±1.54 (2–17) days. When the cases were assessed according to ASA risk groups, intraoperative complications were observed in 9 (5.5%) ASA I, 27 (8.6%) ASA II, and 18 (22%) ASA III patients and and distribution of the patients was statistically significant (p<0.001). When intraoperative complications were evaluated one by one, intraoperative hypotension developed in ASA I (n=3; 1.8%), ASA II (n=20; 6.4%) and ASA III (n=11; 13.4%) risk groups and this distribution (p=0.002) of patients was statistically significant. When assessed according to Clavien Postoperative Scale, postoperative complications developed (p=0.053) in ASAI (n=24; 14.7%), ASA II (n=27, 8.6%) and ASA III (n=13; 15.9%) risk groups, and this distribution of the patients was not statistically significant. In postoperative complications, Grade 3a complications developed in ASA I (n=12; 7.4%), ASA II (n=19; 6%) and ASA III (n=8; 9.8%) risk groups and this distribution was not seen to be statistically significant (p=0.485). Conclusion A statistically

  10. Comparison of intraoperative and postoperative complications based on ASA risks in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Karakaş, Hüseyin Buğra; Çiçekbilek, İzzet; Tok, Adem; Alışkan, Tamer; Akduman, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to evaluate intraoperative and postoperative complications which developed according to pre-operative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) risk criteria in patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Material and methods Five hundred and sixty patients who had undergone PNL between 2002 and 2014 were included in the study. Patients operated on the ipsilateral kidney, those with solitary kidney or the cases who had previously undergone more than one access were excluded from this study. Preoperative anesthesia risks were determined according to preoperative classification developed by ASA. Postoperative complications were evaluated using Clavien Complication Grading Scale. Results The mean age of the cases was 47±14 years. The 57% (n=319) of the cases were male, 241 (43%) of them were female. The average indwell time of nephrostomy catheter was 2.88±1.00 (1–8), and length of hospital stay was 4.91±1.54 (2–17) days. When the cases were assessed according to ASA risk groups, intraoperative complications were observed in 9 (5.5%) ASA I, 27 (8.6%) ASA II, and 18 (22%) ASA III patients and and distribution of the patients was statistically significant (p<0.001). When intraoperative complications were evaluated one by one, intraoperative hypotension developed in ASA I (n=3; 1.8%), ASA II (n=20; 6.4%) and ASA III (n=11; 13.4%) risk groups and this distribution (p=0.002) of patients was statistically significant. When assessed according to Clavien Postoperative Scale, postoperative complications developed (p=0.053) in ASAI (n=24; 14.7%), ASA II (n=27, 8.6%) and ASA III (n=13; 15.9%) risk groups, and this distribution of the patients was not statistically significant. In postoperative complications, Grade 3a complications developed in ASA I (n=12; 7.4%), ASA II (n=19; 6%) and ASA III (n=8; 9.8%) risk groups and this distribution was not seen to be statistically significant (p=0.485). Conclusion A statistically

  11. Postoperative Suprachoroidal Hemorrhage in a Glaucoma Patient on Low Molecular Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; AlJadaan, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    Suprachoroidal hemorrhage is a complication associated with intraocular surgery that can occur both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Several intraoperative or postoperative risk factors have been indentified. The use of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is considered one of the risk factors in surgical cases (ocular or non ocular) and non-surgical cases. Here we present a case of suprachoroidal hemorrhage in a glaucoma patient that occurred after preoperative prophylactic LMWH for deep venous thrombosis. The use of LMWH has been reported to cause suprachoroidal hemorrhage even in patients without any risk factors. The use of LMWH continues to increase, hence it is important to be aware of the possibility of suprachoroidal hemorrhage and to determine the risk/benefit ratio, especially in patients with other risk factors. PMID:23741139

  12. Systemic Trans- and Postoperative Evaluations of Patients Undergoing Dental Implant Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Junior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Moreno, Amália; Villa, Luiz Marcelo Ribeiro; de Carvalho Dekon, Stefan Fiuza; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine the trans- and postoperative systemic characteristics of patients undergoing dental implant surgery and to investigate the relationship between pre- and post- surgery anxiety levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients were analyzed in 3 call centers to determine anxiety levels, pain levels, and preoperative and postoperative histories using the State–Trait (STAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 93 dental implants were installed, with a success rate of 100%. The most frequently reported systemic disease was hypertension. There was a significantly higher rate of effective clamping (torque) to the mandibular bone than to the maxillary bone. The association between postoperative surgical complications and longer operative time was not significant, but there was a significant correlation between the alteration of mouth opening and daily routine activities and a significant decrease in anxiety levels between the day of surgery and the postoperative time point (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: A longer surgical time was associated with surgery-related complications and with a higher anxiety index on the preoperative evaluation. PMID:27074177

  13. Prophylactic postoperative ketorolac improves outcomes in diabetic patients assigned for cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elsawy, Moataz F; Badawi, Nermine; Khairy, Hany A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prophylactic role of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in reducing the incidence of central macular edema (CME) in diabetic eyes post-cataract surgery. Patients and methods This study included 86 eyes (70 patients) with high risk characteristics for the development of CME after cataract surgery. All patients underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Patients were divided into two equal groups (n = 43 [eyes]): a control group given topical dexamethasone 0.1%, four times/day for 12 weeks postoperatively and a study group given topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% twice daily in addition to topical dexamethasone 0.1% four times daily for 12 weeks. Patients were examined at 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively for evaluation of CME development. The main study outcome was the change in the retinal fovea thickness measured with ocular coherence topography. Results Ten eyes developed CME (11.6%); eight eyes in the control group and only two eyes in the study group. Mean retinal fovea thickness was significantly higher in the control group compared to the study group. Moreover, eyes of the control group developed CME significantly earlier than those of the study group. Conclusion Prophylactic postoperative ketorolac 0.4% may have a role in reducing the frequency and severity of CME in diabetic eyes post-cataract surgery. PMID:23836953

  14. Impact of a CBT psychotherapy group on post-operative bariatric patients.

    PubMed

    Beaulac, Julie; Sandre, Daniella

    2015-01-01

    Psychological difficulties for patients seeking bariatric surgery are greater and in the post-operative phase, a significant minority go on to experience significant psychosocial difficulties, increasing their risk of poorer post-operative adjustment and associated weight regain. 17 post-operative patients participated in an eight-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) based psychotherapy group at the Ottawa Hospital. A pre-post design with a 3-month follow-up investigated the impact of the group on emotional eating, general as well as obesity-specific adjustment, psychological distress, and attachment. There were significant and meaningful improvements in patients' level of psychological distress, perceived difficulties in their lives, and weight-related adjustment that were maintained at a 3-month follow-up period. Although statistical change was not significant, there were also meaningful improvements in emotional overeating and relationship anxiety and avoidance. The intervention also appeared to be acceptable to patients in that attendance and satisfaction were good. Findings suggest that a short-term CBT psychotherapy group led to significant and meaningful benefits in psychological wellbeing for post-surgical bariatric patients.

  15. Prevalence and treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in postoperative patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    DENG, LIHUA; LIU, YANG; ZHANG, DONGSHENG; LI, YUAN; XU, LIN

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) after surgical treatment and observe whether gastrointestinal symptoms may improve with rifaximin, 43 postoperative CRC patients (CRC group) and 30 healthy individuals (normal group) were subjected to the glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT). All the patients were asked to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptoms using the visual analogue scale (VAS). SIBO-positive patients were administered rifaximin for 10 days on the basis of the original treatment. After the treatment, the patients were asked to undergo GHBT and re-evaluate the gastrointestinal symptoms score (GISS). The results demonstrated that 18 of the 43 postoperative patients with CRC were SIBO-positive (41.86%), which was significantly higher compared with the incidence in normal controls (6.67%) (P<0.05). GISS was higher in SIBO-positive patients (P<0.05). Following rifaximin treatment, 6 of the 18 (33.33%) SIBO-positive patients had improved, as evaluated by GHBT and VAS. Additionally, the GISS in the SIBO-turned-negative group had improved significantly compared with that in the non-turned-negative group (P<0.05). The symptoms of all 18 SIBO-positive patients following rifaximin treatment improved notably, particularly diarrhea (P<0.05). In conclusion, postoperative CRC patients are more likely to develop SIBO compared with healthy individuals, and SIBO may aggravate digestive symptoms. The administration of rifaximin improved the overall gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhea, in SIBO-positive patients. PMID:27123301

  16. Postoperative Pain Management among Surgically Treated Patients in an Ethiopian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Woldehaimanot, Tewodros Eyob; Eshetie, Tesfahun Chanie; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie

    2014-01-01

    Background Incidence of postoperative pain has been reported to be between 47–100%. Ineffective postoperative pain management results in tangible and intangible costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the processes and outcomes of pain management in the surgical wards of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods and Findings A prospective cross sectional study was conducted among 252 postoperative patients during February 13 to April 30, 2012. A contextually modified and validated (Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.78) American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire was used to assess pain experience of patients. Patients’ charts were reviewed to assess the pattern of analgesic use. Incidence of postoperative pain was 91.4%, and remained high over 3 measurements (McNemar’s; p<0.05), and 80.1% of the patients were undertreated. The mean pain intensity, and pain interference on functional status were 6.72±1.44 and 5.61±1.13 on a 10 point Numerical rating scale respectively; both being strongly correlated(r = 0.86: p<0.001). Pain intensity was varied by ethnicity, education and preoperative information (ANOVA; P<0.05). Only 50% of the patients were adequately satisfied with their pain management. As needed (prn), solo analgesic, null analgesic, and intramuscular orders were noted for 31.3%, 89.29%, 9.7% and 20.1% of the prescription orders respectively. Though under dose, diclofenac and tramadol were the top prescribed medications, and only 57% of their dose was administered. Linear regression model showed that the predictors of satisfaction were sex of an individual and pain interference with functional status. Conclusion Despite patients’ paradoxical high satisfaction with pain management, the majority of patients were inadequately and inappropriately treated. Thus, further research is needed to determine how best to break down current barriers to effective pain management. PMID:25033399

  17. The Relationship between Health Professionals and the Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, Fernando; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Lefevre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban…

  18. Post-Acute Home Care and Hospital Readmission of Elderly Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.

    2004-01-01

    After inpatient hospitalization, many elderly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are discharged home and receive post-acute home care from informal (family) caregivers and formal service providers. Hospital readmission rates are high among elderly patients with CHF, and it is thought that use of informal and formal services may reduce…

  19. “Old people suffer the ravages of the years”: changes of treatments in elderly patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy and the spreading of lung cancer screening led to a further rise of newly detected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Age, per se, should not be considered a contraindication for treatments in fit patients. Early stage NSCLC is more and more treated with minimally invasive surgery. Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) has been developed as an innovative therapy for stage I NSCLC and is now considered a standard treatment option for medically inoperable patients or for patient who refuse operation. Preoperative careful functional evaluations either respiratory or cardiovascular, as well as preoperative staging, are mandatory to pose indication for surgery in elderly. On the other hand, all elderly patients with lung cancer should have some form of assessment of physiologic age. As minimally invasive thoracic surgery has reduced the postoperative morbidity and has led to a decrease in the length of hospital stay, lobectomy remains the treatment of choice for early stage NSCLC in elderly patients. Discussion by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to evaluate the advantages/disadvantages of each treatment modality in elderly patients with early-stage NSCLC. PMID:26207242

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRE AND POSTOPERATIVE UPPER DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WHO UNDERWENT ROUX-EN-Y GASTROJEJUNAL BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    CZECZKO, Leticia Elizabeth Augustin; CRUZ, Manoela Aguiar; KLOSTERMANN, Flávia Caroline; CZECZKO, Nicolau Gregori; NASSIF, Paulo Afonso Nunes; CZECZKO, Alexandre Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bariatric operations have variable range of complications and postoperative benefits. Gastroesophageal reflux is considered potential factor that may result in damage to the esophageal mucosa and this subject is quite controversial in the literature. Aim : To evaluate patients who underwent to Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal bypass correlating epidemiologic and endoscopic findings in pre and postoperative periods. Method : A retrospective, paired study which evaluated 110 patients. Inclusion criteria were formal indication for bariatric surgery and patients with pre and postoperative endoscopy. Exclusion criteria were previous bariatric surgery, patients subjected to other types of bariatric surgery and those who had no pre or postoperative upper digestive endoscopy. The epidemiological variables were: sex, age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, and preoperative dyslipidemia. Results : The preoperative upper endoscopy was normal in 26.4% of the patients. Among endoscopic alterations, the hiatus hernia was the most prevalent followed by non-erosive gastritis. The postoperative upper endoscopy was normal in 40.9% and stenosis was the most prevalent followed by marginal ulcer. Correlation on pre and postoperative endoscopies, was found 100% reduction of hiatal hernias and 88% of esophagitis. There was no statistical significance in relationship to anastomotic stenosis with preoperative other variables. Conclusions: There was significant decrease in postoperative hiatus hernia, erosive esophagitis, non-erosive esophagitis, erosive gastritis and non-erosive gastritis with the operation. Stenosis of the gastrojejunostomy anastomosis was the most prevalent postoperative complication with no correlation with preoperative variables. PMID:27120737

  1. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1–2 h daily for 6–24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  2. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1-2 h daily for 6-24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin. PMID:27185796

  5. Factors Determining the Choice of Surgical Procedure in Elderly Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kubokura, Hirotoshi; Usuda, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the elderly patients, optimal surgical treatment can be difficult to achieve, because of comorbidity. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the preferred surgical management in this patient group. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between April 2008 and March 2015 that included patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) aged ≥75 years. Results: We included 44 patients who underwent partial resection (n = 20) or lobectomy (n = 24). There were no significant differences between the two groups on most variables, except for some character. Survival analysis revealed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the two groups; however, no significant differences existed in the disease-free survival or in the OS for stage I disease. Postoperative complications led to poor prognoses. Cox regression analysis revealed statistical significance for the Brinkman Index, the ratio of the pulmonary artery diameter to the ascending aorta diameter (PA:A), and the alveolar–arterial oxygen gradient. Only the PA:A ratio remained significant after multivariate analysis, with a higher ratio associated with better survival. Conclusion: In elderly patients with NSCLC, surgical resection should not be denied because of age alone. However, partial resection should be favored to lobectomy when possible. PMID:26822739

  6. Stabilization and treatment of Colles' fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Blakeney, William G

    2010-01-01

    Colles' fractures (fractures of the distal radius) are extremely common in the elderly. These fractures tend to result in displacement in elderly people because they have osteoporotic bone. Fracture displacement in the elderly, however, does not necessarily result in functional impairment. This review looks at the current literature on distal radius fractures in the elderly and the treatment options for stabilization of these fractures. These include conservative management with cast immobilization or surgical options: internal fixation, external fixation, percutaneous pinning, and bone substitutes.

  7. Biomarkers of Brain Damage and Postoperative Cognitive Disorders in Orthopedic Patients: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in orthopedic patients varies from 16% to 45%, although it can be as high as 72%. As a consequence, the hospitalization time of patients who developed POCD was longer, the outcome and quality of life were worsened, and prolonged medical and social assistance were necessary. In this review the short description of such biomarkers of brain damage as the S100B protein, NSE, GFAP, Tau protein, metalloproteinases, ubiquitin C terminal hydrolase, microtubule-associated protein, myelin basic protein, α-II spectrin breakdown products, and microRNA was made. The role of thromboembolic material in the development of cognitive decline was also discussed. Special attention was paid to optimization of surgical and anesthetic procedures in the prevention of postoperative cognitive decline. PMID:26417595

  8. Pre- and postoperative changes in serum myelin basic protein immunoreactivity in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, N R; Seeldrayers, P A; Moussa, A H; Paul, E A; Thomas, D G

    1984-07-01

    In 44 patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures for intracranial tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or spinal and peripheral nerve lesions, serum myelin basic protein (MBP) immunoreactivity was measured preoperatively and serially in the first 10 postoperative days. The double-antibody radioimmunoassay method was used, with a detection limit of 2.5 ng/ml in serum. Clinical evaluation was carried out at admission and on successive days during the period of neurosurgical management; outcome was assessed later. In the early postoperative phase, there was a fall in MBP immunoreactivity in all groups of patients. In the groups with intracranial tumor and subarachnoid hemorrhage, there was a subsequent rise in MBP immunoreactivity before the end of the 10-day period, which was not found in the group with spinal and peripheral nerve lesions.

  9. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and risk factors for fatality in elderly patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ing-Kit; Liu, Jien-Wei; Yang, Kuender D

    2008-08-01

    To better understand the clinical and laboratory characteristics and to identify risk factor(s) for fatality in elderly patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), 66 elderly (age > or = 65 years) and 241 non-elderly adults (age, 19-64 years) with DHF were retrospectively analyzed. Compared with non-elderly adults, elderly individuals had significantly lower incidences of fever (P = 0.002), abdominal pain (P = 0.003), bone pain (P < 0.001), and skin rashes (P = 0.002); higher frequencies of concurrent bacteremia (P = 0.049), gastrointestinal bleeding (P = 0.044), acute renal failure (P = 0.001), and pleural effusion (P < 0.010); higher incidence of prolonged prothrombin time (P = 0.025); lower mean hemoglobin level (P < 0.001); longer hospitalization (P = 0.049); and a higher fatality rate (P = 0.006). Five elderly patients with DHF died. When compared with non-fatal elderly patients with DHF, a significant higher frequency in men (P = 0.019), those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = 0.008), those with dengue shock syndrome (DSS; P < 0.001), and those with acute renal failure (P < 0.001) was found in the elderly counterparts that died. Multivariate analysis showed that only DSS (odd ratio = 77.33, P = 0.001) was an independent risk factor for fatality in elderly patients.

  10. [DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC BRONCHOSCOPY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CARDIAC SURGERY IN INTRA- AND POSTOPERATIVE PERIODS].

    PubMed

    Titova, I V; Khrustaleva, M V; Pshenichnyy, T A; Aksel'rod, B A; Eremenko, A A; Bogomolova, N S; Kuznetsova, S M

    2016-01-01

    The article presents research conducted to evaluate the use of diagnostic and therapeutic fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and tracheobronchitis in patients in cardiac ICU. The paper presents the results of the study and comparison of invasive techniques for sampling from the respiratory tract for bacteriological analysis. We studied the bacterial profile of ICU, original content of the respiratory tract of cardiac patients in the intraoperative period and possible ways for prevention of VAP and tracheobronchitis in the postoperative period using bronchoscopy. In addition data on the effect of bronchoscopy on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in cardiac surgical patients undergoing mechanical ventilation presented. PMID:27468503

  11. Comparison of postoperative analgesic effect of tramadol and bupivacaine subcutaneous infiltration in patients undergoing cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Behdad, Shekoufeh; Sekhavat, Leila; Ayatollahi, Vida; Meshkat, Fatemah; Mortazavi, Abulghasem

    2013-03-01

    Cesarean section is associated with significant postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tramadol versus bupivacaine administration at wound closure on postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing cesarean section. Sixty women undergoing cesarean deliveries were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.5% (n = 30) or 50 mg of tramadol in 10 mL of normal saline (n = 30), both as local wound infiltration prior to skin closure at the end of operation. Postoperative pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10) at 1, 2 and 6 hours after operation. Time to first analgesic administration and analgesic consumption in 24 hours after operation were recorded and compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 15 and p < 0.05 was considered significant. The VAS score did not differ significantly between the two groups at 1 and 2 hours after cesarean section, but it was higher in bupivacaine group than tramadol group 6 hours after operation (p < 0.05; Fisher exact test). Postoperative consumption of analgesic was higher in bupivacaine group than tramadol group but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05; Fisher exact test). No side effects were reported in either group. This study showed that subcutaneous administration of tramadol provided analgesic effect equal to bupivacaine with longer pain relief after cesarean section.

