Science.gov

Sample records for electric field driven

  1. Hydrogel Actuation by Electric Field Driven Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Daniel Humphrey

    Hydrogels are networks of crosslinked, hydrophilic polymers capable of absorbing and releasing large amounts of water while maintaining their structural integrity. Polyelectrolyte hydrogels are a subset of hydrogels that contain ionizable moieties, which render the network sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the media and provide mobile counterions, which impart conductivity. These networks are part of a class of "smart" material systems that can sense and adjust their shape in response to the external environment. Hence, the ability to program and modulate hydrogel shape change has great potential for novel biomaterial and soft robotics applications. We utilized electric field driven effects to manipulate the interaction of ions within polyelectrolyte hydrogels in order to induce controlled deformation and patterning. Additionally, electric fields can be used to promote the interactions of separate gel networks, as modular components, and particle assemblies within gel networks to develop new types of soft composite systems. First, we present and analyze a walking gel actuator comprised of cationic and anionic gel legs attached by electric field-promoted polyion complexation. We characterize the electro-osmotic response of the hydrogels as a function of charge density and external salt concentration. The gel walkers achieve unidirectional motion on flat elastomer substrates and exemplify a simple way to move and manipulate soft matter devices in aqueous solutions. An 'ionoprinting' technique is presented with the capability to topographically structure and actuate hydrated gels in two and three dimensions by locally patterning ions induced by electric fields. The bound charges change the local mechanical properties of the gel to induce relief patterns and evoke localized stress, causing rapid folding in air. The ionically patterned hydrogels exhibit programmable temporal and spatial shape transitions which can be tuned by the duration and/or strength of

  2. Electric field-free gas breakdown in explosively driven generators

    SciTech Connect

    Shkuratov, Sergey I.; Baird, Jason; Talantsev, Evgueni F.; Altgilbers, Larry L.

    2010-07-15

    All known types of gas discharges require an electric field to initiate them. We are reporting on a unique type of gas breakdown in explosively driven generators that does not require an electric field.

  3. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  4. Electric field-driven currents in the ionosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Lillis, R. J.; Ma, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Mars has a complex magnetic topology. Crustal magnetic fields can interact with the solar wind magnetic field to form magnetic cusps. On the nightside, solar wind electron precipitation can produce regions of enhanced ionization at cusps while closed field regions adjacent to cusps can be devoid of significant ionization. Previously, using an electron transport model, we calculated the electron density and spatial structure of the nightside ionosphere of Mars using Mars Global Surveyor electron measurements as input. Localized regions of enhanced ionospheric density were found to occur at magnetic cusps adjacent to low density voids [1]. Additionally, we calculated the horizontal ionospheric currents driven by strong plasma gradients and by thermospheric neutral winds. In the dynamo region of the ionosphere, the collisional ions move in the direction of the applied force (the plasma gradient or neutral wind) while the magnetized electrons move perpendicular to both the applied force and ambient magnetic field. This difference in motion drives horizontal currents. Subsequently, we considered the existence of wind-driven cusp electrojets created by secondary currents arising from polarization electric fields which form in the presence of strong conductivity gradients [2]. At Earth, ionospheric currents at high latitudes are driven predominantly by externally imposed (magnetospheric) electric fields. Here, we compute the horizontal ionospheric currents in the vicinity of magnetic cusps resulting from external electric fields. In the absence of electric field observations, we use the electric field calculated from a global model of the Mars-solar wind interaction as input. We compare the magnitude of these currents with those driven by neutral winds and plasma gradients. Additionally, we estimate the magnitude of the electric field-driven electrojets, analogous to Earth's auroral electrojets. These enhanced currents can lead to localized, enhanced Joule heating

  5. Electric-field-driven polymer entry into asymmetric nanoscale channels.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, Narges; Fazli, Hossein

    2012-02-01

    The electric-field-driven entry process of flexible charged polymers such as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into asymmetric nanoscale channels such as the α-hemolysin protein channel is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the height of the free-energy barrier on the polymer length, the strength of the applied electric field, and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. It is shown that the squeezing effect of the driving field on the polymer and the lateral confinement of the polymer before its entry to the channel crucially affect the barrier height and its dependence on the system parameters. The attempt frequency of the polymer for passing the channel is also discussed. Our theoretical and simulation results support each other and describe related data sets of polymer translocation experiments through the α-hemolysin protein channel reasonably well.

  6. Electric field-driven water dipoles: nanoscale architecture of electroporation.

    PubMed

    Tokman, Mayya; Lee, Jane HyoJin; Levine, Zachary A; Ho, Ming-Chak; Colvin, Michael E; Vernier, P Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Electroporation is the formation of permeabilizing structures in the cell membrane under the influence of an externally imposed electric field. The resulting increased permeability of the membrane enables a wide range of biological applications, including the delivery of normally excluded substances into cells. While electroporation is used extensively in biology, biotechnology, and medicine, its molecular mechanism is not well understood. This lack of knowledge limits the ability to control and fine-tune the process. In this article we propose a novel molecular mechanism for the electroporation of a lipid bilayer based on energetics analysis. Using molecular dynamics simulations we demonstrate that pore formation is driven by the reorganization of the interfacial water molecules. Our energetics analysis and comparisons of simulations with and without the lipid bilayer show that the process of poration is driven by field-induced reorganization of water dipoles at the water-lipid or water-vacuum interfaces into more energetically favorable configurations, with their molecular dipoles oriented in the external field. Although the contributing role of water in electroporation has been noted previously, here we propose that interfacial water molecules are the main players in the process, its initiators and drivers. The role of the lipid layer, to a first-order approximation, is then reduced to a relatively passive barrier. This new view of electroporation simplifies the study of the problem, and opens up new opportunities in both theoretical modeling of the process and experimental research to better control or to use it in new, innovative ways.

  7. Flow-driven cell migration under external electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2016-01-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this paper, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent. PMID:26765031

  8. Flow-Driven Cell Migration under External Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-12-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and they can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this Letter, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent.

  9. Electric field driven switching of individual magnetic skyrmions (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pin-Jui

    2016-10-01

    An interesting class of interface-driven non-collinear spin structures, i.e., chiral domain walls, cycloidal spin spirals and Néel-type skyrmions, have been observed in ultrathin transition metal films grown on heavy-element substrates making use of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) [1]. Due to a lack of structural inversion symmetry at interfaces, they exhibit a unique rotational sense as a consequence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions. In this talk, I will present our results based on the investigations of such chiral spin textures under the influence of strain relief and the effect of local electric fields. While a nanoskyrmion lattice was revealed for Fe monolayers (ML) grown on Ir(111), a cycloidal spin spiral ground state has been resolved on Fe double-layers (DL) by employing SP-STM with vectorial magnetic field. As a result of a large lattice mismatch between the epitaxially grown Fe-DL film and the underlying Ir(111) substrate, local uniaxial strain relief occurs, leading to dislocation line patterns. Interestingly, the wavevector of spin spirals is strictly guided along the dislocation lines, while the spin spiral's wavefront exhibits a zigzag deformation [2]. By further increasing the Fe coverage to triple-layers (TL), the zigzag spin spiral remains the magnetic ground state, but with an enhanced periodicity as compared to that of Fe-DL. A magnetic phase transition from the spin spiral to a skyrmionic state, and finally to a saturated ferromagnetic state occurs for Fe-TL by applying an external magnetic field. STM-induced writing and deleting of individual skyrmions is demonstrated with a pronounced bias-polarity dependence, suggesting the decisive role of the local electric field between STM tip and Fe film for the switching mechanism [3]. [1] K. von Bergmann, A. Kubetzka, O. Pietzsch, and R. Wiesendanger, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26, 394002 (2014) [2] P.-J. Hsu, A. Finco, L. Schmidt, A. Kubetzka, K. von

  10. Current oscillation and chaotic dynamics in superlattices driven by crossed electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, J C

    2005-03-01

    We have theoretically studied current oscillation and chaotic dynamics in doped GaAsAlAs superlattices driven by crossed electric and magnetic fields. When the superlattice system is driven by a dc voltage, a stationary or dynamic electric-field domain can be obtained. We carefully studied the electric-field-domain dynamics and current self-oscillation which both display different modes with the change of magnetic field. When an ac electric field is also applied to the superlattice, a typical nonlinear dynamic system is constructed with the ac amplitude, ac frequency, and magnetic field as the control parameters. Different nonlinear behaviors show up when we tune the control parameters.

  11. Relationship between sprite streamer behavior and lightning-driven electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The lightning-driven electric fields not only initiate sprite streamers at high altitudes but also control their propagation to lower altitudes until termination. Thus, the relationship between sprite streamer behavior and their causative lightning-driven ambient electric field can reveal the internal microphysics during sprite development. In this work, we combined the measurements of broadband electromagnetic radiation from sprite-producing lightning, high-speed video of sprite optical emissions acquired at 5,000-10,000 frames per second, and numerical simulations to infer the background lightning-driven electric fields during the full extent of downward streamer propagation. For four sprites analyzed, all with positive polarity downward streamers, the observed streamers all terminate at locations where the ambient electric field is approximately 0.05 Ek, independent of the altitude where this field is reached. For two sprites with significant horizontal extent, the points of streamer termination closely follow the spatial contour of the E = 0.05 Ek surface, further confirming the consistency of this termination background field for positive sprite streamers. The positive streamers also begin their significant deceleration where the background field drops below 0.12-0.24 Ek. These measured termination field (Eter) and deceleration field (Edec) are consistent with previous laboratory experiments of positive streamer stopping field and critical field to sustain stable propagation. These results connect sprite streamer behavior with the lightning-driven background electric fields and can be a step to further constrain the existing model of streamer propagation in the mesosphere.

  12. Electric field driven mesoscale phase transition in polarized colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusid, Boris; Elele, Ezinwa; Lei, Qian

    2016-11-01

    A mesoscale phase transition in a polarized suspension was reported by Kumar, Khusid, Acrivos, PRL95, 2005 and Agarwal, Yethiraj, PRL102, 2009. Following the application of a strong AC field, particles aggregated head-to-tail into chains that bridged the interelectrode gap and then formed a cellular pattern, in which large particle-free domains were enclosed by particle-rich thin walls. Cellular structures were not observed in numerous simulations of field induced phase transitions in a polarized suspension. A requirement for matching the particle and fluid densities to avoid particle settling limits terrestrial experiments to negatively polarized particles. We present data on the phase diagram and kinetics of the phase transition in a neutrally buoyant, negatively polarized suspension subjected to a combination of AC and DC. Surprisingly, a weak DC component drastically speeds up the formation of a cellular pattern but does not affect its key characteristic. However, the application of a strong DC field destroys the cellular pattern, but it restores as the DC field strength is reduced. We also discuss the design of experiments to study phase transitions in a suspension of positively polarized, non-buoyancy-matched particles in the International Space Station. Supported by NASA's Physical Science Research Program, NNX13AQ53G.

  13. Electric-field-driven electron-transfer in mixed-valence molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Enrique P.; Corcelli, Steven A.; Lent, Craig S.

    2016-07-01

    Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata is a computing paradigm in which digital information is encoded by the charge configuration of a mixed-valence molecule. General-purpose computing can be achieved by arranging these compounds on a substrate and exploiting intermolecular Coulombic coupling. The operation of such a device relies on nonequilibrium electron transfer (ET), whereby the time-varying electric field of one molecule induces an ET event in a neighboring molecule. The magnitude of the electric fields can be quite large because of close spatial proximity, and the induced ET rate is a measure of the nonequilibrium response of the molecule. We calculate the electric-field-driven ET rate for a model mixed-valence compound. The mixed-valence molecule is regarded as a two-state electronic system coupled to a molecular vibrational mode, which is, in turn, coupled to a thermal environment. Both the electronic and vibrational degrees-of-freedom are treated quantum mechanically, and the dissipative vibrational-bath interaction is modeled with the Lindblad equation. This approach captures both tunneling and nonadiabatic dynamics. Relationships between microscopic molecular properties and the driven ET rate are explored for two time-dependent applied fields: an abruptly switched field and a linearly ramped field. In both cases, the driven ET rate is only weakly temperature dependent. When the model is applied using parameters appropriate to a specific mixed-valence molecule, diferrocenylacetylene, terahertz-range ET transfer rates are predicted.

  14. Lightning-driven electric fields measured in the lower ionosphere: Implications for transient luminous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeremy N.; Barnum, Benjamin H.; Lay, Erin; Holzworth, Robert H.; Cho, Mengu; Kelley, Michael C.

    2008-12-01

    Transient luminous events above thunderstorms such as sprites, halos, and elves require large electric fields in the lower ionosphere. Yet very few in situ measurements in this region have been successfully accomplished, since it is typically too low in altitude for rockets and satellites and too high for balloons. In this article, we present some rare examples of lightning-driven electric field changes obtained at 75-130 km altitude during a sounding rocket flight from Wallops Island, Virginia, in 1995. We summarize these electric field changes and present a few detailed case studies. Our measurements are compared directly to a 2D numerical model of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields in the middle and upper atmosphere. We find that the in situ electric field changes are smaller than predicted by the model, and the amplitudes of these fields are insufficient for elve production when extrapolated to a 100 kA peak current stroke. This disagreement could be due to lightning-induced ionospheric conductivity enhancement, or it might be evidence of flaws in the electromagnetic pulse mechanism for elves.

  15. Propelling and spinning of microsheets in nematic liquid crystals driven by ac electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasna, M. V.; Ramudu, U. V.; Chandrasekar, R.; Dhara, Surajit

    2017-01-01

    Dynamics of microparticles in isotropic liquids by transducing the energy of an applied electric field have been studied for decades. Recently, such studies in anisotropic media like liquid crystals have opened up new perspectives in colloid science. Here, we report studies on ac-electric-field-driven dynamics of microsheets in nematic liquid crystals. In planar aligned liquid crystals, with negative dielectric anisotropy, the microsheets are propelled parallel to the director. A steady spinning of the microsheets is observed in homeotropic cells with positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals. The velocity of propelling and the angular frequency of spinning depends on the amplitude and the frequency of the applied electric field. The electrokinetic studies of anisotropic microparticles are important as they are potential for applications in microfluidics and in areas where the controlled transport or rotation is required.

  16. Electric-field-driven Phenomena for Manipulating Particles in Micro-Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khusid, Boris; Acrivos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other available methods, ac dielectrophoresis is particularly well-suited for the manipulation of minute particles in micro- and nano-fluidics. The essential advantage of this technique is that an ac field at a sufficiently high frequency suppresses unwanted electric effects in a liquid. To date very little has been achieved towards understanding the micro-scale field-and shear driven behavior of a suspension in that, the concepts currently favored for the design and operation of dielectrophoretic micro-devices adopt the approach used for macro-scale electric filters. This strategy considers the trend of the field-induced particle motions by computing the spatial distribution of the field strength over a channel as if it were filled only with a liquid and then evaluating the direction of the dielectrophoretic force, exerted on a single particle placed in the liquid. However, the exposure of suspended particles to a field generates not only the dielectrophoretic force acting on each of these particles, but also the dipolar interactions of the particles due to their polarization. Furthermore, the field-driven motion of the particles is accompanied by their hydrodynamic interactions. We present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies which indicate that, under certain conditions, these long-range electrical and hydrodynamic interparticle interactions drastically affect the suspension behavior in a micro-channel due to its small dimensions.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of nanoconfined water flow driven by rotating electric fields under realistic experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B D; Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J

    2014-03-25

    In our recent work, J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 154712, we demonstrated the feasibility of unidirectional pumping of water, exploiting translational-rotational momentum coupling using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Flow can be sustained when the fluid is driven out of equilibrium by an external spatially uniform rotating electric field and confined between two planar surfaces exposing different degrees of hydrophobicity. The permanent dipole moment of water follows the rotating field, thus inducing the molecules to spin, and the torque exerted by the field is continuously injected into the fluid, enabling a steady conversion of spin angular momentum into linear momentum. The translational-rotational coupling is a sensitive function of the rotating electric field parameters. In this work, we have found that there exists a small energy dissipation region attainable when the frequency of the rotating electric field matches the inverse of the dielectric relaxation time of water and when its amplitude lies in a range just before dielectric saturation effects take place. In this region, that is, when the frequency lies in a small window of the microwave region around ∼20 GHz and amplitude ∼0.03 V Å(-1), the translational-rotational coupling is most effective, yielding fluid velocities of magnitudes of ∼2 ms(-1) with only moderate fluid heating. In this work, we also confine water to a realistic nanochannel made of graphene giving a hydrophobic surface on one side and β-cristobalite giving a hydrophilic surface on the other, reproducing slip-and-stick velocity boundary conditions, respectively. This enables us to demonstrate that in a realistic environment, the coupling can be effectively exploited to achieve noncontact pumping of water at the nanoscale. A quantitative comparison between nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and analytical solutions of the extended Navier-Stokes equations, including an external rotating electric field has been performed

  18. Electric-field-driven domain wall dynamics in perpendicularly magnetized multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López González, Diego; Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Van de Wiele, Ben; Franke, Kévin J. A.; Casiraghi, Arianna; Taniyama, Tomoyasu; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2017-03-01

    We report on reversible electric-field-driven magnetic domain wall motion in a Cu/Ni multilayer on a ferroelectric BaTiO3 substrate. In our heterostructure, strain-coupling to ferroelastic domains with in-plane and perpendicular polarization in the BaTiO3 substrate causes the formation of domains with perpendicular and in-plane magnetic anisotropy, respectively, in the Cu/Ni multilayer. Walls that separate magnetic domains are elastically pinned onto ferroelectric domain walls. Using magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy, we demonstrate that out-of-plane electric field pulses across the BaTiO3 substrate move the magnetic and ferroelectric domain walls in unison. Our experiments indicate an exponential increase of domain wall velocity with electric field strength and opposite domain wall motion for positive and negative field pulses. The application of a magnetic field does not affect the velocity of magnetic domain walls, but independently tailors their internal spin structure, causing a change in domain wall dynamics at high velocities.

  19. Electric-field-driven magnetization reversal in square-shaped nanomagnet-based multiferroic heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ren-Ci; Nan, Ce-Wen E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, J. J. E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Long-Qing; Hu, Jia-Mian

    2015-04-06

    Based on phase field modeling and thermodynamic analysis, purely electric-field-driven magnetization reversal was shown to be possible in a multiferroic heterostructure of a square-shaped amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} nanomagnet on top of a ferroelectric layer through electrostrain. The reversal is made possible by engineering the mutual interactions among the built-in uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the geometry-dependent magnetic configuration anisotropy, and the magnetoelastic anisotropy. Particularly, the incorporation of the built-in uniaxial anisotropy made it possible to reverse magnetization with one single unipolar electrostrain pulse, which is simpler than previous designs involving the use of bipolar electrostrains and may alleviate ferroelectric fatigue. Critical conditions for triggering the magnetization reversal are identified.

  20. Driven chemical kinetics: Optimalization of catalytic action of membrane proteins by rectangular alternating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuliński, Andrzej

    1992-03-01

    The chemical kinetics driven by external force in the form of a train of alternating rectangular impulses is discussed. The model of the conformational transition of a membrane protein exposed to an ac electric field, proposed by R. D. Astumian and B. Robertson [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 4891 (1989)], is reconsidered. On the example of this model we show that the use of the driving field in the form of rectangular impulses has two distinct advantages over the usual sinusoidal driving. The first one is that the use of a rectangular driving field makes it possible to obtain the exact solution of the basic kinetic equation of the system. This in turn enables one to write down the simple and very good approximate solution for any form of the driving field, better than the harmonic expansion used by Astumian and Robertson. A more important advantage is the greater flexibility of the rectangular driving, which makes possible the better optimalization of the process of interest. Astumian and Robertson demonstrated that the movement of charge within the catalytic cycle provides a mechanism for the enzyme to absorb energy from an ac electric field and to use that energy to enhance the catalyzed process. In this paper we show that the use of the driving ac field in the form of alternating rectangular impulses of variable duration and amplitude (instead of the usual sinusoidal modulation) leads to further optimalization of the process. The efficiency of the energy transduction, for example, can be increased from about 25% for sinusoidal driving to about 37% for suitably chosen alternating rectangular pulses.

  1. Dynamical features and electric field strengths of double layers driven by currents. [in auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, a number of papers have been concerned with 'ion-acoustic' double layers. In the present investigation, results from numerical simulations are presented to show that the shapes and forms of current-driven double layers evolve dynamically with the fluctuations in the current through the plasma. It is shown that double layers with a potential dip can form even without the excitation of ion-acoustic modes. Double layers in two-and one-half-dimensional simulations are discussed, taking into account the simulation technique, the spatial and temporal features of plasma, and the dynamical behavior of the parallel potential distribution. Attention is also given to double layers in one-dimensional simulations, and electrical field strengths predicted by two-and one-half-dimensional simulations.

  2. Nanoscale, electric field-driven water bridges in vacuum gaps and lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chak; Levine, Zachary A; Vernier, P Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Formation of a water bridge across the lipid bilayer is the first stage of pore formation in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of electroporation, suggesting that the intrusion of individual water molecules into the membrane interior is the initiation event in a sequence that leads to the formation of a conductive membrane pore. To delineate more clearly the role of water in membrane permeabilization, we conducted extensive MD simulations of water bridge formation, stabilization, and collapse in palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and in water-vacuum-water systems, in which two groups of water molecules are separated by a 2.8 nm vacuum gap, a simple analog of a phospholipid bilayer. Certain features, such as the exponential decrease in water bridge initiation time with increased external electric field, are similar in both systems. Other features, such as the relationship between water bridge lifetime and the diameter of the water bridge, are quite different between the two systems. Data such as these contribute to a better and more quantitative understanding of the relative roles of water and lipid in membrane electropore creation and annihilation, facilitating a mechanism-driven development of electroporation protocols. These methods can be extended to more complex, heterogeneous systems that include membrane proteins and intracellular and extracellular membrane attachments, leading to more accurate models of living cells in electric fields.

  3. Velocity field control of a class of electrically-driven manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier; Campa, Ricardo; Santibáñez, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    This article addresses the control of robotic manipulators under the assumption that the desired motion in the operational space is encoded through a velocity field. In other words, a vectorial function assigns a velocity vector to each point in the robot workspace. Thus, the control objective is to design a control input such that the actual operational space velocity of the robot end-effector asymptotically tracks the desired velocity from the velocity field. This control formulation is known in the literature as velocity field control. A new velocity field controller together with a rigorous stability analysis is introduced in this article. The controller is developed for a class of electrically-driven manipulators. In this class of manipulators, the passivity property from the servo-amplifier voltage input to the joint velocity is not satisfied. However, global exponential stability of the state space origin of the closed-loop system is proven. Furthermore, the closed-loop system is proven to be and output strictly passive map from an auxiliary input to a filtered error signal. To confirm the theoretical conclusions, a detailed experimental study in a two degrees-of-freedom direct-drive manipulator is provided. Particularly, experiments consist of comparing the performance of a simple PI controller and a high-gain PI controller with respect to the new control scheme.

  4. Role of hydrodynamic interactions in the migration of polyelectrolytes driven by a pressure gradient and an electric field.

    PubMed

    Kekre, Rahul; Butler, Jason E; Ladd, Anthony J C

    2010-11-01

    Experiments have shown that DNA molecules in capillary electrophoresis migrate across field lines if a pressure gradient is applied simultaneously. We suggest that this migration results from an electrically driven flow field around the polyelectrolyte, which generates additional contributions to the center-of-mass velocity if the overall polymer conformation is asymmetric. This hypothesis leads to a coarse-grained polymer model, without explicit charges, that quantitatively explains the experimentally observed migration. The simulations contradict the widely held notion that charge neutrality eliminates the effects of hydrodynamic interactions in electrically driven flows of polyelectrolytes. We predict a measurable increase in the electrophoretic velocity of a sheared polyelectrolyte that depends on chain length.

  5. Electrically driven optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  6. Electrically Driven Prosthetic Elbow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention relates to an improved electrically driven prosthetic elbow wherein the elbow is capable of being rigidly locked into place in any...desired position, and upon driving the arm to the fully extended position, the elbow is automatically unlocked.

  7. Electric field-driven extraction of lipophilic anions across a carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane.

    PubMed

    See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C

    2011-10-01

    The use of a cationic carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) for extraction and preconcentration of anionic model analytes driven by an electric field directly into an aqueous acceptor solution is demonstrated. The optimized membrane was 20 μm thick and consisted of 60% cellulose triacetate as base polymer, 20% o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer, and 20% Aliquat 336 as cationic carrier in the perchlorate form. By applying voltages of up to 700 V across the membrane, the lipophilic model analytes propanesulfonate, octanesulfonate, and decanesulfonate could be transported from the aqueous donor solution to the aqueous acceptor solution with efficiences >90% within 5 to 20 min. A preconcentration factor of 26, defined by the volume ratio between donor and acceptor compartments of the current cell design, could be achieved. The utility of the method for analytical applications is demonstrated by extraction of the herbicide glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethylphosphonic acid from spiked river water, followed by quantification with capillary electrophoresis using contactless conductivity detection. Limits of detection of 0.8 and 1.5 ng/mL were obtained for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, respectively.

  8. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  9. Electric field measurements in a kHz-driven He jet—the influence of the gas flow speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Sretenović, G. B.; Krstić, I. B.; Kovačević, V. V.; Obrusník, A.; Nguyen, Y. N.; Zajíčková, L.; Obradović, B. M.; Kuraica, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    This report focuses on the dependence of electric field strength in the effluent of a vertically downwards-operated plasma jet freely expanding into room air as a function of the gas flow speed. A 30 kHz AC-driven He jet was used in a coaxial geometry, with an amplitude of 2 kV and gas flow between 700 sccm and 2000 SCCM. The electric field was measured by means of Stark polarization spectroscopy of the He line at 492.19 nm. While the minimum and the maximum measured electric fields remained unchanged, the effect of the gas flow speed is to cause stretching of the measured profile in space—the higher the flow, the longer and less steep the electric field profile. The portion of the effluent in which the electric field was measured showed an increase of electric field with increasing distance from the capillary, for which the probable cause is the contraction of the plasma bullet as it travels through space away from the capillary. There are strong indications that the stretching of the electric field profile with increase in the flow speed is caused by differences in gas mixing as a function of the gas flow speed. The simulated gas composition shows that the amount of air entrained into the gas flow behaves in a similar way to the observed behaviour of the electric field. In addition we have shown that the visible length of the plasma plume is associated with a 0.027 molar fraction of air in the He flow in this configuration, while the maximum electric field measured was associated with a 0.014 molar fraction of air at gas flow rates up to 1500 SCCM (4.9 m s-1). At higher flows vortices occur in the effluent of the jet, as seen in Schlieren visualization of the gas flow with and without the discharge.

  10. Lateral electric-field-driven non-volatile four-state memory in multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cai; Zhang, Chao; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2016-09-01

    A non-volatile four-state memory is formed using an in-plane side-polarization configuration in a Co/(011) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (Co/PMN-PT) heterostructure. The resistivity vs. electric field behavior shows a change from volatile butterfly to looplike to non-volatile butterfly characteristics when the temperature decreases from 290 K to 83 K under an electric field of 10 kV/cm and then increases back to 290 K; this behavior is attributed to the strain-mediated magnetoelectric effect. In addition, the in-plane resistivity of Co film, which was measured using the four-probe technique, can be controlled both electrically and magnetically. Specifically, a non-volatile resistivity is gained by the application of electric field pulses. Additionally, a four-state memory is obtained by co-mediation of the magnetic field and electric field pulses, compared with the two different states achieved under the application of the electric field only, which indicates that our results are highly important for multi-state memory and spintronic devices applications.

  11. Free-energy barrier for electric-field-driven polymer entry into nanoscale channels.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, Narges; Fazli, Hossein

    2011-05-01

    Free-energy barrier for entry of a charged polymer into a nanoscale channel by a driving electric field is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the barrier height on the polymer length, the driving field strength, and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. Squeezing effect of the electric field on the polymer before its entry to the channel is taken into account. It is shown that lateral confinement of the polymer prior to its entry changes the polymer length dependence of the barrier height noticeably. Our theory and simulation results are in good agreement and reasonably describe related experimental data.

  12. Simulation and mathematical analyses of AC electric field driven apoptosis via microtubule disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pawan K.

    2015-09-01

    The moderate intensity alternating current electric fields with frequencies ranging between a few tens of kilohertz and a few tens of megahertz, also known as tumor treating fields (TTFs) are utilized as a modality in the electrotherapeutic treatment of the cancer cells. The application of sub-MHz TTF on the cancer cell results in the inducement of higher electric field at the furrow between the daughter cells, and such apoptosis stimulating phenomenon is investigated through the Maxwell two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulations. A furrow distance of the order of size of the nucleus accounts for the intense electric field inducement disintegrating the microtubule via the processes of its surface disruption and tubulin dimer detachment. A simulation and mathematical analyses of the microtubule disintegration mechanism is formulated to ascertain one of the factors causing an apoptosis of the cancer cells, and consequently checking their proliferation.