  12. Impact of Intraoperative Acetaminophen Administration on Postoperative Opioid Consumption in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cathy; McGee, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Opioid utilization for acute pain has been associated with numerous adverse events, potentially resulting in longer inpatient stays and increased costs. Objective: To examine the effect of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen administered intraoperatively on postoperative opioid consumption in adult subjects who underwent hip or knee replacement. Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated postoperative opioid consumption in 176 randomly selected adult subjects who underwent hip or knee replacement at Duke University Hospital (DUH). Eighty-eight subjects received a single, intraoperative, 1 g dose of IV acetaminophen. The other subjects did not receive any IV acetaminophen. This study evaluated mean opioid consumption (in oral morphine equivalents) during the 24-hour postoperative period in the 2 groups. Other endpoints included length of stay in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), incidence of oversedation, need for acute opioid reversal, and adjunctive analgesic utilization. Results: Subjects who were given a single dose of intraoperative acetaminophen received an average of 149.3 mg of oral morphine equivalents during the 24 hours following surgery compared to 147.2 mg in participants who were not exposed to IV acetaminophen (P = .904). The difference in average length of PACU stay between the IV acetaminophen group (163 minutes) and those subjects not exposed to IV acetaminophen (169 minutes) was not statistically significant (P = .588). No subjects in the study experienced oversedation or required acute opioid reversal. Conclusion: There was not a statistically significant difference in postoperative opioid consumption between patients receiving and not receiving IV acetaminophen intraoperatively. PMID:25673891

  13. The natural history of postoperative venous thromboemboli in gynecologic oncology: a prospective study of 382 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Synan, I.S.; Colemen, R.E.; Hinshaw, W.; Creasman, W.T.

    1984-04-15

    Three hundred eighty-two patients who underwent major operations for gynecologic malignancy were studied prospectively to determine the natural history of postoperative venous thromboemboli. Iodine 125-labeled fibrinogen leg counting, to diagnose deep venous thrombosis, was performed daily. Sixty-three patients (17%) developed postoperative venous thromboembolic complications. Deep venous thrombosis initially arose in the calf veins in 52 patients. Twenty-seven percent of these thrombi lysed spontaneously. Four percent of thrombi in the calf veins progressed to deep venous thrombosis in the femoral vein, and 4% resulted in pulmonary emboli. Nine other patients developed proximal deep venous thrombosis without prior thrombosis in the calf veins. One patient with proximal deep venous thrombosis also had a pulmonary embolus. Two patients with no evidence of deep venous thrombosis on prospective /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen leg counting developed pulmonary emboli, including one fatal pulmonary embolus that was found at autopsy to have arisen from the internal iliac veins. Fifty percent of all venous thromboemboli were detected within 48 hours of operation, although two patients developed significant deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli after discharge from the hospital. These results add important information to our understanding of this disease process, and raise issues related to appropriate treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients after gynecologic operations.

  14. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute bacterial meningitis in elderly patients over 65: a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis in elderly patients. Methods 261 patients with adult bacterial meningitis (ABM), collected during a study period of 11 years (2000-2010), were included for study. Among them, 87 patients aged ≥ 65 years and were classified as the elderly group. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and prognostic factors were analyzed, and a clinical comparison with those of non-elderly ABM patients was also made. Results The 87 elderly ABM patients were composed of 53 males and 34 females, aged 65-87 years old (median = 71 years). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was the most common underlying condition (34%), followed by end stage renal disease (7%), alcoholism (4%) and malignancies (4%). Fever was the most common clinical manifestation (86%), followed by altered consciousness (62%), leukocytosis (53%), hydrocephalus (38%), seizure (30%), bacteremia (21%) and shock (11%). Thirty-nine of these 87 elderly ABM patients had spontaneous infection, while the other 48 had post-neurosurgical infection. Forty-four patients contracted ABM in a community-acquired state, while the other 43, a nosocomial state. The therapeutic results of the 87 elderly ABM patients were that 34 patients expired and 53 patients survived. The comparative results of the clinical and laboratory characteristics between the elderly and non-elderly ABM patients showed that only peripheral blood leukocytosis was significant. Presence of shock and seizure were significant prognostic factors of elderly ABM patients. Conclusions Elderly ABM patients accounted for 34.8% of the overall ABM cases, and this relatively high incidence rate may signify the future burden of ABM in the elderly population in Taiwan. The relative frequency of implicated pathogens of elderly ABM is similar to that of non-elderly ABM. Compared with non-elderly patients, the elderly ABM patients have a significantly lower incidence of peripheral blood leukocytosis. The mortality

  15. Postoperative blood transfusion is an independent predictor of acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Kristofer; Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Duvall, Lucas Maier; Mancini, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) which increases postoperative morbidity and mortality. Objectives: The study was designed to assess the incidence of AKI and associated risk factors in patients undergoing CPB ancillary to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve surgery, and combined CABG and valve surgery. Patients and Methods: This Intuitional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective study included patients with normal preoperative kidney function (Serum creatinine [sCr] <2.0 mg/dl) who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group I: Patients with cardiac surgery associated AKI (CS-AKI) (postoperative sCr >2 mg/dl with a minimal doubling of baseline sCr) and group II: Patients with a normal postoperative kidney function. Demographic data, body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities, hematologic/biochemical profiles, preoperative ejection fraction (%EF), blood transfusion history, and operative data were compared between the groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded during the operation and in the postoperative period. Δ-MAP was defined as the difference between pre-CPB-MAP and the CPB-MAP. Results: 241 patients matched the inclusion criteria (CS-AKI incidence = 8.29%). Age, gender, BMI, %EF, and co-morbidities were not predictors of CS-AKI (P > 0.05). High preoperative sCr (P = 0.047), type of procedure (P = 0.04), clamp time (P = 0.003), pump time (P = 0.005) and history of blood transfusion within 14 days postsurgery (P = 0.0004) were associated with risk of CS-AKI. Pre-CPB-MAP, CPB-MAP, Δ-MAP, and ICU-MAP were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Male gender (OR: 5.53; P = 0.048), age>60 (OR: 4.54; P = 0.027) and blood transfusion after surgery (OR: 5.25; P = 0.0054) were independent predictors for postoperative AKI. Conclusions: Age, gender and blood transfusion were independent predictors of

  16. Prophylaxis of intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients during cesarean section in spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Matthias; Fröhlich, Christian W.; Hüttel, Christiane; Kranke, Peter; Mennen, Jan; Boessneck, Oliver; Lenz, Christian; Erbes, Thalia; Ernst, Jürgen; Kerger, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes a randomized prospective study conducted in 308 patients undergoing caesarean section in spinal anaesthesia at a single hospital between 2010 and 2012 to find a suitable anti-emetic strategy for these patients. Material/Methods Spinal anesthesia was performed in left prone position, at L3/L4 with hyperbaric 0.5% Bupivacaine according to a cc/cm body height ratio. There were no opioids given peri-operatively. The patients received either no prophylaxis (Group I) or tropisetron and metoclopramide (Group II) or dimenhydrinate and dexamethasone (Group III), or tropisetron as a single medication (Group IV). The primary outcome was nausea and/or vomiting (NV) in the intraoperative, early (0–2 h) or late (2–24 h) postoperative period. Multivariate statistical analysis was conducted with a regression analysis and a backward elimination of factors without significant correlation. Results All prophylactic agents significantly reduced NV incidence intraoperatively. Relative risk reduction for NV by prophylaxis was most effective (59.5%) in Group II (tropisetron and metoclopramide). In Group III (dimenhydrinate and dexamethasone), NV risk was reduced by 29.9% and by 28.7% in Group IV (tropisetron mono-therapy). The incidence of NV in the early (0–2 h) and the late (2–24 h) postoperative period was low all over (7.8%), but the relative risk reduction of NV in the early postoperative period was 54.1% (Group IV), 45.1% (Group III), and 34.8% (Group II), respectively. In the late postoperative period, there was no significant difference between the 4 groups. Conclusions We recommend a prophylactic medication with tropisetron 2 mg and metoclopramide 20 mg for patients during caesarean section. These agents are safe, reasonably priced, and highly efficient in preventing nausea and vomiting. PMID:24226381

  17. The effect of complementary music therapy on the patient's postoperative state anxiety, pain control, and environmental noise satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Tressa; Comeaux, Tressa

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain is difficult to manage with analgesia alone. Complementary interventions such as music therapy provide a level of distraction, thus promoting comfort. In this study, decreased pain and environmental noise were demonstrated, without diminishing state anxiety, in a group of postoperative patients.

  18. Pre and postoperative median nerve conduction in patients with pituitary tumour.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Mahapatra, A K

    1994-07-01

    A study of median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist was performed in 34 patients with pituitary adenomas prior to and following surgery. In 31 patients this was done bilaterally. They included 11 patients with acromegalic features, 3 of whom had features of carpal tunnel syndrome. Six out of 11 (55%) acromegalics had abnormal latencies and conduction velocities pre-operatively. Among the remaining patients only 3 had conduction delay pre-operatively. Postoperative improvement in conduction velocity and latency was recorded in 24 patients although significant improvement was observed in only 13 patients. All 3 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome had significant improvement in conduction velocities and latencies following the surgery. There was no definite relationship between conduction velocity and the pre-operative hormonal profile.

  19. The postoperative care of adult patients exposed to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    PubMed

    Stier, Gary R; Verde, Edward W

    2007-03-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with cardiopulmonary bypass is indicated for complex surgical operations in adult patients involving the aortic arch, thoracoabdominal aorta, cerebral vasculature, and tumors extending into the vena cava and heart. Understanding the principles of ischemic-reperfusion injury and the effects of hypothermia in attenuating this process is fundamental to the delivery of effective postoperative care. Neurologic injury is the most troublesome adverse effect after the use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass, presenting as either a transient neurologic deficit (5.9% to 28.1%) or an irreversible neurologic injury (1.8% to 13.6%). In patients with neurological injury, early postoperative mortality is markedly increased (18.2%), and for those patients that survive, long-term cognitive disability is still evident 6 months later. Early postoperative support of organ function, along with timely diagnosis and treatment of organ injury, is essential in minimizing perioperative morbidity, particularly neurologic morbidity. Meticulous management of fluids, maintaining stable cardiovascular hemodynamics with particular attention to systolic blood pressure, optimizing oxygen delivery, limiting ventilator-associated lung injury, intensive insulin therapy for control of blood glucose levels, and avoidance of hyperthermia are essential in limiting organ injury and reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality.

  20. Effects of Flurbiprofen Axetil on Postoperative Analgesia and Cytokines in Peripheral Blood of Thoracotomy Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Li, Beiping; Kong, Ming

    2015-06-01

    The objective is to study the effects of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) with fentanyl together in postoperative controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on pain intensity, cytokine levels in peripheral blood and adverse reactions of thoracotomy patients. Fifty thoracotomy patients were divided into a FA and a control group, each with 25 cases. Postoperative analgesia was administered in the two groups using PCIA. The pressing times of analgesia pump, the visual analog scale (VAS) scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery and the incidence of adverse drug reactions were recorded. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α in peripheral blood were determined before the administration of FA (T0), and at 24 h (T1), 48 h (T2), 72 h (T3) after surgery. The analgesia pump pressing times in the FA group was less than that of the control group. The VAS scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery, were statistically less than those of control group. The incidence rate of nausea and vomiting was insignificantly different between the two groups. Administration of FA together with PCIA in thoracotomy patients can improve postoperative analgesia.

  1. Electroacupuncture Reduces Postoperative Pain and Analgesic Consumption in Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgery: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tongyu; Xu, Jianjun; Ma, Wen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on postoperative pain management in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. A randomized study was conducted. Ninety-two thoracic surgical patients were randomly divided into an EA group and a sham group. Postoperative intravenous analgesia was applied with a half dose of the conventional drug concentration in both groups. In the EA group, EA treatment was administered for three consecutive days after the surgery with 6 sessions of 30 min each. Compared with the sham group, patients in the EA group had a lower visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours and consumed less analgesic after surgery. The incidence of opioid-related adverse effects of nausea was lower in the EA group. The time to first flatus and defecation was also shorter in the EA group. Furthermore, the plasma β-endorphin (β-EP) level was higher by radioimmunoassay and the plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level was lower in the EA group by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the first 72 hr after thoracic surgery. Therefore, EA is suitable as an adjunct treatment for postoperative pain management after thoracic surgery. PMID:27073400

  2. [Development of a novel oral jelly formulation for elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Harada, Tsutomu; Yasuoka, Koichi; Sakurai, Maho; Murase, Tsukasa; Owaki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of the swallowing function in elderly persons and drug refusal among the behavioral abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are commonly reported. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-swallow jelly formulation of Donepezil HCl which AD patients can take as a dessert. The development process, however, was full of trade-off problems. (1) Need for evaluating the taste of a drug product vs. Safety of human sensory evaluation of the taste. The trade-off was resolved by using a taste sensor. (2) Speed of development vs. Safety of the manufacturing process. We put priority on the safety rather than speed, and a safer antioxidant agent was found. (3) Usability of the container for AD patients with dysphagia vs. Size of the container. We put priority on its being user-friendly rather than on the size and chose a stable wide-mouth cup. (4) Suitable texture of jelly for swallowing the drug product vs. Residual volume of jelly in the cup. We designed the texture so that the residual volume of jelly in the cup was reduced. (5) Easy peeling properties of aluminum seal vs. High sealing strength for sterilization. The sealing strength was adjusted so that it was adequate to sterilize the drug product. (6) One cup in a heat-sealed aluminum pillow package to prevent overdose vs. Seven cups in a pillow package. A single-dose package was relatively expensive, but it was chosen to assure safety. We faced many difficult trade-off problems in the development of process. However, they were resolved using technical innovations and a people-friendly policy. Finally, we were able to launch a novel oral jelly formulation for elderly patients. PMID:25747221

  3. [Development of a novel oral jelly formulation for elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Harada, Tsutomu; Yasuoka, Koichi; Sakurai, Maho; Murase, Tsukasa; Owaki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of the swallowing function in elderly persons and drug refusal among the behavioral abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are commonly reported. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-swallow jelly formulation of Donepezil HCl which AD patients can take as a dessert. The development process, however, was full of trade-off problems. (1) Need for evaluating the taste of a drug product vs. Safety of human sensory evaluation of the taste. The trade-off was resolved by using a taste sensor. (2) Speed of development vs. Safety of the manufacturing process. We put priority on the safety rather than speed, and a safer antioxidant agent was found. (3) Usability of the container for AD patients with dysphagia vs. Size of the container. We put priority on its being user-friendly rather than on the size and chose a stable wide-mouth cup. (4) Suitable texture of jelly for swallowing the drug product vs. Residual volume of jelly in the cup. We designed the texture so that the residual volume of jelly in the cup was reduced. (5) Easy peeling properties of aluminum seal vs. High sealing strength for sterilization. The sealing strength was adjusted so that it was adequate to sterilize the drug product. (6) One cup in a heat-sealed aluminum pillow package to prevent overdose vs. Seven cups in a pillow package. A single-dose package was relatively expensive, but it was chosen to assure safety. We faced many difficult trade-off problems in the development of process. However, they were resolved using technical innovations and a people-friendly policy. Finally, we were able to launch a novel oral jelly formulation for elderly patients.

  4. Does coronary artery bypass grafting improve quality of life in elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Baig, Kamran; Harling, Leanne; Papanikitas, Joseph; Attaran, Saina; Ashrafian, Hutan; Casula, Roberto; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-09-01

    Traditional outcome measures such as long-term mortality may be of less value than symptomatic improvement in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In this systematic review, we analyse health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as a marker of outcome after CABG. We aimed to assess the role of HRQOL tools in making recommendations for elderly patients undergoing surgery, where symptomatic and quality-of-life improvement may often be the key indications for intervention. Twenty-three studies, encompassing 4793 patients were included. Overall, elderly patients underwent CABG at reasonably low risk. Our findings, therefore, support the conclusion that performing CABG in the elderly may be associated with significant improvements in HRQOL. In order to overcome previous methodological limitations, future work must clearly define and stringently follow-up this elderly population, to develop a more robust, sensitive and specialty-specific HRQOL tool.