  13. High sensitive space electric field sensing based on micro fiber interferometer with field force driven gold nanofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jingdong; Shi, Leilei

    2015-01-01

    The traditional electrical field sensing can be realized by utilizing electro-optic materials or liquid crystals, and has limitations of easy breakdown, free assembly and difficult measurement of low-frequency. Here, we propose a new method to realize safe measurement of spatial dynamic electric field by using a micro fiber interferometer integrated with gold nanofilm. The energy of the electric charge received through antenna forms the intrinsic electric field with two micro electrodes, one of which is the 120 nm gold film vibration beam micromachined by femtosecond lasers and integrated with the micro fiber. The change of the intrinsic electric field force due to the spatial electric field will cause the vibration of the film beam. By demodulating the output signal of the micro fiber interferometer, the electric field can be measured. We demonstrate the detectable frequency ranges from tens of Hz to tens of KHz, and the minimum electric field intensity is ~200 V/m at 1 KHz. Our electric field measurement technology combining optical fiber interference with gold nanostructures shows the advantages of security, high sensitivity, compact size, and multiplexed multi-point and remote detection. PMID:26507680

  14. High sensitive space electric field sensing based on micro fiber interferometer with field force driven gold nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jingdong; Shi, Leilei

    2015-10-28

    The traditional electrical field sensing can be realized by utilizing electro-optic materials or liquid crystals, and has limitations of easy breakdown, free assembly and difficult measurement of low-frequency. Here, we propose a new method to realize safe measurement of spatial dynamic electric field by using a micro fiber interferometer integrated with gold nanofilm. The energy of the electric charge received through antenna forms the intrinsic electric field with two micro electrodes, one of which is the 120 nm gold film vibration beam micromachined by femtosecond lasers and integrated with the micro fiber. The change of the intrinsic electric field force due to the spatial electric field will cause the vibration of the film beam. By demodulating the output signal of the micro fiber interferometer, the electric field can be measured. We demonstrate the detectable frequency ranges from tens of Hz to tens of KHz, and the minimum electric field intensity is ~200 V/m at 1 KHz. Our electric field measurement technology combining optical fiber interference with gold nanostructures shows the advantages of security, high sensitivity, compact size, and multiplexed multi-point and remote detection.

  15. Experimental Verification of Isotropic Radiation from a Coherent Dipole Source via Electric-Field-Driven LC Resonator Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; de Lustrac, André

    2013-09-01

    It has long been conjectured that isotropic radiation by a simple coherent source is impossible due to changes in polarization. Though hypothetical, the isotropic source is usually taken as the reference for determining a radiator’s gain and directivity. Here, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that an isotropic radiator can be made of a simple and finite source surrounded by electric-field-driven LC resonator metamaterials designed by space manipulation. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show the first isotropic source with omnidirectional radiation from a dipole source (applicable to all distributed sources), which can open up several possibilities in axion electrodynamics, optical illusion, novel transformation-optic devices, wireless communication, and antenna engineering. Owing to the electric- field-driven LC resonator realization scheme, this principle can be readily applied to higher frequency regimes where magnetism is usually not present.

  16. Experimental verification of isotropic radiation from a coherent dipole source via electric-field-driven LC resonator metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; de Lustrac, André

    2013-09-27

    It has long been conjectured that isotropic radiation by a simple coherent source is impossible due to changes in polarization. Though hypothetical, the isotropic source is usually taken as the reference for determining a radiator's gain and directivity. Here, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that an isotropic radiator can be made of a simple and finite source surrounded by electric-field-driven LC resonator metamaterials designed by space manipulation. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show the first isotropic source with omnidirectional radiation from a dipole source (applicable to all distributed sources), which can open up several possibilities in axion electrodynamics, optical illusion, novel transformation-optic devices, wireless communication, and antenna engineering. Owing to the electric- field-driven LC resonator realization scheme, this principle can be readily applied to higher frequency regimes where magnetism is usually not present.

  17. Spontaneous transition of core radial electric field driven by magnetic islands in the H-1NF heliac

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Blackwell, B. D.; Howard, J.; Harris, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental observation of spontaneous transition of the core radial electric field to a large positive value (E(r) similar to 5 kV m(-1)), with a strong electric-field shear (similar to 700 kV m(-2)) in a low temperature (T(e) similar to 10 eV) radio frequency generated argon plasma in the H-1NF heliac stellarator. The transition, which seems to be driven by a spontaneous excitation of m = 2 magnetic islands near the core, is associated with a localized increase in the plasma density and excitation of coherent low frequency (similar to 3 kHz) oscillations possibly due to unstable E(r) shear driven modes. Evidence suggests development of the core electron-root scenario, which previously has been observed only at high temperature electron cyclotron heated plasmas.

  18. Water film motor driven by alternating electric fields: its dynamical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Qiang; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Li, Ying-Jun; Jiang, Su-Rong

    2012-03-01

    The "liquid film motor," a novel device with important implications for basic research and technology, is analyzed. It works perfectly with both direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) fields. We develop a mathematical model describing electrohydrodynamical (EHD) motions induced by ac fields, which are more complex and have wider technological applications than those produced by dc fields. The main characteristics of these motions, derived in our paper and in full agreement with the experimental ones, are as follows: (i) Rotation of the film requires that the frequencies of the ac fields are exactly the same and their magnitudes surpass a threshold, which depends on their phase difference. (ii) Vibrations may be induced by fields with different frequencies. (iii) The EHD motions strongly depend on the polarization induced by the external electric field. However, these motions are little affected by the liquid's electrical conductivity, viscosity, dielectric constant, and density. Our model also predicts several features, which have yet to be experimentally verified.

  19. Electric field driven magnetic domain wall motion in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Laurson, Lasse; Franke, Kévin J. A.; Dijken, Sebastiaan van

    2014-01-06

    We investigate magnetic domain wall (MDW) dynamics induced by applied electric fields in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric thin-film heterostructures. In contrast to conventional driving mechanisms where MDW motion is induced directly by magnetic fields or electric currents, MDW motion arises here as a result of strong pinning of MDWs onto ferroelectric domain walls (FDWs) via local strain coupling. By performing extensive micromagnetic simulations, we find several dynamical regimes, including instabilities such as spin wave emission and complex transformations of the MDW structure. In all cases, the time-averaged MDW velocity equals that of the FDW, indicating the absence of Walker breakdown.

  20. Optical signatures of electric-field-driven magnetic phase transitions in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Tista; Shukla, Alok

    2016-06-01

    Experimental challenges in identifying various types of magnetic ordering in graphene quantum dots (QDs) pose a major hurdle in the application of these nanostructures for spintronic devices. Based upon phase diagrams obtained by employing the π -electron Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the magnetic states undergo phase transition under the influence of an external electric field. Our calculations of the electroabsorption spectra of these QDs indicate that the spectrum in question carries strong signatures of their magnetic state (FM vs AFM), thus suggesting the possibility of an all-optical characterization of their magnetic nature. Further, the gaps for the up and the down spins are the same in the absence of an external electric field, both for the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and the ferromagnetic (FM) states of QDs. But, once the QDs are exposed to a suitably directed external electric field, gaps for different spins split and exhibit distinct variations with respect to the strength of the field. The nature of variation exhibited by the energy gaps corresponding to the up and down spins is different for the AFM and FM configurations of QDs. This selective manipulation of the spin-polarized gap splitting by an electric field in finite graphene nanostructures can open up new frontiers in the design of graphene-based spintronic devices.

  1. Electro-optic characteristics of 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal display driven by fringe-electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, I. S.; Shin, S. S.; Kim, H. Y.; Song, S. H.; Lee, S. H.

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the electro-optic characteristics of a fringe-field driven twisted nematic (TN) display. In the absence of an electric field, the liquid crystals (LCs) are initially twisted 90° from the top to the bottom substrate under parallel polarizers so that the cell appears to be black. In the presence of a fringe-electric field, the LCs with negative dielectric anisotropy are rotated toward a plane that is almost perpendicular to the horizontal component of the fringe field, above the entire electrode surface. The cell then appears to be white, and shows high transmittance. In addition, the cell displays a wide viewing angle and has excellent color characteristics over a wide viewing range due to almost in-plane switching, unlike a conventional TN device where the LC director tilts upward in only one direction and results in a narrow viewing angle.

  2. Negative capacitance switching via VO2 band gap engineering driven by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xinfeng; Xu, Jing; Xu, Xiaofeng; Gu, Congcong; Chen, Fei; Wu, Binhe; Wang, Chunrui; Xing, Huaizhong; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao

    2015-03-01

    We report the negative capacitance behavior of an energy band gap modulation quantum well with a sandwich VO2 layer structure. The phase transition is probed by measuring its capacitance. With the help of theoretical calculations, it shows that the negative capacitance changes of the quantum well device come from VO2 band gap by continuously tuning the temperature or voltage. Experiments reveal that as the current remains small enough, joule heating can be ignored, and the insulator-metal transition of VO2 can be induced by the electric field. Our results open up possibilities for functional devices with phase transitions induced by external electric fields other than the heating or electricity-heat transition.

  3. Negative capacitance switching via VO{sub 2} band gap engineering driven by electric field

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xinfeng; Xu, Jing; Xu, Xiaofeng Gu, Congcong; Chen, Fei; Wu, Binhe Wang, Chunrui Xing, Huaizhong; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao

    2015-03-02

    We report the negative capacitance behavior of an energy band gap modulation quantum well with a sandwich VO{sub 2} layer structure. The phase transition is probed by measuring its capacitance. With the help of theoretical calculations, it shows that the negative capacitance changes of the quantum well device come from VO{sub 2} band gap by continuously tuning the temperature or voltage. Experiments reveal that as the current remains small enough, joule heating can be ignored, and the insulator-metal transition of VO{sub 2} can be induced by the electric field. Our results open up possibilities for functional devices with phase transitions induced by external electric fields other than the heating or electricity-heat transition.

  4. An evidence for prompt electric field disturbance driven by changes in the solar wind density under northward IMF Bz condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Diptiranjan; Chakrabarty, D.; Sekar, R.; Reeves, G. D.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Pant, Tarun K.; Veenadhari, B.; Shiokawa, K.

    2016-05-01

    Before the onset of a geomagnetic storm on 22 January 2012 (Ap = 24), an enhancement in solar wind number density from 10/cm3 to 22/cm3 during 0440-0510 UT under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) condition is shown to have enhanced the high-latitude ionospheric convection and also caused variations in the geomagnetic field globally. Conspicuous changes in ΔX are observed not only at longitudinally separated low-latitude stations over Indian (prenoon), South American (midnight), Japanese (afternoon), Pacific (afternoon) and African (morning) sectors but also at latitudinally separated stations located over high and middle latitudes. The latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the ΔX during 0440-0510 UT is shown to be consistent with the characteristics of prompt penetration electric field disturbances. Most importantly, the density pulse event caused enhancements in the equatorial electrojet strength and the peak height of the F layer (hmF2) over the Indian dip equatorial sector. Further, the concomitant enhancements in electrojet current and F layer movement over the dip equator observed during this space weather event suggest a common driver of prompt electric field disturbance at this time. Such simultaneous variations are found to be absent during magnetically quiet days. In absence of significant change in solar wind velocity and magnetospheric substorm activity, these observations point toward perceptible prompt electric field disturbance over the dip equator driven by the overcompression of the magnetosphere by solar wind density enhancement.

  5. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1990-01-01

    Methods and systems for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a "packing" are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets.

  6. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1990-07-17

    Methods and systems are disclosed for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a packing'' are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets. 2 figs.

  7. Terahertz plasmon-polariton modes in graphene driven by electric field inside a Fabry-Pérot cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C. X.; Li, L. L.; Zhang, C.; Xu, W.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-06-14

    We present a theoretical study on plasmon-polariton modes in graphene placed inside an optical cavity and driven by a source-to-drain electric field. The electron velocity and electron temperature are determined by solving self-consistently the momentum- and energy-balance equations in which electron interactions with impurities, acoustic-, and optic-phonons are included. Based on many-body self-consistent field theory, we develop a tractable approach to study plasmon-polariton in an electron gas system. We find that when graphene is placed inside a Fabry-Pérot cavity, two branches of the plasmon-polariton modes can be observed and these modes are very much optic- or plasmon-like. The frequencies of these modes depend markedly on driving electric field especially at higher resonant frequency regime. Moreover, the plasmon-polariton frequency in graphene is in terahertz (THz) bandwidth and can be tuned by changing the cavity length, gate voltage, and driving electric field. This work is pertinent to the application of graphene-based structures as tunable THz plasmonic devices.

  8. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-01-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors. PMID:27328976

  9. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  10. Mobility of nanometer-size solutes in water driven by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the mobility of nanometer-size solutes in water in a uniform external electric field. General arguments are presented to show that a closed surface cutting a volume from a polar liquid will carry an effective non-zero surface charge density when preferential orientation of dipoles exists in the interface. This effective charge will experience a non-vanishing drag in an external electric field even in the absence of free charge carriers. Numerical simulations of model solutes are used to estimate the magnitude of the surface charge density. We find it to be comparable to the values typically reported from the mobility measurements. Hydrated ions can potentially carry a significant excess of the effective charge due to over-polarization of the interface. As a result, the electrokinetic charge can significantly deviate from the physical charge of free charge carriers. We propose to test the model by manipulating the polarizability of hydrated semiconductor nanoparticles with light. The inversion of the mobility direction can be achieved by photoexcitation, which increases the nanoparticle polarizability and leads to an inversion of the dipolar orientations of water molecules in the interface.

  11. Electric-field-driven dynamics of magnetic domain walls in magnetic nanowires patterned on ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Leliaert, Jonathan; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-03-01

    Strong coupling of magnetic domain walls onto straight ferroelastic boundaries of a ferroelectric layer enables full and reversible electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion. In this paper, the dynamics of this new driving mechanism is analyzed using micromagnetic simulations. We show that transverse domain walls with a near-180° spin structure are stabilized in magnetic nanowires and that electric fields can move these walls with high velocities. Above a critical velocity, which depends on material parameters, nanowire geometry and the direction of domain wall motion, the magnetic domain walls depin abruptly from the ferroelastic boundaries. Depinning evolves either smoothly or via the emission and annihilation of a vortex or antivortex core (Walker breakdown). In both cases, the magnetic domain wall slows down after depinning in an oscillatory fashion and eventually comes to a halt. The simulations provide design rules for hybrid ferromagnetic-ferroelectric domain-wall-based devices and indicate that material disorder and structural imperfections only influence Walker-breakdown-like depinning at high domain wall velocities.

  12. Electric field-driven magnetocrystalline anisotropy switching of Fe/MgO: Towards full understanding from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Akiyama, T.; Ito, T.; Weinert, M.; Freeman, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    Controlling magnetic properties by an external electric field (E-field) is a key challenge in modern magnetic physics. Here, we investigate the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) modification by an E-field for thin films of Fe on a MgO substrate from first principles. Calculations were carried out by using the film FLAPW methodfootnotetextWimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, and Freeman, PRB 24, 864 (1981). with full optimization by atomic force calculations in which an E-field effect is incorporated.footnotetextNakamura et al., PRL 102, 18702 (2009); Weinert et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21, 084201 (2009). Results predict that the Fe/MgO interface gives rise to a large out-of-plane MCA due to an Fe-O hybridization at the interface and a MCA modification is induced by a change in the d-band structures at the Fermi level when an E-field is introduced. Importantly, however, the existence of an interfacial iron- oxide layer between the Fe layer and the MgO substrate is found to play a key role in demonstrating an electric field-driven MCA switching, i.e., from out-of-plane MCA to in-plane MCA --- as observed in experiments.footnotetextShiota et al., Appl. Phys. Express 2, 063001 (2009).

  13. Electric-field-driven magnetization switching and nonlinear magnetoelasticity in Au/FeCo/MgO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Ong, P V; Kioussis, Nicholas; Amiri, P Khalili; Wang, K L

    2016-07-18

    Voltage-induced switching of magnetization, as opposed to current-driven spin transfer torque switching, can lead to a new paradigm enabling ultralow-power and high density instant-on nonvolatile magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM). To date, however, a major bottleneck in optimizing the performance of MeRAM devices is the low voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) efficiency (change of interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy per unit electric field) leading in turn to high switching energy and write voltage. In this work, employing ab initio electronic structure calculations, we show that epitaxial strain, which is ubiquitous in MeRAM heterostructures, gives rise to a rich variety of VCMA behavior with giant VCMA coefficient (~1800 fJ V(-1)m(-1)) in Au/FeCo/MgO junction. The heterostructure also exhibits a strain-induced spin-reorientation induced by a nonlinear magnetoelastic coupling. The results demonstrate that the VCMA behavior is universal and robust in magnetic junctions with heavy metal caps across the 5d transition metals and that an electric-field-driven magnetic switching at low voltage is achievable by design. These findings open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering to harvest higher efficiency VCMA for the next generation MeRAM devices.

  14. Electric-field-driven magnetization switching and nonlinear magnetoelasticity in Au/FeCo/MgO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, P. V.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Amiri, P. Khalili; Wang, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    Voltage-induced switching of magnetization, as opposed to current-driven spin transfer torque switching, can lead to a new paradigm enabling ultralow-power and high density instant-on nonvolatile magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM). To date, however, a major bottleneck in optimizing the performance of MeRAM devices is the low voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) efficiency (change of interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy per unit electric field) leading in turn to high switching energy and write voltage. In this work, employing ab initio electronic structure calculations, we show that epitaxial strain, which is ubiquitous in MeRAM heterostructures, gives rise to a rich variety of VCMA behavior with giant VCMA coefficient (~1800 fJ V‑1m‑1) in Au/FeCo/MgO junction. The heterostructure also exhibits a strain-induced spin-reorientation induced by a nonlinear magnetoelastic coupling. The results demonstrate that the VCMA behavior is universal and robust in magnetic junctions with heavy metal caps across the 5d transition metals and that an electric-field-driven magnetic switching at low voltage is achievable by design. These findings open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering to harvest higher efficiency VCMA for the next generation MeRAM devices.

  15. Electric-field-driven magnetization switching and nonlinear magnetoelasticity in Au/FeCo/MgO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Ong, P. V.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Amiri, P. Khalili; Wang, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-induced switching of magnetization, as opposed to current-driven spin transfer torque switching, can lead to a new paradigm enabling ultralow-power and high density instant-on nonvolatile magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM). To date, however, a major bottleneck in optimizing the performance of MeRAM devices is the low voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) efficiency (change of interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy per unit electric field) leading in turn to high switching energy and write voltage. In this work, employing ab initio electronic structure calculations, we show that epitaxial strain, which is ubiquitous in MeRAM heterostructures, gives rise to a rich variety of VCMA behavior with giant VCMA coefficient (~1800 fJ V−1m−1) in Au/FeCo/MgO junction. The heterostructure also exhibits a strain-induced spin-reorientation induced by a nonlinear magnetoelastic coupling. The results demonstrate that the VCMA behavior is universal and robust in magnetic junctions with heavy metal caps across the 5d transition metals and that an electric-field-driven magnetic switching at low voltage is achievable by design. These findings open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering to harvest higher efficiency VCMA for the next generation MeRAM devices. PMID:27424885

  16. Local energy and power in many-particle quantum systems driven by an external electrical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albareda, Guillermo; Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Oriols, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    We derive expressions for the expectation values of the local energy and the local power for a many-particle system of (scalar) charged particles interacting with an external electrical field. In analogy with the definition of the (local) current probability density, we construct a local energy operator such that the time-rate of change of its expectation value provides information on the spatial distribution of power. Results are presented as functions of an arbitrarily small volume Ω , and physical insights are discussed by means of the quantum hydrodynamical representation of the wavefunction, which is proven to allow for a clear-cut separation into contributions with and without classical correspondence. Quantum features of the local power are mainly manifested through the presence of non-local sources/sinks of power and through the action of forces with no classical counterpart. Many-particle classical-like effects arise in the form of current-force correlations and through the inflow/outflow of energy across the boundaries of the volume Ω . Interestingly, all these intriguing features are only reflected in the expression of the local power when the volume Ω is finite. Otherwise, for closed systems with Ω \\to ∞ , we recover a classical-like single-particle expression.

  17. Design and modeling of magnetically driven electric-field sensor for non-contact DC voltage measurement in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Decai; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the design and modeling of a magnetically driven electric-field sensor for non-contact DC voltage measurement are presented. The magnetic drive structure of the sensor is composed of a small solenoid and a cantilever beam with a cylindrical magnet mounted on it. The interaction of the magnet and the solenoid provides the magnetic driving force for the sensor. Employing magnetic drive structure brings the benefits of low driving voltage and large vibrating displacement, which consequently results in less interference from the drive signal. In the theoretical analyses, the capacitance calculation model between the wire and the sensing electrode is built. The expression of the magnetic driving force is derived by the method of linear fitting. The dynamical model of the magnetic-driven cantilever beam actuator is built by using Euler-Bernoulli theory and distributed parameter method. Taking advantage of the theoretical model, the output voltage of proposed sensor can be predicted. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results. The proposed sensor shows a favorable linear response characteristic. The proposed sensor has a measuring sensitivity of 9.87 μV/(V/m) at an excitation current of 37.5 mA. The electric field intensity resolution can reach 10.13 V/m.

  18. Lightning-driven electric fields measured in the upper mesosphere and lower ionosphere during the Thunderstorm-III rocket campaign: Implications for transient luminous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. N.; Barnum, B. H.; Holzworth, R. H.; Lay, E. H.; Cho, M.

    2006-12-01

    On September 1, 1995, the Thunderstorm-III sounding rocket was launched from Wallops Island, VA, USA to measure the effects of lightning on the ionosphere. Thunderstorm-III measured hundreds of electric and magnetic field changes from an active storm near Wallops Island and a few other more distant storms. Although the majority of these measurements occurred at altitudes above 130 km, there were 60 lightning- driven electric field changes measured at 75-130 km altitude during the rocket descent. Most of these lightning occurred at horizontal distances of 250-300 km from the rocket as located by the National Lightning Detection Network. At these distances, weak quasi-static electric field components and strong electromagnetic components were measured. These are some of the only lightning-driven electric fields measured in the upper mesosphere / lower ionosphere ever to be reported, since this region is typically too low in altitude for rockets and satellites and too high for balloons. In this presentation, these electric field changes are summarized and a few detailed case studies are presented. Moreover, these measurements are compared directly to a 2-D numerical model of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields in the middle and upper atmosphere. Finally, the implications of these results for transient luminous events, such as sprites, elves, and halos that have been observed at these altitudes are discussed.

  19. Coupled electric fields in photorefractive driven liquid crystal hybrid cells - theory and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moszczyński, P.; Walczak, A.; Marciniak, P.

    2016-12-01

    In cyclic articles previously published we described and analysed self-organized light fibres inside a liquid crystalline (LC) cell contained photosensitive polymer (PP) layer. Such asymmetric LC cell we call a hybrid LC cell. Light fibre arises along a laser beam path directed in plane of an LC cell. It means that a laser beam is parallel to photosensitive layer. We observed the asymmetric LC cell response on an external driving field polarization. Observation has been done for an AC field first. It is the reason we decided to carry out a detailed research for a DC driving field to obtain an LC cell response step by step. The properly prepared LC cell has been built with an isolating layer and garbage ions deletion. We proved by means of a physical model, as well as a numerical simulation that LC asymmetric response strongly depends on junction barriers between PP and LC layers. New parametric model for a junction barrier on PP/LC boundary has been proposed. Such model is very useful because of lack of proper conductivity and charge carriers of band structure data on LC material.

  20. Multiplexed Electrochemical Immunoassay of Phosphorylated Proteins Based on Enzyme-Functionalized Gold Nanorod Labels and Electric Field-Driven Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Lu, Donglai; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-09-09

    A multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay integrating enzyme amplification and electric field-driven strategy was developed for fast and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated p53 at Ser392 (phospho-p53 392), Ser15 (phospho-p53 15), Ser46 (phospho-p53 46) and total p53 simultaneously. The disposable sensor array has four spatially separated working electrodes and each of them is modified with different capture antibody, which enables simultaneous immunoassay to be conducted without cross-talk between adjacent electrodes. The enhanced sensitivity was achieved by multi-enzymes amplification strategy using gold nanorods (AuNRs) as nanocarrier for co-immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detection antibody (Ab2) at high ratio of HRP/Ab2, which produced an amplified electrocatalytic response by the reduction of HRP oxidized thionine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The immunoreaction processes were accelerated by applying +0.4 V for 3 min and then -0.2 V for 1.5 min, thus the whole sandwich immunoreactions could be completed in less than 5 min. The disposable immunosensor array shows excellent promise for clinical screening of phosphorylated proteins and convenient point-of-care diagnostics.

  1. Friction in carborane-based molecular rotors driven by gas flow or electric field: classical molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Alexandr; Vacek, Jaroslav; Michl, Josef

    2012-03-27

    Friction in molecular rotors is examined by classical molecular dynamics simulations for grid-mounted azimuthal dipolar molecular rotors, whose rotation is either allowed to decay freely or is driven at GHz frequencies by a flow of rare gas or by a rotating electric field. The rotating parts (rotators) are propeller-shaped. Their two to six blades consist of condensed aromatic rings and are attached to a deltahedral carborane hub, whose antipodal carbons carry [n]staffane axles mounted on a square molecular grid. The dynamic friction constant η has been derived in several independent ways with similar results. Analysis of free rotation decay yields η as a continuous exponentially decreasing function of rotor frequency. The calculated dependence of friction torque on frequency resembles the classical macroscopic Stribeck curve. Its relation to rotational potential energy barriers and the key role of the rate of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) of energy and angular momentum from rotator rotation to other modes are considered in two limiting regimes. (i) In the strongly overdamped regime, rotation is much slower than IVR, and effective friction can be expressed through potential barriers to rotation. (ii) In the strongly underdamped regime, rotation is much faster than IVR, whose rate then determines friction.

  2. Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation presents the science background and ground based results that form the basis of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment. This is an ISS experiment that is manifested for 2021. Objective: Characterize the effects of gravity on the interaction of electric and flow fields in the presence of phase change specifically pertaining to: a) The effects of microgravity on the electrically generated two-phase flow. b) The effects of microgravity on electrically driven liquid film boiling (includes extreme heat fluxes). Electro-wetting of the boiling section will repel the bubbles away from the heated surface in microgravity environment. Relevance/Impact: Provides phenomenological foundation for the development of electric field based two-phase thermal management systems leveraging EHD, permitting optimization of heat transfer surface area to volume ratios as well as achievement of high heat transfer coefficients thus resulting in system mass and volume savings. EHD replaces buoyancy or flow driven bubble removal from heated surface. Development Approach: Conduct preliminary experiments in low gravity and ground-based facilities to refine technique and obtain preliminary data for model development. ISS environment required to characterize electro-wetting effect on nucleate boiling and CHF in the absence of gravity. Will operate in the FIR - designed for autonomous operation.

  3. Pfirsch-Schlüter current-driven edge electric fields and their effect on the L-H transition power threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, A. Y.

    2012-06-01

    An important contribution to the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium at the tokamak edge comes from the Pfirsch-Schlüter current. The parallel electric field that can be associated with these currents is necessarily poloidally asymmetric and makes a similarly nonuniform contribution to the radial electric field on a flux surface. Here the role of the poloidal variation of this radial electric field in the L-H transition power threshold is investigated. Dependence of the resulting electric fields on magnetic topology, geometric factors such as the upper/lower triangularity and elongation, and the relative position of the X-point(s) in the poloidal plane are examined in detail. Starting with the assumption that an initially more negative radial electric field at the edge helps lower the transition power threshold, we find that our results are in agreement with a variety of experimental observations. In particular, for a ‘normal’ configuration of the plasma current and toroidal field we show the following. (i) The net radial electric field contribution by the Pfirsch-Schlüter currents at the plasma edge is negative for a lower single null and positive for a corresponding upper single null geometry. (ii) It becomes more negative as the X-point height is reduced. (iii) It also becomes more negative as the X-point radius is increased. These observations are consistent with the observed changes in the L-H transition power threshold PLH under similar changes in the experimental conditions. In addition we find that (iv) in USN with an unfavourable ion ∇B drift direction, the net radial electric field contribution is positive but decreases as the X-point radius decreases. This is consistent with the C-Mod observation that an L-I mode transition can be triggered by increasing the upper triangularity in this configuration. (v) Locally the radial electric field is positive above the outer mid-plane and reverses sign with reversal of the toroidal field, consistent with DIII

  4. Electric field and plasma density measurements in the strongly driven daytime equatorial electrojet. I - The unstable layer and gradient drift waves. II - Two-stream waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Kelley, M. C.; Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B. G.; Baker, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of electric field and plasma density measurements in the strongly driven daytime equatorial electrojet over Peru, made during the March 1983 Condor electrojet experiment from Punta Lobos, Peru, are discussed together with the rocket instrumentation used for the measurements and the pertinent payload dynamics. The overall characteristics of the irregularity layer observed in situ in the electrojet are described. Special consideration is given to the waves generated by the gradient drift instability (observed between 90 and 106.5 km) and to primary and secondary two-stream waves detected by the two probes on the topside between 103 and 111 km, where the electron current was considered to be strongest.

  5. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Reconnecting Electric Fields in a Laser-driven Bench-top Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, J. Y.; Lin, J.; Li, Y. T.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Zhang, K.; Yuan, D. W.; Ping, Y. L.; Wei, H. G.; Wang, J. Q.; Su, L. N.; Li, F.; Han, B.; Liao, G. Q.; Yin, C. L.; Fang, Y.; Yuan, X.; Wang, C.; Sun, J. R.; Liang, G. Y.; Wang, F. L.; Ding, Y. K.; He, X. T.; Zhu, J. Q.; Sheng, Z. M.; Li, G.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to model the magnetic reconnection process in a solar flare with powerful lasers. Relativistic electrons with energy up to megaelectronvolts are detected along the magnetic separatrices bounding the reconnection outflow, which exhibit a kappa-like distribution with an effective temperature of ˜109 K. The acceleration of non-thermal electrons is found to be more efficient in the case with a guide magnetic field (a component of a magnetic field along the reconnection-induced electric field) than in the case without a guide field. Hardening of the spectrum at energies ≥500 keV is observed in both cases, which remarkably resembles the hardening of hard X-ray and γ-ray spectra observed in many solar flares. This supports a recent proposal that the hardening in the hard X-ray and γ-ray emissions of solar flares is due to a hardening of the source-electron spectrum. We also performed numerical simulations that help examine behaviors of electrons in the reconnection process with the electromagnetic field configurations occurring in the experiments. The trajectories of non-thermal electrons observed in the experiments were well duplicated in the simulations. Our numerical simulations generally reproduce the electron energy spectrum as well, except for the hardening of the electron spectrum. This suggests that other mechanisms such as shock or turbulence may play an important role in the production of the observed energetic electrons.

  6. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  7. Numerical simulations of electric field driven hierarchical self-assembly of monolayers of binary mixtures of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amah, Edison; Musunuri, Naga; Hossain, Shahadat; Fischer, Ian; Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-11-01

    We numerically study the process of self-assembly of particle mixtures on fluid-liquid interfaces when an electric field is applied in the direction normal to the interface. Lateral forces cause particles to self-assemble into molecular-like hierarchical arrangements consisting of composite particles arranged in a pattern. As in experiments, if the particles sizes differ by a factor of two or more, the composite particle has a larger particle at its core with several smaller particles forming a ring around it. Approximately same sized particles form chains (analogous to polymeric molecules) in which positively and negatively polarized particles alternate when their concentrations are approximately equal, but when their concentrations differ substantially the particles whose concentration is larger form rings around the particles whose concentration is smaller. In some instances, particle chains with a positively polarized particle at one end and a negatively particle at the other folded to form circular chains. For submicron particles, only when the electric field intensity is larger than a critical value required for overcoming Brownian forces, a hierarchical pattern consisting of composite particles will form. The work was supported by National Science Foundation.

  8. Two-way self-consistent simulation of the inner magnetosphere driven by realistic electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Raluca; Liemohn, Michael; Toth, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    The geomagnetic storm of August 6, 2011 is examined using the two-way self consistent coupling between the kinetic Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model, the Block Adaptive Tree Solar Wind Roes-Type Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHD model and the Ridley Ionospheric Model (RIM) through the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). HEIDI solves the time dependent, gyration and bounce-averaged kinetic equation for the phase space density of different ring current species and computes full pitch angle distributions for all local times and radial distances. This model was generalized to accommodate arbitrary magnetic fields and through the coupling with the SWMF it obtains magnetic field description along with plasma distribution at the model boundaries from the BATS-R-US model within the SWMF. Electric field self-consistency is assured by the passing of convection potentials from the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM) within SWMF. Our study tests the various levels of coupling between the three models, highlighting the role the magnetic field, plasma sheet conditions and the cross polar cap potential play in the formation and evolution of the ring current. We use the results of the coupled HEIDI, BATSRUS and RIM models during disturbed conditions to study the importance of a kinetic self-consistent approach to the description of geospace.

  9. Electric-Field-Driven Dual Vacancies Evolution in Ultrathin Nanosheets Realizing Reversible Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Mengjie; Liu, Youwen; Zhi, Yuduo; Xiao, Chong; Gu, Bingchuan; Hua, Xuemin; Fan, Shaojuan; Lin, Yue; Bai, Wei; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Ye, Bangjiao; Xie, Yi

    2015-12-02

    Fabricating a flexible room-temperature ferromagnetic resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) device is of fundamental importance to integrate nonvolatile memory and spintronics both in theory and practice for modern information technology and has the potential to bring about revolutionary new foldable information-storage devices. Here, we show that a relatively low operating voltage (+1.4 V/-1.5 V, the corresponding electric field is around 20,000 V/cm) drives the dual vacancies evolution in ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets at room temperature, which causes the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal, accompanyied by an abrupt conductivity change up to 10(3) times, exhibiting room-temperature ferromagnetism in two resistance states. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron spin resonance results show that the Sn/O dual vacancies in the ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets evolve to isolated Sn vacancy under electric field, accounting for the switching behavior of SnO2 ultrathin nanosheets; on the other hand, the different defect types correspond to different conduction natures, realizing the transition between semiconductor and half-metal. Our result represents a crucial step to create new a information-storage device realizing the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal with flexibility and room-temperature ferromagnetism at low energy consumption. The as-obtained half-metal in the low-resistance state broadens the application of the device in spintronics and the semiconductor to half-metal transition on the basis of defects evolution and also opens up a new avenue for exploring random access memory mechanisms and finding new half-metals for spintronics.

  10. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Battaglia, D. J.; Rudakov, D. L.; Belli, E. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hollmann, E.; Lasnier, C.; Solomon, W. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J.

    2016-09-21

    Here, bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, VD+||, peaking at 40–60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring large (10–20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that VD+|| is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core VC6+|| velocity and the peak edge VD+|| in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.

  11. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    DOE PAGES

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here, bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, VD+||, peaking at 40–60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring largemore » (10–20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that VD+|| is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core VC6+|| velocity and the peak edge VD+|| in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.« less

  12. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Battaglia, D. J.; Rudakov, D. L.; Belli, E. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hollmann, E.; Lasnier, C.; Solomon, W. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J.

    2016-09-01

    Bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, V| | D + , peaking at 40-60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring large (10-20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that V| | D + is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core V| | C 6 + velocity and the peak edge V| | D + in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.

  13. Electrically Driven Polariton Light Emitting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Pelekanos, Nikolaos T.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.

    The aim of this chapter is to highlight the recent progress in the rapidly developing field of electrically driven polariton devices. The unprecedented potential of polariton-based devices owes its origin mainly to the bosonic property of polaritons to condense in the same final state, thus requiring no population inversion to achieve lasing. Consequently, it is widely believed that the threshold of a polariton laser is at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of a conventional semiconductor photon laser operating in the weak-coupling regime [C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, Y. Arakawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314-3317 (1992)]. This makes polariton lasers extremely promising as ultralow threshold lasers or as low-power sources of coherent and nonclassical light. Electrical injection of these entangled light-matter states is a key step toward the realisation of practical, compact devices. Recent demonstrations of electrically pumped polariton LEDs in organic as well as inorganic material systems operating up to room temperature have highlighted the potential of such devices for real-world polariton-based applications in optoelectronics.

  14. Advances in Electrically Driven Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Electrically Driven Thermal Management is a vibrant technology development initiative incorporating ISS based technology demonstrations, development of innovative fluid management techniques and fundamental research efforts. The program emphasizes high temperature high heat flux thermal management required for future generations of RF electronics and power electronic devices. This presentation reviews i.) preliminary results from the Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Long Term Flight Demonstration launched on STP-H5 payload in February 2017 ii.) advances in liquid phase flow distribution control iii.) development of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment under the NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program.

  15. Electrically driven and electrically tunable quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. P.; Murray, E.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Dangel, C.; Farrer, I.; Spencer, P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots in the neighbouring diode. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission from the neighbouring driven diode is tuned via the quantum confined Stark effect. We also show that we can electrically tune the fine structure splitting.

  16. Field-aligned currents and large scale magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1980-01-01

    D'Angelo's model of polar cap electric fields (1977) was used to visualize how high-latitude field-aligned currents are driven by the solar wind generator. The region 1 and region 2 currents of Iijima and Potemra (1976) and the cusp field-aligned currents of Wilhjelm et al. (1978) and McDiarmid et al. (1978) are apparently driven by different generators, although in both cases the solar wind is their ultimate source.

  17. Enhanced laser-radiation-pressure-driven proton acceleration by moving focusing electric-fields in a foil-in-cone target

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D. B.; Zhuo, H. B. Yu, T. P.; Yang, X. H.; Shao, F. Q.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yin, Y.; Ge, Z. Y.; Wu, H. C.

    2015-02-15

    A foil-in-cone target is proposed to enhance stable laser-radiation-pressure-driven proton acceleration by avoiding the beam degradation in whole stage of acceleration. Two and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the guiding cone can substantially improve the spectral and spatial properties of the ion beam and lead to better preservation of the beam quality. This can be attributed to the focusing effect of the radial sheath electric fields formed on the inner walls of the cone, which co-move with the accelerated foil and effectively suppress the undesirable transverse explosion of the foil. It is shown that, by using a transversely Gaussian laser pulse with intensity of ∼2.74 × 10{sup 22 }W∕cm{sup 2}, a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam with a peak energy of ∼1.5 GeV/u, density ∼10n{sub c}, and transverse size ∼1λ{sub 0} can be obtained.

  18. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1994-10-04

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.

  19. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.

  20. Skyrmion motion driven by oscillating magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Duck-Ho; Je, Soong-Geun; Chun, Byong Sun; Kim, Wondong; Qiu, Z.Q.; Choe, Sug-Bong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    The one-dimensional magnetic skyrmion motion induced by an electric current has attracted much interest because of its application potential in next-generation magnetic memory devices. Recently, the unidirectional motion of large (20 μm in diameter) magnetic bubbles with two-dimensional skyrmion topology, driven by an oscillating magnetic field, has also been demonstrated. For application in high-density memory devices, it is preferable to reduce the size of skyrmion. Here we show by numerical simulation that a skyrmion of a few tens of nanometres can also be driven by high-frequency field oscillations, but with a different direction of motion from the in-plane component of the tilted oscillating field. We found that a high-frequency field for small skyrmions can excite skyrmion resonant modes and that a combination of different modes results in a final skyrmion motion with a helical trajectory. Because this helical motion depends on the frequency of the field, we can control both the speed and the direction of the skyrmion motion, which is a distinguishable characteristic compared with other methods. PMID:26847334

  1. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  2. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  3. Electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua Reynolds

    The physical user interface is an increasingly significant factor limiting the effectiveness of our interactions with and through technology. This thesis introduces Electric Field Imaging, a new physical channel and inference framework for machine perception of human action. Though electric field sensing is an important sensory modality for several species of fish, it has not been seriously explored as a channel for machine perception. Technological applications of field sensing, from the Theremin to the capacitive elevator button, have been limited to simple proximity detection tasks. This thesis presents a solution to the inverse problem of inferring geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from electric field measurements. It also presents simple, inexpensive hardware and signal processing techniques for makin the field measurements, and several new applications of electric field sensing. The signal processing contribution includes synchronous undersampling, a narrowband, phase sensitive detection technique that is well matched to the capabilities of contemporary microcontrollers. In hardware, the primary contributions are the School of Fish, a scalable network of microcontroller-based transceive electrodes, and the LazyFish, a small footprint integrated sensing board. Connecting n School of Fish electrodes results in an array capable of making heterodyne measurements of any or all n(n - 1) off-diagonal entries in the capacitance matrix. The LazyFish uses synchronous undersampling to provide up to 8 high signal- to-noise homodyne measurements in a very small package. The inverse electrostatics portion of the thesis presents a fast, general method for extracting geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from field measurements. The method is based on the Sphere Expansion, a novel fast method for generating approximate solutions to the Laplace equation. Finally, the thesis describes a variety

  4. Development of an electrically driven molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colin J; Sykes, E Charles H

    2014-10-01

    For molecules to be used as components in molecular machinery, methods are required that couple individual molecules to external energy sources in order to selectively excite motion in a given direction. While significant progress has been made in the construction of synthetic molecular motors powered by light and by chemical reactions, there are few experimental examples of electrically driven molecular motors. To this end, we pioneered the use of a new, stable and tunable molecular rotor system based on surface-bound thioethers to comprehensively study many aspects of molecular rotation. As biological molecular motors often operate at interfaces, our synthetic system is especially amenable to microscopic interrogation as compared to solution-based systems. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory, we studied the rotation of surface-bound thioethers, which can be induced either thermally or by electrons from the STM tip in a two-terminal setup. Moreover, the temperature and electron flux can be adjusted to allow each rotational event to be monitored at the molecular scale in real time. This work culminated in the first experimental demonstration of a single-molecule electric motor, where the electrically driven rotation of a butyl methyl sulfide molecule adsorbed on a copper surface could be directionally biased. The direction and rate of the rotation are related to the chirality of both the molecule and the STM tip (which serves as the electrode), illustrating the importance of the symmetry of the metal contacts in atomic-scale electrical devices.

  5. Electrically driven spin qubit based on valley mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wister; Veldhorst, Menno; Zimmerman, Neil M.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Culcer, Dimitrie

    2017-02-01

    The electrical control of single spin qubits based on semiconductor quantum dots is of great interest for scalable quantum computing since electric fields provide an alternative mechanism for qubit control compared with magnetic fields and can also be easier to produce. Here we outline the mechanism for a drastic enhancement in the electrically-driven spin rotation frequency for silicon quantum dot qubits in the presence of a step at a heterointerface. The enhancement is due to the strong coupling between the ground and excited states which occurs when the electron wave function overcomes the potential barrier induced by the interface step. We theoretically calculate single qubit gate times tπ of 170 ns for a quantum dot confined at a silicon/silicon-dioxide interface. The engineering of such steps could be used to achieve fast electrical rotation and entanglement of spin qubits despite the weak spin-orbit coupling in silicon.

  6. Thermalization of field driven quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    Fotso, H.; Mikelsons, K.; Freericks, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in how quantum systems thermalize after a sudden change, because unitary evolution should preclude thermalization. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis resolves this because all observables for quantum states in a small energy window have essentially the same value; it is violated for integrable systems due to the infinite number of conserved quantities. Here, we show that when a system is driven by a DC electric field there are five generic behaviors: (i) monotonic or (ii) oscillatory approach to an infinite-temperature steady state; (iii) monotonic or (iv) oscillatory approach to a nonthermal steady state; or (v) evolution to an oscillatory state. Examining the Hubbard model (which thermalizes under a quench) and the Falicov-Kimball model (which does not), we find both exhibit scenarios (i–iv), while only Hubbard shows scenario (v). This shows richer behavior than in interaction quenches and integrability in the absence of a field plays no role. PMID:24736404

  7. Electric potential and electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for "illuminating" volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e-Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  8. Graphene-contact electrically driven microdisk lasers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Ho; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Lee, Jung Min; Hwang, Min-Soo; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Won Il; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Active nanophotonic devices are attractive due to their low-power consumption, ultrafast modulation speed and high-density integration. Although electrical operation is required for practical implementation of these devices, it is not straightforward to introduce a proper current path into such a wavelength-scale nanostructure without affecting the optical properties. For example, to demonstrate electrically driven nanolasers, complicated fabrication techniques have been used thus far. Here we report an electrically driven microdisk laser using a transparent graphene electrode. Current is injected efficiently through the graphene sheet covering the top surface of the microdisk cavity, and, for the first time, lasing operation was achieved with a low-threshold current of ~300 μA at room temperature. In addition, we measured significant electroluminescence from a graphene-contact subwavelength-scale single nanopillar structure. This work represents a new paradigm for the practical applications of integrated photonic systems, by conformally mounting graphene on the complex surfaces of non-planar three-dimensional nanostructures. PMID:23047681

  9. Overview - Electric fields. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauffman, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The electric fields session is designed to review progress in observation, theory, and modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, and to expose important new results. The present report comments on the state and prospects of electric field research, with particular emphasis on relevance to quantitative modeling of the magnetospheric processes. Attention is given to underlying theories and models. Modeling philosophy is discussed relative to explanatory models and representative models. Modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, while in its infancy, is developing rapidly on many fronts employing a variety of approaches. The general topic of magnetospheric electric fields is becoming of prime importance in understanding space plasmas.

  10. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  11. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  12. Field-driven dynamics of nematic microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyatzadeh, Pouya; Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2015-12-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) composites long have been a focus of study for their unique electro-optical properties which have resulted in various applications such as switchable (transparent or translucent) windows. These composites are manufactured using desirable "bottom-up" techniques, such as phase separation of a liquid-crystal-polymer mixture, which enable production of PDLC films at very large scales. LC domains within PDLCs are typically spheroidal, as opposed to rectangular for an LCD panel, and thus exhibit substantially different behavior in the presence of an external field. The fundamental difference between spheroidal and rectangular nematic domains is that the former results in the presence of nanoscale orientational defects in LC order while the latter does not. Progress in the development and optimization of PDLC electro-optical properties has progressed at a relatively slow pace due to this increased complexity. In this work, continuum simulations are performed in order to capture the complex formation and electric field-driven switching dynamics of approximations of PDLC domains. Using a simplified elliptic cylinder (microcapillary) geometry as an approximation of spheroidal PDLC domains, the effects of geometry (aspect ratio), surface anchoring, and external field strength are studied through the use of the Landau-de Gennes model of the nematic LC phase.

  13. Chiral symmetry breaking dictated by electric-field-driven shape transitions of nucleating conglomerate domains in a bent-core liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, G. B.; Pratibha, R.

    2014-04-01

    Generating and controlling chiral symmetry breaking and enantiomeric excess is not only interesting from a fundamental perspective but can also lead to novel functional materials. In this work, we show how the dark conglomerate (DC) liquid crystalline phase characterized by macroscopic chiral domains offers such a possibility if formed under an electric field. In addition the chiral domains are electro-optically switchable. The chiral segregation in the DC phase can be tuned by using dc or ac fields at different frequencies. Consequently, the enantioselectivity, dielectric parameters and switching polarization in the DC phase become tunable. Another interesting aspect is that the nucleating conglomerate domains formed under ac fields exhibit frequency dependent shape transitions which have a striking resemblance to domain shape changes observed in two-dimensional monolayers. This can therefore be used as a model experimental system to get a physical insight into the effects of chiral and electrostatic interactions, under external fields, on domain growth and interface structures. The domain shape transitions can also be used to investigate the role of growth morphology in coarsening and scaling hypotheses. From a technological point of view this opens up the possibility of obtaining chiral thin films with preferential sense of chirality which can be useful in chiroptical and nonlinear optical applications.

  14. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  15. Low electric-field driven ultrahigh electrostrains in Sb-substituted (Na,K)NbO{sub 3} lead-free ferroelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Jian; Zuo, Ruzhong E-mail: rzzuo@hotmail.com; Qi, He; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Longtu

    2014-12-15

    Lead-free (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48})(Nb{sub 1−y}Sb{sub y})O{sub 3} (NKNS{sub y}) ferroelectric ceramics were reported to exhibit an ultrahigh electrostrain (dynamic d{sub 33}* (=S/E) of 800–1100 pm/V) in a relatively low driving electric field range (1–4 kV/mm). As evidenced by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements, the mechanism of generating large strains was ascribed to both the low-field induced reversible rhombohedral-monoclinic phase transition (1–2 kV/mm) and the enhanced domain switching (2–4 kV/mm) owing to the normal to relaxor phase transformation, which contribute to ∼62% and ∼38% of the total strain, respectively. The results indicate that the NKNS{sub y} compositions would have excellent potentials for applications of lead-free actuator ceramics.

  16. Electric Field Containerless Processing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the science and technology base required to design and construct a high temperature electric field positioning module that could be used by materials scientists to conduct containerless science experiments in a low gravity environment. Containerless science modules that employ electric fields to position and manipulate samples offer several advantages over acoustic or electromagnetic systems. The electric field system will operate not only at atmospheric pressures but also in a vacuum, in contrast to the acoustic modules which can only operate in atmosphere where the acoustic forces are sufficient. The electric field technique puts minimum energy into the sample, whereas the electromagnetic system can deposit energy into the sample through eddy current heat as well as physical mixing in the sample. Two types of electric field modules have been constructed and tested to date. One employs a charged sample and uses electrostatic forces to position and control the sample. The second type of module induces electrical polarization of the sample and electric field gradients to position and control the sample.

  17. Alkali-vapor magnetic resonance driven by fictitious radiofrequency fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zhivun, Elena; Wickenbrock, Arne; Patton, Brian; Budker, Dmitry

    2014-11-10

    We demonstrate an all-optical {sup 133}Cs scalar magnetometer, operating in nonzero magnetic field, in which the magnetic resonance is driven by an effective oscillating magnetic field provided by the AC Stark shift of an intensity-modulated laser beam. We achieve a projected shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 1.7fT/√(Hz) and measure a technical noise floor of 40fT/√(Hz). These results are essentially identical to a coil-driven scalar magnetometer using the same setup. This all-optical scheme offers advantages over traditional coil-driven magnetometers for use in arrays and in magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, e.g., searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  18. Effects of guide field in driven magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. Z.; Inoue, S.; Horiuchi, R.; Ono, Y.; Guo, X.

    2016-10-01

    Decoupling of electron and ion dynamics is the key physical process in the magnetic reconnection layer. It leads to the generation of parallel E-field and in-plane electrostatic E-field, and determines how particles gain energy. For antiparallel magnetic reconnection (zero guide field case), the electron and ion dynamics decoupling is due to meandering particle (unmagnetized) orbits in the field reversal region and particle acceleration by parallel electric field in the separatrix region. The parallel E-field is produced mainly from the driven inductive E-field due to the quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field generation. The decoupling of electron and ion dynamics causes charge separation which produces the in-plane electrostatic E-field. If the guide field is stronger than the reconnecting magnetic field, both electrons and ions are magnetized in the entire magnetic reconnection domain, and the electron-ion dynamics decoupling process changes from the zero guide field case. Then, the structure of parallel and electrostatic E-fields, and thus how electrons/ions gain energy also changes. We will explain the physical mechanisms of electron-ion dynamics decoupling on the E-field generation, and how electron and ion are heated/accelerated based on the driven reconnection simulation results.

  19. Neoclassical Radial Electric Field and Transport with Finite Orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Hinton, F. L.; Wong, S. K.

    2001-07-30

    Neoclassical transport in a toroidal plasma with finite ion orbits is studied, including for the first time the self-consistent radial electric field. Using a low-noise {delta}f particle simulation, we demonstrate that a deep electric-field well develops in a region with a steep density gradient, because of the self-collision--driven ion flux. We find that the electric field agrees with the standard neoclassical expression, when the toroidal rotation is zero, even for a steep density gradient. Ion thermal transport is modified by the electric-field well in a way which is consistent with the orbit squeezing effect, but smoothed by the finite orbits.

  20. Electrically driven PEDOT/PSS actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzaki, H.; Hosaka, K.; Suzuki, H.; Ito, T.

    2010-04-01

    Free-standing films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) were prepared by casting water dispersion of its colloidal particles. Specific surface area, water vapor sorption, and electroactive polymer actuating behavior of the resulting films were investigated by means of sorption isotherm, and electromechanical analysis. It was found that the non-porous PEDOT/PSS film, having a specific surface area of 0.13 m2 g-1, sorbed water vapor of 1080 cm3(STP) g-1, corresponding to 87 wt%, at relative water vapor pressure of 0.95. A temperature rise from 25 to 40 °C lowered sorption degree, indicative of an exothermic process, where isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing water vapor sorption and the value reached 43.9 kJ mol-1, being consistent with the heat of water condensation (44 kJ mol-1). Upon application of 10 V, the film underwent contraction of 2.4% in air at 50% relative humidity (RH) which significantly increased to 4.5% at 90% RH. The principle lay in desorption of water vapor sorbed in the film due to Joule heating, where electric field was capable of controlling the equilibrium of water vapor sorption.

  1. Measuring Energy Scaling of Laser Driven Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jackson; Goyon, Clement; Mariscal, Derek; Pollock, Brad; Patankar, Siddharth; Moody, John

    2016-10-01

    Laser-driven magnetic fields are of interest in particle confinement, fast ignition, and ICF platforms as an alternative to pulsed power systems to achieve many times higher fields. A comprehensive model describing the mechanism responsible for creating and maintaining magnetic fields from laser-driven coils has not yet been established. Understanding the scaling of key experimental parameters such as spatial and temporal uniformity and duration are necessary to implement coil targets in practical applications yet these measurements prove difficult due to the highly transient nature of the fields. We report on direct voltage measurements of laser-driven coil targets in which the laser energy spans more than four orders of magnitude. Results suggest that at low energies, laser-driven coils can be modeled as an electric circuit; however, at higher energies plasma effects dominate and a simple circuit treatment is insufficient to describe all observed phenomenon. The favorable scaling with laser power and pulse duration, observed in the present study and others at kilojoule energies, has positive implications for sustained, large magnetic fields for applications on the NIF. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. THOR Electric Field Instrument - EFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Bale, Stuart D.; Bonnell, John W.; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Phal, Yamuna; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Soucek, Jan; Vaivads, Andris; Åhlen, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) will measure the vector electric field from 0 to 200 kHz. EFI consists of two sets of sensors: Spin-plane Double Probes (EFI-SDP) providing high sensitivity DC electric field in the spacecraft spin plane (2D), and the High-Frequency Antenna (EFI-HFA) providing 3D electric field at frequencies above ~1 kHz. EFI-SDP consists of 4 biased spherical probes extended on 50 m long wire booms, 90 degrees apart in the spin plane, giving a 100 m baseline for each of the two spin-plane electric field components. EFI-HFA consists of 6 x 1.25 m long monopoles, forming 3 dipolar antennas crossed at 90 degrees to each other. In addition to the sensors, EFI contains HFA and SDP pre-amplifiers, as well as bias electronics boards (BEBs) hosted in the man electronics box of the Field and Wave processor (FWP). As THOR spacecraft has a sun-pointing spin axis, EFI-SDP measures the electric field in the plane approximately orthogonal to the sun using long wire booms. The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces errors due to wake effects and asymmetric photoelectron clouds, enabling the highly accurate in comparison to earlier missions ±0.1 mV/m near-DC electric field measurements. Interferometry using the electric field probes can be used to infer wavelengths and scale sizes at the smallest scales in the plasma. EFI also measures the floating potential of the satellite, which can be used to estimate the plasma density at very high time resolution (up to a few hundred Hz). The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces changes in the illuminated area, and hence the associated spin-dependent errors. In combination with densities derived from the observed plasma frequency emission line, EFI monitors the plasma density from DC to a few hundred Hz. EFI measurements characterize electric field and density variations associated with kinetic scale plasma

  3. Electric fields and quantum wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Dalit; Freivogel, Ben; Iqbal, Nabil

    2015-09-01

    Electric fields can thread a classical Einstein-Rosen bridge. Maldacena and Susskind have recently suggested that in a theory of dynamical gravity the entanglement of ordinary perturbative quanta should be viewed as creating a quantum version of an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the particles, or a "quantum wormhole." We demonstrate within low-energy effective field theory that there is a precise sense in which electric fields can also thread such quantum wormholes. We define a nonperturbative "wormhole susceptibility" that measures the ease of passing an electric field through any sort of wormhole. The susceptibility of a quantum wormhole is suppressed by powers of the U (1 ) gauge coupling relative to that for a classical wormhole but can be made numerically equal with a sufficiently large amount of entangled matter.

  4. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  5. Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Beggs, D. M.; Kuipers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Control of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale has advanced fields such as quantum optics, photovoltaics and telecommunications. These advances are driven by an improved understanding of the nanoscale behaviour of light, enabled by direct observations of the local electric fields near photonic nanostructures. With the advent of metamaterials that respond to the magnetic component of light, schemes have been developed to measure the nanoscale magnetic field. However, these structures interact not only with the magnetic field, but also with the electric field of light. Here, we demonstrate the essential simultaneous detection of both electric and magnetic fields with subwavelength resolution. By explaining our measurements through reciprocal considerations, we create a route towards designing probes sensitive to specific desired combinations of electric and magnetic field components. Simultaneous access to nanoscale electric and magnetic fields will pave the way for new designs of optical nanostructures and metamaterials.