  5. Nephrogenic adenoma in elderly patients: Three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sakatani, Toru; Adachi, Yasushi; Sakaida, Noriko; Atsuta, Takeshi; Magaribuchi, Toshihiro; Taki, Yoji; Nakano, Yorika; Li, Ming; Ikehara, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma (NA), referred to as nephrogenic metaplasia, is a rare benign lesion of the urinary tract. NA is histologically characterized by tubular and papillary formations lined by low cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells. NA is also immunohistochemically characterized by positivity for paired box (PAX) 2, PAX8 and cytokeratin 7, and negative for p63 and prostate-specific antigen. In this study, we present 3 cases of NA arising in the urinary bladder of elderly male patients with predisposing factors: patient 1 had undergone transurethral lithotripsy due to a ureteral stone; patient 2 had undergone transurethral resection of a urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder; and patient 3 had been treated with Bacillus-Calmettle-Guérin due to a urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder. The characteristics of the NAs of our 3 cases were histologically and immunohistologically consistent with previously reported cases, although 1 patient exhibited a pseudoinvasive pattern. Since NA is a tumor-like benign lesion, it should be clearly differentiated morphologically and immunohistologically from other tumors arising in the urinary tract and from invasion by prostate cancer. PMID:27446559

  6. [Elder].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented. PMID:27603886

  7. Electrical source localization by LORETA in patients with epilepsy: Confirmation by postoperative MRI

    PubMed Central

    Akdeniz, Gülsüm

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted that have compared electrical source localization (ESL) results obtained by analyzing ictal patterns in scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) with the brain areas that are found to be responsible for seizures using other brain imaging techniques. Additionally, adequate studies have not been performed to confirm the accuracy of ESL methods. Materials and Methods: In this study, ESL was conducted using LORETA (Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) in 9 patients with lesions apparent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and in 6 patients who did not exhibit lesions on their MRIs. EEGs of patients who underwent surgery for epilepsy and had follow-ups for at least 1 year after operations were analyzed for ictal spike, rhythmic, paroxysmal fast, and obscured EEG activities. Epileptogenic zones identified in postoperative MRIs were then compared with localizations obtained by LORETA model we employed. Results: We found that brain areas determined via ESL were in concordance with resected brain areas for 13 of the 15 patients evaluated, and those 13 patients were post-operatively determined as being seizure-free. Conclusion: ESL, which is a noninvasive technique, may contribute to the correct delineation of epileptogenic zones in patients who will eventually undergo surgery to treat epilepsy, (regardless of neuroimaging status). Moreover, ESL may aid in deciding on the number and localization of intracranial electrodes to be used in patients who are candidates for invasive recording. PMID:27011626

  8. A Comparative Efficacy of Propacetamol and Ketorolac in Postoperative Patient Controlled Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Bong Ha; Park, Ji Hun; Choi, Jung Il; Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyoung Gon; Cho, Soo Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketorolac has been used as a postoperative analgesia in combination with opioids. However, the use of ketorolac may produce serious side effects in vulnerable patients. Propacetamol is known to induce fewer side effects than ketorolac because it mainly affects the central nervous system. We compared the analgesic effects and patient satisfaction levels of each drug when combined with fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Methods The patients were divided into two groups, each with n = 46. The patients in each group were given 60 mg of ketorolac or 2 g of propacetamol (mixed with fentanyl) for 10 minutes. The patients were then given 180 mg of ketorolac or 8 g of propacetamol (mixed with fentanyl and ramosetron) through PCA. We assessed the visual analogue pain scale (VAS) at the time point immediately before administration (baseline) and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes, and 24 hours after administration. Also, the side effects of each regimen and each patient's degree of satisfaction were assessed. Results There was a significant decline in the VAS score in both groups (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the VAS scores between the groups at each time point. Satisfaction scores between the groups showed no significant difference. Conclusions The efficacy of propacetamol is comparable to that of ketorolac in postoperative PCA with fentanyl. PMID:26175881

  9. Melatonin treatment in the prevention of postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Artemiou, Panagiotis; Bilecova-Rabajdova, Miroslava; Sabol, Frantisek; Torok, Pavol; Kolarcik, Peter; Kolesar, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Post-cardiac surgery delirium is a severe complication. The circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion has been shown to be altered postoperatively. Aim of the study It was hypothesized that restoring normal sleeping patterns with a substance that is capable of resynchronizing circadian rhythm such as exogenous administration of melatonin may possibly reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium. Material and methods This paper represents a prospective clinical observational study. Two consecutive groups of 250 consecutive patients took part in the study. Group A was the control group and group B was the melatonin group. In group B, the patients received prophylactic melatonin treatment. The main objectives were to observe the incidence of delirium, to identify any predictors of delirium, and to compare the two groups based on the delirium incidence. Results The incidence of delirium was 8.4% in the melatonin group vs. 20.8% in the control group (p = 0.001). Predictors of delirium in the melatonin group were age (p = 0.001) and higher EuroSCORE II value (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age and EuroSCORE II value (p = 0.014) were predictors of postoperative delirium. Comparing the groups, the main predictors of delirium were age (p = 0.001), EuroSCORE II value (p = 0.001), cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) time (p = 0.001), aortic cross-clamping (ACC) time (p = 0.008), sufentanil dose (p = 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.033). Conclusions Administration of melatonin significantly decreases the incidence of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery. Prophylactic treatment with melatonin should be considered in every patient scheduled for cardiac surgery. PMID:26336494

  10. The prognostic significance and treatment modality for elevated pre- and postoperative serum CEA in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwan Mo; Park, In Ja; Kim, Chan Wook; Roh, Seon Ae; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of serum CEA (s-CEA) changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with sustained elevated postoperative s-CEA levels. Methods Between January 1999 and December 2008, 9,380 CRC patients underwent surgery. Curative resection was performed in 1,242 CRC patients with high preoperative s-CEA levels (>6 ng/mL). High s-CEA levels were normalized in 924 patients (74.4%) within 2 weeks from surgery, whereas high s-CEA levels were persistent in 318 patients (25.6%). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their postoperative s-CEA levels: group 1 (37 patients with a 1-year postoperative s-CEA>6 ng/mL) and group 2 (281 patients with a 1-year postoperative s-CEA≤6 ng/mL). Results A postoperative recurrence was identified in 24 patients (64.9%) in group 1 and 65 patients (23.1%) in group 2 (P < 0.001). A curative resection after recurrence was performed in 22 patients (33.8%) from group 2, but no patients from group 1 (P = 0.001). The 5-year overall survival and time to recurrence were significantly lower in patients with recurrent cancer in group 1 (P < 0.001). Conclusion Patients with persistent elevated postoperative s-CEA levels are at high risk for recurrence and a low survival rate. More intensive surveillance of patients with high postoperative s-CEA levels should be mandatory. PMID:27757393

  11. Post-operative care to promote recovery for thoracic surgical patients: a nursing perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The change in patient population leads to an inevitable transformation among the healthcare system. Over the past decades, thoracic surgical technique has been evolving from conventional open thoracotomy to minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Thoracic nursing team of Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH) grows together with the evolution and aims at providing holistic and quality care to patients require thoracic operation. In order to enhance patient post-operative recovery, few strategies have been implemented including early mobilization, staff training and clinical audit. On the other hand, nursing case management approach was proved to be a cost-effective method in managing patients. It is also suitable for thoracic patients, especially for those who are suffering from thoracic neoplasm. It is believed that, the introduction of nursing case management approach would provide a better holistic care to the thoracic patients. PMID:26941973

  12. Anemia and functional capacity in elderly Brazilian hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Raquel de Macedo; Assis, Elisa Priscila Souza; Pinheiro, Renata Rosseti; Queiroz, Luiza Cristina Viana de; Pereira, Leani S M; Antunes, Carlos Maurício Figueiredo

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the association between anemia and physical functional capacity in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 709 hospitalized elderly patients aged 60 years and over admitted to the Madre Teresa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Mann-Whitney or "t" test, and chi-square or Fisher exact test were used for quantitative and categorical variables, respectively, and hierarchical binary logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors. The presence of anemia was found in 30% of participants and was significantly associated with decreased functionality according to the two measures which were used - ADL (activities of daily living) and IADL (instrumental activities of daily living). Anemia was also independently associated with older age. The results of this study demonstrate a strong association between the presence of anemia and lower levels of functional capacity. Further investigations are needed to assess the impact of anemia treatment on the functionality and independence of older people.

  13. Ataxia induced by a thymic neuroblastoma in the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Wiesel, Ory; Bhattacharyya, Shamik; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas; Prasad, Sashank; McNamee, Ciaran

    2015-05-12

    Thymic neuroblastoma is a rare tumor with only few reports in modern literature. Whereas most data is taken from childhood neuroblastoma, little is known about the characteristics of the disease in the adult and elderly population. There are significant differences between adult and childhood neuroblastoma which are reviewed below. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who presented with neurological symptoms of ataxia and opsoclonus and an anterior mediastinal mass. Ultimately, the patient underwent a resection of the mass and pathologic review identified a thymic neuroblastoma. This is the first case of thymic neuroblastoma associated with symptomatic central nervous system disease; it is presented with an up-to-date review of the previous cases in the field as well with a review of the literature of post adolescent neuroblastoma.

  14. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in spinal cord patients and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Reid, G; Nicolle, L E

    1999-11-01

    The prevalence and incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria will remain high for many years to come. Antimicrobial agents are necessary to treat symptomatic UTI because no natural methods have been shown to be effective. Treatment of ABU is not appropriate. There is growing resistance to antibiotics, biocides, and antiseptics and, simultaneously, a decreasing rate of introduction of new antibacterial agents; thus the problem of resistance is magnified and potentially complicates the management of patients with SCI and elderly persons. New options of managing health and of preventing ABU and UTI and the complications arising from these diseases must be investigated vigorously and urgently. In particular, further study of the role of bacterial biofilms, the normal microflora, the influence of diet and hygiene, and the importance of the host immune response in the process of urinary tract colonization and infection is relevant and necessary.

  15. [Reverse myocardial remodeling in patients with aortic valve disease and mitral insufficiency in early postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Belov, Iu V; Katkov, A I; Seslavinskaia, T V; Vinokurov, I A; Salagaev, G I

    2015-01-01

    Surgical treatment of patients with aortic valve disease and concomitant mitral insufficiency remains debatable. We analyzed early postoperative results of surgical treatment of 80 patients depending on type of surgery. All patients were divided into three groups: the 1st - aortic valve replacement in patients without mitral valve dysfunction (control group) (n=44); the 2nd - isolated aortic valve replacement in patients with concomitant mitral regurgitation degree 2-3 (n=18), the 3rd - simultaneous aortic and mitral valve replacement (n=18). Combined valve replacement was associated with more intraoperative blood loss (852.78±442.08 ml) compared with aortic valve replacement (658.7±374.09 ml), p<0.05. In patients with mitral regurgitation greater hematocrit decrease was observed (22.13±3.6% in group 2 and 21.4±4.48 in group 3) in comparison with control group (24.17±3.72% in group 1), p<0.05. Incidence of postoperative complications did not differ in all groups. Mortality rate was 6.8% in group 1 and 11.1% in group 3, there were no deaths in group 2. Both valves correction provided faster myocardial remodeling. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased on 50 ml in group 3, on 33.67 ml in group 2 and on 50.73 ml in group 1 (p<0.05). Pulmonary pressure decreased on 20 mm Hg in group 3, on 13 mm Hg - in group 2 and on 12.57 mm Hg - in group 1, p<0.05. In groups 1 and 3 pulmonary pressure became normal after operation, in group 2 signs of pulmonary hypertension were observed (pressure - 35.3 mm Hg). Analysis of the results showed that simultaneous mitral and aortic valves replacement initiates normalization of intracardiac hemodynamics in early postoperative period. PMID:26081181

  16. Local bupivacaine for postoperative pain management in thyroidectomized patients: A prospective and controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Öcal, Haydar; Durak, Doğukan; Kara, Halil; Kılıç, Mehmet; Yalçın, Abdussamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and to compare the routes of administration of bupivacaine in the management of postoperative incision site pain after thyroidectomy. Material and Methods Consecutive patients who were planned for thyroidectomy surgery were randomized into three groups of 30 patients each: Group 1 (control group): standard thyroidectomy surgery without additional intervention; Group 2 (paratracheal infiltration with bupivacaine): following thyroidectomy, 0.25% bupivacaine was applied on the surgical area; Group 3 (subcutaneous infiltration with bupivacaine): following thyroidectomy, 0.25% bupivacaine was injected into the cutaneous, subcutaneous region and fascia of the surgical area. Postoperative pain was evaluated by a visual analog scale (VAS) at 1st, 4th, and 12th hours after thyroidectomy. Total daily requirement for additional analgesia was recorded. Results The mean age of 90 patients was 44.37±13.42 years, and the female:male ratio was 62:28. There was no difference between study groups in terms of age, thyroid volume, TSH and T4 levels. VAS score of patients in paratracheal infiltration with bupivacaine group was significantly lower than control group patients at 1st, 4th and 12th hours following thyroidectomy (p=0.030, p=0.033, p=0.039, respectively). The need for analgesics was significantly lower in both paratracheal infiltration and subcutaneous infiltration groups than the control group (86.7%, 83.0%, and 73.3%, respectively, p=0.049). Conclusions Intraoperative local bupivacaine application is effective in decreasing postoperative pain in patients with thyroidectomy. PMID:27528810

  17. Use of methergine for the prevention of postoperative endometritis in non-elective cesarean section patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, M F; Lynch, C M; Spellacy, W N

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methergine increases constriction of uterine musculature which may facilitate sloughing of endometrial debris, close uterine vessels, and prevent post-cesarean endometritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of methergine in preventing endometritis in patients undergoing non-elective cesarean section delivery. METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing non-elective cesarean section were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial of methergine (41) versus no methergine (39) administration during the postpartum period. The hospital records were abstracted after discharge to compare the postpartum course. RESULTS: There were no significant demographic differences between the two groups. The women receiving methergine had a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative endometritis (10% vs. 36%, P < 0.005). In addition, the mean postoperative hemoglobin was significantly higher in the methergine treated group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of methergine postpartum in women undergoing non-elective cesarean sections significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative endometritis and blood loss. PMID:10968597

  18. Pre- to postoperative physical activity changes in bariatric surgery patients: self report vs. objective measures.

    PubMed

    Bond, Dale S; Jakicic, John M; Unick, Jessica L; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G Dean; Ryder, Beth A; Sax, Harry C; Wing, Rena R

    2010-12-01

    Bariatric surgery patients report significant pre- to postoperative increases in physical activity (PA). However, it is unclear whether objective measures would corroborate these changes. The present study compared self-reported and accelerometer-based estimates of changes in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) from pre- (pre-op) to 6 months postsurgery (post-op). Twenty bariatric surgery (65% laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding, 35% gastric bypass) patients (46.2 ± 9.8 years, 88% female, pre-op BMI = 50.8 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)) wore RT3 accelerometers as an objective measure of MVPA and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) as a subjective measure before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Time (min/week) spent in MVPA was calculated for the PPAQ and RT3 (≥ 1-min and ≥ 10-min bouts) at pre-op and post-op. Self-reported MVPA increased fivefold from pre-op to post-op (44.6 ± 80.8 to 212.3 ± 212.4 min/week; P < 0.005). By contrast, the RT3 showed nonsignificant decreases in MVPA for both ≥ 1-min (186.0 ± 169.0 to 151.2 ± 118.3 min/week) and ≥ 10-min (41.3 ± 109.3 to 39.8 ± 71.3 min/week) bouts. At pre-op, the percentage of participants who accumulated ≥ 150-min/week of MVPA in bouts ≥ 10-min according to the PPAQ and RT3 was identical (10%). However, at post-op, 55% of participants reported compliance with the recommendation compared to 5% based on RT3 measurement (P = 0.002). Objectively-measured changes in MVPA from pre-op to 6 months post-op appear to be much smaller than self-reported changes. Further research involving larger samples is needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether self-report and objective PA measures are differentially associated with surgical weight loss outcomes.

  19. Balancing treatment efficacy, toxicity and complication risk in elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van den Brom, R R H; van Es, S C; Leliveld, A M; Gietema, J A; Hospers, G A P; de Jong, I J; de Vries, E G E; Oosting, S F

    2016-05-01

    The number of elderly patients with renal cell carcinoma is rising. Elderly patients differ from their younger counterparts in, among others, higher incidence of comorbidity and reduced organ function. Age influences outcome of surgery, and therefore has to be taken into account in elderly patients eligible for cytoreductive nephrectomy. Over the last decade several novel effective drugs have become available for the metastatic setting targeting angiogenesis and mammalian target of rapamycin. Immune checkpoint blockade with a programmed death 1 antibody has recently been shown to increase survival and further studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors are ongoing. In this review we summarize the available data on efficacy and toxicity of existing and emerging therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the elderly. Where possible, we provide evidence-based recommendations for treatment choices in elderly. PMID:27123882

  20. Effects of Ropivacaine on Postoperative Pain and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farsad; Zamani, Somayyeh; Etezadi, Farhad; Shariat Moharari, Reza; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative analgesic effects of ropivacaine have been demonstrated in various surgical procedures; however, its beneficial effect on postoperative pain relief and ability to breathe out air in urological surgeries, particularly in local interventions such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), has remained uncertain. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ropivacaine on postoperative pain severity and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in patients undergoing PCNL procedure. Patients and Methods: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 55 consecutive adult patients aged 15 to 60 years who underwent Tubeless PCNL surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to instill 30 mL of ropivacaine 0.2% or 30 mL of isotonic saline with the same protocol. The parameters of visual analogue scale (VAS) (for assessment of pain severity) and PEF (for assessment of ability to breathe out air) were measured 4 and 6 hours after completing the procedure. Moreover, the amounts of opioids or analgesics administered within 6 hours after the operation were recorded. Results: We found no difference in the mean pain severity score between the case and control groups 4 hours (P = 0.332) and 6 hours (P = 0.830) after the operation. The mean PEF at baseline was similar in case and control groups (P = 0.738). Moreover, no difference was revealed in PEF index 4 hours (P = 0.398) and 6 hours (P = 0.335) after PCNL between the groups. The mean VAS scores 4 hours after the operation slightly decreased 2 hours later (P < 0.001) in the both groups. Moreover, in the both groups, a sudden decrease in PEF index was observed within 4 hours after the operation and increased with a mild gradient for the next 2 hours. No difference was found in the amount of postoperative analgesic used in the both groups. Conclusions: Instillation of ropivacaine 0.2% (30 mL) within tubeless PCNL surgery does not have a significant effect on postoperative pain relief

  1. Bridging Community Generational Gaps through Experiential Learning: A College Nursing Student Practicum for Elderly Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Jane D.

    2013-01-01

    At the study site, an elder care practicum was adopted after nursing students demonstrated a lack of interest in the well-being of elderly patients. The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a change in college nursing students' attitudes toward nursing home residents as a result of increased intergenerational exposure following…

  2. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients.

  3. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients. PMID:26455008

  4. The influence of informal caregivers on the rehabilitation of the elderly in the postoperative period of proximal femoral fracture.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Suelen Alves; Avila, Marla Andréia Garcia de; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2016-03-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of informal caregivers on the functional independence of older adults in the postoperative period of proximal femoral fracture due to falls. Method It is an integrative review of a corpus for analysis that gathered 23 articles, between 2002 and 2012, from databases "Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde" (Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature in Health Sciences), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, US National Library of Medicine and Scopus. Results There was a predominance of studies by Chinese authors and nurses. The analysis of the studies evidenced that falls followed by fractures lead to dependence of older adults and, consequently, an overload to caregivers. Moreover, older adults and caregivers showed a need for support in the rehabilitation process. Conclusions Informal caregivers still need to be included in care planning and to be qualified for such care by health professionals, since they positively influence functional independence in the postoperative period.