  6. The Dynamics of Ultrasonically Levitated Drops in an Electric Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Holt, R. G.; Thiessen, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasonic and electrostatic levitation techniques have allowed the experimental investigation of the nonlinear oscillatory dynamics of free droplets with diameter between 0.1 and 0.4 cm. The measurement of the resonance frequencies of the first three normal modes of large amplitude shape oscillations in an electric field of varying magnitude has been carried out with and without surface charges for weakly conducting liquids in air. These oscillations of nonspherical levitated drops have been driven by either modulating the ultrasonic field or by using a time-varying electric field, and the free decay from the oscillatory state has been recorded. A decrease in the resonance frequency of the driven fundamental quadrupole mode has been measured for increasing oblate deformation in the absence of an electric field. Similarly, a decrease in this frequency has also been found for increasing DC electric field magnitude. A soft nonlinearity exists in the amplitude dependence of the resonant mode frequencies for freely decaying as well as ultrasonically and electrically driven uncharged drops. This decrease in resonance frequency is accentuated by the presence of free surface charge on the drop. Subharmonic resonance excitation has been observed for drops in a time-varying electric field, and hysteresis exists for resonant modes driven to large amplitude. Mode coupling from lower-order resonances to higher-order modes has been found to be very weak, even for fairly large amplitude shape oscillations. Most of these results are in general agreement with predictions from recent analytical and numerical investigations.

  7. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  8. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  9. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  10. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, David J.; Nordholt, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  11. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  12. Electrically Driven General Systems for UAV’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    systems are discussed in this paper. First the Barracuda M-05 UAV Demonstrator and second the 270 VDC More Electric Aircraft project launched by the...German Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB). 3.1 Barracuda M-05 The Barracuda M-05 is a company founded unmanned...test flight. Figure 4 showed a picture of the first flight. Figure 4: Barracuda M-05 First Flight With respect to electrically driven

  13. Domain wall motion driven by an oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Duck-Ho; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Dae-Yun; Choe, Sug-Bong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2017-03-01

    The coherent unidirectional motion of magnetic domain walls (DWs) is a key technology used in memory and logic device applications, as demonstrated in magnetic strips by electric current flow as well as in films by oscillation of a tilted magnetic field. Here we introduce a coherent unidirectional motion of DWs in the strip, utilizing an oscillating field, which is described within a previous 1D model. The essential criterion for DW motion in this approach is the oscillating-field-induced modulation of the DW width, which has not been previously considered. This DW motion driven by width modulation sheds light on high frequency domain manipulation in spin devices. A comprehensive inspection of field angle dependence reveals that unidirectional DW motion in this model requires chiral DWs, followed by asymmetric deformation of the domain shape.

  14. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. Relaxor ferroelectricity and electric-field-driven structural transformation in the giant lead-free piezoelectric (Ba ,Ca ) (Ti ,Zr ) O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajesh, Kumar; Tanwar, Khagesh; Abebe, Mulualem; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in lead-free (B a0.85C a0.15 ) (T i0.90Z r0.10 ) O3 (15/10BCTZ) because of its exceptionally large piezoelectric response [Liu and Ren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 257602 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.257602]. In this paper, we have analyzed the nature of: (i) crystallographic phase coexistence at room temperature, (ii) temperature- and field-induced phase transformation to throw light on the atomistic mechanisms associated with the large piezoelectric response of this system. A detailed temperature-dependent dielectric and lattice thermal expansion study proved that the system exhibits a weak dielectric relaxation, characteristic of a relaxor ferroelectric material on the verge of exhibiting a normal ferroelectric-paraelectric transformation. Careful structural analysis revealed that a ferroelectric state at room temperature is composed of three phase coexistences, tetragonal (P 4 m m )+ orthorhombic(Amm 2 )+rhombohedral(R 3 m ) . We also demonstrate that the giant piezoresponse is associated with a significant fraction of the tetragonal phase transforming to rhombohedral. It is argued that the polar nanoregions associated with relaxor ferroelectricity amplify the piezoresponse by providing an additional degree of intrinsic structural inhomogeneity to the system.

  16. GROUNDWATER AND SOIL REMEDIATION USING ELECTRICAL FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancements of contaminants removal and degradation in low permeability soils by electrical fields are achieved by the processes of electrical heating, electrokinetics, and electrochemical reactions. Electrical heating increases soil temperature resulting in the increase of cont...

  17. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  18. IEMDC - In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley

    2004-03-31

    This report covers the fifth quarter (01/01/04 to 03/31/04) of the In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC) project. Design efforts on the IEMDC continued with compressor efforts focused on performing aerodynamic analyses. These analyses were conducted using computational fluid dynamics. Compressor efforts also entailed developing mechanical designs of components through the use of solid models and working on project deliverables. Electric motor efforts focused on the design of the magnetic bearing system, motor pressure housing, and the motor-compressor interface. The mechanical evaluation of the main interface from both the perspective of the compressor manufacturer and electric motor manufacturer indicates that an acceptable design has been achieved. All mechanical and aerodynamic design efforts have resulted in considerable progress being made towards the completion of the compressor and electric motor design and towards the successful completion of the IEMDC unit.

  19. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-lun; Onuki, Akira

    1999-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In this paper, the flat interface of a marginally polar binary fluid mixture is stressed by a perpendicular alternating electric field and the resulting instability is characterized by the critical electric field E(sub c) and the pattern observed. The character of the surface dynamics at the onset of instability is found to be strongly dependent on the frequency f of the field applied. The plot of E(sub c) vs. f for a fixed temperature shows a sigmoidal shape, whose low and high frequency limits are well described by a power-law relationship, E(sub c) = epsilon(exp zeta) with zeta = 0.35 and zeta = 0.08, respectively. The low-limit exponent compares well with the value zeta = 4 for a system of conducting and non-conducting fluids. On the other hand, the high-limit exponent coincides with what was first predicted by Onuki. The instability manifests itself as the conducting phase penetrates the non-conducting phase. As the frequency increases, the shape of the pattern changes from an array of bifurcating strings to an array of column-like (or rod-like) protrusions, each of which spans the space between the plane interface and one of the electrodes. For an extremely high frequency, the disturbance quickly grows into a parabolic cone pointing toward the upper plate. As a result, the interface itself changes its shape from that of a plane to that of a high sloping pyramid.

  20. Cell separation using electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, Joseph A. (Inventor); Eppich, Henry M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention involves methods and devices which enable discrete objects having a conducting inner core, surrounded by a dielectric membrane to be selectively inactivated by electric fields via irreversible breakdown of their dielectric membrane. One important application of the invention is in the selection, purification, and/or purging of desired or undesired biological cells from cell suspensions. According to the invention, electric fields can be utilized to selectively inactivate and render non-viable particular subpopulations of cells in a suspension, while not adversely affecting other desired subpopulations. According to the inventive methods, the cells can be selected on the basis of intrinsic or induced differences in a characteristic electroporation threshold, which can depend, for example, on a difference in cell size and/or critical dielectric membrane breakdown voltage. The invention enables effective cell separation without the need to employ undesirable exogenous agents, such as toxins or antibodies. The inventive method also enables relatively rapid cell separation involving a relatively low degree of trauma or modification to the selected, desired cells. The inventive method has a variety of potential applications in clinical medicine, research, etc., with two of the more important foreseeable applications being stem cell enrichment/isolation, and cancer cell purging.

  1. Cell separation using electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, Joseph (Inventor); Eppich, Henry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention involves methods and devices which enable discrete objects having a conducting inner core, surrounded by a dielectric membrane to be selectively inactivated by electric fields via irreversible breakdown of their dielectric membrane. One important application of the invention is in the selection, purification, and/or purging of desired or undesired biological cells from cell suspensions. According to the invention, electric fields can be utilized to selectively inactivate and render non-viable particular subpopulations of cells in a suspension, while not adversely affecting other desired subpopulations. According to the inventive methods, the cells can be selected on the basis of intrinsic or induced differences in a characteristic electroporation threshold, which can depend, for example, on a difference in cell size and/or critical dielectric membrane breakdown voltage. The invention enables effective cell separation without the need to employ undesirable exogenous agents, such as toxins or antibodies. The inventive method also enables relatively rapid cell separation involving a relatively low degree of trauma or modification to the selected, desired cells. The inventive method has a variety of potential applications in clinical medicine, research, etc., with two of the more important foreseeable applications being stem cell enrichment/isolation, and cancer cell purging.

  2. Electrically driven magnetic antenna based on multiferroic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-G.; Sukhov, A.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Jia, C.-L.; Guo, G.-H.; Berakdar, J.

    2017-03-01

    We suggest and demonstrate via large scale numerical simulations an electrically operated spin-wave inducer based on composite multiferroic junctions. Specifically, we consider an interfacially coupled ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure that emits controllably spin waves in the ferromagnets if the ferroelectric polarization is poled by an external electric field. The roles of geometry and material properties are discussed.

  3. Electrically driven magnetic antenna based on multiferroic composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-G; Sukhov, A; Chotorlishvili, L; Jia, C-L; Guo, G-H; Berakdar, J

    2017-03-08

    We suggest and demonstrate via large scale numerical simulations an electrically operated spin-wave inducer based on composite multiferroic junctions. Specifically, we consider an interfacially coupled ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure that emits controllably spin waves in the ferromagnets if the ferroelectric polarization is poled by an external electric field. The roles of geometry and material properties are discussed.

  4. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Onuki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, nonpolar, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In zero gravity, the interface is unstable at all long wavelengths in the presence of a field applied across it. It is conjectured that this will cause the binary fluid to break up into domains small enough to be outside the instability condition. The resulting pattern formation, and the effects on the critical properties as the domains approach the correlation length are of acute interest. With direct observation, laser light scattering, and interferometry, the phenomena can be probed to gain further understanding of interfacial instabilities and the pattern formation which results, and dimensional crossover in critical systems as the critical fluctuations in a particular direction are suppressed by external forces.

  5. Electric Dipole Moment Experiment Systematic from Electric Field Discharge Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey

    2014-09-01

    A magnetic field, in the direction of the electric field and synchronous with the electric field reversal, will mimic an EDM signal. One might expect a discharge across the electric field plates to produce magnetic fields with only small or vanishing components parallel to the electric field, minimizing its systematic effect. Our experimental model, using simulated discharge currents, found otherwise: the discharge current may be at an angle to the normal, and thus generate a normal magnetic field. Comparison of data from the experimental model with the results from calculations will be presented, along with estimates of the time-averaged normal magnetic field seen by atoms in an electron EDM experiment using a fountain of laser-cooled francium, as a function of discharge current.

  6. Electric Mars: The first survey of Martian parallel electric fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Glocer, A.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Andersson, L.; Espley, J. R.; Mazelle, C. X.; Savaud, J. A.; Fedorov, A.; Ma, Y.; Bougher, S. W.; Lillis, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of the first survey of parallel electric fields at Mars, using electron measurements from the MAVEN Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA), and the Magnetometer (MAG). We discuss three fields: (1) The first upper limit on the strength of the "Polar Wind" ambipolar electric field; (2) The "trans-terminator" field, a newly discovered electric force accelerating ions on closed field lines from day to nightside, and (3) possible signatures of very high strength electrostatic mirroring during the passage of a Coronal Mass Ejection.

  7. Reversible electric-field control of magnetization at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, F. A.; Liu, Y. H.; Salafranca, J.; Nemes, N.; Iborra, E.; Sanchez-Santolino, G.; Varela, M.; Hernandez, M. Garcia; Freeland, J. W.; Zhernenkov, M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Okamoto, S.; Pennycook, S. J.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Sefrioui, Z.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.

    2014-06-01

    Electric-field control of magnetism has remained a major challenge which would greatly impact data storage technology. Although progress in this direction has been recently achieved, reversible magnetization switching by an electric field requires the assistance of a bias magnetic field. Here we take advantage of the novel electronic phenomena emerging at interfaces between correlated oxides and demonstrate reversible, voltage-driven magnetization switching without magnetic field. Sandwiching a non-superconducting cuprate between two manganese oxide layers, we find a novel form of magnetoelectric coupling arising from the orbital reconstruction at the interface between interfacial Mn spins and localized states in the CuO2 planes. This results in a ferromagnetic coupling between the manganite layers that can be controlled by a voltage. Consequently, magnetic tunnel junctions can be electrically toggled between two magnetization states, and the corresponding spin-dependent resistance states, in the absence of a magnetic field.

  8. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  9. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  10. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  11. Electric-field guiding of magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically study equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanosized magnetic skyrmions in thin magnetic films with broken inversion symmetry, where an electric field couples to magnetization via spin-orbit coupling. Based on a symmetry-based phenomenology and micromagnetic simulations we show that this electric-field coupling, via renormalizing the micromagnetic energy, modifies the equilibrium properties of the skyrmion. This change, in turn, results in a significant alteration of the current-induced skyrmion motion. Particularly, the speed and direction of the skyrmion can be manipulated by designing a desired energy landscape electrically, which we describe within Thiele's analytical model and demonstrate in micromagnetic simulations including electric-field-controlled magnetic anisotropy. We additionally use this electric-field control to construct gates for controlling skyrmion motion exhibiting a transistorlike and multiplexerlike function. The proposed electric-field effect can thus provide a low-energy electrical knob to extend the reach of information processing with skyrmions.

  12. Compact Electric- And Magnetic-Field Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Smith, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Compact sensor measures both electric and magnetic fields. Includes both short electric-field dipole and search-coil magnetometer. Three mounted orthogonally providing triaxial measurements of electromagnetic field at frequencies ranging from near 0 to about 10 kHz.

  13. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Forrester, Patrick R.; Crommie, Michael F.; Cui, Bianxiao; Wang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.

  14. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Forrester, Patrick R.; Crommie, Michael F.; Cui, Bianxiao; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena. PMID:27982125

  15. The electron signature of parallel electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, J. L.; Gurgiolo, C.; Menietti, J. D.

    1990-12-01

    Dynamics Explorer I High-Altitude Plasma Instrument electron data are presented. The electron distribution functions have characteristics expected of a region of parallel electric fields. The data are consistent with previous test-particle simulations for observations within parallel electric field regions which indicate that typical hole, bump, and loss-cone electron distributions, which contain evidence for parallel potential differences both above and below the point of observation, are not expected to occur in regions containing actual parallel electric fields.

  16. Regional United States electric field and GIC hazard impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, J. L.; Balch, C. C.; Trichtchenko, L.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) are primarily driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. However, the magnitude of the induced electric field response at the ground level, and therefore the resulting hazard to the bulk power system, is determined not only by magnetic drivers, but also by the underlying geology. Convolution techniques are used to calculate surface electric fields beginning from the spectral characteristics of magnetic field drivers and the frequency response of the local geology. Using these techniques, we describe historical scenarios for regions across the United States, and the potential impact of large events on electric power infrastructure.

  17. Electrically small, complementary electric-field-coupled resonator antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, H.; Teixeira, F. L.; Guney, D. O.

    2013-02-01

    We study the radiation properties of electrically small resonant antennas (ka <1) composed of electric-field-coupled (ELC) and complementary electric-field-coupled (CELC) resonators and a monopole antenna. We use such parasitic ELC and CELC "metaresonators" to design various electrically small antennas. In particular, monopole-excited and bent-monopole-excited CELC resonator antennas are proposed that provide very low profiles on the order of λ0/20. We compare the performance of the proposed ELC and CELC antennas against more conventional designs based upon split-ring resonators.

  18. Interaction and Aggregation of Colloidal Biological Particles and Droplets in Electrically-Driven Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert H.; Loewenberg, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a fundamental understanding of aggregation and coalescence processes during electrically-driven migration of cells, particles and droplets. The process by which charged cells, particles, molecules, or drops migrate in a weak electric field is known as electrophoresis. If the migrating species have different charges or surface potentials, they will migrate at different speeds and thus may collide and aggregate or coalesce. Aggregation and coalescence are undesirable, if the goal is to separate the different species on the basis of their different electrophoretic mobilities.

  19. Electric fields in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    1975-01-01

    F-region drift velocities, measured by incoherent-scatter radar were analyzed in terms of diurnal, seasonal, magnetic activity, and solar cycle effects. A comprehensive electric field model was developed that includes the effects of the E and F-region dynamos, magnetospheric sources, and ionospheric conductivities, for both the local and conjugate regions. The E-region dynamo dominates during the day but at night the F-region and convection are more important. This model provides much better agreement with observations of the F-region drifts than previous models. Results indicate that larger magnitudes occur at night, and that daily variation is dominated by the diurnal mode. Seasonal variations in conductivities and thermospheric winds indicate a reversal in direction in the early morning during winter from south to northward. On magnetic perturbed days and the drifts deviate rather strongly from the quiet days average, especially around 13 L.T. for the northward and 18 L.T. for the westward component.

  20. Electric field soundings through thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve balloon soundings of the electric field in thunderstorms are reported. The maximum magnitude of E in the storms averaged 96 +/-28 kV/m, with the largest being 146 kV/m. The maximum was usually observed between vertically adjacent regions of opposite charge. Using a 1D approximation to Gauss' law, four to ten charge regions in the storms are inferred. The magnitude of the density in the charge regions varied between 0.2 and 13 nC/cu m. The vertical extent of the charge regions ranged from 130 to 2100 m. None of the present 12 storms had charge distributions that fit the long-accepted model of Simpson et al. (1937, 1941) of a lower positive charge, a main negative charge, and an upper positive charge. In addition to regions similar to the Simpson model, the present storms had screening layers at the upper and lower cloud boundaries and extra charge regions, usually in the lower part of the cloud.

  1. Distributed monitoring system for electric-motor-driven compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    Personnel in the Instrumentation and Controls Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in association with the United States Enrichment corporation (USEC), the Navy, and various Department of Energy sponsors, have been involved in the development and application of motor-current signature analysis (CSA) for several years. In that time CSA has proven to not only be useful for manually applied periodic monitoring of electrically driven equipment but it has also been demonstrated to be well suited for dedicated monitoring systems in industrial settings. Recent work has resulted in the development and installation of a system that can monitor up to 640 motor and compressor stages for various aerodynamic conditions in the gas compressors and electrical problems in the drive motors. This report describes a demonstration of that technology installed on 80 stages at each of the two USEC uranium enrichment plants.

  2. Modeling the electric field of weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Babineau, David; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E

    2006-09-01

    Weakly electric fish characterize the environment in which they live by sensing distortions in their self-generated electric field. These distortions result in electric images forming across their skin. In order to better understand electric field generation and image formation in one particular species of electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we have developed three different numerical models of a two-dimensional cross-section of the fish's body and its surroundings. One of these models mimics the real contour of the fish; two other geometrically simple models allow for an independent study of the effects of the fish's body geometry and conductivity on electric field and image formation. Using these models, we show that the fish's tapered body shape is mainly responsible for the smooth, uniform field in the rostral region, where most electroreceptors are located. The fish's narrowing body geometry is also responsible for the relatively large electric potential in the caudal region. Numerical tests also confirm the previous hypothesis that the electric fish body acts approximately like an ideal voltage divider; this is true especially for the tail region. Next, we calculate electric images produced by simple objects and find they vary according to the current density profile assigned to the fish's electric organ. This explains some of the qualitative differences previously reported for different modeling approaches. The variation of the electric image's shape as a function of different object locations is explained in terms of the fish's geometrical and electrical parameters. Lastly, we discuss novel cues for determining an object's rostro-caudal location and lateral distance using these electric images.

  3. Spectral studies of the sources of ionospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, G.D.; Kelley, M.C. )

    1987-01-01

    Spectral analyses have been performed upon a number of incoherent scatter radar data sets obtained at Jicamarca, Peru; Chatanika, Alaska; and Arecibo, Puerto Rico, with the goal of understanding the sources of electric fields with periods in the range of 1-10 hours. Two distinct sources are identified and studied in some detail. In quiet times, atmospheric gravity waves seem the most likely source of the ionospheric electric field. In fact, both in an average sense and in the single case study available the mesospheric winds measured at Poker Flat, Alaska, in this frequency range are remarkably similar in magnitude to the quiet time thermospheric plasma drifts measured overhead by the nearby Chatanika radar. Such drifts are driven by electric fields which, the authors argue, could easily be generated by the observed wind fields. Comparison with the spectra of electric field measurements at other latitudes suggests that such a source is worldwide and determines the geophysical noise level of low- and mid-latitude electric field measurements. Turning to active times, the authors present a measure of the transfer function for electric field measurements. Turning to active times, they present a measure of the transfer function for electric field penetration between high- and low-altitude L shells. At the very lowest frequencies (periods of {ge} 10 hours) the low-altitude sites are well shielded, presumably by an Alfven layer at the inner edge of the ring current. Higher frequency fluctuations penetrate very easily to low latitudes. A response peak seems to occur in the 3- to 5-hour range of periods, with a lower response occurring at 1 cycle/hour, although this result must be viewed as preliminary for now. Between L = 5.5 and L = 1.4 the zonal electric field component as projected to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere penetrates with little or no attenuation.

  4. Electric-field and magnetic-field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, T. W.

    1993-05-01

    Analysis of double-loaded loop antennas and their properties has led to the design of new measuring sensors which enable has led to determination of both electric field strength and magnetic field strength. Sensors of the design proposed are applicable to a quasipoint measurement providing independent determination of the electric and magnetic component of the field.

  5. Estimating Electric Fields from Vector Magnetogram Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, George H.; Welsch, B. T.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    We describe a new technique for estimating the three-dimensional vector electric field in the solar atmosphere by using a time-sequence of vector magnetograms to find an electric field distribution that obeys all 3 components of Faraday's law. The technique uses a ``poloidal-toroidal'' decomposition (PTD) to describe the electric field in terms of two scalar functions. The ``inductive'' PTD solutions to Faraday's Law are not unique, however, since additional contributions to the electric field from a potential function have no effect on Faraday's law. We then describe how estimates for the total electric field including both the inductive and potential components can be made by using variational techniques. The variational approach we develop is similar to Longcope's ``Minimum Energy Fit'' technique, in that the electric field obeys the vertical component of the magnetic induction equation, while also minimizing a positive definite functional. The purely potential part of the electric field can then be recovered by subtracting the PTD electric field from the total field.

  6. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  7. A physical theory of the instabilities of electrically driven jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohman, Moses Macduff

    Electrospinning and electrospraying produce nanoscale fibers and drops from liquid pushed through a millimeter-scale nozzle. This thesis argues that both phenomena can be understood by analyzing the instability of electrically forced fluid jets with increasing field strength. We present a systematic study of the development of the instability to derive the essential mechanisms from first principles. An asymptotic approximation of the equations of electrohydrodynamics is developed so that quantitative comparisons with experiment can be carried out. The approximation governs long wavelength axisymmetric distortions of the jet as well as long wavelength oscillations of the jet centerline. Three different instabilities are identified: the classical (axisymmetric) Rayleigh instability, and electric field induced varicose and whipping instabilities. At increasing field strengths, the electrical instabilities are enhanced while the Rayleigh instability is suppressed. Which electric instability wins depends strongly on the surface charge density and radius of the jet. Through a combination of theory and experiments the surface charge density on the jet as it thins from the nozzle is determined. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment requires taking into account both the fringe fields of the nozzle and the local charge distribution in the vicinity of the nozzle. Combining the jet shapes and charge densities with the stability analysis yields predictions for the instabilities that agree with experiments. In total, the work suggests that the most useful paradigm for understanding electrospraying and electrospinning is not a Taylor cone, but instead that of a rapidly whipping jet.

  8. Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-05

    and lithium niobate is a promising technology for broadband electric field sensor arrays. The results of this research program advance the state-of...interfaces without the use of an intermediate layer. Direct bonding typically requires very flat surfaces, demanding process technology , and...REPORT Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We report the development of a broadband electric

  9. Electric field generation in martian dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Mars in situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the Macroscopic Triboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system. Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  10. Electric Field Generation in Martian Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Marsin situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the MacroscopicTriboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric ModelingSystem (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system.Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  11. Enzyme catalyzed electricity-driven water softening system.

    PubMed

    Arugula, Mary A; Brastad, Kristen S; Minteer, Shelley D; He, Zhen

    2012-12-10

    Hardness in water, which is caused by divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium ions, presents a major water quality problem. Because hard water must be softened before use in residential applications, there is great interest in the saltless water softening process because, unlike ion exchange softeners, it does not introduce additional ions into water. In this study, a saltless hardness removal driven by bioelectrochemical energy produced through enzymatic oxidation of glucose was proposed and investigated. Glucose dehydrogenase was coated on a carbon electrode to catalyze glucose oxidation in the presence of NAD⁺ as a cofactor/mediator and methylene green as an electrocatalyst. The results showed that electricity generation stimulated hardness removal compared with non-electricity conditions. The enzymatic water softener worked upon a 6h batch operation per day for eight days, and achieved an average hardness removal of 46% at a high initial concentration of 800 mg/L as CaCO₃. More hardness was removed at a lower initial concentration. For instance, at 200mg/L as CaCO₃ the enzymatic water softener removed 76.4±4.6% of total hardness. The presence of magnesium ions decreased hardness removal because of its larger hydrated radius than calcium ions. The enzymatic water softener removed 70-80% of total hardness from three actual hard water samples. These results demonstrated a proof-of-concept that enzyme catalyzed electricity generation can be used to soften hard water.

  12. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  13. Horizontal electric fields from lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, E. M.; Medelius, P. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Uman, M. A.; Johnson, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to measure simultaneously the wideband horizontal and vertical electric fields from lightning return strokes is described. Typical wave shapes of the measured horizontal and vertical fields are presented, and the horizontal fields are characterized. The measured horizontal fields are compared with calculated horizontal fields obtained by applying the wavetilt formula to the vertical fields. The limitations and sources of error in the measurement technique are discussed.

  14. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS <100 KHZ IN ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    PubMed

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m(-1) for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m(-1) for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model.

  15. Control of Hall angle of Skyrmion driven by electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao-Bin, Liu; Da, Li; de Chatel, P. F.; Jian, Wang; Wei, Liu; Zhi-Dong, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Skyrmions are very promising for applications in spintronics and magnetic memory. It is desired to manipulate and operate a single skyrmion. Here we report on the thermal effect on the motion of current-driven magnetic Skyrmions in magnetic metal. The results show that the magnon current induced by the thermal gradient acts on Skyrmions via magnonic spin-transfer torque, an effect of the transverse and longitudinal Skyrmions drift velocities, thus leading to the effective manipulation of the Hall angle through the ratio of thermal gradient to electric current density, which can be used as a Skyrmion valve. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51331006) and the Fund from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-M05).

  16. Electric field assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weigang; Li, Mingen; Hagemen, Stephen; Chien, C. L.

    2012-02-01

    It is of great interest to acquire large effects of electric field on magnetic properties, partly driven by the premise that voltage-controlled magnetization reversal would be far more energy efficient and be compatible with the ubiquitous voltage-controlled semiconductor devices. Normally the effect of electric field in metallic systems is negligible because the electric field can only penetrate into the materials by a few monolayers due to screening by the free electrons. Here we report the pronounced effects of electric field in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with very thin CoFeB electrodes, where the magnetic anisotropy originates solely from the CoFeB/MgO interfaces. The MTJs have the key structure of Co40Fe40B20(1.2-1.3nm)/MgO(1.2-2nm)/Co40Fe40B20(1.6nm) and the tunneling magnetoresistance in all junctions is in excess of 100%. Due to the redistribution of electrons among the different 3d orbitals of Fe and Co, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the CoFeB electrodes can be significantly modified by an applied electric field. As a result, the coercivity, the magnetic configuration, and the tunneling magnetoresistance of the MTJs can be manipulated by voltage pulses, such that the high and low resistance states of the MTJ can be reversibly controlled by voltages less than 1.5 V in magnitude and with much smaller current densities.

  17. Electric field replaces gravity in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    For several years experiments in physical laboratories and in the fitotron have shown that one can replace gravitational field with electrical fields for plants. First obvious experiments in strong electrical fields in the MV/m regi on show that any materials and living plants respond immediately to Coulomb forces. Such fields are found in nature during thunderstorms. One has to be very careful in handling such strong fields for safety reasons. The fair weather global electrical field is about 20,000 times weaker. The coulomb forces are proportional to the square of the field strength and are thus 400 milion times weaker for a field of the order of 100 V/m.Yet it was found that some plants respond to such "weak" fields. We must remember that the electrical field is a factor of 10 38 times stronger than gravitational interaction. In plants we have dissociated in water mineral salts and the ions are subject to such ernormous forces. It was shown and published that the positive charges in the air in fields of the order of 3kV/m enhance lettuce growth by a factor of four relative to fields about 30 times weaker (100V/m). Reversal of the field polarity reverses the direction of plant growth and retards the plant's growth. Such fields overpower the gravitropism in the laboratory. More so horizontal electrical field is othogonal to gravity, now the fields do not see each other. Lettuce now growth horizontally ignoring the gravitational field. We can thus select the plants whose electrotropism even in the laboratory overwhelms gravity. This is important for the long space flights that we must grow vegetarian food for the crew. The successful harvesting of wheat in orbit does not contradict our experimental findings because wheat is not electrotropic like all plants from the grass family. The results of fitotron experiments with kV/m electrical fields are richly illustrated with colour digital photographs. We also subjected the candle flame to very strong horizontal

  18. Electrical-driven transport of endohedral fullerene encapsulating a single water molecule.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baoxing; Chen, Xi

    2013-04-12

    Encapsulating a single water molecule inside an endohedral fullerene provides an opportunity for manipulating the H2O@C60 through the encapsulated polar H2O molecule. Using molecular dynamic simulations, we propose a strategy of electrical-driven transport of H2O@C60 inside a channel, underpinned by the unique behavior of a water molecule free from a hydrogen-bonding environment. When an external electrical field is applied along the channel's axial direction, steady-state transport of H2O@C60 can be reached. The transport direction and rate depend on the applied electrical intensity as well as the polar orientation of the encapsulated H2O molecule.

  19. Michaelis-Menten equation for an enzyme in an oscillating electric field.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B; Astumian, R D

    1990-01-01

    The electric charges on an enzyme may move concomitantly with a conformational change. Such an enzyme will absorb energy from an oscillating electric field. If in addition the enzyme has a larger association constant for substrate than for product, as is often true, it can use this energy to drive the catalyzed reaction away from equilibrium. Approximate analytical expressions are given for the field-driven flux, electrical power absorbed, free-energy produced per unit time, thermodynamic efficiency, and zero-flux concentrations. The field-driven flux is written as a generalized Michaelis-Menten equation. PMID:2248999

  20. Control of magnetism by electric fields.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  1. Physics and Chemistry in High Electric Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-06

    in heterogeneous catalysis and in chemical vapor deposition, may be established. To discuss field effects qualitatively, we look, in Fig. 1, at a...fields thus opening up new reaction pathways in heterogeneous catalysis . Most work so far has been concentrating on static electric fields; how- ever

  2. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow

  3. Electric current-driven migration of electrically neutral particles in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinfang E-mail: r.qin@imperial.ac.uk; Qin, Rongshan E-mail: r.qin@imperial.ac.uk

    2014-03-17

    We design and experimentally demonstrate a migration of electrically neutral particles in liquids driven by electric current according to the discrepancies of their electrical conductivities. A force from electric current to electrically neutral particles has been identified to drive the particles toward the lateral surface from the centre of suspension via three distinguishable zones, namely, pushing, trapping, and expelling zones. The driving force can overtake gravity in practical cases. The property of the force is found neither similar to that of the force in electromagnetophoresis nor similar to that of the electromigration force in terms of direction and magnitude. An expression for the force at the pushing zone has been developed based on the numerical calculation of the thermodynamics of suspension fluids. The excellent agreement between numerical calculations and experimental data demonstrates that our calculation provides fundamental and predictive insight into particles separation from the liquids. Therefore, it is possible to use the force in many engineering applications such as separation of particles according to the differences of their electrical conductivities.

  4. Electric field control of the magnetocaloric effect.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Dun-Hui; Cao, Qing-Qi; Liu, En-Ke; Liu, Jian; Du, You-Wei

    2015-02-04

    Through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling, it is demonstrated that the magnetocaloric effect of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy can be controlled by an electric field. Large hysteresis and the limited operating temperature region are effectively overcome by applying an electric field on a laminate comprising a piezoelectric and the alloy. Accordingly, a model for an active magnetic refrigerator with high efficiency is proposed in principle.

  5. Microwave ovens: mapping the electrical field distribution.

    PubMed

    Ng, K H

    1991-07-01

    Uniformity of electric field intensity of microwaves within the microwave oven cavity is necessary to ensure even load-heating, and is particularly important in pathology procedures where small volume irradiation is carried out. A simple and rapid method for mapping electric field distribution, using reversible thermographic paint, is described. Spatial heating patterns for various positions, and the effects of introducing dummy loads to modify heating distributions, have been obtained for a dedicated microwave processor, and comparison made with a domestic microwave oven.

  6. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    studies of Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var. niger). 15. SUBJECT TERMS nanosecond high-field electric pulse, electroperturbation...sterility monitoring kit, which utilizes spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var. niger) deposited on paper in glassine envelopes, has...report a study of the application of ultra- short high-field electric pulses (5 MV/m, 100-ns pulse width, 4-ns rise time) to Bacillus atrophaeus spores

  7. Electric/magnetic field sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Schill, Jr., Robert A.; Popek, Marc

    2009-01-27

    A UNLV novel electric/magnetic dot sensor includes a loop of conductor having two ends to the loop, a first end and a second end; the first end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a first conductor within a first sheath; the second end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a second conductor within a second sheath; and the first sheath and the second sheath positioned adjacent each other. The UNLV novel sensor can be made by removing outer layers in a segment of coaxial cable, leaving a continuous link of essentially uncovered conductor between two coaxial cable legs.

  8. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  9. Electric field measurements with stratospheric balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, I. B.

    1989-01-01

    Electric fields and currents in the middle atmosphere are important elements of the modern picture of this region. Balloon instruments, reaching the level of the stratosphere, were used extensively for the experimental work. The research has shown good progress, both in the MAP period and in the years before and after. The knowledge was increased about, e.g., the upper atmosphere potential, the electric properties of the medium itself and about the coupling with magnetospheric (ionospheric) fields and currents. Also various measurements have brought about a discussion of the possible existence of hitherto unknown sources. Throughout the MAP period the work on a possible definition of an electric index has continued.

  10. Rotating Capacitor Measures Steady Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Kirkham, H.; Eng, B.

    1986-01-01

    Portable sensor measures electric fields created by dc powerlines or other dc-high-voltage sources. Measures fields from 70 to 50,000 V/m with linearity of 2 percent. Sensor used at any height above ground. Measures both magnitude and direction of field and provides signals representing these measurements to remote readout device. Sensor functions with minimal disturbance of field it is measuring.

  11. Electric Field Controlled Self-Assembly of Hierarchically Ordered Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Velichko, Yuri S.; Mantei, Jason R.; Bitton, Ronit; Carvajal, Daniel; Shull, Kenneth R.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembly in the presence of external forces is an adaptive, directed organization of molecular components under nonequilibrium conditions. While forces may be generated as a result of spontaneous interactions among components of a system, intervention with external forces can significantly alter the final outcome of self-assembly. Superimposing these intrinsic and extrinsic forces provides greater degrees of freedom to control the structure and function of self-assembling materials. In this work we investigate the role of electric fields during the dynamic self-assembly of a negatively charged polyelectrolyte and a positively charged peptide amphiphile in water leading to the formation of an ordered membrane. In the absence of electric fields, contact between the two solutions of oppositely charged molecules triggers the growth of closed membranes with vertically oriented fibrils that encapsulate the polyelectrolyte solution. This process of self-assembly is intrinsically driven by excess osmotic pressure of counterions, and the electric field is found to modify the kinetics of membrane formation, and also its morphology and properties. Depending on the strength and orientation of the field we observe a significant increase or decrease of up to nearly 100% in membrane thickness, as well as the controlled rotation of nanofiber growth direction by 90 degrees, resulting in a significant increase in mechanical stiffness. These results suggest the possibility of using electric fields to control structure in self-assembly processes involving diffusion of oppositely charged molecules. PMID:23166533

  12. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1997-10-01

    A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956-1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  13. Electric field induced spin-polarized current

    DOEpatents

    Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2006-05-02

    A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.

  14. Evolution of tachyon kink with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inyong; Kwon, O.-Kab; Lee, Chong Oh

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the decay of an inhomogeneous D1-brane wrapped on a S1 with an electric field. The model that we consider consists of an array of tachyon kink and anti-kink with a constant electric flux. Beginning with an initially static configuration, we numerically evolve the tachyon field with some perturbations under a fixed boundary condition at diametrically opposite points on the circle S1. When the electric flux is smaller than the critical value, the tachyon kink becomes unstable; the tachyon field rolls down the potential, and the lower dimensional D0- and bar D0-brane become thin, which resembles the caustic formation known for this type of the system in the literature. For the supercritical values of the electric flux, the tachyon kink remains stable.

  15. Large Field Visualization with Demand-Driven Calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Henze, Chris

    1999-01-01

    We present a system designed for the interactive definition and visualization of fields derived from large data sets: the Demand-Driven Visualizer (DDV). The system allows the user to write arbitrary expressions to define new fields, and then apply a variety of visualization techniques to the result. Expressions can include differential operators and numerous other built-in functions, ail of which are evaluated at specific field locations completely on demand. The payoff of following a demand-driven design philosophy throughout becomes particularly evident when working with large time-series data, where the costs of eager evaluation alternatives can be prohibitive.

  16. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  17. Magnetospheric electric field measurements during sudden commencements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Skillman, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    Direction measurements of electric fields were made in the outer magnetosphere during two sudden commencements in 1972. These measurements were observed with the double floating probe experiment carried aboard the IMP 6 satellite. The initial variations of the measured electric field consisted of an increase from a background of about 1 mv/meter to some 10 mv/meter at about 7 rE (earth radi) and to some 4 mv/meter at 3 rE. These initial electric field disturbances were longitudinal, oriented counter clockwise about an axis pointed north. A solution of Maxwell's third equation is derived for these measurements using a quasi-static version of Mead's model of the magnetosphere B (t). This solution seems to describe well the magnitude and direction of the initial perturbation of the electric field vectors observed during these two sudden commencements. After the initial increase, the measured electric field rings several times with periods of the order of minutes. This observed oscillatory behavior correlates with magnetic observatory records taken near the foot of the magetic field line passing through the satellite.

  18. Electric field measurements from Halley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a unique location for the study of atmospheric electricity. Not only is it one of the most pollutant free places on Earth, but its proximity to the south magnetic pole means that it is an ideal location to study the effects of solar variability on the atmospheric electric field. This is due to the reduced shielding effect of the geomagnetic field at the poles which leads to a greater flux of incoming Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) as well as an increased probability of energetic particle precipitation from SEPs and relativistic electrons. To investigate such effects, two electric field mills of different design were installed at the British Antarctic Survey Halley base in February 2015 (75. 58 degrees south, 26.66 degrees west). Halley is situated on the Brunt Ice Shelf in the south east of the Weddell Sea and has snow cover all year round. Preliminary analysis has focused on selection of fair weather criteria using wind speed and visibility measurements which are vital to assess the effects of falling snow, blowing snow and freezing fog on the electric field measurements. When the effects of such adverse weather conditions are removed clear evidence of the characteristic Carnegie Curve diurnal cycle exists in the Halley electric field measurements (with a mean value of 50V/m and showing a 40% peak to peak variation in comparison to the 34% variation in the Carnegie data). Since the Carnegie Curve represents the variation in thunderstorm activity across the Earth, its presence in the Halley data confirms the presence of the global atmospheric electric circuit signal at Halley. The work presented here will discuss the details of the Halley electric field dataset, including the variability in the fair weather measurements, with a particular focus on magnetic field fluctuations.

  19. Magnetoexciton in nanotube under external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Russi, L. F.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Santos, Y. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2016-08-01

    We study the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of the energy levels of an electron-hole pair confined in a narrow nanotube in the presence of the magnetic field applied along the symmetry axis. We show that the electric field applied at the same direction makes the oscillation more pronounced.

  20. Stratospheric electric field measurements with transmediterranean balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Morena, B. A.; Alberca, L. F.; Curto, J. J.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The horizontal component of the stratospheric electric field was measured using a balloon in the ODISEA Campaign of Transmediterranean Balloon Program. The balloon flew between Trapani (Sicily) and El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain) along the 39 deg N parallel at a height between 34 and 24 km. The high values found for the field on fair-weather and its quasi-turbulent variation, both in amplitude and direction, are difficult to explain with the classical electric field source. A new source, first described by Holzworth (1989), is considered as possibly causing them.

  1. Electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Fu, Suiyan; Parks, George K.; Pu, Zuyin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Liu, Jiang; Yao, Zhonghua; Fu, Huishan; Shi, Quanqi

    2014-07-01

    Electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts (DFs) have been investigated in the magnetotail plasma sheet using Cluster observations. We have studied each term in the generalized Ohm's law using data obtained from the multispacecraft Cluster. Our results show that in the plasma flow frame, electric fields are directed normal to the DF in the magnetic dip region ahead of the DF as well as in the DF layer but in opposite directions. Case and statistical studies show that the Hall electric field is important while the electron pressure gradient term is much smaller. The ions decouple from the magnetic field in the DF layer and dip region (E + Vi×B ≠ 0), whereas electrons remain frozen-in (E + Ve×B=∇pe/nee).

  2. A model for polar cap electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1976-01-01

    A model is proposed relating polar cap ionospheric electric fields to the parameters of the solar wind near the orbit of the earth. The model ignores the notion of field line merging. An essential feature is the role played by velocity shear instabilities in regions of the outer magnetosphere, in which mapping of the magnetosheath electric field would produce sunward convection. The anomalous resistivity which arises from velocity shear turbulence, suffices to essentially disconnect the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath, at any place where that resistivity is large enough. The magnetosheath-magnetosphere system, as a consequence, acts as a kind of diode or rectifier for the magnetosheath electric fields. Predictions of the model are compared with several observations related to polar cap convection.

  3. Studying electric fields in dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-11-01

    In Earth's magnetotail, sharp increases in the magnetic field known as dipolarization fronts are associated with high-speed plasma flows that connect Earth's ionosphere via electric currents. Some aspects of these dipolarization fronts have puzzled scientists; in particular, the dip in magnetic field that occurs just ahead of the dipolarization front layer is not well understood. Sun et al. analyze observations made using the Cluster satellites to elucidate the details of electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts. The study shows that a type of electric current known as a Hall current dominates in the dipolarization front region and in the region where the magnetic field dips, but this current flows in opposite directions in these two regions.

  4. Regularization of chaos by noise in electrically driven nanowire systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessari, Peyman; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Chae, Junseok; Park, Cheol Woo; Lee, GyuWon

    2014-04-01

    The electrically driven nanowire systems are of great importance to nanoscience and engineering. Due to strong nonlinearity, chaos can arise, but in many applications it is desirable to suppress chaos. The intrinsically high-dimensional nature of the system prevents application of the conventional method of controlling chaos. Remarkably, we find that the phenomenon of coherence resonance, which has been well documented but for low-dimensional chaotic systems, can occur in the nanowire system that mathematically is described by two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations, subject to periodic driving and noise. Especially, we find that, when the nanowire is in either the weakly chaotic or the extensively chaotic regime, an optimal level of noise can significantly enhance the regularity of the oscillations. This result is robust because it holds regardless of whether noise is white or colored, and of whether the stochastic drivings in the two independent directions transverse to the nanowire are correlated or independent of each other. Noise can thus regularize chaotic oscillations through the mechanism of coherence resonance in the nanowire system. More generally, we posit that noise can provide a practical way to harness chaos in nanoscale systems.

  5. Nature of an electric-field-induced colloidal martensitic transition.

    PubMed

    Yethiraj, Anand; Wouterse, Alan; Groh, Benito; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2004-02-06

    We study the properties of a solid-solid close-packed to body-centered tetragonal transition in a colloidal suspension via fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, in three dimensions and in real space. This structural transformation is driven by a subtle competition between gravitational and electric dipolar field energy, the latter being systematically varied via an external electric field. The transition threshold depends on the local depth in the colloidal sediment. Structures with order intermediate between close-packed and body-centered tetragonal were observed, with these intermediate structures also being stable and long lived. This is essentially a colloidal analogue of an "atomic-level" interfacial structure. We find qualitative agreement with theory (based purely on energetics). Quantitative differences can be attributed to the importance of entropic effects.

  6. Intermediate inflation driven by DBI scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazavari, N.; Mohammadi, A.; Ossoulian, Z.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2016-06-01

    Picking out a DBI scalar field as inflation, the slow-rolling inflationary scenario is studied by attributing an exponential time function to scale factor, known as intermediate inflation. The perturbation parameters of the model are estimated numerically for two different cases, and the final result is compared with Planck data. The diagram of tensor-to-scalar ratio r versus scalar spectra index ns is illustrated, and it is found that they are within an acceptable range as suggested by Planck. In addition, the acquired values for amplitude of scalar perturbation reveal the ability of the model to depict a good picture of the Universe in one of its earliest stages. As a further argument, the non-Gaussianity is investigated, displaying that the model prediction stands in a 68% C.L. regime according to the latest Planck data.

  7. Motion Driven by Strain Gradient Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    A new driving mechanism for direction-controlled motion of nano-scale objects is proposed, based on a model of stretching a graphene strip linked to a rigid base with linear springs of identical stiffness. We find that the potential energy difference induced by the strain gradient field in the graphene strip substrate can generate sufficient force to overcome the static and kinetic friction forces between the nano-flake and the strip substrate, resulting in the nanoscale flake motion in the direction of gradient reduction. The dynamics of the nano-flake can be manipulated by tuning the stiffness of linear springs, stretching velocity and the flake size. This fundamental law of directional motion induced by strain gradient could be very useful for promising designs of nanoscale manipulation, transportation and smart surfaces. PMID:26323603

  8. Microwave electric field sensing with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, Daniel T.; Kunz, Paul D.; Meyer, David H.; Solmeyer, Neal

    2016-05-01

    Atoms form the basis of precise measurement for many quantities (time, acceleration, rotation, magnetic field, etc.). Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. Highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole allowed transitions in the range of 1 - 500 GHz. It is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This technique allows for very sensitive field amplitude, polarization, and sub-wavelength imaging measurements. These quantities can be extracted by measuring properties of a probe laser beam as it passes through a warm rubidium vapor cell. Thus far, Rydberg microwave electrometry has relied upon the absorption of the probe laser. We report on our use of polarization rotation, which corresponds to the real part of the susceptibility, for measuring the properties of microwave frequency electric fields. Our simulations show that when a magnetic field is present and directed along the optical propagation direction a polarization rotation signal exists and can be used for microwave electrometry. One central advantage in using the polarization rotation signal rather than the absorption signal is that common mode laser noise is naturally eliminated leading to a potentially dramatic increase in signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

  10. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1995-01-31

    A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figs.

  11. Electric field induced deformation of sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, Lindsey; Tsakonas, Costas; Duffy, Brian; Mottram, Nigel; Brown, Carl; Wilson, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The ability to control the shape of a drop with the application of an electric field has been exploited for many technological applications including measuring surface tension, producing an optical display device, and optimising the optical properties of microlenses. In this work we consider, both theoretically and experimentally, the deformation of pinned sessile drops with contact angles close to either 0° or 90° resting on the lower substrate inside a parallel plate capacitor due to an A.C. electric field. Using both asymptotic and numerical approaches we obtain predictive equations for the static and dynamic drop shape deformations as functions of the key experimental parameters (drop size, capacitor plate separation, electric field magnitude and contact angle). The asymptotic results agree well with the experimental results for a range of liquids. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of EPSRC via research Grants EP/J009865 and EP/J009873.

  12. Velocity modulation of microtubules in electric fields.

    PubMed

    Dujovne, Irene; van den Heuvel, Martin; Shen, Yi; de Graaff, Martijn; Dekker, Cees

    2008-12-01

    We show that the speed of microtubules gliding over a kinesin-coated surface can be controlled over a wide range of values by the application of an electric field. The speed can be increased by up to a factor of 5 compared to the speed at zero field when assisting forces are applied and slowed down to zero velocity for opposing fields. Sideways applied fields also induce significant motion. The kinesin surface density impacts the rate of velocity change, whereas the ATP concentration does not seem to play a major role, provided that it is nonzero. A simple grab-and-release model is presented that explains the velocity change with applied electric fields.

  13. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Paulo A; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-19

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX(®), which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX(®) after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes.

  14. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX®, which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX® after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes. PMID:26893024

  15. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2016-02-01

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX®, which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX® after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes.

  16. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P < 0.0001). Using the data from a previous exposure assessment of residential exposure in eight geographic regions in the United States as a basis for comparison (N = 218), the broadband magnetic fields in electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles.

  17. Drug Release from Electric Field Responsive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun; Neofytou, Evgenios; Cahill, Thomas J.; Beygui, Ramin E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new temperature and electric field dual-stimulus responsive nanoparticle system for programmed drug delivery. Nanoparticles of a conducting polymer (polypyrrole) are loaded with therapeutic pharmaceuticals and are subcutaneously localized in vivo with the assistance of a temperature-sensitive hydrogel (PLGA-PEG-PLGA). We have shown that drug release from the conductive nanoparticles is controlled by the application of a weak, external DC electric field. This approach represents a novel interactive drug delivery system that can show an externally tailored release profile with an excellent spatial, temporal, and dosage control. PMID:22111891

  18. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  19. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Timothy W; Ten Cate, James A; Allured, Bradley; Carpenter, Michael A

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  20. Electric field effects in RUS measurements.

    PubMed

    Darling, Timothy W; Allured, Bradley; Tencate, James A; Carpenter, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material--a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the "statistical residual" strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  1. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  2. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  3. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  4. Airborne biological particles and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, William S.; Benninghoff, Anne S.

    1982-01-01

    In November and December 1977 at McMurdo Station in Antarctica we investigated the kinds, numbers, and deposition of airborne particles larger than 2 μm while measuring electric field gradient at 2.5 m above the ground. Elementary collecting devices were used: Staplex Hi-Volume and Roto-rod samplers, Tauber (static sedimentation) traps, petrolatum-coated microscope slides, and snow (melted and filtered). The electric fields were measured by a rotating dipole (Stanford Radioscience Laboratory field mill number 2). During periods of blowing snow and dust the electric field gradient was + 500 to + 2500 V/m, and Tauber traps with grounded covers collected 2 or more times as much snow and dust as the ones with ungrounded covers. During falling snow the electric field gradient was -1000 to -1500 V/m, and the ungrounded traps collected almost twice as much snow and dust as those grounded. These observations suggest that under the prevailing weather conditions in polar regions the probable net effect is deposition of greater quantities of dust, including diaspores and minute organisms, on wet, grounded surfaces. This hypothesis needs examination for its use in explanation of biological distribution patterns.

  5. Direct observation of electric field induced pattern formation and particle aggregation in ferrofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rajnak, Michal; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Ivankov, Olexandr I.; Feoktystov, Artem; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj

    2015-08-17

    Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.

  6. Direct observation of electric field induced pattern formation and particle aggregation in ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajnak, Michal; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Ivankov, Olexandr I.; Feoktystov, Artem; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-08-01

    Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.

  7. Electric and magnetic fields in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wowk, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Electromagnetic warming has a long history in cryobiology as a preferred method for recovering large tissue masses from cryopreservation, especially from cryopreservation by vitrification. It is less well-known that electromagnetic fields may be able to influence ice formation during cryopreservation by non-thermal mechanisms. Both theory and published data suggest that static and oscillating electric fields can respectively promote or inhibit ice formation under certain conditions. Evidence is less persuasive for magnetic fields. Recent claims that static magnetic fields smaller than 1 mT can improve cryopreservation by freezing are specifically questioned.

  8. Critical electric field strengths of onion tissues treated by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Asavasanti, Suvaluk; Ersus, Seda; Ristenpart, William; Stroeve, Pieter; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on cellular integrity and texture of Ranchero and Sabroso onions (Allium cepa L.) was investigated. Electrical properties, ion leakage rate, texture, and amount of enzymatically formed pyruvate were measured before and after PEF treatment for a range of applied field strengths and number of pulses. Critical electric field strengths or thresholds (E(c)) necessary to initiate membrane rupture were different because dissimilar properties were measured. Measurement of electrical characteristics was the most sensitive method and was used to detect the early stage of plasma membrane breakdown, while pyruvate formation by the enzyme alliinase was used to identify tonoplast membrane breakdown. Our results for 100-μs pulses indicate that breakdown of the plasma membrane occurs above E(c)= 67 V/cm for 10 pulses, but breakdown of the tonoplast membrane is above either E(c)= 200 V/cm for 10 pulses or 133 V/cm for 100 pulses. This disparity in field strength suggests there may be 2 critical electrical field strengths: a lower field strength for plasma membrane breakdown and a higher field strength for tonoplast membrane breakdown. Both critical electric field strengths depended on the number of pulses applied. Application of a single pulse at an electric field up to 333 V/cm had no observable effect on any measured properties, while significant differences were observed for n≥10. The minimum electric field strength required to cause a measurable property change decreased with the number of pulses. The results also suggest that PEF treatment may be more efficient if a higher electric field strength is applied for a fewer pulses.

  9. Nonequilibrium condensation and coarsening of field-driven dipolar colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2012-07-01

    In colloidal suspensions, self-organization processes can be easily fueled by external fields. Here we consider monolayers of particles with permanent dipole moments that are driven by rotating external fields. In recent experiments, it has been shown that the particles in such systems self-organize into two-dimensional clusters. Here we report results from a computer simulation study of these pattern forming systems. Specifically, we employ Langevin dynamics simulations, Brownian dynamics simulations that include hydrodynamic interactions, and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo simulations of soft spheres interacting via dipolar potentials. We investigate at which field strengths and frequencies clusters form and explore the influence of hydrodynamic interactions. We also examine the phase behavior of the equilibrium system resulting from a time average of the colloidal interactions in the rotating field. In this way we demonstrate that the clustering described in the driven system arises from a first-order phase transition between a vapor and a condensed phase.

  10. Nonequilibrium condensation and coarsening of field-driven dipolar colloids.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Sebastian; Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2012-07-01

    In colloidal suspensions, self-organization processes can be easily fueled by external fields. Here we consider monolayers of particles with permanent dipole moments that are driven by rotating external fields. In recent experiments, it has been shown that the particles in such systems self-organize into two-dimensional clusters. Here we report results from a computer simulation study of these pattern forming systems. Specifically, we employ Langevin dynamics simulations, Brownian dynamics simulations that include hydrodynamic interactions, and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo simulations of soft spheres interacting via dipolar potentials. We investigate at which field strengths and frequencies clusters form and explore the influence of hydrodynamic interactions. We also examine the phase behavior of the equilibrium system resulting from a time average of the colloidal interactions in the rotating field. In this way we demonstrate that the clustering described in the driven system arises from a first-order phase transition between a vapor and a condensed phase.

  11. Photoionization of atomic hydrogen in electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, Timofey V; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2010-01-01

    Laser assisted ionization of high energy hydrogen beams in magnetic fields opens wide application possibilities in accelerator physics and other fields. The key theoretical problem of the method is the calculation of the ionization probability of a hydrogen atom affected by laser and static electric fields in the particle rest frame. A method of solving this problem with the temporal Schr dinger equation including a continuum spectrum is presented in this paper in accurate form for the first time. This method allows finding the temporal evolution of the wave function of the hydrogen atom as a function of laser and static electric fields. Solving the problem of photoionization reveals quantum effects that cannot be described by the cross sectional approach. The effects play a key role in the problems of photoionization of H0 beams with the large angular or energy spread.

  12. Electric current quadratic in an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyo, Eric

    The theory of the photogalvanic effect in a low frequency electric field is developed. We complete the semiclassical theory of the effect in bulk samples lacking inversion symmetry, taking into account contributions from the asymmetry of scattering, the shift current, and the effect of Berry's phase. We consider the effect in such samples both in the presence and absence of a constant magnetic field. It is found that by experimentally measuring this effect, that Berry's curvature and the average shift of the center of mass of an electron during a scattering event can be extracted. We also investigate the magnetic field dependence of the part of the electrical current which is quadratic in voltage in mesoscopic conductors. We find that the part of the current which is quadratic in bias voltage, and linear in an applied magnetic field can be related to the effective electron-electron interaction strength. We also find that in the case when the magnetic field is oriented parallel to the plane of a two dimensional sample, that the spin-orbit scattering rate can be measured.

  13. Full Electric Field Control of Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Exchange bias is the shift of a magnetic hysteresis curve due to interfacial magnetic coupling between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM). This ubiquitous effect has long been used in the electronics industry to bias the magnetization of FM layers in magnetic devices. Its continued understanding is of critical importance to advance the development of future high-density magnetic storage media and other novel magnetic devices. However, due to the technological limitations of manipulating and observing an atomically thin interface, exchange bias is not well understood. In this talk we present a multiferroic field effect device with BiFeO3 (BFO) (antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric) as the gate dielectric and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) (ferromagnetic) as the conducting channel, which exhibits the direct, bipolar electric control of exchange bias. Here the magnetic states at the AFM/FM interface can be directly manipulated with electric fields and the results can be observed as a change in exchange bias polarity and magnitude. Control of exchange bias at this level has significant implications because it represents a form of electric field control of magnetism and may potentially offer a route toward the eventual full electric field control of magnetization. In this device, exchange bias is reversibly switched between two stable states with opposite exchange bias polarities upon ferroelectric poling of the BFO. No field cooling, temperature cycling, or additional applied magnetic or electric field beyond BFO poling is needed for this bipolar modulation effect. Detailed temperature dependent measurements and a model will be presented which will attribute this effect to the coupled antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric order in BFO along with the modulation of interfacial exchange interactions due to ionic displacement of Fe3+ in BFO relative to Mn3 + / 4 + in LSMO.

  14. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves in DC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    The results of experimental studies of the propagation of longitudinal waves in saturated rock samples in which there is a flow of electric charges are presented. It is shown that the electric field affects elastic parameters in heterophase media by changing their dynamic characteristics. The aim of the study of the effect of electric field on the propagation of elastic waves in saturated porous media was to determine the optimum conditions for this effect, and to construct a set of effective parameters which could be used to increase the effectiveness of seismoacoustic prospecting methods, particularly acoustic logging, and be helpful for developing new methods of increasing the effectiveness of oil extraction from productive wells.