  5. Erythropoietin Levels in Elderly Patients with Anemia of Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Swetha; Martin, Alison; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of “anemia of unknown etiology” and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders. Methods This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient’s anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology. Iron deficiency anemia served as the comparison group in all analyses. We used linear regression to model the relationship between erythropoietin and the presence of each etiology, sequentially adding terms to the model to account for the hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Linear regression analysis showed that erythropoietin levels in chronic kidney disease, anemia of chronic disease and anemia of unknown etiology were lower by 48%, 46% and 27%, respectively, compared to iron deficiency anemia even after adjusting for hemoglobin, eGFR and comorbidities. Conclusions We have shown that erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in anemia of unknown etiology, even after adjusting for confounders. This suggests that decreased erythropoietin production may play a key role in the pathogenesis of anemia of unknown etiology. PMID:27310832

  6. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin in acutely hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Steichen, O; Bouvard, E; Grateau, G; Bailleul, S; Capeau, J; Lefèvre, G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin as an adjunct to diagnose bacterial infections in older patients. One hundred seventy-two patients admitted to an acute-care geriatric unit during a 6-month period were prospectively included, 39 of them with an invasive bacterial infection. The best cut-off value to rule in a bacterial infection was 0.51 microg/l with sensitivity 64% and specificity 94%. The best cut-off value to rule out a bacterial infection was 0.08 microg/l with sensitivity 97% and specificity 20%. Procalcitonin was inconclusive (between 0.08 and 0.51 microg/l) for 112 admissions. Procalcitonin over 0.51 microg/l was useless 22 times out of 33 (infection already ruled in on clinical grounds) and misleading in eight of the 11 remaining cases (no infection). Procalcitonin below 0.08 microg/l was useless 23 times out of 27 (infection already ruled out on clinical grounds) and misleading in one of the four remaining cases (infection). Despite a good overall diagnostic accuracy, the clinical usefulness of PCT to diagnose invasive bacterial infections in elderly patients hospitalized in an acute geriatric ward appears to be very limited. PMID:19727867

  7. Simultaneous bilateral hip fractures following a simple fall in an elderly patient without predilecting comorbidities.

    PubMed

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique T; Weeda, Víola B; Vrouenraets, Bart C

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral hip fractures are rare, mostly being caused by violent forces or in patients with bone metabolism disorders. We present the case of an elderly patient who sustained simultaneous bilateral hip fractures following a simple fall without having any known predilecting comorbidities other than advanced age. Only four cases have been described of elderly patients without comorbidity with simultaneous bilateral hip fractures following low-energy traumas. This rareness potentially leads to misses of this diagnosis. PMID:27161143

  8. [An Elderly Patient with Multiple Lung Metastases after Colectomy Successfully Treated with a Combination Oral UFT/LV Chemotherapy Regimen].

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Takehiro; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Ueno, Hideki; Shinto, Eiji; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Sueyama, Takahiro; Watanabe, Tomoki; Yamadera, Masato; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    We report an 84-year-old woman with multiple lung metastases from sigmoid colon cancer successfully treated with an oral combination chemotherapeutic agent regimen(UFT/LV).The patient had undergone colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. Histological examination confirmed a pT4a, pN3, pM1a(LYM), pStage IV tumor.The patient refused adjuvant chemotherapy. However, approximately 9 months postoperatively, she developed a severe cough.Chest radiography and computed tomography(CT)revealed multiple progressive lung metastases.Thereafter, considering her advanced age and general condition, an oral UFT/LV regimen(UFT 300mg/LV 75mg for 7 days every 14 days)was initiated.Two and a half months after initiating chemotherapy, symptom amelioration was observed.Chest radiography and CT showed disappearance of several of the lung metastases, indicating a Partial Response(PR).For the nearly one year to date since diagnosis, she has remained free of cough and the PR has been maintained without chemotherapy-associated adverse events.She is currently being managed on an outpatient basis.The oral UFT/LV regimen is considered to be among the potentially effective and safe treatments for elderly patients with postoperative metastases from colon cancer.

  9. Intrathecal clonidine added to small-dose bupivacaine prolongs postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing transurethral surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Terziqi, Hasime; Pervorfi, Tune; Kryeziu, Arben

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this prospective, double-blinded study was to investigate the effects of clonidine in co-administration with bupivacaine during spinal anesthesia, regarding the onset and regression of motor and sensory block, postoperative analgesia and possible side effects. Methods: We randomly selected 66 male patients (age 35 to 70), from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I–II; these patients were scheduled for transurethral surgical procedures. These patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 33 patients each: group B (bupivacaine) only received 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg intrathecally and group BC (bupivacaine + clonidine) received bupivacaine 7.5 mg and clonidine 25 μg intrathecally. We performed the spinal anesthesia at a level of L3–L4 with a 25-gauge needle. We assessed the sensory block with a pin-prick, the motor block using the Bromage scale, analgesia with the visual analog scale and sedation with the modified Wilson scale. We also recorded the hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Results: The groups were demographically similar. The mean time of achievement of motor block (Bromage 3) and sensory block at level T9 was significantly shorter in the BC group compared with B group (p = 0.002, p = 0.000, respeectively). The motor block regression time was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.237). The postoperative analgesia requirement was significantly longer in group BC compared with group B (p = 0.000). No neurological deficit, sedation or other significant adverse effects were recorded. Conclusion: The intrathecal application of clonidine in combination with bupivacaine improves the duration and quality of spinal anesthesia; it also provides longer duration of postoperative analgesia, without significant side effects. PMID:22396363

  10. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the diagnoses of asthma in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Godinho Netto, Antonio Carlos Maneira; dos Reis, Túlio Gonçalves; Matheus, Cássia Franco; Aarestrup, Beatriz Julião Vieira; Aarestrup, Fernando Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements in the diagnosis of asthma in elderly patients. Methods The clinical symptoms of 202 elderly patients were assessed with the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood test, which had been modified for the elderly patients, and the diagnostic routine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which was based on the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Of the 202 patients assessed, 43 were subjected to pulmonary function evaluations (spirometry) and FeNO measurements. Results Of the 202 elderly patients, 34 had asthma (23 definite and eleven probable), 20 met COPD criteria, 13 presented with an overlap of asthma and COPD, and 135 did not fit the criteria for obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the 43 elderly patients who were subjected to FeNO measurements, ten showed altered results (23.2%) and 33 had normal results (76.7%). The average value of FeNO in patients with definite and probable asthma undergoing this procedure was 29.2 parts per billion whereas that in nonasthmatic patients was 17.5 parts per billion (P=0.0002). Conclusion We show a clear relationship between FeNO levels and asthma symptoms and previous asthma diagnoses in elderly patients. PMID:27274212

  11. Effective Dose of Ramosetron for Prophylaxis of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongheon; Jeong, Sinho; Kim, Joungmin; Jeong, Seongwook

    2015-01-01

    Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common adverse events with an incidence of up to 80% in high-risk patients. Ramosetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is widely used to prevent PONV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose of ramosetron for the prevention of PONV in high-risk patients. Methods. Fifty-one patients were randomly allocated to 3 groups and were administered ramosetron 0.3 mg (group A), 0.45 mg (group B), or 0.6 mg (group C), at the end of their surgery. The episodes of PONV were assessed 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours after the injection and all the adverse events were observed. Results. The complete response rate in the postoperative period 6–24 hours after the anesthesia was higher in group C than in group A: 93% versus 44%. Group C's experience score of Rhodes index was lower than group A's: 0.81 ± 2.56 versus 3.94 ± 5.25. No adverse drug reaction could be observed in all groups. Conclusions. The effective dose of ramosetron to be injected for the near-complete prophylaxis of PONV 6 to 24 hours after surgery in high-risk patients is a 0.6 mg bolus injection at the end of the surgery. PMID:26258145

  12. Patient considerations in the use of transdermal iontophoretic fentanyl for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Hartrick, Craig T; Pestano, Cecile R; Ding, Li; Danesi, Hassan; Jones, James B

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are commonly used in the management of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. Patient-controlled analgesic techniques are recognized as preferred administration methods. Previously, research has focused on intravenously administered opioids via a programmable pump. More recently, an iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS), which is patient controlled, has been developed. The focus of this review is on pain management using the fentanyl ITS during the 24–72-hour time period immediately following surgery. Fentanyl ITS offers a needle-free alternative to traditional intravenous (IV) patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) system that is as effective and safe as IV PCA. This system is easy to use for both patients and nurses. The use of fentanyl ITS is generally associated with a better ease-of-care profile, including a greater ease of mobility, from a patients’ perspective when compared with morphine IV PCA. PMID:27186073

  13. Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Maekawa, T; Nakajima, K; Sadamitsu, D; Tateishi, A

    1998-11-01

    Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients were investigated. Heart rates were monitored continuously, and the data were stored, edited, and interpolated to allow for data lost during calibration and disconnection of the sensors for various treatments. Heart rate power spectra were calculated using the fast Fourier transform method. The power spectra of the patients who recovered showed that the heart rate fluctuated and produced a 1/f relationship, termed 1/f fluctuations, whereas those of patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) consisted of white-noise-like signals. The power spectra in brain-dead patients showed a 1/f relationship under steady-state conditions, while the power density and variation of the frequency distribution were lower than those in a normal subject. Therefore, 1/f fluctuations appear to be universal and occur independent of the central nervous system. PMID:9844751

  14. In Lumbar Fusion Patients, How Does Establishing a Comfort Function Goal Preoperatively Impact Postoperative Pain Scores?

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Winnie; Wagner, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Handley, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the impact of establishing a comfort function goal preoperatively on postoperative pain scores and opiate requirements in lumbar fusion patients. A comfort function goal is defined as the pain score identified by the patient describing the level of pain tolerance to participate in healing activities such as deep breathing, ambulation and participation in activities of daily living. The design was prospective, nonrandomized, intervention group (n = 30) compared with retrospective chart review as control group (n = 30). Sample included patients scheduled for routine lumbar fusion in an urban southeastern hospital. The study intervention established a comfort function goal during a routine preoperative patient education class. No significant difference in pain score or opiate requirement was found for these data. However, a fundamental clinical question arose surrounding opiate requirements and dosing management. In our hospital, the norm for postoperative pain management is to categorize pain scores as mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) pain. Physician orders commonly use this differential to order opiate dose ranges. In this sample, the mean pain score for the intervention group at home is 5.8 and the mean comfort function goal is 4.9. Based on normative categories of pain scores, if a patient's baseline of tolerable pain is 4.9, this has potential impact on clinician responses to managing pain, as 4.9-5.8 is, for this patient, perhaps a mild range of pain, not moderate. If a patient reports a pain score of 7, and their norm is 5.8, the delta is only 1.2. Does this imply that the patient is experiencing mild or severe pain? Does the nurse deliver a dose of pain medication that is in the mild or severe dose range? PMID:26293197

  15. Elderly cancer patients' psychopathology: a systematic review: aging and mental health.

    PubMed

    Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Gennimata, Vassiliki; Mystakidou, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    This review of the literature on elderly cancer patients and their psychiatric disorders was undertaken to determine the extent of the problem. It consists of articles with elderly cancer patients. Keyword terms included "cancer", "elderly", "aging", "geriatric", "psychiatric disorders", "psychiatric symptoms", "psychological problems", "aged >60 years", "sucidal ideation, geriatric, cancer", "suicide geriatric cancer". We conducted searches on the following databases: PubMed; PsychINFO (1980-2013); finally, 102 publications were suitable for the current review. Depression in elderly cancer patients is the most common disorder in elderly cancer patients associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Anxiety disorders may be less frequent in geriatric patients; however, it seemed to be a major problem in late life. Psychiatric disorders are common in geriatric patients with cancer especially at advanced stages of the disease. In addition, health care professionals can help provide treatment and emotional support. Future research should aim to provide data about the real prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in elderly patients with cancer, for the improvement of patients' quality of life and their caregivers.

  16. [How to care for elderly patients with cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Rainfray, M

    2015-10-01

    Mild cognitive impairment occurs frequently with ageing, concerning memory complaint, attention and executive dysfunction without any consequence on the activities of daily living. They are strongly linked to the presence of vascular risk factors in adulthood. Nevertheless with the continuous progression of life expectancy, the incidence of dementia drastically increases after sixty-five years of age and the number of old people with dementia is expected to increase by 75% in 2030 in France. Caring for elderly patients with cancer needs to face the possibility of cognitive impairment and its consequences on a good comprehension of diagnosis and treatment and ability to properly take medication. Comprehensive geriatric assessment can help to diagnose cognitive impairment and evaluate the consequences on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL). Home care may be organised with the help of the family or social workers. Physiotherapy and speech rehabilitation are often useful. Assistance for housekeeping, shopping and cooking may be financed by social organisations such as APA in France. Complex cases must be referred to case managers in homes for patients suffering for Alzheimer's disease (MAIA) who liaise between doctors and home carers with good results. PMID:26277239

  17. Home Delivery of Pain Therapy to Elderly Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie

    Chronic pain occurs most frequently in the elderly. Unfortunately, most pain clinics are located in large urban areas and are not readily accessible to the rural elderly. Recent advances in behavioral medicine have provided pain relief techniques that can be used by a wide variety of professional and paraprofessional workers who do not have…

  18. [Prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic pain in elderly cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Custodio-Cabello, Sara; Khosravi-Shahi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of neuropathic pain is difficult to estimate as most studies evaluating chronic pain do not differentiate neuropathic from nociceptive pain. There are only a few studies of neuropathic pain in the elderly, specifically in the oncology population. This article is a non-systematic review of the relevant evidence on the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic cancer pain in the elderly.

  19. Total laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy in an 89-year-old man: A case report and review of a single institute's experience in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    LI, HONGYU; PENG, BING

    2016-01-01

    Total laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (tLPPPD) has been demonstrated to be a safe and feasible surgery for pancreatic malignant diseases located in the head or uncinate process, with the advantages including minimal invasion, lower blood loss and a shorter hospital stay, compared with traditional open pancreatoduodenonectomy. Elderly patients theoretically have a lower capability to tolerate complex surgeries. The impairment of heart and pulmonary reserve function often leads to a high risk of post-operative cardiopulmonary complications. The present study reports a case of tLPPPD that was successfully performed in an 89-year-old man. No fatal complications developed. The post-operative pathological result revealed a diagnosis of pancreatic uncinate adenocarcinoma (T2N0M0, stage IB). After 1 year of follow-up, the patient remained alive without tumor recurrence or metastasis. The present study also discusses the associated literature and concludes that tLPPPD is a safe and feasible procedure in selective elderly patients. Use of this technique may expand the number of patients who can undergo surgery and provide benefits to these patients. PMID:27073538

  20. Optimal pharmacotherapeutic strategies for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Quoix, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Increases in both life expectancy and cancer incidence with age result in a significant rise in lung cancer rates among elderly patients, with a median age at diagnosis of between 63 and 70 years. However, elderly patients are under-represented in clinical trials and generally receive suboptimal treatment, mainly because of fears about increased toxicity of chemotherapy. Indeed, physiological modification of renal and haematopoietic functions with age together with co-morbidity and associated polypharmacy may alter the metabolism of chemotherapy drugs, resulting in greater toxicity. Moreover, performance status (PS), the main prognostic factor in younger patients, does not correlate well with geriatric indexes such as activities of daily living, cognition and physical performance, and comprehensive geriatric assessment is important in elderly patients. Until 2010, based on the small number of clinical trials designed for elderly patients, monotherapy was the recommended treatment for those with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas for fit younger patients, a platinum-based doublet was and continues to be the recommended first-line therapy. However, at the plenary session of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, results were presented from a randomized controlled trial conducted by the French Intergroup of Thoracic Oncology that demonstrated that in PS 0-2 patients aged≥70 years with advanced NSCLC, monthly carboplatin with weekly paclitaxel resulted in significantly longer survival than single-agent therapy (vinorelbine or gemcitabine). It should be noted that even in a priori unfavourable prognostic subgroups (patients with a PS score of 2, those aged>80 years or those with an activities of daily living scale score of <6), doublet therapy was associated with a survival advantage over monotherapy. Thus, the new paradigm of treatment of elderly patients with advanced NSCLC and a PS score of 0-2 should now be monthly

  1. Postoperative neurological aggravation after anesthesia with sevoflurane in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease that causes changes in skin pigmentation, precancerous lesions and neurological abnormalities. It is a defect in the nucleotide excision repair mechanism. It has been reported that volatile anesthetics has a possible genotoxic side effect and deranged nucleotide excision repair in cells obtained from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum. We report an unusual case of postoperative neurological aggravation in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum anesthetized with sevoflurane. Case presentation A 24-year-old African woman, who has had xeroderma pigmentosum since childhood, was admitted to our hospital for a femoral neck fracture. A preoperative physical examination revealed that she had a resting tremor with ataxia. She had cutaneous lesions such as keratosis and hyperpigmentation on her face and both hands. There was no major alteration of cognitive function, muscular strength was maintained and her osteotendinous reflexes were preserved. Surgical fixation was performed under general anesthesia after the failure of spinal anesthesia. All parameters were stable during surgery. When she woke up four hours later, the patient presented with confusion and psychomotor agitation, sharpened reflexes and the Babinski reflex was present. Her postoperative test results and a magnetic resonance imaging scan were unremarkable. It was suggested that sevoflurane had had a probable deleterious effect on the neurological status of this patient. Conclusion The anesthetizing of a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum is associated with a risk of worsening neurological disorders. At present, there are no clear recommendations to avoid the use of volatile agents in the anesthetic management of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. More clinical and experimental research is needed to confirm the sensitivity of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum to sevoflurane and other halogenated anesthetics. PMID:23497518

  2. Incident reporting in post-operative patients managed by acute pain service

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Syeda Fauzia; Hamid, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Incident reporting is a reliable and inexpensive tool used in anaesthesia to identify errors in patient management. A hospital incident reporting system was already present in our hospital, but we were unable to find any incident related to acute pain management. Hence, acute pain service (APS) was started for voluntary incident reporting in post-operative patients to identify critical incidents, review the root cause and suggest remedial measures. Methods: All post-operative patients managed by APS were included in this observational study. A proforma was developed by APS, which included information about the type of incident (equipment and patient-related, human errors), severity of incident, person responsible and suggestions to prevent the same incident in the future. Patients and medical staff were informed about the reporting system. Whenever an incident was identified, a proforma was filled out by APS resident and data entered in SPSS programme. Results: Total of 98 (1.80%) incidents were reported in 5432 patients managed by APS during 3 years period. Average age of the patients was 46 ± 17 years. Majority of incidents were related to epidural care (71%) and occurred in surgical wards (87%). Most of the incidents occurred due to human error and infusion delivery set-related defects. Conclusion: Incident reporting proved to be a feasible method of improving quality care in developing countries. It not only provides valuable information about areas which needed improvement, but also helped in developing strategies to improve care. Knowledge and attitudes of medical and paramedical staff are identified as the targeted area for improvement. PMID:26903672

  3. [Analysis of postoperative quality of life and survival of patients after surgical interventions on carotid arteries].

    PubMed

    Osipenko, D V; Marochkov, A V

    2012-01-01

    The authors analysed the quality of life and survival of patients from 1 to 4 years after operative treatment for stenosmg lesions of internal carotid arteries (Group One) or pathological kinking of internal carotid arteries (Group Two). The highest frequency of the problems in the first group was in the components pain/discomfort (91.7%) and motility (88.9% of the interviewed). In the second group of patients, the most commonly encountered disorders were pain/ discomfort (66.7%) and anxiety/depression (66.7% of the interviewed). Also analysed was the influence of the duration of anaesthesia and the type of an anaesthetic used to maintaining anaesthesia (sodium thiopental or propofol) on the postoperative quality of life. There were no statistically significant differences in the postoperative quality of life by the health index and EQVAS in the groups of the patients having received various anaesthetics in order to maintain anaesthesia (p=0.541 and p=0.148, respectively).