  15. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-01-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  16. Non-intrusive electric field sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, S. M.; Selfridge, R.; Chadderdon, S.; Perry, D.; Stan, N.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of non-intrusive electric field sensing. The non-intrusive nature is attained by creating a sensor that is entirely dielectric, has a small cross-sectional area, and has the interrogation electronics a long distance away from the system under test. One non-intrusive electric field sensing technology is the slab coupled optical fiber sensor (SCOS). The SCOS consists of an electro-optic crystal attached to the surface of a D-shaped optical fiber. It is entirely dielectric and has a cross-sectional area down to 0.3mm by 0.3mm. The SCOS device functions as an electric field sensor through use of resonant mode coupling between the crystal waveguide and the core of a D-shaped optical fiber. The resonant mode coupling of a SCOS device occurs at specific wavelengths whose spectral locations are determined in part by the effective refractive index of the modes in the slab. An electric field changes the refractive index of the slab causing a shift in the spectral position of the resonant modes. This paper describes an overview of the SCOS technology including the theory, fabrication, and operation. The effect of crystal orientation and crystal type are explained with respect to directional sensitivity and frequency response.

  17. Nonthermal processing by radio frequency electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) processing is relatively new and has been shown to inactivate bacteria in apple juice, orange juice and apple cider at moderately low temperatures. Key equipment components of the process include a radio frequency power supply and a treatment chamber that is ca...

  18. Flow Field Measurement of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batur, C.; Zhong, H.

    2003-01-01

    Mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows inside a cavity consists of stretching and folding of an interface. Measurement of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry shows that during stretching the flow field has a single elliptic point, thus dominated by a single vortex. However, global bifurcation that results in folding introduces a hyperbolic point whereby the flow field degenerates to multiple vortex interactions. The short-lived coherent structure observed during mixing which results in the Rayleigh- Taylor morphology is attributed to vortex interactions. The mixing characteristics of non-homogeneous fluids driven by buoyancy are important towards understanding transport phenomenon in a microgravity environment. Mixing consists of stretching and folding of an interface due to a flow field whose intensity depends on the body force. For miscible liquids, the characteristic of the flow field determines whether mass transport is governed by diffusion or bulk stirring which induces mixing. For technologically important processes, transport of mass is governed by the coupling of the body force to scalar gradients such as concentration and or temperature' 2 3 . In order to lend insight into these classes of problems we consider a model experimental system to study mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows. The characteristics of mixing is addressed from detail measurements of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), and its corresponding interface dynamics using image processing techniques.

  19. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  20. Fundamental properties of field emission-driven direct current microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David B.

    2012-11-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current microdischarges with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties including ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current-voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that field emission provides an abundance of cathode electrons, which in turn create large ion concentrations through ionizing collisions well before Paschen's criterion for breakdown is met. Breakdown due to ion-enhanced field emission occurs when the electric field due to space charge becomes comparable to the applied electric field. Simple scaling analysis of the 1D Poisson equation demonstrates that an ion density of n+ ≈ 0.1VAɛ0/qd2 is necessary to significantly distort the electric field. Defining breakdown in terms of this critical ion density leads analytically to a simple, effective secondary emission coefficient γ' of the same mathematical form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk [Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955)].

  1. An effective magnetic field from optically driven phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nova, T. F.; Cartella, A.; Cantaluppi, A.; Först, M.; Bossini, D.; Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Kimel, A. V.; Merlin, R.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-10-01

    Light fields at terahertz and mid-infrared frequencies allow for the direct excitation of collective modes in condensed matter, which can be driven to large amplitudes. For example, excitation of the crystal lattice has been shown to stimulate insulator-metal transitions, melt magnetic order or enhance superconductivity. Here, we generalize these ideas and explore the simultaneous excitation of more than one lattice mode, which are driven with controlled relative phases. This nonlinear mode mixing drives rotations as well as displacements of the crystal-field atoms, mimicking the application of a magnetic field and resulting in the excitation of spin precession in the rare-earth orthoferrite ErFeO3. Coherent control of lattice rotations may become applicable to other interesting problems in materials research--for example, as a way to affect the topology of electronic phases.

  2. Composite lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, B D; Shikhabudinov, A M; Borodina, I A; Teplykh, A A; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-01-01

    The novel method of suppression of parasitic oscillations in lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator is suggested. Traditionally such resonator represents the piezoelectric plate with two electrodes on one side of the plate. The crystallographic orientation of the plate is selected so that the tangential components of electric field excite bulk acoustic wave with given polarization travelling along the normal to the plate sides. However at that the normal components of field excite the parasitic Lamb waves and bulk waves of other polarization which deteriorate the resonant properties of the resonator. In this work we suggest to separate the source of the HF electric field and resounded piezoelectric plate by air gap. In this case the tangential components of the field in piezoelectric plate do not practically weaken but normal components significantly decrease. This method is realized on the composite resonator having the structure "glass plate with rectangular electrodes - air gap - plate of 128 Y-X lithium niobate." It has been shown that there exist the optimal value of the width gap which ensure the good quality of series and parallel resonances in frequency range 3-4MHz with record values of Q-factor of ∼15,000 in both cases.

  3. Tikekar superdense stars in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-04-01

    We present exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations with a specified form of the electric field intensity by assuming that the hypersurface {t=constant} are spheroidal. The solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system is reduced to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients which can be solved in general using mathematical induction. New classes of solutions of linearly independent functions are obtained by restricting the spheroidal parameter K and the electric field intensity parameter α. Consequently, it is possible to find exact solutions in terms of elementary functions, namely, polynomials and algebraic functions. Our result contains models found previously including the superdense Tikekar neutron star model [J. Math. Phys. 31, 2454 (1990)] when K=-7 and α=0. Our class of charged spheroidal models generalize the uncharged isotropic Maharaj and Leach solutions [J. Math. Phys. 37, 430 (1996)]. In particular, we find an explicit relationship directly relating the spheroidal parameter K to the electromagnetic field.

  4. Electric fields in Scanning Electron Microscopy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arat, K. T.; Bolten, J.; Klimpel, T.; Unal, N.

    2016-03-01

    The electric field distribution and charging effects in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were studied by extending a Monte-Carlo based SEM simulator by a fast and accurate multigrid (MG) based 3D electric field solver. The main focus is on enabling short simulation times with maintaining sufficient accuracy, so that SEM simulation can be used in practical applications. The implementation demonstrates a gain in computation speed, when compared to a Gauss-Seidel based reference solver is roughly factor of 40, with negligible differences in the result (~10-6 𝑉). In addition, the simulations were compared with experimental SEM measurements using also complex 3D sample, showing that i) the modelling of e-fields improves the simulation accuracy, and ii) multigrid method provide a significant benefit in terms of simulation time.

  5. Field-aligned currents and large-scale magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The existence of field-aligned currents (FAC) at northern and southern high latitudes was confirmed by a number of observations, most clearly by experiments on the TRIAD and ISIS 2 satellites. The high-latitude FAC system is used to relate what is presently known about the large-scale pattern of high-latitude ionospheric electric fields and their relation to solar wind parameters. Recently a simplified model was presented for polar cap electric fields. The model is of considerable help in visualizing the large-scale features of FAC systems. A summary of the FAC observations is given. The simplified model is used to visualize how the FAC systems are driven by their generators.

  6. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  7. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  8. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  9. Field-aligned currents and ionospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasuhara, F.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the observed distribution of the ionospheric electric field can be deduced from an equation combining Ohm's law with the current continuity equation by using the 'observed' distribution of field-aligned currents as the boundary condition for two models of the ionosphere. The first model has one conductive annular ring representing the quiet-time auroral precipitation belt; the second has two conductive annular rings that simulate the discrete and diffuse auroral regions. An analysis is performed to determine how well the electric-field distribution can be reproduced. The results indicate that the first model reproduces the Sq(p)-type distribution, the second model reproduces reasonably well a substorm-type potential and ionospheric current patterns together with the Harang discontinuity, and that the distribution of field-aligned currents is the same for both models.

  10. Thermospheric Response to Solar Wind Electric Field Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlongo, N. J.; Ridley, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The electron density of the thermosphere is of paramount importance for radio communications and drag on low altitude satellites, particularly during geomagnetic storms. Transient enhancements of ion velocities and subsequent density and temperature increases frequently occur as a result of storm-driven solar wind electric field fluctuations. Since the Earth's dipole magnetic field is tilted and offset from the center of the planet, significant asymmetries arise that alter the thermospheric response to energy input based upon the time of day of the disturbance. This study utilizes the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) to investigate this phenomenon by enhancing the convective electric field for one hour of the day in 22 different simulations. An additional baseline run was conducted with no IMF perturbation. Furthermore, four configurations of Earth's magnetic field were considered, Internal Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), a perfect dipole, a dipole tilted by 10 degrees, and a tilted and offset dipole. These runs were conducted at equinox when the amount of sunlight falling on the different hemispheres is the same. Two additional runs were conducted at the solstices for comparison. It was found that the most geo-effective times are when the poles are pointed towards the sun. The electron density, neutral density and temperature as well as the winds are explored.

  11. Fabrication 3D buried channel optical waveguide modulators on field-driven ion exchange process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zigang; Chen, Wenqiang; Zhu, Li; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiaoying

    2010-10-01

    A high electric field technique was developed to fabricate buried optical waveguide modulator on K9 optical glass. The 80V voltage was applied on the glass to accelerate the field-driven ion exchange process by expeditiously replacing host sodium ions in the glass with silver ions. As a result, the optical loss for optical waveguide modulator was measured using the edge coupling technique with a 0.6328μm He-Ne laser. Loss of 0.20 dB/cm was obtained for channel waveguides of 25μm in depth, relatively low for waveguides of such depth at red wavelength.

  12. Fluctuations of Electrical Conductivity: A New Source for Astrophysical Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Pétrélis, F; Alexakis, A; Gissinger, C

    2016-04-22

    We consider the generation of a magnetic field by the flow of a fluid for which the electrical conductivity is nonuniform. A new amplification mechanism is found which leads to dynamo action for flows much simpler than those considered so far. In particular, the fluctuations of the electrical conductivity provide a way to bypass antidynamo theorems. For astrophysical objects, we show through three-dimensional global numerical simulations that the temperature-driven fluctuations of the electrical conductivity can amplify an otherwise decaying large scale equatorial dipolar field. This effect could play a role for the generation of the unusually tilted magnetic field of the iced giants Neptune and Uranus.

  13. Fluctuations of Electrical Conductivity: A New Source for Astrophysical Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétrélis, F.; Alexakis, A.; Gissinger, C.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the generation of a magnetic field by the flow of a fluid for which the electrical conductivity is nonuniform. A new amplification mechanism is found which leads to dynamo action for flows much simpler than those considered so far. In particular, the fluctuations of the electrical conductivity provide a way to bypass antidynamo theorems. For astrophysical objects, we show through three-dimensional global numerical simulations that the temperature-driven fluctuations of the electrical conductivity can amplify an otherwise decaying large scale equatorial dipolar field. This effect could play a role for the generation of the unusually tilted magnetic field of the iced giants Neptune and Uranus.

  14. Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

  15. Stable solutions of inflation driven by vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Razieh; Mukohyama, Shinji; Namba, Ryo; Zhang, Ying-li

    2017-03-01

    Many models of inflation driven by vector fields alone have been known to be plagued by pathological behaviors, namely ghost and/or gradient instabilities. In this work, we seek a new class of vector-driven inflationary models that evade all of the mentioned instabilities. We build our analysis on the Generalized Proca Theory with an extension to three vector fields to realize isotropic expansion. We obtain the conditions required for quasi de-Sitter solutions to be an attractor analogous to the standard slow-roll one and those for their stability at the level of linearized perturbations. Identifying the remedy to the existing unstable models, we provide a simple example and explicitly show its stability. This significantly broadens our knowledge on vector inflationary scenarios, reviving potential phenomenological interests for this class of models.

  16. Cathode driven high gain crossed-field amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-07-01

    The objective of this three-phase program is to achieve the design of a cathode driven high gain re-entrant Crossed Field Amplifier capable of meeting the parameters of Raytheon Company specification No. 968838 dated 10 May 1978. The effort includes the fabrication and test of three developmental and four final configuration tubes. One final configuration tube will be life tested and two will be delivered to the Navy. The tasks discussed during this report period relate to the cold tests performed on various subassemblies of model no. 4 and on the sealed-in model no. 4 of the S-band high gain cathode driven crossed field amplifier. Based on the performance of model no. 3 certain remedial measures have been implemented in model no. 4 that have resulted in the elimination of key resonances within the tube and an improvement in the isolation between the cathode and anode circuits.

  17. Fiber optic electric field sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzynski, J.; De Paula, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of piezoactive plastics are reviewed as well as the fiber-optic electric field sensors studied so far. A particular configuration consisting of a concentric piezoactive jacket on the glass fiber is discussed in detail and the frequency response of this sensor is projected over a wide range of frequencies. The present design has the practical advantages of leading to a compact lightweight sensor; longer fiber lengths may be used to increase sensitivity. It is predicted that, at low frequencies, a fiber-optic antenna using a 1-km length of fiber would be capable of detecting a minimum electric field of 43 microV/m assuming a minimum phase sensitivity of 10 to the -6th radians for the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  18. Receptive field properties of rod-driven horizontal cells in the skate retina

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The large receptive fields of retinal horizontal cells result primarily from extensive intercellular coupling via gap (electrical) junctions; thus, the extent of the receptive field provides an index of the degree to which the cells are electrically coupled. For rod-driven horizontal cells in the dark-adapted skate retina, a space constant of 1.18 +/- 0.15 mm (SD) was obtained from measurements with a moving slit stimulus, and a comparable value (1.43 +/- 0.55 mm) was obtained with variation in spot diameter. These values, and the extensive spread of a fluorescent dye (Lucifer Yellow) from the site of injection to neighboring cells, indicate that the horizontal cells of the all-rod retina of skate are well coupled electrically. Neither the receptive field properties nor the gap-junctional features of skate horizontal cells were influenced by the adaptive state of the retina: (a) the receptive field organization was unaffected by light adaptation, (b) similar dye coupling was seen in both dark- and light-adapted retinae, and (c) no significant differences were found in the gap-junctional particle densities measured in dark- and light-adapted retinas, i.e., 3,184 +/- 286/microns 2 (n = 8) and 3,073 +/- 494/microns 2 (n = 11), respectively. Moreover, the receptive fields of skate horizontal cells were not altered by either dopamine, glycine, GABA, or the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. We conclude that the rod-driven horizontal cells of the skate retina are tightly coupled to one another, and that the coupling is not affected by photic and pharmacological conditions that are known to modulate intercellular coupling between cone-driven horizontal cells in other species. PMID:1359000

  19. Microchannel protein separation by electric field gradient focusing.

    PubMed

    Petsev, Dimiter N; Lopez, Gabriel P; Ivory, Cornelius F; Sibbett, Scott S

    2005-06-01

    A microchannel device is presented which separates and focuses charged proteins based on electric field gradient focusing. Separation is achieved by setting a constant electroosmotic flow velocity against step changes in electrophoretic velocity. Where these two velocities are balanced for a given analyte, the analyte focuses at that point because it is driven to it from all points within the channel. We demonstrate the separation and focusing of a binary mixture of bovine serum albumin and phycoerythrin. The device is constructed of intersecting microchannels in poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) inlaid with hollow dialysis fibers. The device uses no exotic chemicals such as antibodies or synthetic ampholytes, but operates instead by purely physical means involving the independent manipulation of electrophoretic and electroosmotic velocities. One important difference between this apparatus and most other devices designed for field-gradient focusing is the injection of current at discrete intersections in the channel rather than continuously along the length of a membrane-bound separation channel.

  20. Electric fields produced by Florida thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Krider, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five field mill sites provided data on the electric fields produced during both the intense and the final, less active periods of summer air mass thunderstorms in east central Florida. During the periods of intense lightning activity, time- and area-averaged fields were usually -0.8 to -2.1 kV/m, while for the less active periods, the field values were typically in the range of -2.3 to -4.3 kV/m. Furthermore, during the active storm periods, which represented about 27% of the total storm durations, about 71% of all lightning discharges occurred. Also, fewer lightning discharges in the final storm period than in the active period reached the ground.

  1. Nanoscale structural evolution of electrically driven insulator to metal transition in vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Eugene Shukla, Nikhil; Datta, Suman; Stone, Greg; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Paik, Hanjong; Moyer, Jarrett A.; Cai, Zhonghou; Wen, Haidan; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2013-12-23

    The structural evolution of tensile strained vanadium dioxide thin films was examined across the electrically driven insulator-to-metal transition by nanoscale hard X-ray diffraction. A metallic filament with rutile (R) structure was found to be the dominant conduction pathway for an electrically driven transition, while the majority of the channel area remained in the monoclinic M1 phase. The filament dimensions were estimated using simultaneous electrical probing and nanoscale X-ray diffraction. Analysis revealed that the width of the conducting channel can be tuned externally using resistive loads in series, enabling the M1/R phase ratio in the phase coexistence regime to be tuned.

  2. Electrical Grounding - a Field for Geophysicists and Electrical Engineers Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, P. F.; Pane, E.; Guaraldo, N.

    2012-12-01

    , layered stratified or showing lateral variations, ranging down to several tens of kilometers deep, reaching the crust-mantle interface (typically with the order of 30-40 km). This work aims to analyze the constraints of the current soil models being used for grounding electrodes design, and suggests the need of a soil modeling methodology compatible with large grounding systems. Concerning the aspects related to soil modeling, electrical engineers need to get aware of geophysics resources, such as: - geophysical techniques for soil electrical resistivity prospection (down to about 15 kilometers deep); and - techniques for converting field measured data, from many different geophysical techniques, into adequate soil models for grounding grid simulation. It is also important to equalize the basic knowledge for the professionals that are working together for the specific purpose of soil modeling for electrical grounding studies. The authors have experienced the situation of electrical engineers working with geophysicists, but it was not clear for the latter the effective need of the electrical engineers, and for the engineers it was unknown the available geophysical resources, and also, what to do convert the large amount of soil resistivity data into a reliable soil model.

  3. Transient electrical field across cellular membranes: pulsed electric field treatment of microbial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkin, I. V.; MacGregor, S. J.; Fouracre, R. A.; Crichton, B. H.; Anderson, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    The pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of liquid and pumpable products contaminated with microorganisms has attracted significant interest from the pulsed power and bioscience research communities particularly because the inactivation mechanism is non-thermal, thereby allowing retention of the original nutritional and flavour characteristics of the product. Although the biological effects of PEF have been studied for several decades, the physical mechanisms of the interaction of the fields with microorganisms is still not fully understood. The present work is a study of the dynamics of the electrical field both in a PEF treatment chamber with dielectric barriers and in the plasma (cell) membrane of a microbial cell. It is shown that the transient process can be divided into three physical phases, and models for these phases are proposed and briefly discussed. The complete dynamics of the time development of the electric field in a spherical dielectric shell representing the cellular membrane is then obtained using an analytical solution of the Ohmic conduction problem. It was found that the field in the membrane reaches a maximum value that could be two orders of magnitude higher than the original Laplacian electrical field in the chamber, and this value was attained in a time comparable to the field relaxation time in the chamber. Thus, the optimal duration of the field during PEF treatment should be equal to such a time.

  4. Electric Field Induced Surface Modification of Au

    SciTech Connect

    Erchak, A.A.; Franklin, G.F.; Houston, J.E.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-02-15

    We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the Interfacial Force Microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample. The current initially increases exponentially as the separation decreases. However, at a distance of less than {approximately} 500{angstrom} the current rises sharply as the surface begins to distort and rapidly close the gap. Retraction of the tip before contact is made reveals the formation of a mound on the surface. We propose a simple model, in which the localized high electric field under the tip assists the production of mobile Au adatoms by detachment from surface steps, and a radial field gradient causes a net flux of atoms toward the tip by surface diffusion. These processes give rise to an unstable surface deformation which, if left unchecked, results in a destructive mechanical contact. We discuss our findings with respect to earlier work using voltage pulses in the STM as a means of nanofabrication.

  5. Electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion and local magnetization reversal

    PubMed Central

    Lahtinen, Tuomas H. E.; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2012-01-01

    Spintronic devices currently rely on magnetic switching or controlled motion of domain walls by an external magnetic field or spin-polarized current. Achieving the same degree of magnetic controllability using an electric field has potential advantages including enhanced functionality and low power consumption. Here we report on an approach to electrically control local magnetic properties, including the writing and erasure of regular ferromagnetic domain patterns and the motion of magnetic domain walls, in CoFe-BaTiO3 heterostructures. Our method is based on recurrent strain transfer from ferroelastic domains in ferroelectric media to continuous magnetostrictive films with negligible magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Optical polarization microscopy of both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain structures reveals that domain correlations and strong inter-ferroic domain wall pinning persist in an applied electric field. This leads to an unprecedented electric controllability over the ferromagnetic microstructure, an accomplishment that produces giant magnetoelectric coupling effects and opens the way to electric-field driven spintronics. PMID:22355770

  6. Aircraft electric field measurements: Calibration and ambient field retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Bailey, Jeff; Christian, Hugh J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    An aircraft locally distorts the ambient thundercloud electric field. In order to determine the field in the absence of the aircraft, an aircraft calibration is required. In this work a matrix inversion method is introduced for calibrating an aircraft equipped with four or more electric field sensors and a high-voltage corona point that is capable of charging the aircraft. An analytic, closed form solution for the estimate of a (3 x 3) aircraft calibration matrix is derived, and an absolute calibration experiment is used to improve the relative magnitudes of the elements of this matrix. To demonstrate the calibration procedure, we analyze actual calibration date derived from a Lear jet 28/29 that was equipped with five shutter-type field mill sensors (each with sensitivities of better than 1 V/m) located on the top, bottom, port, starboard, and aft positions. As a test of the calibration method, we analyze computer-simulated calibration data (derived from known aircraft and ambient fields) and explicitly determine the errors involved in deriving the variety of calibration matrices. We extend our formalism to arrive at an analytic solution for the ambient field, and again carry all errors explicitly.

  7. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hager, J. D.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Delettrez, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature and density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.

  8. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; ...

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature andmore » density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.« less

  9. Electron transport in argon in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    PubMed

    Ness; Makabe

    2000-09-01

    An investigation of electron transport in argon in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is carried out over a wide range of values of electric and magnetic field strengths. Values of mean energy, ionization rate, drift velocity, and diffusion tensor are reported here. Two unexpected phenomena arise; for certain values of electric and magnetic field we find regions where the swarm mean energy decreases with increasing electric fields for a fixed magnetic field and regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field.

  10. Ultrafast electrical control of a resonantly driven single photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Bennett, A. J. Ellis, D. J. P.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate generation of a pulsed stream of electrically triggered single photons in resonance fluorescence, by applying high frequency electrical pulses to a single quantum dot in a p-i-n diode under resonant laser excitation. Single photon emission was verified, with the probability of multiple photon emission reduced to 2.8%. We show that despite the presence of charge noise in the emission spectrum of the dot, resonant excitation acts as a “filter” to generate narrow bandwidth photons.

  11. Manipulation of a neutral and nonpolar nanoparticle in water using a nonuniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen; Wang, Chunlei; Sheng, Nan; Hu, Guohui; Zhou, Zhewei; Fang, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of nanoparticles in water is of essential importance in chemical physics, nanotechnology, medical technology, and biotechnology applications. Generally, a particle with net charges or charge polarity can be driven by an electric field. However, many practical particles only have weak and even negligible charge and polarity, which hinders the electric field to exert a force large enough to drive these nanoparticles directly. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to show that a neutral and nonpolar nanoparticle in liquid water can be driven directionally by an external electric field. The directed motion benefits from a nonuniform water environment produced by a nonuniform external electric field, since lower water energies exist under a higher intensity electric field. The nanoparticle spontaneously moves toward locations with a weaker electric field intensity to minimize the energy of the whole system. Considering that the distance between adjacent regions of nonuniform field intensity can reach the micrometer scale, this finding provides a new mechanism of manipulating nanoparticles from the nanoscale to the microscale.

  12. Electric-field-induced domain intersection in BaTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengxia; Zhang, Zhihua

    2017-03-01

    Large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction was used to determine the directions of polarization vectors in a BaTiO3 single crystal. Domain intersections driven by an electric field were investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The dark triangles observed in the domain intersection region can be accounted for by dislocations and the strain field. Domains nucleate at the domain tip depending on the dislocations and strain field to relieve the accumulated stress. Schematic representations of the intersecting domains and the microscopic structure are given, clarifying the special electric-field-induced domain structure.

  13. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Following preliminary investigations of the low frequency electric and magnetic fields that may exists in the Earth-ionospheric cavity, measurements were taken with state-of-the art spectrum analyzers. As a follow up to this activity, an investigation was initiated to determine sources and values for possible low frequency signal that would appear in the cavity. The lowest cavity resonance is estimated at about 8 Hz, but lower frequencies may be an important component of our electromagnetic environment. The potential field frequencies produced by the electron were investigated by a classical model that included possible cross coupling of the electric and gravitation fields. During this work, an interesting relationship was found that related the high frequency charge field with the extremely low frequency of the gravitation field. The results of numerical calculations were surprisingly accurate and this area of investigation is continuing. The work toward continued development of a standardized monitoring facility is continuing with the potential of installing the prototype at West Virginia State College early in 1990. This installation would be capable of real time monitoring of ELF signals in the Earth-ionoshpere cavity and would provide some directional information. A high gain, low noise, 1/f frequency corrected preamplifier was designed and tested for the ferrite core magnetic sensor. The potential application of a super conducting sensor for the ELF magnetic field detection is under investigation. It is hoped that a fully operational monitoring network could pinpoint the location of ELF signal sources and provide new information on where these signals originate and what causes them, assuming that they are natural in origin.

  14. Finite-size effects on the magnetoelectric response of field-driven ferroelectric/ferromagnetic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenglong; Sukhov, Alexander; Horley, Paul P.; Berakdar, Jamal

    2011-07-01

    We study theoretically the coupled multiferroic dynamics of a finite one-dimensional ferroelectric/ferromagnet chain driven by harmonic magnetic and electric fields as a function of the chain length. We consider the case of a linear magnetoelectric coupling that results from the spin-polarized screening charge at the interface. We performed Monte-Carlo simulations and calculations based on the coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and Landau-Khalatnikov equations showing that the net magnetization and the total polarization of thin heterostructures, i.e. with up to ten ferroelectric and ferromagnetic sites counted from the interface, can be completely reversed by external electric and magnetic fields, respectively. However, for larger systems merely a limited magnetoelectrical control is achievable.

  15. Electric tuning of magnetization dynamics and electric field-induced negative magnetic permeability in nanoscale composite multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Berakdar, Jamal; Xue, Desheng

    2015-06-09

    Steering magnetism by electric fields upon interfacing ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) materials to achieve an emergent multiferroic response bears a great potential for nano-scale devices with novel functionalities. FM/FE heterostructures allow, for instance, the electrical manipulation of magnetic anisotropy via interfacial magnetoelectric (ME) couplings. A charge-mediated ME effect is believed to be generally weak and active in only a few angstroms. Here we present an experimental evidence uncovering a new magnon-driven, strong ME effect acting on the nanometer range. For Co92Zr8 (20 nm) film deposited on ferroelectric PMN-PT we show via ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) that this type of linear ME allows for electrical control of simultaneously the magnetization precession and its damping, both of which are key elements for magnetic switching and spintronics. The experiments unravel further an electric-field-induced negative magnetic permeability effect.

  16. Electric tuning of magnetization dynamics and electric field-induced negative magnetic permeability in nanoscale composite multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Berakdar, Jamal; Xue, Desheng

    2015-06-01

    Steering magnetism by electric fields upon interfacing ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) materials to achieve an emergent multiferroic response bears a great potential for nano-scale devices with novel functionalities. FM/FE heterostructures allow, for instance, the electrical manipulation of magnetic anisotropy via interfacial magnetoelectric (ME) couplings. A charge-mediated ME effect is believed to be generally weak and active in only a few angstroms. Here we present an experimental evidence uncovering a new magnon-driven, strong ME effect acting on the nanometer range. For Co92Zr8 (20 nm) film deposited on ferroelectric PMN-PT we show via ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) that this type of linear ME allows for electrical control of simultaneously the magnetization precession and its damping, both of which are key elements for magnetic switching and spintronics. The experiments unravel further an electric-field-induced negative magnetic permeability effect.

  17. Electric tuning of magnetization dynamics and electric field-induced negative magnetic permeability in nanoscale composite multiferroics

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Berakdar, Jamal; Xue, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    Steering magnetism by electric fields upon interfacing ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) materials to achieve an emergent multiferroic response bears a great potential for nano-scale devices with novel functionalities. FM/FE heterostructures allow, for instance, the electrical manipulation of magnetic anisotropy via interfacial magnetoelectric (ME) couplings. A charge-mediated ME effect is believed to be generally weak and active in only a few angstroms. Here we present an experimental evidence uncovering a new magnon-driven, strong ME effect acting on the nanometer range. For Co92Zr8 (20 nm) film deposited on ferroelectric PMN-PT we show via ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) that this type of linear ME allows for electrical control of simultaneously the magnetization precession and its damping, both of which are key elements for magnetic switching and spintronics. The experiments unravel further an electric-field-induced negative magnetic permeability effect. PMID:26058060

  18. Motional sideband excitation using rotating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A form of motional sideband excitation is described in which a rotating dipole electric field is applied asymmetrically onto a Penning-type trap in the presence of a mechanism for cooling the axial motion of the trapped particles. In contrast to the traditional motional sideband excitation, which uses an oscillating electric field, the rotating field results in only one active sideband in each sense of rotation and so avoids accidental excitation of the other sideband making it applicable to Penning-type traps with a large degree of anharmonicity. Expressions are derived for the magnetron radius expansion and compression rates attainable, and approximations are made for the case of strong and weak drives. A comparison is made with data, taken using a two-stage positron accumulator presented by Isaac [C. A. Isaac, C. J. Baker, T. Mortensen, D. P. van der Werf, and M. Charlton, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.033201 107, 033201 (2011)], showing good agreement between the model and experiment.

  19. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  20. Electric Field Dependence of Photo-Induced Field Emission Current.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egert, Charles Michael

    We have measured the photo-induced field emission current from a tungsten field emitter as a function of electric field. These experiments were performed with a retardation energy analyzer to measure total current and a 127(DEGREES) cylindrical differential energy analyzer to measure the energy resolved PFE current. The results of these experiments are compared with a simple theory of PFE, developed by Schwartz and Schaich, which is an extension of field emission theory including the surface photoeffect, but assuming constant photoexcitation matrix elements. Our experimental results disagree with this theory in two ways: First, for high fields and photon energy (electrons emitted above the field emission barrier maximum) theory predicts a larger increase in PFE current than is observed experimentally. Second, we have also confirmed the existence of a field dependent oscillatory component of the PFE current emitted from the W(110) surface with photon energies of 2.7 eV and 3.5 eV. The simple theory described here, as well as more sophisticated calculations, have been unable to explain this oscillatory feature. We have also reported, for the first time, the field dependence of the energy resolved PFE current measured with a 127(DEGREES) cylindrical energy analyzer. These preliminary results show evidence of the oscillatory component previously only observed in the total PFE current.

  1. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    DAMD17-98-1-8519 TITLE: Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing 5b. GRANT NUMBER...To determine the effect of capacitively coupled electric field stimulation on tibial stress fracture healing in men and women. Methods: A

  2. Extracting Nucleon Magnetic Moments and Electric Polarizabilities from Lattice QCD in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2010-03-01

    Nucleon properties are investigated in background electric fields. As the magnetic moments of baryons affect their relativistic propagation in constant electric fields, electric polarizabilities cannot be determined without knowledge of magnetic moments. We devise combinations of baryon two-point functions in external electric fields to isolate both observables. Using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions, we demonstrate how magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities can be determined from lattice QCD simulations in background electric fields. We obtain results for both the neutron and proton. Our study is currently limited to electrically neutral sea quarks.

  3. Impact of electric fields on honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Bindokas, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    Biological effects in honey bee colonies under a 765-kV, 60-Hz transmission line (electric (E) field = 7 kV/m) were confirmed using controlled dosimetry and treatment reversal to replicate findings within the same season. Hives in the same environment but shielded from E field are normal, suggesting effects are caused by interaction of E field with the hive. Bees flying through the ambient E field are not demonstrably affected. Different thresholds and severity of effects were found in colonies exposed to 7, 5.5, 4.1, 1.8, and 0.65 to 0.85 kV/m at incremental distances from the line. Most colonies exposed at 7 kV/m failed in 8 weeks and failed to overwinter at greater than or equal to4.1 kV/m. Data suggest the limit of a biological effects corridor lies between 15 and 27 m (4.1 and 1.8 kV/m) beyond the outer phase of the transmission line. Mechanisms to explain colony disturbance fall into two categories, direct perception of enhanced in-hive E fields, and perception of shock from induced currents. The same effects induced in colonies with total-hive E-field exposure can be reproduced with shock or E-field exposure of worker bees in extended hive entranceways (= porches). Full-scale experiments demonstrate bee exposure to E fields including 100 kV/m under moisture-free conditions within a non-conductive porch causes no detectable effect on colony behavior. Exposure of bees on a conductive (e.g. wet) substrate produces been disturbance, increased mortality, abnormal propolization, and possible impairment of colony growth. Thresholds for effects caused by step-potential-induced currents are: 275-350 nA - disturbance of single bees; 600 nA - onset of abnormal propolization; and 900 nA - sting.

  4. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.

  5. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberer, L. M.; Buchhold, M.; Diehl, S.

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas—ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays—move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.

  6. Soil Identification using Field Electrical Resistivity Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Ismail, B.

    2015-06-01

    Geotechnical site investigation with particular reference to soil identification was important in civil engineering works since it reports the soil condition in order to relate the design and construction of the proposed works. In the past, electrical resistivity method (ERM) has widely being used in soil characterization but experienced several black boxes which related to its results and interpretations. Hence, this study performed a field electrical resistivity method (ERM) using ABEM SAS (4000) at two different types of soils (Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND) in order to discover the behavior of electrical resistivity values (ERV) with type of soils studied. Soil basic physical properties was determine thru density (p), moisture content (w) and particle size distribution (d) in order to verify the ERV obtained from each type of soil investigated. It was found that the ERV of Gravelly SAND (278 Ωm & 285 Ωm) was slightly higher than SiltySAND (223 Ωm & 199 Ωm) due to the uncertainties nature of soils. This finding has showed that the results obtained from ERM need to be interpreted based on strong supported findings such as using direct test from soil laboratory data. Furthermore, this study was able to prove that the ERM can be established as an alternative tool in soil identification provided it was being verified thru other relevance information such as using geotechnical properties.

  7. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers (DLs) in plasmas are described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Somne dynamic features of the DLs are discussed; and it is demonstrated that DLs and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations, determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which the DLs form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a DL, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion whenever the ion flux into the DL is disrupted. Also considered is the generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials.

  8. Assembly of LIGA using Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    FEDDEMA, JOHN T.; WARNE, LARRY K.; JOHNSON, WILLIAM A.; OGDEN, ALLISON J.; ARMOUR, DAVID L.

    2002-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a device that uses electric fields to grasp and possibly levitate LIGA parts. This non-contact form of grasping would solve many of the problems associated with grasping parts that are only a few microns in dimensions. Scaling laws show that for parts this size, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominant over gravitational forces. This is why micro-parts often stick to mechanical tweezers. If these forces can be controlled under feedback control, the parts could be levitated, possibly even rotated in air. In this project, we designed, fabricated, and tested several grippers that use electrostatic and electromagnetic fields to grasp and release metal LIGA parts. The eventual use of this tool will be to assemble metal and non-metal LIGA parts into small electromechanical systems.

  9. Assembly of LIGA Using Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, J. T.; Warne, L. K.; Johnson, W. A.; Ogden, A. J.; Armour, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a device that uses electric fields to grasp and possibly levitate LlGA parts. This non-contact form of grasping would solve many of the problems associated with grasping parts that are only a few microns in dimensions. Scaling laws show that for parts this size, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominant over gravitational forces. This is why micro-parts often stick to mechanical tweezers. If these forces can be controlled under feedback control, the parts could be levitated, possibly even rotated in air. In this project, we designed, fabricated, and tested several grippers that use electrostatic and electromagnetic fields to grasp and release metal LlGA parts. The eventual use of this tool will be to assemble metal and non-metal LlGA parts into small electromechanical systems.

  10. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. . Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  11. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in ``electrical`` occupations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the ``electrical`` occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure? and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these ``electrical`` occupations? Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  12. A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, T.; Yin, Ming; Vargas, Jose

    2004-02-01

    Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kähler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic

  13. Electrically and magnetically dual-driven Janus particles for handwriting-enabled electronic paper

    SciTech Connect

    Komazaki, Y. Hirama, H.; Torii, T.

    2015-04-21

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of novel electrically and magnetically dual-driven Janus particles for a handwriting-enabled twisting ball display via the microfluidic technique. One hemisphere of the Janus particles contains a charge control agent, which allows the display color to be controlled by applying a voltage and superparamagnetic nanoparticles, allows handwriting by applying a magnetic field to the display. We fabricated a twisting ball display utilizing these Janus particles and tested the electric color control and handwriting using a magnet. As a result, the display was capable of permitting handwriting with a small magnet in addition to conventional color control using an applied voltage (80 V). Handwriting performance was improved by increasing the concentration of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and was determined to be possible even when 80 V was applied across the electrodes for 4 wt. % superparamagnetic nanoparticles in one hemisphere. This improvement was impossible when the concentration was reduced to 2 wt. % superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The technology presented in our work can be applied to low-cost, lightweight, highly visible, and energy-saving electronic message boards and large whiteboards because the large-size display can be fabricated easily due to its simple structure.

  14. Influence of relative humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using ELF electric field measurements.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room where we varied the temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the relative humidity from 55% to 95%, and the electric field from 1 to 25 kV/m. We calculated Pearson correlations between humidity and percentage errors for all data and for data at different levels of humidity. When the relative humidity was below 70%, the results obtained by the different measurement methods in terms of percentage errors were of the same order of magnitude for the considered temperatures and field strength, but the results were less reliable when the relative humidity was higher than 80%. In the future, it is important to take humidity into account when electric field measurement results will be compared to the values given in different exposure guidelines.

  15. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-12-21

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  16. Generating Electricity during Walking with a Lower Limb-Driven Energy Harvester: Targeting a Minimum User Effort

    PubMed Central

    Shepertycky, Michael; Li, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Much research in the field of energy harvesting has sought to develop devices capable of generating electricity during daily activities with minimum user effort. No previous study has considered the metabolic cost of carrying the harvester when determining the energetic effects it has on the user. When considering device carrying costs, no energy harvester to date has demonstrated the ability to generate a substantial amount of electricity (> 5W) while maintaining a user effort at the same level or lower than conventional power generation methods (e.g. hand crank generator). Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a lower limb-driven energy harvester that is able to generate approximately 9W of electricity. To quantify the performance of the harvester, we introduced a new performance measure, total cost of harvesting (TCOH), which evaluates a harvester’s overall efficiency in generating electricity including the device carrying cost. The new harvester captured the motion from both lower limbs and operated in the generative braking mode to assist the knee flexor muscles in slowing the lower limbs. From a testing on 10 participants under different walking conditions, the harvester achieved an average TCOH of 6.1, which is comparable to the estimated TCOH for a conventional power generation method of 6.2. When generating 5.2W of electricity, the TCOH of the lower limb-driven energy harvester (4.0) is lower than that of conventional power generation methods. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrated that the lower limb-driven energy harvester is an energetically effective option for generating electricity during daily activities. PMID:26039493

  17. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  18. Comparison of electrically driven lasers for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G.; Conway, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    High-power lasers in space could provide power for a variety of future missions such as spacecraft electric power requirements and laser propulsion. This study investigates four electrically pumped laser systems, all scaled to 1-MW laser output, that could provide power to spacecraft. The four laser systems are krypton fluoride, copper vapor, laser diode array, and carbon dioxide. Each system was powered by a large solar photovoltaic array which, in turn, provided power for the appropriate laser power conditioning subsystem. Each system was block-diagrammed, and the power and efficiency were found for each subsystem block component. The copper vapor system had the lowest system efficiency (6 percent). The CO2 laser was found to be the most readily scalable but has the disadvantage of long laser wavelength.

  19. Saturation of the Electric Field Transmitted to the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    We reexamined the processes leading to saturation of the electric field, transmitted into the Earth's ionosphere from the solar wind, incorporating features of the coupled system previously ignored. We took into account that the electric field is transmitted into the ionosphere through a region of open field lines, and that the ionospheric conductivity in the polar cap and auroral zone may be different. Penetration of the electric field into the magnetosphere is linked with the generation of the Alfven wave, going out from the ionosphere into the solar wind and being coupled with the field-aligned currents at the boundary of the open field limes. The electric field of the outgoing Alfven wave reduces the original electric field and provides the saturation effect in the electric field and currents during strong geomagnetic disturbances, associated with increasing ionospheric conductivity. The electric field and field-aligned currents of this Alfven wave are dependent on the ionospheric and solar wind parameters and may significantly affect the electric field and field-aligned currents, generated in the polar ionosphere. Estimating the magnitude of the saturation effect in the electric field and field-aligned currents allows us to improve the correlation between solar wind parameters and resulting disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  20. Nonlinear response of electric fields at a neutral point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovsky, Mikhail; Dufty, James W.; Calisti, Annette; Stamm, Roland; Talin, Bernard

    1995-05-01

    The complex dynamics of electric fields at a neutral point in a plasma is studied via a model of noninteracting ``quasiparticles.'' The simplicity of the model allows the reduction of the many-body problem to an effective single-particle analysis-all properties of interest can be reduced to quadratures. Still, the final calculations to extract a quantitative or even qualitative understanding of the field dynamics can be difficult. Attention here is focused on the dynamics of the conditional electric field: the field value at time t for a given initial value of the field. In addition to the relevant linear response function (electric field time correlation function), this property provides the complete nonlinear response of the electric field to arbitrary initial field perturbations. The static properties (distribution of electric fields and field time derivatives) and the electric field time correlation function have been known for some time for this model. We compare these results and the present result for the conditional electric field with molecular dynamics simulations including interactions. The comparisons suggest that the model provides a quantitative representation of electric field dynamics in real plasmas, except at strong coupling. The exact theoretical results are compared also with those obtained by modeling the electric field as a stochastic variable obeying a kangaroo process. The latter can be constructed to yield both the exact stationary distribution and the exact electric field time correlation function. However, we find that the conditional field is never well approximated by this process. An alternative representation of the joint distribution for electric fields, consistent with the exact stationary distribution, field correlation function, and conditional electric field, is suggested.

  1. Field-Driven Mott Gap Collapse and Resistive Switch in Correlated Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Amaricci, A.; Capone, M.; Fabrizio, M.

    2016-10-01

    Mott insulators are "unsuccessful metals" in which Coulomb repulsion prevents charge conduction despite a metal-like concentration of conduction electrons. The possibility to unlock the frozen carriers with an electric field offers tantalizing prospects of realizing new Mott-based microelectronic devices. Here we unveil how such unlocking happens in a simple model that shows the coexistence of a stable Mott insulator and a metastable metal. Considering a slab subject to a linear potential drop, we find, by means of the dynamical mean-field theory, that the electric breakdown of the Mott insulator occurs via a first-order insulator-to-metal transition characterized by an abrupt gap collapse in sharp contrast to the standard Zener breakdown. The switch on of conduction is due to the field-driven stabilization of the metastable metallic phase. Outside the region of insulator-metal coexistence, the electric breakdown occurs through a more conventional quantum tunneling across the Hubbard bands tilted by the field. Our findings rationalize recent experimental observations and may offer a guideline for future technological research.

  2. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conducting bodies such as living organisms. The current density vector is used to describe the distribution of current within a body. The surface of the human body is an excellent shield for power-frequency electric fields, but power-frequency magnetic fields penetrate without significant attenuation; the electric fields induced inside the body by either exposure are comparable in magnitude. Electric fields induced inside a human by most environmental electric and magnetic fields appear to be small in magnitude compared to levels naturally occurring in living tissues. Detection of such fields thus would seem to require the existence of unknown biological mechanisms. Complete characterization of a power-frequency field requires measurement of the magnitudes and electrical phases of the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes of its three vector components. Most available instrumentation measures only a small subset, or some weighted average, of these quantities. Hand-held survey meters have been used widely to measure power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Automated data-acquisition systems have come into use more recently to make electric- and magnetic-field recordings, covering periods of hours to days, in residences and other environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206045

  3. Electric-field-induced response of a droplet embedded in a polyelectrolyte gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2013-08-01

    The electric-field induced response of a droplet embedded in a quenched polyelectrolyte gel is calculated theoretically. The response comprises the droplet translation and the electric-field induced flow fields within the droplet. The gel is modeled as a soft, and electrically charged porous solid saturated with a salted Newtonian fluid. The droplet is considered an incompressible Newtonian fluid with no free charge. An analytical solution, using the perturbation methodology and linear superposition, is obtained for the leading-order steady response to a DC electric-field. The fluid within the droplet is driven due to hydrodynamic coupling with the electroosmotic flow. The fluid velocity within the droplet is linearly proportional to the electroosmotic flow. Moreover, the microrheological response function of a droplet within a polyelectrolyte gel is also provided, highlighting the importance of boundary conditions at the droplet-gel interface on microrheological measurements.

  4. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Donglei

    Nanoscale entities, including nanospheres, nanodisks, nanorings, nanowires and nanotubes are potential building blocks for nanoscale devices. Among them, nanowires is an important type of nanoparticles, due to the potential application in microelectronics and bio-diagnosis. Manipulation of nanowires in suspension has been a formidable problem. As described in this thesis, using AC electric fields applied to strategically designed microelectrodes, nanowires in suspension can be driven to align, to chain, to accelerate in directions parallel and perpendicular to its orientation, to concentrate onto designated places, and to disperse in a controlled manner with high efficiency despite an extremely low Reynolds number at the level of 10-5. Randomly oriented nanowires in suspension can be rapidly assembled into extended nonlinear structures within seconds. We show that both the electric field and its gradient play the essential roles of aligning and transporting the nanowires into scaffolds according to the electric field distributions inherent to the geometry of the microelectrodes. The assembling efficiency depends strongly on the frequency of the applied AC voltages and varies as square of the voltage. Furthermore, nanowires have been rotated by AC electric fields applied to strategically designed electrodes. The rotation of the nanowires can be instantly switched on or off with precisely controlled rotation speed (to at least 25000 rpm), definite chirality, and total angle of rotation. This new method has been used to controllably rotate magnetic and non-magnetic nanowires as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes. We have also produced a micromotor using a rotating nanowire that can drive particles into circular motion. This has application to microfluidic devices, micro-stirrers, and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). To move and place nanowires onto designated locations with high precision, electrophoretic force has been combined with dielectrophoretic force to

  5. Aircraft measurement of electric field - Self-calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, W. P.

    1993-01-01

    Aircraft measurement of electric fields is difficult as the electrically conducting surface of the aircraft distorts the electric field. Calibration requires determining the relations between the undistorted electric field in the absence of the vehicle and the signals from electric field meters that sense the local distorted fields in their immediate vicinity. This paper describes a generalization of a calibration method which uses pitch and roll maneuvers. The technique determines both the calibration coefficients and the direction of the electric vector. The calibration of individual electric field meters and the elimination of the aircraft's self-charge are described. Linear combinations of field mill signals are examined and absolute calibration and error analysis are discussed. The calibration method was applied to data obtained during a flight near thunderstorms.

  6. Dynamics of an electric dipole moment in a stochastic electric field.

    PubMed

    Band, Y B

    2013-08-01

    The mean-field dynamics of an electric dipole moment in a deterministic and a fluctuating electric field is solved to obtain the average over fluctuations of the dipole moment and the angular momentum as a function of time for a Gaussian white-noise stochastic electric field. The components of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum along the deterministic electric-field direction do not decay to zero, despite fluctuations in all three components of the electric field. This is in contrast to the decay of the average over fluctuations of a magnetic moment in a stochastic magnetic field with Gaussian white noise in all three components. The components of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum perpendicular to the deterministic electric-field direction oscillate with time but decay to zero, and their variance grows with time.

  7. CFT driven cosmology and conformal higher spin fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2016-05-01

    Conformal higher spin (CHS) field theory, which is a solid part of recent advanced checks of AdS/CFT correspondence, finds applications in cosmology. The hidden sector of weakly interacting CHS fields suggests a resolution of the hierarchy problem in the model of initial conditions for inflationary cosmology driven by a conformal field theory. These initial conditions are set by thermal garland-type cosmological instantons in the sub-Planckian energy range for the model of CHS fields with a large positive coefficient β of the Gauss-Bonnet term in their total conformal anomaly and a large number of their polarizations N . The upper bound of this range MP/√{β } is shown to be much lower than the gravitational cutoff MP/√{N } which is defined by the requirement of smallness of the perturbatively nonrenormalizable graviton loop contributions. In this way we justify the approximation scheme in which the nonrenormalizable graviton sector is subject to effective field theory under this cutoff, whereas the renormalizable sector of multiple CHS fields is treated beyond perturbation theory and dynamically generates the bound on the inflation scale of the CFT cosmology MP/√{β }≪MP/√{N }. This confirms recent predictions for the origin of the Starobinsky R2 and Higgs inflation models from the CHS cosmology, which occurs at the energy scale 3 or 4 orders of magnitude below the gravitational cutoff, √{N /β }˜10-3- 10-4 . We also consider cosmological models dominated by fermionic CHS fields with a negative β and anomaly free models of infinite towers of CHS fields with β =0 and briefly discuss the status of unitarity in CHS models.

  8. Electrical integrity of oxides in a radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1996-04-01

    In the absence of an applied electric field, irradiation generally produces a decrease in the permanent (beam-off) electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators. However, in the past 6 years several research groups have reported a phenomenon known as radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED), which produces significant permanent increases in the electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators irradiated with an applied electric field. RIED has been reported to occur at temperatures between 420 and 800 K with applied electric fields as low as 20 V/mm.

  9. A simple model for estimating a magnetic field in laser-driven coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic field generation by laser-driven coils is a promising way of magnetizing plasma in laboratory high-energy-density plasma experiments. A typical configuration consists of two electrodes—one electrode is irradiated with a high-intensity laser beam and another electrode collects charged particles from the expanding plasma. The two electrodes are separated by a narrow gap forming a capacitor-like configuration and are connected with a conducting wire-coil. The charge-separation in the expanding plasma builds up a potential difference between the electrodes that drives the electrical current in the coil. A magnetic field of tens to hundreds of Teslas generated inside the coil has been reported. This paper presents a simple model that estimates the magnetic field using simple assumptions. The results are compared with the published experimental data.

  10. A simple model for estimating a magnetic field in laser-driven coils

    DOE PAGES

    Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Gao, Lan; ...

    2016-09-26

    Magnetic field generation by laser-driven coils is a promising way of magnetizing plasma in laboratory high-energy-density plasma experiments. A typical configuration consists of two electrodes—one electrode is irradiated with a high-intensity laser beam and another electrode collects charged particles from the expanding plasma. The two electrodes are separated by a narrow gap forming a capacitor-like configuration and are connected with a conducting wire-coil. The charge-separation in the expanding plasma builds up a potential difference between the electrodes that drives the electrical current in the coil. A magnetic field of tens to hundreds of Teslas generated inside the coil has beenmore » reported. This paper presents a simple model that estimates the magnetic field using simple assumptions. Lastly, the results are compared with the published experimental data.« less

  11. A simple model for estimating a magnetic field in laser-driven coils

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao

    2016-09-26

    Magnetic field generation by laser-driven coils is a promising way of magnetizing plasma in laboratory high-energy-density plasma experiments. A typical configuration consists of two electrodes—one electrode is irradiated with a high-intensity laser beam and another electrode collects charged particles from the expanding plasma. The two electrodes are separated by a narrow gap forming a capacitor-like configuration and are connected with a conducting wire-coil. The charge-separation in the expanding plasma builds up a potential difference between the electrodes that drives the electrical current in the coil. A magnetic field of tens to hundreds of Teslas generated inside the coil has been reported. This paper presents a simple model that estimates the magnetic field using simple assumptions. Lastly, the results are compared with the published experimental data.

  12. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Buitink, S.; Huege, T.; Falcke, H; Kuijpers, J.

    2010-02-25

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are accelerated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the electric field on the shower particles. We find that the radio pulse is significantly altered in background fields of the order of ~100 V/cm and higher. Practically, this means that air showers passing through thunderstorms emit radio pulses that are not a reliable measure for the shower energy. Under other weather circumstances significant electric field effects are expected to occur rarely, but nimbostratus clouds can harbor fields that are large enough. In general, the contribution of the electric field to the radio pulse has polarization properties that are different from the geomagnetic pulse. In order to filter out radio pulses that have been affected by electric field effects, radio air shower experiments should keep weatherinformation and perform full polarization measurements of the radio signal.

  13. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V.; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A. Marco

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  14. Empirical models of high latitude electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Model cross sections of the high latitude dawn-dusk electric field based on OGO-6 data are presented for the signature profiles, most frequently encountered for both + and -Y orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Line integrals give a total potential of 76 keV in each case. To illustrate extremes, examples of model cross-sections with total potentials of 23 keV and 140 keV are also given. Model convection patterns are also presented utilizing OGO-6 data on boundary locations at other magnetic local times. When this information is combined with characteristic field geometries in the region of the Harang discontinuity, and is supplemented by data from Ba+ cloud motions in the polar cap, it becomes possible to construct realistic convection patterns on the nightside which deviate from the usual sun-aligned patterns. The observational models presented are of limited applicability as a consequence of the variability of observed distributions. These limitations are emphasized with particular attention given to several types of recurrent deviations which have not previously been discussed.

  15. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  16. Disturbance dynamo electric fields in response to geomagnetic storms occurring at different universal times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Perturbed electric fields in the earth's ionosphere, resulting from the penetration electric fields from high latitudes and/or from the dynamo mechanism driven by the neutral disturbances, occurr in the storm periods. In general, the identification of the penetration electric fields is easier than that of the dynamo electric fields. At times, the latter becomes unperceivable or difficult to identify. This is an interesting problem which motivates a model study to investigate the possible reasons. Model runs made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR/TIEGCM) will be presented. Theoretical studies of ionospheric responses to geomagnetic storms with model simulations indicate that the intensities of disturbance dynamo electric fields are highly dependent on various parameters such as solar activities, seasonal effects and universal times, etc. When geomagnetic storms commence at 01~07 UT in summer solstices with low solar fluxes, the disturbance dynamo electric fields become very small. As compared with the general daily variations, they seem to be unperceivable. This phenomenon can be explained by the model results which show that the positive charge accumulation at low latitudes will be weakened when the equatward neutral disturbances penetrate into the opposite hemisphere in the storm time. For other cases, the magnitudes of the dynamo electric fields are relatively larger under the same geomagnetic activity.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of electrically driven magnetohydrodynamic flow in a modified cylindrical annulus. II. Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, Zacharias; Miralles, Sophie; Cébron, David; Noir, Jérôme; Vantieghem, Stijn; Jackson, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    We present an investigation of the stability of liquid metal flow under the influence of an imposed magnetic field by means of a laboratory experiment as well as a linear stability analysis of the setup using the finite element method. The experimental device ZUrich Cylindrical CHannel INstability Investigation is a modified cylindrical annulus with electrically driven flow of liquid GaInSn operating at Hartmann and Reynolds numbers up to M = 2022 and Re = 2.6 ṡ 105, respectively. The magnetic field gives rise to a free shear layer at the prominent inner electrode. We identify several flow regimes characterized by the nature of the instabilities. Above a critical current I c = O ( 0 . 1 A ) , the steady flow is destabilized by a Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism at the free shear layer. The instability consists of counterrotating vortices traveling with the mean flow. For low forcing, the vortices are restricted to the free shear layer. Their azimuthal wave number m grows with M and decreases with Re. At Re/M ≈ 25, the instability becomes container-filling and energetically significant. It enhances the radial momentum transport which manifests itself in a broadening of the free shear layer width δS. We propose that this transition may be related to an unstable Hartmann layer. At R e / M 2 = O ( 1 ) , an abrupt change is observed in the mean azimuthal velocity < u ϕ ¯ > and the friction factor F, which we interpret as the transition between an inertialess and an inertial regime.

  18. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B D; Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J

    2013-04-21

    Pumping of fluids confined to nanometer dimension spaces is a technically challenging yet vitally important technological application with far reaching consequences for lab-on-a-chip devices, biomimetic nanoscale reactors, nanoscale filtration devices and the like. All current pumping mechanisms require some sort of direct intrusion into the nanofluidic system, and involve mechanical or electronic components. In this paper, we present the first nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results to demonstrate that non-intrusive electropumping of liquid water on the nanoscale can be performed by subtly exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum of the fluid. By selectively tuning the degree of hydrophobicity of the solid walls one can generate a net unidirectional flow. Our results for the linear streaming and angular velocities of the confined water are in general agreement with the extended hydrodynamical theory for this process, though also suggest refinements to the theory are required. These numerical experiments confirm that this new concept for pumping of polar nanofluids can be employed under laboratory conditions, opening up significant new technological possibilities.

  19. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.

    2013-04-01

    Pumping of fluids confined to nanometer dimension spaces is a technically challenging yet vitally important technological application with far reaching consequences for lab-on-a-chip devices, biomimetic nanoscale reactors, nanoscale filtration devices and the like. All current pumping mechanisms require some sort of direct intrusion into the nanofluidic system, and involve mechanical or electronic components. In this paper, we present the first nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results to demonstrate that non-intrusive electropumping of liquid water on the nanoscale can be performed by subtly exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum of the fluid. By selectively tuning the degree of hydrophobicity of the solid walls one can generate a net unidirectional flow. Our results for the linear streaming and angular velocities of the confined water are in general agreement with the extended hydrodynamical theory for this process, though also suggest refinements to the theory are required. These numerical experiments confirm that this new concept for pumping of polar nanofluids can be employed under laboratory conditions, opening up significant new technological possibilities.