  4. Predictors of mortality among elderly dependent home care patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify which variables –among those commonly available and used in the primary care setting– best predict mortality in a cohort of elderly dependent patients living at home (EDPLH) that were included in a home care program provided by Primary Care Teams (PCT). Additionally, we explored the risk of death among a sub-group of these patients that were admitted to hospital the year before they entered the home care program. Methods A one-year longitudinal cohort study of a sample of EDPLH patients included in a home care programme provided by 72 PCTs. Variables collected from each individual patient included health and social status, carer’s characteristics, carer’s burden of care, health and social services received. Results 1,001 patients completed the study (91.5%), 226 were admitted to hospital the year before inclusion. 290 (28.9%) died during the one-year follow-up period. In the logistic regression analysis women show a lower risk of death [OR= 0.67 (0.50-0.91)]. The risk of death increases with comorbidity [Charlson index OR= 1.14 (1,06-1.23)], the number of previous hospital admissions [OR= 1,16 (1.03-1.33)], and with the degree of pressure ulcers [ulcers degree 1–2 OR = 2.94 (1.92-4.52); ulcers degree 3–4 OR = 4.45 (1.90-10.92)]. The logistic predictive model of mortality for patients previously admitted to hospital identified male sex, comorbidity, degree of pressure ulcers, and having received home care rehabilitation as independent variables that predict death. Conclusions Comorbidity, hospital admissions and pressure ulcers predict mortality in the following year in EDPLH patients. The subgroup of patients that entered home care programs with a previous record of hospital admission and a high score in our predictive model might be considered as candidates for palliative care. PMID:23947599

  5. [The Beers List as an aid to prevent adverse drug reactions in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, R W; van Marum, R J; Jansen, P A F

    2005-09-17

    Elderly patients are highly susceptible for developing adverse drug reactions (ADR) that can lead to hospitalisation or death. Most of these ADR can be prevented if doctors adjust their prescriptions. Beers et al. have developed a list of drugs that should not be prescribed to elderly patients since they are known for their association with serious ADR. In The Netherlands, 20% of elderly patients receive drugs that are in the so-called Beers list. Although the Beers list has not been adjusted to the Dutch situation, avoidance of these drugs may reduce drug-related hospital admittance. Development of an improved list of drugs that should not be prescribed to elderly patients is needed that is applicable to The Netherlands. PMID:16201599

  6. Surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling for elderly patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bekelis, Kimon; Gottlieb, Dan; Su, Yin; O'Malley, Alistair J.; Labropoulos, Nicos; Goodney, Phillip; MacKenzie, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The comparative effectiveness of the two treatment options (surgical clipping and endovascular coiling) for ruptured cerebral aneurysms has not been studied in real-world practice in the United States. We investigated the association of treatment method for ruptured cerebral aneurysms and outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of elderly patients who underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms from 2007 to 2012, using a 100% sample of Medicare fee-for-service claims data. An instrumental variable analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and create pseudo-randomization on treatment method. In sensitivity analysis, controlling only for measured confounding, we used propensity score conditioning and inverse probability weighting, with mixed effects to account for clustering at the HRR level. Results During the study period, there were 3,210 patients, who underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms, and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1,206 (37.6%) had surgical clipping, and 2,004 (62.4%) had endovascular coiling. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated no difference of coiling in comparison to clipping for 1-year postoperative mortality (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 0.70-1.54), likelihood of discharge to rehabilitation (OR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.72-1.58), or 30-day readmission rate (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 0.70-1.87). Clipping however was associated with 2.7 days longer length of stay (LOS) (95%CI, 0.45-4.99). The same associations were present in propensity score adjusted and inverse probability weighted models. Conclusions In a cohort of Medicare patients, we did not demonstrate a difference in mortality, rate of discharge to rehabilitation, and readmissions between clipping and coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with slightly longer LOS. PMID:26311713

  7. Postoperative Morganella morganii endophthalmitis associated with subclinical urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Tsanaktsidis, Gina; Agarwal, Smita A; Maloof, Anthony J; Chandra, Jay; Mitchell, Paul

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of Morganella morganii acute endophthalmitis following clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery in which a coincident asymptomatic chronic urinary tract infection was detected postoperatively. Morganella morganii is a gram-negative bacillus that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and is part of the normal fecal flora. It is an opportunistic pathogen usually encountered in postoperative and nosocomial settings, causing urinary tract and wound infections. Chronic urinary tract infection may be a risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. A dipstick urinalysis before elective cataract surgery in elderly patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections may be considered.

  8. [The empowerment of the elderly patient in interaction with the geriatric physician].

    PubMed

    Vissenberg, Marle; de Natris, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that there has been an increase in the empowerment of different groups of patients in their contact with physicians and nurses. However, no research to date has specifically focussed on the empowerment of elderly patients from the geriatrician's perspective . Research in this area is important in view of the rise in the ageing population, as elderly patients more frequently come into contact with physicians and more patient participation is required in care through processess such as 'shared decision making' and 'informed consent'. Through interviews with geriatricians from hospitals, this study attempted to gain insights into empowerment of elderly patients in consultations with geriatric physicians. Results show that there is a large degree of variation in empowerment among patients. The main factors that hinder or promote empowerment are the patients' cognitive state, their medical knowledge and educational level. Family and caregivers also appear to play a large role in the empowerment that elderly patients show in the physician's office. Three forms of active communication (asking questians, giving opinions, and expressing concerns) are the predominant manifestations of empowerment in elderly patients. Geriatricians unanimously agreed that empowerment influences the communication and relationship between the physician and the patient and also impacts decision making. Empowerment usually leads to greater therapy adherence and to more extensive patient examinations. PMID:27372461

  9. Art to Heart: The Effects of Staff- Created Art on the Postoperative Rehabilitation of Cardiovascular Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Mary Gwyn; Wells, Nancy L; Dietrich, Mary S; Sandlin, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative ambulation is important for reducing complications following surgery. The type of art patients view on the ambulation route may influence the distance patients walk. In this study, patients ambulated greater distances when staff-created art was placed on hallway walls.

  10. Postoperative epidural analgesia for patients undergoing pectus excavatum corrective surgery: a 10-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Asad; Tse, Andrew; Paul, James E; Fitzgerald, Peter; Teh, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Managing postoperative pain in patients undergoing minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure) is challenging but essential in facilitating ambulation and minimizing the length of stay. Although multiple epidural regimens with varying opioids are presently used for pain management, there is currently no clinical consensus regarding which epidural regimen provides the best analgesia outcomes with the fewest side effects. This 10-year retrospective cohort study was performed to compare the quality of analgesia and the incidence of side effects associated with the three most common epidural regimens used at a tertiary care children’s hospital, in patients undergoing the Nuss procedure. Methods Seventy-two pediatric patients were identified as having been treated with one of three epidural regimens for postoperative pain management following the Nuss procedure: Group A (n=12) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 5 µg/mL fentanyl, Group B (n=21) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 10 µg/mL hydromorphone, and Group C (n=39) received 0.1% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL hydromorphone. Our primary outcome was maximal daily pain scores (numerical rating scale 0–10), with an analytical focus on postoperative day 1 scores. The primary outcome was analyzed using linear regression. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay, side-effect profiles as reflected by the number of treatments for nausea and pruritus, pain scores according to epidural site insertion, occurrence of breakthrough pain, and presence of severe pain throughout their hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were analyzed using linear or logistic regression adjusted for pain scores at baseline. The criterion for statistical significance was set a priori at alpha =0.05. Results Group A had significantly higher day-1 pain scores (score 5.42/10) than Group B (4.52/10; P=0.030) and Group C (4.49/10; P=0.015) after adjusting for baseline pain and age. No significant difference in maximum daily

  11. Effect of Music on Postoperative Pain in Patients Under Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Mohammadi, Abouzar; Najaran, Hamed; Khazaei, Shala

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music, as a non-pharmacological and inexpensive nursing intervention, can be used easily as a complementary technique in reducing pain along with other methods. While some studies have demonstrated pain to decrease after music, others found music to be ineffective on pain. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music on postoperative pain in patients under open heart surgery. Patients and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients under open heart surgery referred to ICU of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into two groups including experimental and control groups. Patients in music group listened to nonverbal music for 30 minutes after surgery by headphones. The control group did not receive any intervention other than routine care. Before and after intervention, pain intensity was measured and recorded by visual analog scale in two groups. Data was analyzed using Chi-Square and t-tests. Results: Before intervention, the mean of pain intensity was 6.32 ± 0.21 and 6.10 ± 0.21 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was not significant (P = 0.21). After intervention, the mean of pain intensity was 3.11 ± 0.12 and 5.81 ± 0.38 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was significant (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Listening to the relaxant music can reduce postoperative pain. It is suggested that relaxant music be used as a complementary method in patients in order to reduce prospective pain. PMID:25699280

  12. Postoperative evaluation of the folded pharyngeal flap operation for cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimasu, Hidemi; Sato, Yutaka; Mishimagi, Takashi; Negishi, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Velopharyngeal function is very important for patients with cleft palate to acquire good speech. For patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, prosthetic speech appliances and speech therapy are applied first, and then pharyngeal flap surgery to improve velopharyngeal function is performed in our hospital. The folded pharyngeal flap operation was first reported by Isshiki and Morimoto in 1975. We usually use a modification of the original method. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to introduce our method of the folded pharyngeal flap operation and report the results. Materials and Methods: The folded pharyngeal flap operation was performed for 110 patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency from 1982 to 2010. Of these, the 97 whose postoperative speech function was evaluated are reported. The cases included 61 males and 36 females, ranging in age from 7 to 50 years. The time from surgery to speech assessment ranged from 5 months to 6 years. In order to evaluate preoperative velopharyngeal function, assessment of speech by a trained speech pathologist, nasopharyngoscopy, and cephalometric radiography with contrast media were performed before surgery, and then the appropriate surgery was selected and performed. Postoperative velopharyngeal function was assessed by a trained speech pathologist. Results: Of the 97 patients who underwent the folded pharyngeal flap operation, 85 (87.6%) showed velopharyngeal competence, 8 (8.2%) showed marginal velopharyngeal incompetence, and only 2 (2.1%) showed velopharyngeal incompetence; in 2 cases (2.1%), hyponasality was present. Approximately 95% of patients showed improved velopharyngeal function. Conclusions: The folded pharyngeal flap operation based on appropriate preoperative assessment has been shown to be an effective method for the treatment of cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. PMID:26389036

  13. Assessment of Nursing Deficiencies in the Postoperative Care of Microsurgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Justin M; Smith, Michael; Coon, Devin; Bonawitz, Steven C

    2016-10-01

    Background Close monitoring is crucial following successful flap surgery. Ideally, all patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction should be evaluated in a dedicated unit with specialized nurses; however, this is not always possible and there is often a varied skill mix of nursing staff. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in microsurgical education among nursing staff in an effort to target future educational efforts. Methods A 22-question electronic survey was sent out to all nursing staff at three sampled hospitals that manage microsurgical patients. Statistical analysis was performed to identify factors that predicted aptitude, comfort, and deficiencies in the treatment of microsurgical patients. Results Of the 160 registered nurses sampled, 106 completed the survey completely (66%). A total of 59 nurses worked at a tertiary care academic institution (55%) and the remaining 47 nurses worked at one of two community hospitals (45%).Regardless of whether the provider self-identified as a critical care or floor nurse, nurses from an academic medical center were significantly more comfortable with their ability to care for microsurgical patients when compared with their community medical center counterparts (p < 0.05). Furthermore, regardless of whether the provider self-identified as a critical care or the hospital setting where they worked, nurses with greater than 5 years of experience were significantly more comfortable with their ability to care for microsurgical patients when compared with nurses who had less than 5 years of experience (p < 0.05).There was no correlation with comfort level and the ability to interpret various postoperative flap-monitoring technologies between intensive care unit nurses and floor nurses. Conclusions We have identified that nurses with less than 5 years of experience or nurses in a community setting may be less comfortable with the care of postoperative microsurgical patients, especially

  14. [Optimization of postoperative medical therapy of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital valvular heart disease].

    PubMed

    Chistyakov, I S; Medvedev, A P; Pichugin, V V

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined surgical and medical treatment of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital valvular heart disease when included in a regimen of the drug Reamberin. In this regard, the analysis of the effectiveness of a combination regimen of 74 patients with valvular congenital heart diseases complicated with infective endocarditis. Given the indications for surgical correction operative technique features and possible technical difficulties in carrying out such operations, due to the inflammatory changes and tissue destruction, and ways to overcome them. For the correction of metabolic disorders in the postoperative period, 47 patients (main group) was appointed Reamberin: once, intravenous drip 400 ml/day during the first 5 days after surgery. 27 patients (control group) was conducted infusion therapy depending on the severity of the condition according to the classical scheme. In addition to standard clinical and laboratory examination, to assess the effectiveness of Reamberin was investigated catalase activity of CPK in blood serum in the dynamics of observation (1, 3 and 5 days after surgery). It is revealed that surgical approach, used in complex treatment of patients with valvular congenital heart diseases, including reorganization of the cavities of the heart, increasing the frequency of joints and the use of reinforcing strips of synthetic material that prevents the cutting of sutures through the inflamed tissue has achieved good short-and long-term results. Infective endocarditis and destruction of the valvular annulus fibrosus the use of a frame of strips of polytetrafluoroethylene allows you to restore its integrity and to implant a mechanical prosthesis. The inclusion in the regimen of patients with infective endocarditis complicated by cardiac insufficiency in the early postoperative period the drug Reamberin improves the efficiency of treatment by a more rapid restoration of the normal

  15. The adverse effects of smoking on postoperative outcomes in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Csaba; Hawn, Mary T; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Henderson, William G.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Houston, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible negative effects of smoking on postoperative outcomes have not been well-studied in cancer patients. Methods We used the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) database for the years 2002–2008, which assesses pre-operative risk factors and post-operative outcomes for patients undergoing major surgery within the VA healthcare system. Results Compared to never smokers, prior smokers and current smokers with GI malignancies were significantly more likely to have surgical site infection (SSI)( Odds ratio, OR:1.25, 95%CI:1.09–1.44)(OR:1.20, 95%CI:1.05–1.38), combined pulmonary complications (CPO: pneumonia, failure to wean from ventilator, reintubation) (OR:1.60, 95%CI:1.38–1.87)(OR:1.96, 95%CI:1.68–2.29) and return to the operating room (OR:1.20, 95%CI:1.03–1.39)(OR:1.31 95%CI:1.13–1.53), respectively. Both prior and current smokers had a significantly higher mortality at 30 days (OR:1.50, 95%CI:1.19–1.89)(OR: 1.41, 95%CI:1.08–1.82) and one year (OR:1.22, 95%CI:1.08–1.38)(OR:1.62, 95%C I:1.43–1.85). Thoracic surgery patients who were current smokers were more likely to develop CPO (OR:1.62, 95%CI:1.25–2.11), and mortality within one year (OR:1.50, 95%CI:1.17–1.92) compared to non-smokers, but SSI rates were not affected by smoking status. Current smokers had a significant increase in postsurgical length of stay (overall 4.3% [p<0.001], GI 4.7% [p=0.003], thoracic 9.0% [p<0.001]) compared to prior smokers. Conclusions Prior and current smoking status is a significant risk factor for major postoperative complications and mortality following GI cancer and thoracic operations in veterans. Smoking cessation should be encouraged prior to all major cancer surgery in the VA population to decrease postoperative complications and length of stay. PMID:22065194

  16. Hemoglobin-associated Oxidative Stress in the Pericardial Compartment of Post-operative Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Philip A.; Chacko, Balu K.; Ravi, Saranya; Johnson, Michelle S.; Mitchell, Tanecia; Barnes, Stephen; Arabshahi, Alireza; Dell’Italia, Louis J.; George, David J.; Steele, Chad; George, James F.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Melby, Spencer J.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and valvular heart disease often require treatment with corrective surgery to prevent future myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Mechanisms underlying the development of the associated complications of surgery are multifactorial and have been linked to inflammation and oxidative stress, classically as measured in the blood or plasma of patients. Post-operative pericardial fluid (PO-PCF) has not been investigated in depth with respect to the potential to induce oxidative stress. This is important since cardiac surgery disrupts the integrity of the pericardial membrane surrounding the heart, and causes significant alterations in the composition of the pericardial fluid (PCF). This includes contamination with hemolyzed blood and high concentrations of oxidized hemoglobin, which suggests that cardiac surgery results in oxidative stress within the pericardial space. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that PO-PCF is highly pro-oxidant and that the potential interaction between inflammatory cell-derived hydrogen peroxide with hemoglobin is associated with oxidative stress. Blood and PCF were collected from 31 patients at the time of surgery and postoperatively from 4 to 48 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or valve repair (mitral or aortic). PO-PCF contained high concentrations of neutrophils and monocytes which are capable of generating elevated amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide through the oxidative burst. In addition, PO-PCF primed naïve neutrophils resulting in an enhanced oxidative burst upon stimulation. The PO-PCF also contained increased concentrations of cell-free oxidized hemoglobin which was associated with elevated levels of F2α-isoprostanes and prostaglandins, consistent with both oxidative stress and activation of cyclooxygenase. Lastly, protein analysis of the PO-PCF revealed evidence of protein thiol oxidation and protein carbonylation. We conclude that PO-PCF is

  17. Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Can Predict Postoperative Mortality in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Emin Kalkan, Mehmet; Arslan, Akin; Gezer Tas, Serpil; Koksal, Cengiz; Bekiroglu, Nural; Yildizeli, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate clinical importance of neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio in patients with Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Methods: 125 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were operated pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in our center between February 2011 and August 2013. 106 patients included into the study due to limitations. The patients were classified into two groups as patients discharged alive (Group 1) and those dying in the hospital (Group 2). Baseline neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio level was measured by dividing neutrophil count to lymphocyte count. Results: 84 patients (79%) were in Group 1, 22 patients (21%) were in Group 2. Patients with higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in admission have a significantly higher mortality rate and postoperative pulmonary vascular resistance was found statistically significant variable to predict the mortality. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that using a cut-off point of 2.54, admission neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio predicts mortality. Also, correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between preoperative pulmonary vascular resistance and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Conclusion: The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio level may be a useful and noninvasive biomarker for operative risk stratification for mortality after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. PMID:25753325

  18. Safety and efficacy of rosiglitazone in the elderly diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, Adie; Sinclair, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is an important health condition for the aging population; at least 20% of patients over the age of 65 years have diabetes, and this number can be expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades. Rosiglitazone, a drug in the thiazolidinedione class which targets insulin resistance, was approved by drug regulatory bodies based on its ability to improve glycemic control nearly ten years ago. The greatest long-term risk in diabetes is cardiovascular disease with macrovascular disease being the cause of as much as 80% of mortality. More recently the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone was brought to center stage following several meta-analyses and the unplanned interim analysis of the RECORD trial. As opposed to pioglitazone, current evidence points to rosiglitazone having a greater risk of myocardial ischemic events than placebo, metformin, or sulfonylureas. A thiazolidinedione class effect however seems apparent with respect to the increased risk for fractures and congestive heart failure. Clinical trial evidence on rosiglitazone therapy in the elderly is limited. The available evidence is mainly related to observational cohort studies. Most of the trial evidence relates to a younger population and therefore these data can not be directly extrapolated to an older population. The effects of the thiazolidinedione drug class remain incompletely understood. PMID:19475776

  19. [Definition and issue of medications underuse in frail elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Piau, Antoine; Hein, Christophe; Nourhashemi, Fatémeh; Sebbagh, Mélanie; Legrain, Sylvie

    2012-06-01

    Underuse is defined as the absence of initiation of an effective treatment in subjects with a condition for which one or several drug classes have demonstrated their efficacy. Indeed, "effective treatment" actually means favourable benefit/risk ratio. To propose a detailed and functional definition of underuse for frail elderly we should discuss, beforehand, the better way to assess benefit/risk ratio of drugs in this population. Our work is based on a literature review in the field of inappropriate prescription and therapeutic optimization. We can foresee the hard way to accurately define underuse for frail geriatric patients because of the difficulties encountered to demonstrate drug efficacy, drug effectiveness, or even more drug risk in this specific population. Potential benefit of underused medications in this population are poorly evaluated before and even after market authorization. Premarketing clinical trials and pharmacovigilance also yield only relatively restricted information on safety of use. Underuse is a non optimal prescription modality and presumes a judgment on prescription act. This can lead to recommendations or quality indicators. It should therefore be scientifically valid and closely fit with a loss of health or loss of quality of life with a satisfying proof level. But the literature generally adopts an unsophisticated point of view. Medication introduction on the basis of a debatable definition of underuse could lead to an accumulation of useless drugs with potential adverse effects which is overuse.

  20. The tolerance of skin grafts to postoperative radiation therapy in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, W.T.; Zabell, A.; McDonald, H.D. )

    1986-03-01

    During the last ten years at the National Cancer Institute, 11 patients have received 12 courses of postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy to skin grafts used for wound closure after the resection of soft-tissue sarcomas. The intervals between grafting and the initiation of radiation ranged between 3 and 20 weeks, and 4 patients received chemotherapy at the same time as their radiation. Ten of the 12 irradiated grafts remained intact after the completion of therapy. One graft had several small persistently ulcerated areas that required no further surgical treatment, and one graft required a musculocutaneous flap for reconstruction of a persistent large ulcer. Acute radiation effects on the grafted skin sometimes developed at slightly lower doses than usually seen with normal skin, but these acute effects necessitated a break in therapy on only five occasions. Concurrent chemotherapy and a relatively short interval between grafting and the initiation of radiation seemed to contribute to more severe radiation reactions. This experience indicates that postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy can be delivered to skin grafted areas without undue fear of complications, especially if the graft is allowed to heal adequately prior to initiating therapy and if chemotherapy is not given in conjunction with radiation.

  1. Efficacy of Postoperative Hormone Replacement Therapy on Prognosis of Patients with Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Li; Chen, Jin-Hong; Lu, Wen; Li, Bi-Lan; Zhu, Qin-Yi; Wan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer-associated death. Iatrogenic menopause might adversely affect the quality of life and health outcomes in young female cancer survivors. We evaluated whether postoperative hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had a negative influence on the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with papillary serous ovarian cancer (SOC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with papillary SOC, treated from January 1980 to December 2009, who suffered from menopause with or without HRT. Clinical characteristics of patients were compared between the two groups (HRT and non-HRT). Blood samples were collected from all the participants to detect serum cancer antigen (CA) 125. Hazard ratios with 95% confidential intervals for each variable were calculated by univariable and multivariable conditional Logistic regression analyses. Results: Among 112 identified patients, 31 were HRT users and 81 were not. The two groups did not significantly differ in median age at diagnosis (t = 0.652, P = 0.513), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (χ2 = 0.565, P = 0.754), differentiation (χ2 = 1.728, P = 0.422), resection status (χ2 = 0.070, P = 0.791), relapse (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.741), chemotherapy course (t = −1.079, P = 0.282), follow-up interval (t = 0.878, P = 0.382), or PFS (t = 0.580, P = 0.562). Median Kupperman score at the onset of HRT was 30.81 and 12.19 after the therapy (t = 3.302, P = 0.001). According to the analysis, the strongest independent variables in predicting PFS were FIGO stage and disease that was not optimally debulked. Conclusions: Postoperative HRT is not a prognostic factor for PFS of patients with papillary SOC. However, multicenter studies are needed to verify and extend our findings. PMID:27231169

  2. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  3. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuaron, John J.; Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry; Goenka, Anuj; DeBlois, David; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Hug, Eugen; Cahlon, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results Median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n = 28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01–3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%–30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%–5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0–65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03–3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and cardiopulmonary

  4. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, John J.; Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry; Goenka, Anuj; DeBlois, David; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Hug, Eugen; Cahlon, Oren

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results: Median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n=28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01-3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%-30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%-5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0-65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03-3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions: Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and cardiopulmonary

  5. Evaluation of the postoperative patient with /sup 99m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Gliedman, M.L.; Wilk, P.J.; Sugarman, L.A.; Badia, J.; Guglielmo, K.; Freeman, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the role of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in evaluating postoperative patients, a total of 213 studies were performed in 189 patients over a 3-year time period. Of these, 130 studies were obtained in 125 cases with signs and/or symptoms suggesting postcholecystectomy syndrome. A normal sized duct that emptied within an hour ruled out significant pathology with a high degree of accuracy (97%). A less reliable finding of normalcy was the combination of ductal dilatation with functional patency in that three of 20 patients (15%) who exhibited this pattern were proven to have nonobstructing calculi in their common bile duct. AZ spectrum of abnormal findings was encountered. Ductal dilatation was a most significant indicator of partial or intermittent ductal obstruction when it was associated with altered time-activity dynamics in the ducts and secondarily, delayed biliary-to-bowel transit time of the radiotracer. Patterns indicating complete common duct obstruction, cystic duct remnants, and bile leaks also proved to be very sensitive. Seventy-three studies in 56 patients very accurately evaluated the integrity of biliary-enteric bypass anastomosis. Complete and partial obstructive patterns were similar in appearance to those encountered in postcholecystectomy syndrome. Several leaks were also detected in this patient population. Ten studies were performed in eight patients who underwent Billroth II gastroenterostomies primarily to see if afferent loop obstruction was present. Three of these patients did demonstrate dilated A-loops with stasis, thereby making a positive diagnosis possible.

  6. Treating Elderly Patients With Hormone Receptor–Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riseberg, David

    2015-01-01

    As the overall population ages, the proportion of elderly patients (aged ≥65 years) with breast cancer also increases. Studies have shown that elderly patients with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer can derive as much benefit from treatment as do younger patients, yet they remain underrepresented in clinical trials and are often undertreated in clinical practice. Treatment decisions for older patients should not be based solely on chronologic age; a patient’s physiologic functioning and comorbidities must also be taken into consideration. For recurrent or metastatic disease, systemic treatment with endocrine therapies or chemotherapy may prolong a patient’s life and alleviate troublesome symptoms. Resistance to therapy remains a problem in the advanced breast cancer setting, with most patients eventually becoming resistant to additional treatment. New combination regimens that target multiple pathways, such as everolimus plus exemestane, have shown efficacy in elderly patients previously resistant to endocrine therapies, and future research may need to focus on such combinations in order to improve outcomes in this patient group. A number of investigational agents are in clinical development, although few studies identify their effects in the elderly patient population. Optimizing effective yet tolerable therapeutic regimens for elderly patients could improve their outcomes while ensuring that the goals of improved survival and quality of life are considered. PMID:26339192

  7. Two phase randomised controlled clinical trial of postoperative oral dietary supplements in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Keele, A M; Bray, M J; Emery, P W; Duncan, H D; Silk, D B

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that the administration of oral dietary supplements to patients who have undergone gastrointestinal surgery results in clinically significant short term benefits. AIMS: This study aimed firstly to re-evaluate these short term effects, and secondly to establish whether there are any long term benefits. SUBJECTS: One hundred patients admitted for elective moderate or major gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS: In the inpatient phase, patients were randomised to receive a normal ward diet postoperatively, or the same diet supplemented with an oral dietary supplement. In the outpatient phase, patients were further randomised to receive their home diet, or their home diet supplemented with the oral dietary supplement for four months. RESULTS: During the inpatient phase, patients treated with oral supplements had a significantly improved nutritional intake and lost less weight (2.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9 kg) compared with control patients (4.2 (0.78) kg, p < 0.001). Supplemented patients maintained their hand grip strength whereas control patients showed a significant reduction in grip strength (p < 0.01). Subjective levels of fatigue increased significantly above preoperative levels in control patients (p < 0.01) but not in the supplemented group. Twelve patients in the control group developed complications compared with four in the supplemented group (p < 0.05). In the outpatient phase, supplemented patients had improved nutrient intakes but there were no significant differences in indices of nutritional status or wellbeing between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prescription of oral dietary supplements to patients who have undergone gastrointestinal surgery results in clinically significant benefits. These benefits, however, are restricted to the inpatient phase. PMID:9135531

  8. Postoperative management.

    PubMed

    Schraag, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Most patients undergoing major aortic surgery have multiple comorbidities and are at high risk of postoperative complications that affect multiple organ systems. Different aortic pathologies and surgical repair techniques have specific impact on the postoperative course. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the common denominator in aortic surgery and influences the integrity of end-organ function. Common postoperative problems include hemodynamic instability due to the immediate inflammatory response, renal impairment, spinal cord ischemia, respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as ileus or mesenteric ischemia. Focused care bundles to establish homeostasis and a team working toward an early functional recovery determine the success of effective rehabilitation and outcomes after aortic surgery. PMID:27650347

  9. Methods to reduce prescribing errors in elderly patients with multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Lavan, Amanda H; Gallagher, Paul F; O'Mahony, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The global population of multimorbid older people is growing steadily. Multimorbidity is the principal cause of complex polypharmacy, which in turn is the prime risk factor for inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug reactions and events. Those who prescribe for older frailer multimorbid people are particularly prone to committing prescribing errors of various kinds. The causes of prescribing errors in this patient population are multifaceted and complex, including prescribers' lack of knowledge of aging physiology, geriatric medicine, and geriatric pharmacotherapy, overprescribing that frequently leads to major polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, and inappropriate drug omission. This review examines the various ways of minimizing prescribing errors in multimorbid older people. The role of education in physician prescribers and clinical pharmacists, the use of implicit and explicit prescribing criteria designed to improve medication appropriateness in older people, and the application of information and communication-technology systems to minimize errors are discussed in detail. Although evidence to support any single intervention to prevent prescribing errors in multimorbid elderly people is inconclusive or lacking, published data support focused prescriber education in geriatric pharmacotherapy, routine application of STOPP/START (screening tool of older people's prescriptions/screening tool to alert to right treatment) criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing, electronic prescribing, and close liaison between clinical pharmacists and physicians in relation to structured medication review and reconciliation. Carrying out a structured medication review aimed at optimizing pharmacotherapy in this vulnerable patient population presents a major challenge. Another challenge is to design, build, validate, and test by clinical trials suitably versatile and efficient software engines that can reliably and swiftly perform complex medication reviews in

  10. Methods to reduce prescribing errors in elderly patients with multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Lavan, Amanda H; Gallagher, Paul F; O'Mahony, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The global population of multimorbid older people is growing steadily. Multimorbidity is the principal cause of complex polypharmacy, which in turn is the prime risk factor for inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug reactions and events. Those who prescribe for older frailer multimorbid people are particularly prone to committing prescribing errors of various kinds. The causes of prescribing errors in this patient population are multifaceted and complex, including prescribers' lack of knowledge of aging physiology, geriatric medicine, and geriatric pharmacotherapy, overprescribing that frequently leads to major polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, and inappropriate drug omission. This review examines the various ways of minimizing prescribing errors in multimorbid older people. The role of education in physician prescribers and clinical pharmacists, the use of implicit and explicit prescribing criteria designed to improve medication appropriateness in older people, and the application of information and communication-technology systems to minimize errors are discussed in detail. Although evidence to support any single intervention to prevent prescribing errors in multimorbid elderly people is inconclusive or lacking, published data support focused prescriber education in geriatric pharmacotherapy, routine application of STOPP/START (screening tool of older people's prescriptions/screening tool to alert to right treatment) criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing, electronic prescribing, and close liaison between clinical pharmacists and physicians in relation to structured medication review and reconciliation. Carrying out a structured medication review aimed at optimizing pharmacotherapy in this vulnerable patient population presents a major challenge. Another challenge is to design, build, validate, and test by clinical trials suitably versatile and efficient software engines that can reliably and swiftly perform complex medication reviews in

  11. Methods to reduce prescribing errors in elderly patients with multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Lavan, Amanda H; Gallagher, Paul F; O’Mahony, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The global population of multimorbid older people is growing steadily. Multimorbidity is the principal cause of complex polypharmacy, which in turn is the prime risk factor for inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug reactions and events. Those who prescribe for older frailer multimorbid people are particularly prone to committing prescribing errors of various kinds. The causes of prescribing errors in this patient population are multifaceted and complex, including prescribers’ lack of knowledge of aging physiology, geriatric medicine, and geriatric pharmacotherapy, overprescribing that frequently leads to major polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, and inappropriate drug omission. This review examines the various ways of minimizing prescribing errors in multimorbid older people. The role of education in physician prescribers and clinical pharmacists, the use of implicit and explicit prescribing criteria designed to improve medication appropriateness in older people, and the application of information and communication-technology systems to minimize errors are discussed in detail. Although evidence to support any single intervention to prevent prescribing errors in multimorbid elderly people is inconclusive or lacking, published data support focused prescriber education in geriatric pharmacotherapy, routine application of STOPP/START (screening tool of older people’s prescriptions/screening tool to alert to right treatment) criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing, electronic prescribing, and close liaison between clinical pharmacists and physicians in relation to structured medication review and reconciliation. Carrying out a structured medication review aimed at optimizing pharmacotherapy in this vulnerable patient population presents a major challenge. Another challenge is to design, build, validate, and test by clinical trials suitably versatile and efficient software engines that can reliably and swiftly perform complex medication reviews

  12. Risk factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received tranexamic acid: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Montes, Felix R; Pardo, Daniel F; Carreño, Marisol; Arciniegas, Catalina; Dennis, Rodolfo J; Umaña, Juan P

    2012-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic agents are used during cardiac surgery to minimize bleeding and reduce exposure to blood products. Several reports suggest that tranexamic acid (TA) can induce seizure activity in the postoperative period. To examine factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received TA. University-affiliated hospital. Case-control study. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified. During this time, all patients undergoing heart surgery with CPB received TA. Cases were defined as patients who developed seizures that required initiation of anticonvulsive therapy within 48 h of surgery. Exclusion criteria included subjects with preexisting epilepsy and patients in whom the convulsive episode was secondary to a new ischemic lesion on brain imaging. Controls who did not develop seizures were randomly selected from the initial cohort. From an initial cohort of 903 patients, we identified 32 patients with postoperative seizures. Four patients were excluded. Twenty-eight cases and 112 controls were analyzed. Cases were more likely to have a history of renal impairment and higher preoperative creatinine values compared with controls (1.39 ± 1.1 vs. 0.98 ± 0.02 mg/dL, P = 0.02). Significant differences in the intensive care unit, postoperative and total lengths of stay were observed. An association between high preoperative creatinine value and postoperative seizure was identified. TA may be associated with the development of postoperative seizures in patients with renal dysfunction. Doses of TA should be reduced or even avoided in this population. PMID:22234015

  13. Assessment of cancer care in Indian elderly cancer patients: A single center study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anindya; Shahi, UP

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This prospective study aimed to assess the profiles of elderly cancer patient to optimize cancer care in Indian setup. The profiles have been compared with that of younger patients in terms of epidemiological, clinical data, co-morbidity, treatment, toxicity, clinical outcome, and survival pattern. Materials and Methods: The study comprised cancer patients attending radiotherapy outdoor (November 2005 to June 2006). There were 104 patients of age ≥60 years (elderly group) and 121 patients of 45-59 years (younger group). Results: Elderly group had median age 65 years (60-88 years) with M:F = 1:1. The younger group had median age 50 years (45-59 years) with M:F = 1:2. Elderly had higher proportion of gastrointestinal and genito-urinary tract malignancies. Younger group had higher proportion of breast, lymphoma, and brain tumor. 13% had co-morbidity, 50% received treatment, 27% were treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery, and two-third of these cases belong to elderly group. Majority tolerated treatment well. 10% had significant grade of toxicity. 57% of elderly patients did not accept and one-fourth of all cases did not complete the prescribed treatment. 88% cases were responders of which 70% showed complete response. There were no differences between two groups. At 12 months 35% of treated patients came for follow-up. At first 12 months, 60-70% were alive without disease. Conclusion: There were differences between two groups in terms of performance status, treatment acceptance, and treatment modality prescribed. Elderly patients deserve same opportunity as younger patients for treatment and survival options from the oncologist. PMID:24455630

  14. Impact of neoadjuvant therapy on postoperative complications in patients undergoing resection for rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turner, Immanuel I; Russell, Gregory B; Blackstock, A William; Levine, Edward A

    2004-12-01

    Surgical resection continues to be the mainstay of treatment for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and radiation) has also been shown to be efficacious. The impact of preoperative chemotherapy and radiation on postoperative complications is unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship of neoadjuvant therapy on postoperative complications in patients undergoing a resection of rectal cancer. A total of 325 patients who underwent curative resection for rectal cancer from 1984 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Only cases with complete data sets who had undergone surgery at this institution were evaluable (257). The patients were divided into groups based on the operative procedure performed; abdominoperineal resection (APR) versus sphincter-sparing (SS) procedures (LAR/Transanal) and whether or not preoperative chemotherapy or radiation was administered. There was no significant difference between complication rates for APR and SS with 19 per cent and 14 per cent, respectively. The preoperative therapy had no effect on complications after APR. However, the SS group showed 21 per cent of the patients who received radiation had complications compared to 11 per cent in those who did not (P = 0.087). Complications in the SS group included leaks, wound infections, abscess, embolism, cardiac dysrhythmias, and myocardial infarctions. The 30-day mortality was 1.9 per cent for the entire cohort with no clear difference between groups. There was no significant difference in complication rate between APR and SS. In the APR group, neoadjuvant therapy had no impact on the incidence of complications. However, the SS group did show a trend between preoperative chemotherapy and radiation and complication rate. However, this may not outweigh the advantages of preoperative therapy in this setting.

  15. P17.70CAN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA BENEFIT FROM CONVENTIONAL CHEMO-RADIOTHERAPY TREATMENT?

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, E.; Valduvieco, I.; Pujol, T.; Oleaga, L.; Ribalta, T.; Caral, L.; Gonzalez, J.; Boget, T.; Graus, F.; Verger, E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most life-threatening primary brain tumor, especially in elderly. Despite aggressive treatment, median survival among all GBM patients is only 12-15 months and is worse in elderly (6-9 months). The standard of care for elderly remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to assess the benefit of conventional treatment (Stupp regimen) in elderly patients. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed a prospective database of 209 patients who were diagnosed with GBM at a single center from January 2005 to March 2013. All patients were divided into younger and elderly groups based on the cut-off age of 65 years. RESULTS: Of 209 patients diagnosed with GBM, 122 (58%) patients were younger than 65 years, and 87 (42%) patients were 65 years old or older. No differences were found in basal patient characteristics and neither in grade of resection between age subgroups. However elderly received less active treatment, radio-chemotherapy was less frequent in elderly (51% vs 73%) but radiotherapy alone (18% vs 8%) and non-oncological treatment after surgery was more frequent in elderly (31% vs 18%) (p = 0.002). No differences in median survival were found in elderly patients who received the same approach treatment than young patients. Median OS was 10.8 months in all GBM patients, 8.7 months in older and 13.6 months in younger patients (p = 0.019). Of all, 106 (51%) patients received Stupp regimen, 41 (47%) elderly and 65 (53%) young. Median OS in patients treated with conventional treatment was 18 months, without differences by age, 15.3 months in older and 18 months in younger (p = 0.228), neither differences were found in PFS (global of 8.2 months, 9.7 and 8.2 months, p = 0.307). MGMT status information was available only for 45.5% of patients that received Stupp regimen, 23 MGMT methylated, 25 MGMT unmethylated and 58 patients with MGMT not evaluable or not done. Surprisingly, no differences in OS were found between groups by MGMT

  16. [Left Lower Lobectomy for an Elderly Patient with Anomalous Systemic Arterial Supply to the Basal Segment of the Left Lung;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Saki; Moriya, Makio; Kamesui, Tadashi; Shimizu, Junzo; Nagayoshi, Toshiro; Nonomura, Akitaka

    2016-07-01

    A 76-year-old man was referred to our department for an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. Computed tomography showed an aberrant artery arising from the descending thoracic aorta to the basal segment of the left lung. The aberrant artery was dilated and tortuous, and its wall had remarkable calcifications. Bronchial branching to the basal segment of the left lung were normal. The diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal basal segment was established, and division of the aberrant artery and left lower lobectomy were performed successfully. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on the 14th postoperative day. We describe herein a rare case of the elderly patient surgically treated for this disease along with a brief review of the literatures. PMID:27365073

  17. Association Between Nutritional Status, Inflammatory Condition, and Prognostic Indexes with Postoperative Complications and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Costa, Milena Damasceno de Souza; Vieira de Melo, Camila Yandara Sousa; Amorim, Ana Carolina Ribeiro de; Cipriano Torres, Dilênia de Oliveira; Dos Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and relate nutritional and inflammatory status and prognostic indexes with postoperative complications and clinical outcome of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated; nutritional assessment was carried out by subjective and objective parameters; albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined. To assess prognosis, the Glasgow scale, the Prognostic Inflammatory Nutritional Index (PINI), and CRP/albumin ratio were used; the clinical outcomes considered were hospital discharge and death. A high Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) score was associated with the occurrence of postoperative complications: 73% of the patients with postoperative complications had the highest SGA score, but only 6% of those without postoperative complications had the highest SGA score (P < 0.001). Greater occurrence of death was observed in patients with a high SGA score, low serum albumin, increased CRP, PINI > 1, and Glasgow score 2. There was a positive correlation between weight loss percentage with serum CRP levels (P = 0.002), CRP/albumin (P = 0.002), PINI (P = 0.002), and Glasgow score (P = 0.000). This study provides evidence that the assessment of the nutritional status and the use of prognostic indexes are good tools for predicting postoperative complications and clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia.

  18. [The mechanical properties of the lungs in patients with congenital heart defects in the immediate postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Zatevakhina, M V; Nikitin, E S; Tskhovrebov, S V; Makrushin, I M; Suvorova, G Iu; Safonova, E M

    1998-01-01

    Static compliance and inspiratory resistance were assessed in 218 patients aged over 3 years after open-heart surgery for correction of congenital heart disease during the immediate postoperative period without complications. Cst in the immediate postoperative period in patients with Fallot's tetralogy, intraventricular septum defect, intraatrial septum defect, and incomplete form of atrioventricular communication was higher than in patients operated on for Fallot's tetralogy with a previous systemic-pulmonary anastomosis and pulmonary artery atresia, whereas Rinsp was virtually the same in all groups. Age-specific differences were noted. The data are recommended for use as reference values in stress. PMID:9770809

  19. [Postoperative radioiodine ablation in patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Grande, Enrique; Iglesias, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with newly diagnosed differentiated thyroid carcinoma have tumors with low risk of mortality and recurrence. Standard therapy has been total or near total thyroidectomy followed by postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA). Although RRA provides benefits, current clinical guidelines do not recommend it universally, since an increase in disease-free survival or a decrease in mortality in low risk patients has not been demonstrated so far. Advancements in our understanding of the biological behavior of thyroid cancer have been translated into the clinic in a personalized approach to the patients based on their individual risk of recurrence and mortality. Current evidence suggests that RRA is not indicated in most low-risk patients, especially those with papillary carcinomas smaller than 1cm, without extrathyroidal extension, unfavorable histology, lymph node involvement or distant metastases. Follow-up of these patients with serial measurements of serum thyroglobulin and neck ultrasound is adequate. Careful evaluation of all risk factors of clinical relevance will allow a more realistic assessment of each individual patient.

  20. Attitudes of elderly Korean patients toward death and dying: an application of Q-methodology.

    PubMed

    Yeun, Eunja

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the attitudes of elderly Korean patients toward death and dying using Q-methodology to aid in the development of basic strategies for nursing care of elderly Koreans. Thirty participants at a university hospital sorted 40 selected Q-statements on a nine-point scale. Data analysis identified three types of attitudes toward death and dying in elderly patients in Korea: religion-dependent, science-adherent, and sardonic. Religion-dependent elders are highly dependent upon religion as evidenced by their reply that they would like to rely on God and a minister the most. Science-adherent elders have great affection for life and believe in modern medical advancements. The sardonic elders regard death as the dispensation of nature so there is no need to be afraid of death and dying. This study will contribute to the understanding that nurses and other health professionals have of the perceptions of elderly Koreans about death and dying. Also, the findings may provide the basis for the development of more appropriate strategies to improve death and dying education programs of health professionals.

  1. [The improvement of complex treatment of odontogenous periostitis in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Okovityĭ, S V; Muzykin, M I; Iordanishvili, A K

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of clinical examination of 114 patients aged 60-88 years with acute odontogenous periostitis receiving treatment in in-patient maxillofacial surgery unit. The dynamic of clinical symptoms is used to carry out the comparative effectiveness study of several peroral antibiotics in elderly patients.

  2. Prevention and control of postoperative nausea and vomiting in post-craniotomy patients.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, L H J; Morin, A M; Kranke, P; Missaghi, N B; Durieux, M E; Himmelseher, S

    2007-12-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are the most frequent side-effects in the postoperative period, impairing subjective well-being and having economic impact due to delayed discharge. However, emetic symptoms can also cause major medical complications, and post-craniotomy patients may be at an increased risk. A review and critical appraisal of the existing literature on PONV in post-craniotomy patients, and a comparison of these findings with the current knowledge on PONV in the general surgical population, leads to the following conclusions: (1) Despite the lack of a documented case of harm caused by retching or vomiting in a post-craniotomy patient, the potential risk caused by arterial hypertension and high intra-abdominal/intra-thoracic pressure leading to high intracranial pressure, forces to avoid PONV in these patients. (2) There is unclarity about a specifically increased (or decreased) risk for PONV in post-craniotomy patients compared with other surgical procedures. (3) The decision whether or not to administer an antiemetic should not be based primarily on risk scores for PONV but on the likelihood for potential catastrophic consequences of PONV. If such a risk cannot be ruled out, a multimodal antiemetic approach should be considered regardless of the individual risk. (4) Randomized controlled trials with antiemetics in post-craniotomy patients are limited with respect to sample size and methodological quality. This also impacts upon the meaning of meta-analyses performed with trials that showed marked heterogeneity and inconclusive results. (5) No studies on the treatment of established PONV are available. This highlights the need to transfer knowledge about PONV treatment from other surgical procedures. (6) Despite the possibility that PONV in post-craniotomy patients can be triggered by specific conditions (e.g. surgery near the area postrema at the floor of the fourth ventricle with the vomiting centre located nearby), recommendations based on

  3. Cognitive and Brain Reserve and the Risk of Postoperative Delirium in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saczynski, Jane S.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Kosar, Cyrus; Tommet, Doug; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Fong, Tamara; Hshieh, Tammy; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Metzger, Eran D.; Schmitt, Eva; Alsop, David C.; Jones, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive and brain reserve theories suggest that aspects of neural architecture or cognitive processes modify the impact of neuropathological processes on cognitive outcomes. While frequently studied in the context of dementia, reserve in delirium is relatively understudied. Methods We examined the association of three markers of brain reserve (head circumference, MRI-derived brain volume, and leisure time physical activity) and five markers of cognitive reserve (education, vocabulary, cognitive activities, cognitive demand of lifetime occupation, and interpersonal demand of lifetime occupation) and the risk of postoperative delirium in a prospective observational study of 566 older adults free of dementia undergoing scheduled surgery. Findings Twenty four percent of patients (135/566) developed delirium during the postoperative hospitalization period. Of the reserve markers examined, only the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was significantly associated with the risk of delirium. A one-half standard deviation better performance on the WTAR was associated with a 38% reduction in delirium risk (P = 0·01); adjusted relative risk of 0·62, 95% confidence interval 0·45–0·85. Interpretation In this relatively large and well-designed study, most markers of reserve fail to predict delirium risk. The exception to this is the WTAR. Our findings suggest that the reserve markers that are important for delirium may be different from those considered to be important for dementia. PMID:25642414

  4. Pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lepage, J Y; Caillon, J; Malinowsky, J M; Lequerré, S; Cozian, A; Le Normand, Y; Potel, G; Drugeon, H; Baron, D

    1991-01-01

    9 elderly and 9 younger adult patients, with proven post-operative lower urinary tract infection were treated with 400 mg of norfloxacin twice daily for 5 days. Pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin were measured on days 1 and 5. Compared to the younger adult patients, the elderly showed a decreased creatinine clearance and, following the last dose on day 5, an increased maximum plasma concentration of norfloxacin, an increased area under the concentration-time curve and a decreased total body clearance of norfloxacin. These results confirm that in elderly, as in younger adult patients, the pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin can be described by a linear model and accumulation of the drug during repetitive multiple doses is predictable. The differences between the two groups cannot be considered as clinically significant so that no dose change would be required in elderly patients within the range of creatinine clearance studied.

  5. Type of Multimorbidity and Patient-Doctor Communication and Trust among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Kelly, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Background. Effective communication and high trust with doctor are important to reduce the burden of multimorbidity in the rapidly aging population of the US. However, the association of multimorbidity with patient-doctor communication and trust is unknown. Objective. We examined the relationship between multimorbidity and patient-doctor communication and trust among the elderly. Method. We used the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (2012) to analyze the association between multimorbidity and patient-doctor communication and trust with multivariable logistic regressions that controlled for patient's sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and satisfaction with care. Results. Most elderly beneficiaries reported effective communication (87.5–97.5%) and high trust (95.4–99.1%) with their doctors. The elderly with chronic physical and mental conditions were less likely than those with only physical conditions to report effective communication with their doctor (Adjusted Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 0.80 [0.68, 0.96]). Multimorbidity did not have a significant association with patient-doctor trust. Conclusions. Elderly beneficiaries had high trust in their doctors, which was not affected by the presence of multimorbidity. Elderly individuals who had a mental condition in addition to physical conditions were more likely to report ineffective communication. Programs to improve patient-doctor communication with patients having cooccurring chronic physical and mental health conditions may be needed. PMID:27800181

  6. Influence of Preoperative Radiation Field on Postoperative Leak Rates in Esophageal Cancer Patients after Trimodality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Juloori, Aditya; Tucker, Susan L.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Correa, Arlene M.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Lin, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative morbidities, such as anastomotic leaks, are common after trimodality therapy (chemoradiation followed by surgery) for esophageal cancer. We investigated for factors associated with an increased incidence of anastomotic leaks. Methods Data from 285 esophageal cancer patients treated from 2000–2011 with trimodality therapy was analyzed. Anastomotic location relative to preoperative radiation field was assessed using postoperative computed tomographic imaging. Logistic regression was used to evaluate for factors associated with any or clinically relevant (CR) (≥ grade 2) leaks. Results Overall anastomotic leak rate was 11% (31/285), and CR leak rate was 6% (17/285). Multivariable analysis identified body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.00–1.17; OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.01–1.22), three-field surgery (OR 10.01, 95%CI 3.83–26.21; OR 4.83, 95%CI 1.39–16.71), and within radiation field (“in-field”) anastomosis (OR 5.37, 95%CI 2.21–13.04; OR 8.63, 95%CI 2.90–25.65) as independent predictors of both all grade and CR leaks, respectively. While patients with distal esophageal tumors and Ivor-Lewis surgery had the lowest incidence of all grade (6.5%) and CR leaks (4.2%), most of the leaks were associated with the anastomosis constructed within the field of radiation (in-field: 39% and 30% versus out-of-field: 2.6% and 1.0%, respectively, for total and CR leaks, p<0.0001, Fisher’s Exact test). Conclusions Esophagogastric anastomosis placed within the preoperative radiation field was a very strong predictor for anastomotic leaks in esophageal cancer patients treated with trimodality therapy, among other factors. Surgical planning should include a critical evaluation of the preoperative radiation fields to ensure proper anastomotic placement after chemoradiation therapy. PMID:24736077

  7. Postoperative Structural Brain Changes and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Masaaki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Tada, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Ishida, Takanori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the early response to surgery on brain structure and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer. It was hypothesized that the structure of the thalamus would change during the early response after surgery due to the effects of anesthesia and would represent one aspect of an intermediate phenotype of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Methods We examined 32 postmenopausal females with breast cancer and 20 age-matched controls. We assessed their cognitive function (attention, memory, and executive function), and performed brain structural MRI 1.5 ± 0.5 days before and 5.6 ± 1.2 days after surgery. Results We found a significant interaction between regional grey matter volume (rGMV) in the thalamus (P < 0.05, familywise error (FWE), small volume correction (SVC)) and one attention domain subtest (P = 0.001, Bonferroni correction) after surgery in the patient group compared with the control group. Furthermore, the changes in attention were significantly associated with sevoflurane anesthetic dose (r2 = 0.247, β = ‒0.471, P = 0.032) and marginally associated with rGMV changes in the thalamus (P = 0.07, FWE, SVC) in the Pt group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that alterations in brain structure, particularly in the thalamus, may occur shortly after surgery and may be associated with attentional dysfunction. This early postoperative response to anesthesia may represent an intermediate phenotype of POCD. It was assumed that patients experiencing other risk factors of POCD, such as the severity of surgery, the occurrence of complications, and pre-existing cognitive impairments, would develop clinical POCD with broad and multiple types of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26536672

  8. The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years there has been a large increase in the areas related to developments in the prevention of diseases, especially in explaining the role of oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress contributes to morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It is therefore relevant to analyze the impact of oxidative stress and its related species (ethylene) immediately after dialysis treatment in order to prevent trauma in the renal failure of elderly patients. In this paper we describe recent progress in laser photoacoustic spectroscopy detection of ethylene in renal failure patients. We have found that HD treatment increases ethylene concentration in the exhaled breath of elderly patients and may intensify oxidative stress.

  9. [Intravenous urography with a nonionic low osmolality contrast medium (iopamidol) in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Senju, M; Ikeuchi, H; Nakatani, T; Yamamoto, K; Kishimoto, T; Maekawa, M

    1988-12-01

    Intravenous urography was carried out with a nonionic low osmolality contrast medium, iopamidol (Iopamiron 300) in 30 elderly patients (aged 65 to 86; with the mean age of 75 +/- 6), and the safety for the aged and radiopacity were evaluated. Although no purgative was given and water was not restricted in consideration of dehydration and bad influence on renal function, the total urinary system was well visualized. Side-effect was observed in none of 30 patients. This method seems to be useful for patients with a risk of dehydration and elderly patients.

  10. Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy After Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Elderly Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, David P.; Hsu, Charles C.; Wang Jingya; Makary, Martin A.; Winter, Jordan M.; Robinson, Ray; Schulick, Richard D.; Cameron, John L.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Herman, Joseph M.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients {>=}75 years of age. Methods: The study group of 655 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital over a 12-year period (8/30/1993 to 2/28/2005). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, intraoperative data, pathology data, and patient outcomes were collected and analyzed by adjuvant treatment status and age {>=}75 years. Cox proportional hazards analysis determined clinical predictors of mortality and morbidity. Results: We identified 166 of 655 (25.3%) patients were {>=}75 years of age and 489 of 655 patients (74.7%) were <75 years of age. Forty-nine patients in the elderly group (29.5%) received adjuvant CRT. For elderly patients, node-positive metastases (p = 0.008), poor/anaplastic differentiation (p = 0.012), and undergoing a total pancreatectomy (p = 0.010) predicted poor survival. The 2-year survival for elderly patients receiving adjuvant therapy was improved compared with surgery alone (49.0% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.013); however, 5-year survival was similar (11.7% vs. 19.8%, respectively, p = 0.310). After adjusting for major confounders, adjuvant therapy in elderly patients had a protective effect with respect to 2-year survival (relative risk [RR] 0.58, p = 0.044), but not 5-year survival (RR 0.80, p = 0.258). Among the nonelderly, CRT was significantly associated with 2-year survival (RR 0.60, p < 0.001) and 5-year survival (RR 0.69, p < 0.001), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy after PD is significantly associated with increased 2-year but not 5-year survival in elderly patients. Additional studies are needed to select which elderly patients are likely to benefit from adjuvant CRT.

  11. Outcomes in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Patients Who Received an Antiepileptic Drug

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Kimberly L.; McDade, Erin J.; Moffett, Brady S.; Wilfong, Angus A.; Cabrera, Antonio G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in cardiac operations over the last few decades, including corrective operations in early life, have dramatically increased the survival of children with congenital heart disease. However, postoperative care has been associated with neurologic complications, with seizures being the most common manifestation. The primary objective of this study is to describe the outcomes in pediatric patients who received an antiepileptic drug (AED) post–cardiac surgery. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was performed in all patients less than 18 years of age who received an AED in the cardiovascular intensive care unit at Texas Children's Hospital from June 2002 until June 2012. Cardiac surgical patients initiated on phenobarbital, phenytoin, and levetiracetam were queried. Patients were excluded if the AED was not initiated on the admission for surgery. Patients who received 1 AED were compared to patients who received 2 AED, and differences in outcomes examined between the 3 AEDs used were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients met the study criteria. Patients were initiated on an AED a median of 4 days following surgery and became seizure free a median of 1 day after initiation, with 65% remaining seizure free after the first dose. Half of all patients required 2 AEDs for seizure control, with a higher proportion of adolescents requiring 2 AEDs (p = 0.04). No differences were found when comparing the collected outcomes between phenobarbital, fosphenytoin, or levetiracetam. CONCLUSION: No adverse events were reported with the AEDs reviewed. Further work is necessary to evaluate long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population and whether outcomes are a result of the AED or of other clinical sequelae.

  12. Overfeeding and overhydration in elderly medical patients: lessons from the Liverpool Care Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsiompanou, Eleni; Lucas, Caroline; Stroud, Mike

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes three elderly patients who were admitted to hospital with aspiration pneumonia. They were kept nil by mouth (NBM) for a number of days, while being given intravenous hydration initially and enteral feeding subsequently. During that time they deteriorated and appeared to be dying, so the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) for the dying was used to support their care. Artificial nutrition and hydration were stopped. They quickly improved and the LCP was discontinued. Two of the patients deteriorated again on reintroduction of enteral feeding and/or intravenous fluids, only to improve a second time following withdrawal of feeding and fluids. Vulnerable elderly patients should not be made NBM except as a last resort. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of refeeding syndrome and overhydration as reversible causes of clinical deterioration, particularly in frail elderly patients. Use of the LCP in these patients provided a unique opportunity to witness the positive effects of withdrawal of excessive artificial nutrition and hydration.

  13. [Methodic approaches to treatment of the chronic generalized parodontitis in elderly and senile patients].

    PubMed

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatov, S V; Moskalev, A V; Soldatova, L N; Ryzhak, G A

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment with Likopid of chronic generalized parodontitis in 114 elderly and senile patients was carried out. The state of mechanisms of innate immunity (phagocytosis mechanisms) as well as the profile of proinflammatory cytokines was assessed. The effect of antibiotic-resistant strains of prior microflora on the combined therapy of patients of different age with chronic generalized parodontitis was studied. It is established that due to presence of various types of opportunistic pathogens in patients of different age with parodontitis using the prophylactic antibiotics for the empirical (to determine the antibiotic resistance), a combination of Metronidazole and Lincomycin with the mandatory appointment of immunomodulatory drugs for activation of monocyte-phagocytic system of the patient elderly is most advisable. Use of the drug , "Likopid" significantly improves the results of treatment the elderly and old patients with chronic generalized parodonthitis. PMID:22184987

  14. A classification method based on similarity measures of generalized fuzzy numbers in building expert system for postoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Luukka, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    In this research, we concentrate to build an expert system for a problem where task is to determine where patients in a postoperative recovery area should be sent to next. Data set created from postoperative patients is used to build proposed expert system to determine, based on hypothermia condition, whether patients in a postoperative recovery area should be sent to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), general hospital floor, or go home. What makes this task particularly difficult is that most of the measured attributes have linguistic values (e.g., stable, moderately stable, unstable, etc.). We are using generalized fuzzy numbers to model the data and introduce new fuzzy similarity based classification procedure which can deal with these linguistic attributes and classify them accordingly. Results are compared to existing result in literature, and this system provides mean classification accuracy of 66.2% which compared well to earlier results reported in literature. PMID:20865480

  15. A Prospective Study of Comparing Multi-Gene Biomarker Chip and Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Postoperative Surveillance for Patients with Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Tang; Huang, Ming-Yii; Yeh, Yung-Sung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Hsiang-Lin; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating biomarkers can predict clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of our multigene biomarker chip for detecting circulating tumor cells for postoperative surveillance of stage I–III colorectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods In total, 298 stage I–III colorectal cancer patients were analyzed after curative resection between June 2010 and October 2014. During each follow-up, a postoperative surveillance strategy, including ESMO Guidelines Working Group recommendations and the biochip, was used. Results After a 28.4-month median follow-up, 48 (16.1%) patients had postoperative relapse. Univariate analysis revealed that the postoperative relapse risk factors were rectal tumor, perineural invasion, elevated preoperative and postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and positive biochip results (all P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that postoperative relapse correlated significantly with elevated postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (odds ratio = 4.136, P = 0.008) and positive biochip results (odds ratio = 66.878, P < 0.001). However, the sensitivity (P = 0.003), specificity (P = 0.003), positive (P = 0.002) and negative (P = 0.006) predictive values, and accuracy (P < 0.001) of the biochip for predicting postoperative relapse were significantly higher than those of elevated postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels. Moreover, the median lead time between positive biochip result and postoperative relapse detection was significantly earlier than that between elevated postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and postoperative relapse detection (10.7 vs. 2.8 months, P < 0.001). Furthermore, positive biochip results correlated strongly with lower disease-free survival and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients (both P < 0.001). Conclusion Compared with conventional serum carcinoembryonic antigen detection, our multigene

  16. Impact of Airflow Limitation on Comorbidities and Postoperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgery: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, Kaku; Oh, Shiaki; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Yuzo; Sekiya, Mitsuaki; MD, Yoshinosuke Fukuchi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the frequency of airflow limitation (AFL), and the relationship between AFL and preoperative comorbidities or postoperative complications in patients who had undergone thoracic surgery. Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent non-cardiac thoracic surgery at our institution between August 1996 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. On the basis of preoperative pulmonary function tests, patients were classified with those with FEV1/FVC <70% [AFL(+) group] or with FEV1/FVC ≥70% [AFL(−) group]. Patient characteristics, preoperative comorbidities and postoperative complications were compared between the groups. Results: Of the 3667 patients assessed, 738 (20.1%) were allocated to the AFL(+) group. AFL was an independent risk factor for three preoperative comorbidities: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio [OR]: 4.65), bronchial asthma (OR 4.30) and cardiac diseases (OR 1.41). Airflow limitation was also an independent risk factor for postoperative respiratory failure including long-term oxygen therapy (OR 2.14) and atelectasis (OR 1.90) in the patients who underwent lobectomy or partial resection of the lung. Conclusions: Our retrospective study revealed that careful attention needs to be paid to airflow limitation in patients who undergo non-cardiac thoracic surgery since it appears to be an important feature of preoperative comorbidities and to increase postoperative complications. PMID:26935262

  17. Lack of survival benefit of post-operative radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients with positive lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P A S; Assikis, V; Goodman, M; Ward, K C; Riffenburgh, R H; Master, V

    2007-01-01

    Randomized data from SWOG 8794 and EORTC 22911 confirm the benefit of post-operative radiation therapy (RT) for selected patients with pT3 prostate cancer (CaP) after radical prostatectomy (RP). However, data regarding the potential benefit of RT for patients post-RP with positive lymph node (+LN) involvement are limited. We analyzed the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) registry for population-based data on efficacy of post-operative RT for +LN patients after RP. As LN data have only been captured by SEER since 1988, we analyzed data for 1988-1992, with specific attention to 10-year relative survival (defined as observed survival divided by the survival of a gender-, age- and race-matched population cohort without disease). Specifically analyzed were data for 1921 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer who underwent surgery alone, or surgery followed by RT, and who had +LNs documented. SEER does not code the interval between surgery and RT, so the ratio of patients receiving salvage versus adjuvant therapy is unknown. Using follow-up data through 2002, post-diagnosis survival was examined by number of +LNs. There was no significant relative survival benefit for +LN patients receiving post-operative RT (chi(2)P=0.270). These data do not support routine use of post-operative RT for patients with +LNs in the surgical specimen.

  18. The Prognostic Value of Hemoglobin Concentration in Postoperative Radiotherapy of 835 Patients With Laryngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, Tomasz Suwinski, Rafal; Idasiak, Adam

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in patients with laryngeal cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (pRT). Methods and Materials: The records of 835 patients who underwent pRT between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed. Most patients (526 of 835 patients; 63%) were in advanced clinical stages (T3-T4) and 371 of 835 patients (44%) were node positive. Total laryngectomy had been performed in 676 of 835 patients (81%). Median Hb concentration before (Hb0) and after pRT (Hb1) was the same (13.3 g/dl). However, individual differences between Hb1 and Hb0 (dHb) varied within a broad range (-8.8; 5.0 g/dl). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables significantly associated with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with dHb greater than 0 had significantly improved 5-year LRC compared with those with dHb of 0 or less (80% vs. 72%, p = 0.01). Conversely, when categorized, neither Hb0 nor Hb1 had a significant influence on LRC. In multivariate analysis, dHb remained a prognostic factor for LRC (p = 0.01) among the other variables, which included overall radiation treatment time and nodal status. None of the Hb-related variables significantly influenced metastases-free or overall survival. Conclusion: Individual change in Hb concentration during the course of pRT (dHb) rather than Hb level before or after pRT appeared as an independent prognostic factor for LRC in this set of patients.

  19. Increased postoperative and respiratory complications in patients with congenital heart disease associated with heterotaxy

    PubMed Central

    Swisher, Matthew; Jonas, Richard; Tian, Xin; Lee, Elaine S.; Lo, Cecilia W.; Leatherbury, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Patients with heterotaxy and complex congenital heart disease (CHD) undergo cardiac surgery with high mortality and morbidity. Recent studies have revealed an association among heterotaxy, CHD, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). We undertook a retrospective review of patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Children’s National Medical Center between 2004 to 2008 to explore the hypothesis that in heterotaxy patients there is increased mortality and respiratory complications. Methods and Results Retrospective review was performed on post-surgical outcomes of 87 patients with heterotaxy and CHD exhibiting the full spectrum of situs abnormalities associated with heterotaxy. As controls, 634 cardiac surgical patients with CHD but without laterality defects were selected, and surgical complexities were similar with a median RACHS-1 score of 3.0 for both groups. We found the mean length of postoperative hospital stay (17 vs 11 days) and mechanical ventilation (11 vs 4 days) were significantly increased in the heterotaxy patients. Also elevated were rates of tracheostomies (6.9% vs. 1.6%; Odds Ratio 4.6), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support (12.6% vs. 4.9%: Odds Ratio 2.8), prolonged ventilatory courses (23% vs. 12.3%; Odds Ratio 2.1) and post-surgical deaths (16.1% vs. 4.7%; Odds Ratio 3.9). Conclusions Our findings show heterotaxy patients had more post-surgical events with increased post-surgical mortality and risk for respiratory complications as compared to controls with similar RACHS-1 surgical complexity scores. We speculate that increased respiratory complications maybe due to ciliary dysfunction. Further, studies are needed to explore the basis for the increased surgical risks for heterotaxy patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:20884020

  20. Differential Postoperative Effects of Volatile Anesthesia and Intraoperative Remifentanil Infusion in 7511 Thyroidectomy Patients: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jun-Young; Choi, Seong-Soo; Yi, Jung Min; Joo, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Ung; Sim, Ji-Hoon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Ku, Seungwoo

    2016-02-01

    Although remifentanil is used widely by many clinicians during general anesthesia, there are recent evidences of opioid-induced hyperalgesia as an adverse effect. This study aimed to determine if intraoperative remifentanil infusion caused increased pain during the postoperative period in patients who underwent a thyroidectomy. A total of 7511 patients aged ≥ 20 years, who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Asan Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed. Enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups: group N (no intraoperative remifentanil and only volatile maintenance anesthesia) and group R (intraoperative remifentanil infusion including total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia). Following propensity score matching analysis, 2582 patients were included in each group. Pain scores based on numeric rating scales (NRS) were compared between the 2 groups at the postoperative anesthetic care unit and at the ward until 3 days postoperation. Incidences of postoperative complications, such as nausea, itching, and shivering were also compared. The estimated NRS pain score on the day of surgery was 5.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.97-5.19) in group N patients and 6.73 (95% CI 6.65-6.80) in group R patients (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in NRS scores on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 between the 2 groups. Postoperative nausea was less frequent in group R (31.4%) than in group N (53.5%) (P < 0.001). However, the incidence of itching was higher in group R (4.3%) than in group N (0.7%) (P < 0.001). Continuous infusion of remifentanil during general anesthesia can cause higher intensity of postoperative pain and more frequent itching than general anesthesia without remifentanil infusion immediately after thyroidectomy. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of continuous remifentanil infusion, volatile anesthesia without opioid may be a good choice for minor surgeries

  1. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49-2.20) and 2.04 (1.57-2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) and 1.40 (1.07-1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with diabetes in

  2. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64–2.89) and 3.10 (2.35–4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49–2.20) and 2.04 (1.57–2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06–1.76) and 1.40 (1.07–1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with

  3. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49-2.20) and 2.04 (1.57-2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) and 1.40 (1.07-1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with diabetes in

  4. Using a Mobile App for Monitoring Post-Operative Quality of Recovery of Patients at Home: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Sarah; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Theodoropoulos, John; Metcalfe, Kelly A

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile apps are being viewed as a new solution for post-operative monitoring of surgical patients. Mobile phone monitoring of patients in the post-operative period can allow expedited discharge and may allow early detection of complications. Objective The objective of the current study was to assess the feasibility of using a mobile app for the monitoring of post-operative quality of recovery at home following surgery in an ambulatory setting. Methods We enrolled 65 consecutive patients (n=33, breast reconstruction surgery; n=32, orthopedic surgery) and asked them to use a mobile phone daily to complete a validated quality of recovery scale (QoR-9) and take photographs of the surgical site for the first 30 days post-op. Surgeons were asked to review patient-entered data on each patient in their roster daily. A semistructured questionnaire was administered to patients and surgeons to assess satisfaction and feasibility of the mobile device. Results All 65 patients completed the study. The mean number of logins was 23.9 (range 7-30) for the breast patients and 19.3 (range 5-30) for the orthopedic patients. The mean number of logins was higher in the first 14 days compared to the 15-30 days post-op for both breast patients (13.4 vs 10.5; P<.001) and for the orthopedic patients (13.4 vs 6.0; P<.001). The mean score for overall satisfaction with using the mobile device was 3.9 for breast patients and 3.7 for orthopedic patients (scored from 1 (poor) to 4 (excellent)). Surgeons reported on the easy-to-navigate design, the portability to monitor patients outside of hospital, and the ability of the technology to improve time efficiency. Conclusions The use of mobile apps for monitoring the quality of recovery in post-operative patients at home was feasible and acceptable to patients and surgeons in the current study. Future large scale studies in varying patient populations are required. PMID:25679749

  5. Usefulness of postoperative hip irradiation in the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in a high risk group of patients

    SciTech Connect

    MacLennan, I.; Keys, H.M.; Evarts, C.M.; Rubin, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification is a complication of total hip arthroplasty in 14 to 30% of patients. Significant functional impairment will occur in up to 28% of patients with ectopic bone. The high risk group includes those with preexisting heterotopic bone in either hip, those suffering from hypertrophic osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis and patients who have had multiple procedures on the hip. Fifty-eight patients (67 hips) were irradiated after surgical removal of ectopic bone (53 hips) or received radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification (14 hips). Ninety-five percent of patients had either no bone visible or insignificant amounts of ectopic bone visible on postoperative hip X-rays. Only 5% of patients showed significant persistence of ectopic bone. Postoperative hip function was dramatically improved compared to preoperative function in all patients treated. The importance of early commencement of irradiation is emphasized.

  6. What Should Be the Target Blood Pressure in Elderly Patients With Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Solini, Anna; Grossman, Ehud

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension is very common in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes. The coexistence of hypertension and diabetes can be devastating to the cardiovascular system, and in these patients, tight blood pressure (BP) control is particularly beneficial. Little information is available regarding the target BP levels in elderly hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, and therefore extrapolation from data in the general population should be done. However, it is difficult to extrapolate from the general population to these frail individuals, who usually have isolated systolic hypertension, comorbidities, organ damage, cardiovascular disease, and renal failure and have a high rate of orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. On the basis of the available evidence, we provide arguments supporting the individualized approach in these patients. Target BP should be based on concomitant diseases, orthostatic BP changes, and the general condition of the patients. It is recommended to lower BP in the elderly patient with diabetes to <140-150/90 mmHg, providing the patient is in good condition. In patients with isolated systolic hypertension, the same target is reasonable providing the diastolic BP is >60 mmHg. In patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with orthostatic hypotension, excessive BP lowering should be avoided. In elderly hypertensive patients with diabetes, BP levels should be monitored closely in the sitting and the standing position, and the treatment should be tailored to prevent excessive fall in BP. PMID:27440838

  7. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Andrès, Emmanuel; Loukili, Noureddine Henoun; Noel, Esther; Kaltenbach, Georges; Abdelgheni, Maher Ben; Perrin, Anne Elisabeth; Noblet-Dick, Marie; Maloisel, Frédéric; Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Blicklé, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    VITAMIN B12 OR COBALAMIN DEFICIENCY occurs frequently (> 20%) among elderly people, but it is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective. Causes of the deficiency include, most frequently, food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome (> 60% of all cases), pernicious anemia (15%–20% of all cases), insufficent dietary intake and malabsorption. Food-cobalamin malabsorption, which has only recently been identified as a significant cause of cobalamin deficiency among elderly people, is characterized by the inability to release cobalamin from food or a deficiency of intestinal cobalamin transport proteins or both. We review the epidemiology and causes of cobalamin deficiency in elderly people, with an emphasis on food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome. We also review diagnostic and management strategies for cobalamin deficiency. PMID:15289425

  8. Biomarkers of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Androsova, Ganna; Krause, Roland; Winterer, Georg; Schneider, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD) and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Clinical features include deterioration in cognition, disturbance in attention and reduced awareness of the environment and result in higher morbidity, mortality and greater utilization of social financial assistance. The aging Western societies can expect an increase in the incidence of POD and POCD. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied on the molecular level albeit with unsatisfying small research efforts given their societal burden. Here, we review the known physiological and immunological changes and genetic risk factors, identify candidates for further studies and integrate the information into a draft network for exploration on a systems level. The pathogenesis of these postoperative cognitive impairments is multifactorial; application of integrated systems biology has the potential to reconstruct the underlying network of molecular mechanisms and help in the identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:26106326

  9. The influence of various anesthesia techniques on postoperative recovery and discharge criteria among geriatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Ornek, Dilsen; Metin, Seyhan; Deren, Serpil; Un, Canan; Metin, Mustafa; Dikmen, Bayazit; Gogus, Nermin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to compare selective spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia with regard to postoperative recovery and fast‐track eligibility in day surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Sixty geriatric outpa