  20. Electric field response in bilayer graphene: Ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yutaro; Minamitani, Emi; Ando, Yasunobu; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Stimulated by quantum capacitance measurements, we have investigated the electric properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) with carrier doping under an external electric field using ab initio calculations. We found that the relative permittivity of BLG depends weakly on the applied electric field, and that the BLG can be regarded as a dielectric material rather than a pair of metallic films. We also found that carrier doping affects the band gap of BLG under electric fields, although carrier doping has a much smaller effect on the band gap and density of states than the application of electric fields.

  1. Electric field observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Hanson, W. B.; Saba, Jack L.

    1992-03-01

    Results from the double floating probe experiment performed on the San Marco D satellite are presented, with emphasis on the observation of large incremental changes in the convective electric field vector at the boundary of equatorial plasma bubbles. Attention is given to isolated bubble structures in the upper ionospheric F regions; these observed bubble encounters are divided into two types - type I (live bubbles) and type II (dead bubbles). Type I bubbles show varying degrees of plasma depletion and large upward velocities range up to 1000 km/s. The geometry of these bubbles is such that the spacecraft orbit may cut them where they are tilting either eastward or (more often) westward. Type II bubbles exhibit plasma density depletion but no appreciable upward convection. Both types of events are usually surrounded by a halo of plasma turbulence, which can extend considerably beyond the region of plasma depletion.

  2. Electric field observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Hanson, W. B.; Saba, Jack L.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the double floating probe experiment performed on the San Marco D satellite are presented, with emphasis on the observation of large incremental changes in the convective electric field vector at the boundary of equatorial plasma bubbles. Attention is given to isolated bubble structures in the upper ionospheric F regions; these observed bubble encounters are divided into two types - type I (live bubbles) and type II (dead bubbles). Type I bubbles show varying degrees of plasma depletion and large upward velocities range up to 1000 km/s. The geometry of these bubbles is such that the spacecraft orbit may cut them where they are tilting either eastward or (more often) westward. Type II bubbles exhibit plasma density depletion but no appreciable upward convection. Both types of events are usually surrounded by a halo of plasma turbulence, which can extend considerably beyond the region of plasma depletion.

  3. DC Electric Fields and Associated Plasma Drifts Observed with the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Rowland, D.

    2009-01-01

    Initial DC electric field observations and associated plasma drifts are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite. We present statistical averages of the vector fields for the first year of operations that include both the zonal and radial components of the resulting E x B plasma flows at low latitudes. Magnetic field data from the VEFI science magnetometer are used to compute the plasma flows. The DC electric field detector reveals zonal and radial electric fields that undergo strong diurnal variations, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. There is considerable variation in the large scale DC electric field data, in both the daytime and nighttime cases, with enhanced structures typically observed at night. In general, the measured zonal DC electric field amplitudes include excursions that extend within the 0.4 - 2 m V/m range, corresponding to E x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. The average vertical or radial electric fields may exceed the zonal fields in amplitude by a factor of 1.5 to 2. Although the data compare well, in a general sense, with previous satellite observations and statistical patterns of vertical ion drifts, the E x B drifts we report from C/NOFS rarely show a pronounced pre-reversal enhancement after sunset. We attribute this to a combination of extreme solar minimum conditions and the fact that the C/NOFS orbit of 401 by 867 km carries the probes essentially above the lower altitude regions where the wind-driven dynamo might be expected to create enhanced upwards drifts in the early evening. Evidence for wavenumber 4 tidal effects and other longitudinal signatures have been detected and will be presented. We also discuss off-equatorial electric fields and their relation to the ambient plasma density.

  4. Ordering in linear multipolar colloids driven by an external field.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Waess, O

    2006-08-14

    An approach to describe a linear multipolar colloid driven by an external field is developed by considering a colloid which in absence of the field is low structured and its coupling potential is axially symmetric. The equilibrium correlation of one component of the orientation tensor, self and collective, is computed up to linear order in density, which can be measured in an appropriate light scattering experiment. The self-correlation is written in terms of the second and fourth order parameters. All the equilibrium quantities are computed up to two-body level. This is done by assuming that the two-body equilibrium density function is given by the Boltzmann distribution, whereas the one-body density function is computed as solution of the equilibrium N-body Smoluchowski equation in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. These observables, self and collective, as well as the second and fourth order parameters are able to describe when the colloid would evolve to an orientationally ordered phase. Explicit results for the dipole and quadrupole moments are reported. These results predict a different alignment with the external field for each moment. A relationship is provided between second and fourth order parameters, predicting the critical value of the external field in which the colloid goes into an axially symmetric phase.

  5. Electrically driven light emission from individual CdSe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Doh, Yong-Joo; Maher, Kristin N; Ouyang, Lian; Yu, Chun L; Park, Hongkun; Park, Jiwoong

    2008-12-01

    We report electroluminescence (EL) measurements carried out on three-terminal devices incorporating individual n-type CdSe nanowires. Simultaneous optical and electrical measurements reveal that EL occurs near the contact between the nanowire and a positively biased electrode or drain. The surface potential profile, obtained by using Kelvin probe microscopy, shows an abrupt potential drop near the position of the EL spot, while the band profile obtained from scanning photocurrent microscopy indicates the existence of an n-type Schottky barrier at the interface. These observations indicate that light emission occurs through a hole leakage or an inelastic scattering induced by the rapid potential drop at the nanowire-electrode interface.

  6. IEMDC-IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2003-06-01

    During this reporting period, significant progress has been made towards the development of the IEMDC System design. Considerable effort was put forth by Curtiss-Wright EMD in the resolution of the technical issue of aerodynamically induced radial forces. This has provided a design basis with which to establish the radial magnetic bearing load capacity and the rotordynamic design. Dresser-Rand has made considerable progress on the flowpath design for the compressor section particularly on the volute and inlet aerodynamic design. All efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. These efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design.

  7. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    DOEpatents

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  8. Electrically driven biofouling release of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membrane modified with an electrically induced reversibly cross-linked polymer.

    PubMed

    Chuo, Tsai-Wei; Wei, Ta-Chin; Chang, Yung; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2013-10-23

    Electrically induced reversible reactions between ferrocene (Fc) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) groups have been utilized for preparation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membranes exhibiting electrically driven biofouling release properties. PTFE membrane is surface-modified with polymer chains possessing Fc pendant groups. The surface layer is then cross-linked with a difunctional β-CD compound by means of the Fc/β-CD complexation reaction. The electrically induced reversibly cross-linking and de-cross-linking behaviors of the surface layer of the modified PTFE membrane have been characterized with Fourier transform Infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The surface-modified PTFE membrane has been fouled with protein absorption. Electrical treatment of the fouled membrane results in a protein detachment from the membrane surface driven by the surface structure change accompanied with the electrically induced de-cross-linking reaction of the Fc/β-CD linkages. A smart membrane exhibiting a novel cleaning technology for membrane fouling has been developed.

  9. Uplift and Outflow of Bacterial Spores via Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehel, T.

    The questions of how did life arise and is there life on other planets are some of the most profound questions that humanity asks Although there has been controversial signs of past bacterial life in meteorites which originated on Mars and there are current claims of bacterial life high in the atmosphere the issues of origin by chemical process or contamination make these types of results arguable and they will likely remain that way until a comprehensive theory is developed to explain why the claims might be true This paper proposes a complete theory for the spread of bacterial life throughout the galaxy by combining current knowledge from the fields of bacteriology stellar evolution and space weather Here we show the possibility that the forces of uplift on a charged bacteria particle are sufficient bring at least some lighter types of bacteria high into the ionosphere and subsequently move the charged spore onto magnetic field lines The bacteria spore is then driven down the magnetotail where during a solar storm a structure known as a plasmoid is propelled radially outward into space at velocities exceeding solar system escape velocity From that point the plasmoids are capable of reaching Mars the outer planets and even others systems eventually depositing the bacterial spores either via comets or direct interaction with the receiving planet The solid observational evidence for the strength of the electric fields and the speeds that the plasmoids leave the magnetotail during geomagnetic storms provide a firm

  10. Detection and learning of floral electric fields by bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Dominic; Whitney, Heather; Sutton, Gregory; Robert, Daniel

    2013-04-05

    Insects use several senses to forage, detecting floral cues such as color, shape, pattern, and volatiles. We report a formerly unappreciated sensory modality in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), detection of floral electric fields. These fields act as floral cues, which are affected by the visit of naturally charged bees. Like visual cues, floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We also show that such electric field information contributes to the complex array of floral cues that together improve a pollinator's memory of floral rewards. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this sensory modality may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.

  11. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T. P.; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.

    2014-04-01

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow vi, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow ve can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J ×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×ve×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δBz. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  12. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, T. P. Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  13. Properties of a field emission-driven Townsend discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David

    2012-10-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current (DC) microplasmas with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties such as ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that ionizing collisions by field-emitted electrons produce significant ion densities well before Paschen's criteria for breakdown is met. When positive space charge densities become sufficiently large, the effect of ion-enhanced field emission leads to breakdown. Defining breakdown mathematically using a solvability condition leads to a full modified Paschen's curve, while defining it physically in terms of a critical ion density leads analytically to an effective secondary emission coefficient, γ', of the form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk.footnotetextBoyle, W.S. and Kisliuk, P., Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955).

  14. Electrically driven magnetization dynamics in yttrium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias Benjamin

    Creation and manipulation of magnetization states by spin-orbital torques are important for novel spintronics applications. Magnetic insulators were mostly ignored for this particular purpose, despite their low Gilbert damping, which makes them outstanding materials for magnonic applications and investigation of nonlinear spin-wave phenomena. Here, we demonstrate the propagation of spin-wave modes in micro-structured yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12,YIG) stripes. Spin waves propagating along the long side of the stripe are detected by means of spatially-resolved Brillouin light scattering (BLS) microscopy. The propagation distance of spin waves is determined in the linear regime, where an exponential decay of 10 μm is observed. We also explored the possibility of driving magnetization dynamics with spin Hall effects (SHE) in bilayers of YIG/Pt microstructures. For this purpose we adopted a spin-transfer torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) approach. Here a rf charge current is passed through the Pt layer, which generates a spin-transfer torque at the interface from an oscillating spin current via the SHE. This gives rise to a resonant excitation of the magnetization dynamics. In all metallic systems the magnetization dynamics is detected via the homodyne anisotropic magnetoresistance of the ferromagnetic layer. However, since there is no charge flowing through ferromagnetic insulators there is no anisotropic magnetoresistance. Instead, we show that for the case of YIG/Pt the spin Hall magnetoresistance can be used. Our measured voltage spectra can be well fitted to an analytical model evidencing that the ST-FMR concept can be extended to insulating systems. Furthermore, we employ spatially-resolved BLS spectroscopy to map the ST-FMR driven spin dynamics. We observe the formation of a strong, self-localized spin-wave intensity in the center of the sample. This spin-wave `bullet' is created due to nonlinear cross coupling of eigenmodes existing in the magnetic

  15. Static electric field detection and behavioural avoidance in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Newland, Philip L; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman M; Hama, Noriyuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Jackson, Christopher W

    2008-12-01

    Electric fields are pervasively present in the environment and occur both as a result of man-made activities and through natural occurrence. We have analysed the behaviour of cockroaches to static electric fields and determined the physiological mechanisms that underlie their behavioural responses. The behaviour of animals in response to electric fields was tested using a Y-choice chamber with an electric field generated in one arm of the chamber. Locomotory behaviour and avoidance were affected by the magnitude of the electric fields with up to 85% of individuals avoiding the charged arm when the static electric field at the entrance to the arm was above 8-10 kV m(-1). Electric fields were found to cause a deflection of the antennae but when the antennae were surgically ablated, the ability of cockroaches to avoid electric fields was abolished. Fixation of various joints of the antennae indicated that hair plate sensory receptors at the base of the scape were primarily responsible for the detection of electric fields, and when antennal movements about the head-scape joint were prevented cockroaches failed to avoid electric fields. To overcome the technical problem of not being able to carry out electrophysiological analysis in the presence of electric fields, we developed a procedure using magnetic fields combined with the application of iron particles to the antennae to deflect the antennae and analyse the role of thoracic interneurones in signalling this deflection. The avoidance of electric fields in the context of high voltage power lines is discussed.

  16. A new probe for measuring small electric fields in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    A dipolar double probe has been developed for in situ measurements of small electric fields in laboratory plasmas. The probe measures dc to ac electric fields (f values between 0 and 20 MHz) with high sensitivity (Emin about 10 microV/cm) and responds to both space charge electric fields and inductive electric fields. Using voltage-to-frequency conversion, the probe signal is obtained free of errors and loading effects by a transmission line. Various examples of useful applications for the new probe are presented, such as measurements of dc ambipolar fields, ac space-charge fields of ion acoustic waves, ac inductive fields of whistler waves, and mixed inductive and space-charge electric fields in current-carrying magnetoplasmas.

  17. Studying electric field enhancement factor of the nanostructured emission surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zartdinov, A. N.; Nikiforov, K. A.

    2016-08-01

    Mathematical model of nanostructured field emission surface is proposed. In order to determine geometrical parameters of the surface structure digital processing of scanning electron microscopy images was used. Effective value of local electrical field enhancement factor is defined and calculated within the Fowler-Nordheim theory. It was found effective enhancement factor decreases as the applied electrical field increases for a fixed geometry.

  18. Microbial ecology meets electrochemistry: electricity-driven and driving communities.

    PubMed

    Rabaey, Korneel; Rodríguez, Jorge; Blackall, Linda L; Keller, Jurg; Gross, Pamela; Batstone, Damien; Verstraete, Willy; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2007-05-01

    Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) have recently emerged as an exciting technology. In a BES, bacteria interact with electrodes using electrons, which are either removed or supplied through an electrical circuit. The most-described type of BES is microbial fuel cells (MFCs), in which useful power is generated from electron donors as, for example, present in wastewater. This form of charge transport, known as extracellular electron transfer, was previously extensively described with respect to metals such as iron and manganese. The importance of these interactions in global biogeochemical cycles is essentially undisputed. A wide variety of bacteria can participate in extracellular electron transfer, and this phenomenon is far more widespread than previously thought. The use of BESs in diverse research projects is helping elucidate the mechanism by which bacteria shuttle electrons externally. New forms of interactions between bacteria have been discovered demonstrating how multiple populations within microbial communities can co-operate to achieve energy generation. New environmental processes that were difficult to observe or study previously can now be simulated and improved via BESs. Whereas pure culture studies make up the majority of the studies performed thus far, even greater contributions of BESs are expected to occur in natural environments and with mixed microbial communities. Owing to their versatility, unmatched level of control and capacity to sustain novel processes, BESs might well serve as the foundation of a new environmental biotechnology. While highlighting some of the major breakthroughs and addressing only recently obtained data, this review points out that despite rapid progress, many questions remain unanswered.

  19. Microscopic mechanism on coalescence of the nano-droplets in present non-uniform electric field by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qicheng; Ma, Jie; Wang, Bingbing; Zhang, Yingjin

    2016-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the nano-droplets coalescence process in a non-uniform electric field. Coalescence of droplets driven by dielectrophoresis (DEP) could be observed clearly in a strong electric field. The efficiency of coalescence is remarkably improved about 2 times for non-uniform electric field as much as the efficiency for the uniform electric field. Increasing the gradient of the field, it is found that the DEP force will accelerate the droplets motion of coalescence. But when the gradient of the field increases to a certain degree, the DEP force acting on the droplets presents strongly and rapidly nonlinear increasing and induces the droplets forming the chain structure due to intensively elongating. Moreover, the average operating voltages is much lower in non-uniform electric field.

  20. Lattice vacancies in silicon film exposed to external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuliang; Caliste, Damien; Pochet, Pascal

    2013-07-01

    Density functional calculations based on wavelet basis set are performed to investigate the structure, internal electric-charge distribution, and formation energy of lattice vacancies in silicon film under electric fields. It was found that the formation energies of vacancies both in JT⊥ (Jahn-Teller distortion orthogonal to electric field) and JT‖ (Jahn-Teller distortion parallel to electric field) distortions are decreased with the increasing of field strength, due to the charge polarization in the whole space of silicon film. For the split vacancy, it can lower its energy by moving further away from the split space to form a tetragonal JT⊥ vacancy under electric field. Our results also demonstrate the importance of the potential fluctuations induced by the electric fields on the charge redistribution within the vacancy defects.

  1. Introduction to extremely-low-frequency electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1989-07-01

    The interaction with living systems of electromagnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) range below 300 Hz will be summarized briefly in this paper. In materials with the electrical and magnetic properties of living tissues, these fields have a long wavelength (5000 m) and skin depth (150 m). As a consequence, in their interactions with humans and other living organisms ELF fields behave as though they are composed of independent electric and magnetic components of an ELF field is commonly referred to as the quasi-static approximation,'' which permits the radiating properties of the field to be neglected in describing its interaction with living organisms. The electric and magnetic components of an ELF field have several distinctly different features in their interactions with humans and other living organisms. First, the electrical conductivity of tissue is approximately 14 to 15 orders of magnitude greater than that of air at ELF electric fields. Consequently, the body behaves like a good electrical conductor in ELF electric fields. As a result, an electrical charge is developed on the surface of a living object in an external ELF field, but the electric field penetrates into the body only to a very limited extent.

  2. Strong Peak Electric Field in Streamer Discharges Caused by Rapid Changes in the External Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Celestin, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory spark discharges in air and lightning stepped leaders produce X-rays [e.g., Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L20809, 2005; Nguyen et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41, 234012, 2008; Rahman et al., GRL, 35, L06805, 2008; March and Montanyà, GRL, 37, L19801, 2010; 38, L04803, 2011; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl., 45, 425202, 2012; 48, 025205, 2015]. However, the processes behind the production of these X-rays are still not fully understood. Recently, the encounter between negative and positive streamers has been suggested as a plausible mechanism for the production of X-rays by spark discharges [Cooray et al., JASTP, 71, 1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012], but the increase of the electric field involved in this process is accompanied by a strong increase of the conductivity, which in turn makes this electric field collapse over a few tens of picoseconds, preventing the production of significant X-ray emissions [Ihaddadene and Celestin, GRL, 45, 5644, 2015]. Moreover, it has been reported that X-ray emission in laboratory spark discharges is influenced by the time derivative of the applied voltage [March and Montanya, GRL, 37, L19801, 2010]. Additionally, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011, Section 3.3] have indicated that quickly increasing applied voltages had an impact on peak electric fields in streamer numerical models. In this work, we simulate numerically the effect of impulsive applied electric fields on the dynamics of streamer discharges in air at ground level and investigate conditions under which production of thermal runaway electrons and the associated X-rays is possible.

  3. Electric field induced bacterial flocculation of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aloke; Mortensen, Ninell P; Mukherjee, Partha P; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2011-01-01

    A response of the aggregation dynamics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli under low magnitude steady and oscillating electric fields is presented. The presence of uniform electric fields hampered microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on a transverse glass surface, but instead promoted the formation of flocs. Extremely heterogeneous distribution of live and dead cells was observed among the flocs. Moreover, floc formation was largely observed to be independent of the frequency of alternating electric fields.

  4. IEMDC -IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2004-01-01

    Dresser-Rand completed the preliminary aerodynamic flowpath of the volute and inlet design for the compressor section. This has resulted in considerable progress being made on the development of the compressor section and ultimately towards the successful integration of the IEMDC System design. Significant effort was put forth in the design of aerodynamic components which resulted in a design that meets the limits of aerodynamically induced radial forces previously established. Substantial effort has begun on the mechanical design of the compressor pressure containing case and other internal components. These efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. All efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design. During the third quarter reporting period, the focus was to further refine the motor design and to ensure that the IEMDC rotor system supported on magnetic bearing is in compliance with the critical speed and vibration requirements of the API standards 617 and 541. Consequently specification to design magnetic bearings was developed and an RFQ to three magnetic bearing suppliers was issued. Considerable work was also performed to complete preliminary reports on some of the deliverable tasks under phase 1.0. These include specification for the VFD, RFQ for the magnetic bearings, and preliminary write-up for motor instrumentation and control schematic. In order to estimate motor efficiency at various operating points, plots of calculated motor losses, and motor cooling gas flow rates were also prepared. Preliminary evaluations of motor support concepts were performed via FEA to determine modal frequencies. Presentation was made at DOE Morgantown on August 12, 2003 to provide project status update. Preparations for the IEMDC motor-compressor presentation, at the GMRC conference in Salt Lake City to be held on October 5, 2003, were also

  5. FLARES IN THE CRAB NEBULA DRIVEN BY UNTWISTING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, Peter; Aschwanden, Markus J. E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com

    2012-06-01

    The recent discovery of PeV electrons from the Crab Nebula, produced on rapid timescales of one day or less with a sharply peaked gamma-ray spectrum without hard X-rays, challenges traditional models of diffusive shock acceleration followed by synchrotron radiation. Here, we outline an acceleration model involving a DC electric field parallel to the magnetic field in a twisted toroidal field around the pulsar. Sudden developments of resistivity in localized regions of the twisted field are thought to drive the particle acceleration, up to PeV energies, resulting in flares. This model can reproduce the observed timescales of T Almost-Equal-To 1 day, the peak photon energies of U{sub {Phi},rr} Almost-Equal-To 1 MeV, maximum electron energies of U{sub e,rr} Almost-Equal-To 1 PeV, and luminosities of L Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}.

  6. Initial Determinations of Ionospheric Electric Fields and Joule Heating from MAVEN Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Fogle, A. L.; Aleryani, O.; Dunn, P.; Lillis, R. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.

    2015-12-01

    MAVEN provides in-situ measurements of the neutral and ion species as well as the magnetic field throughout the ionosphere of Mars. By combining these measurements, we are able to calculate both the ionospheric currents and the ionospheric conductivity. It is then straightforward to determine the electric field in the collisional ionosphere from a simplified Ohm's law. In addition, we can also estimate the amount of Joule heating in the ionosphere from j · E. Here, we show initial determinations of both ionospheric electric fields and Joule heating using MAVEN data. The electric fields are highly variable from orbit-to-orbit suggesting that the ionospheric electrodynamics can change on timescales of several hours. These changes may be driven by changes in the upstream solar wind and IMF or may result from dynamical variations of thermospheric neutral winds.

  7. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  8. Spectral studies of the sources of ionospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kelley, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    Spectral analyses (applying the Fourier analysis methods) were performed on three incoherent scatter radar data sets (obtained at Jicamarca, Peru; Chatanika, Alaska; and Arecibo, Puerto Rico) with the aim of investigating the origin of ionospheric electric fields in the frequency range of 0.01-2 cycles/h. In quiet times, atmospheric gravity waves appeared to be the most likely source of the ionospheric electric field. This hypothesis was tested by a direct simultaneous comparison of measurements of gravity waves in the mesosphere and of electric fields in the thermosphere during very quiet conditions. The results indicated that a gravity wave source is a plausible candidate for the electric field fluctuations.

  9. Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  10. Two-level systems driven by large-amplitude fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, F.; Ashhab, S.; Johansson, J. R.; Zagoskin, A. M.

    2009-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a two-level system subject to driving by large-amplitude external fields, focusing on the resonance properties in the case of driving around the region of avoided level crossing. In particular, we consider three main questions that characterize resonance dynamics: (1) the resonance condition, (2) the frequency of the resulting oscillations on resonance, and (3) the width of the resonance. We identify the regions of validity of different approximations. In a large region of the parameter space, we use a geometric picture in order to obtain both a simple understanding of the dynamics and quantitative results. The geometric approach is obtained by dividing the evolution into discrete time steps, with each time step described by either a phase shift on the basis states or a coherent mixing process corresponding to a Landau-Zener crossing. We compare the results of the geometric picture with those of a rotating wave approximation. We also comment briefly on the prospects of employing strong driving as a useful tool to manipulate two-level systems. S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, A.M. Zagoskin, F. Nori, Two-level systems driven by large-amplitude fields, Phys. Rev. A 75, 063414 (2007). S. Ashhab et al, unpublished.

  11. Extracting nucleon magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities from lattice QCD in background electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Detmold, W.; Tiburzi, B. C.; Walker-Loud, A.

    2010-03-01

    Nucleon properties are investigated in background electric fields. As the magnetic moments of baryons affect their relativistic propagation in constant electric fields, electric polarizabilities cannot be determined without knowledge of magnetic moments. This is analogous to the experimental situation, for which determination of polarizabilities from the Compton amplitude requires subtraction of Born terms. With the background field method, we devise combinations of nucleon correlation functions in constant electric fields that isolate magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities. Using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions, we demonstrate how both observables can be determined from lattice QCD simulations in background electric fields. We obtain results for the neutron and proton, however, our study is currently limited to electrically neutral sea quarks. The value we extract for the nucleon isovector magnetic moment is comparable to those obtained from measuring lattice three-point functions at similar pion masses.

  12. Pulsed electric field assisted assembly of polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kazmer, David O; Barry, Carol M F; Mead, Joey L

    2012-08-24

    Assembling conducting polyaniline (PANi) on pre-patterned nano-structures by a high rate, commercially viable route offers an opportunity for manufacturing devices with nanoscale features. In this work we report for the first time the use of pulsed electric field to assist electrophoresis for the assembly of conducting polyaniline on gold nanowire interdigitated templates. This technique offers dynamic control over heat build-up, which has been a main drawback in the DC electrophoresis and AC dielectrophoresis as well as the main cause of nanowire template damage. The use of this technique allowed higher voltages to be applied, resulting in shorter assembly times (e.g., 17.4 s, assembly resolution of 100 nm). Moreover, the area coverage increases with the increase in number of pulses. A similar trend was observed with the deposition height and the increase in deposition height followed a linear trend with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. When the experimental mass deposited was compared with Hamaker's theoretical model, the two were found to be very close. The pre-patterned templates with PANi deposition were subsequently used to transfer the nanoscale assembled PANi from the rigid templates to thermoplastic polyurethane using the thermoforming process.

  13. Pulsed electric field assisted assembly of polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Kazmer, David O.; Barry, Carol M. F.; Mead, Joey L.

    2012-08-01

    Assembling conducting polyaniline (PANi) on pre-patterned nano-structures by a high rate, commercially viable route offers an opportunity for manufacturing devices with nanoscale features. In this work we report for the first time the use of pulsed electric field to assist electrophoresis for the assembly of conducting polyaniline on gold nanowire interdigitated templates. This technique offers dynamic control over heat build-up, which has been a main drawback in the DC electrophoresis and AC dielectrophoresis as well as the main cause of nanowire template damage. The use of this technique allowed higher voltages to be applied, resulting in shorter assembly times (e.g., 17.4 s, assembly resolution of 100 nm). Moreover, the area coverage increases with the increase in number of pulses. A similar trend was observed with the deposition height and the increase in deposition height followed a linear trend with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. When the experimental mass deposited was compared with Hamaker’s theoretical model, the two were found to be very close. The pre-patterned templates with PANi deposition were subsequently used to transfer the nanoscale assembled PANi from the rigid templates to thermoplastic polyurethane using the thermoforming process.

  14. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  15. Electric Field and Density Measurements with STEREO-SWaves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Bale, S. D.; Maksimovic, M.

    2007-12-01

    The STEREO experiment SWaves has a low frequency part which is designed to make measurements of low frequency electric fields and rapid measurements of density fluctuations, using the three 6 meter stacer monopole antennas. The short antennas of STEREO respond both to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Therefore, it is desired to obtain four quantities, density and 3 components of electric field, from three measurements, the potentials on the three orthogonal antennas relative to the spacecraft, which requires some additional information. One possibility is to add a fourth equation implied by the large plasma conductivity, so large that electric field parallel to the magnetic field is zero, a condition which has often been used in electric field measurements. Under selected conditions, this seems to work. There are also conditions, for example ion acoustic waves, where the responses to density fluctuations and to electric fields are available from dispersion relations, and this provides another possible solution. A situation where it is not likely that the parallel electric field is zero is the case of solitary, intense bursts of Langmuir waves. For this case, it is expected that there is an electron density depression due to the ponderomotive pressure, and a resulting low frequency electric field from the non-neutrality which would be expected to have components parallel to the magnetic field. Examples will be discussed.

  16. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  17. Storage of an electric field for photocurrent generation in ferroelectric-functionalized organic devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Laigui; Dalgleish, Simon; Matsushita, Michio M; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Organic optoelectronic devices are usually driven by the electric field generated from an electrode potential difference or bias voltage. Although poled ferroelectric domains may produce oriented stray fields, few efforts have been made to utilize them for photocurrent generation in organic devices. Here we show that large net fields caused by incomplete screening during ferroelectric polarization, and which can be 'restored' by short voltage pulses, can facilitate exciton dissociation in organic semiconductors. The oriented fields, comparable with that produced by an electrode potential difference (1~10 MV m(-1)), here are found to be responsible for the photocurrent in our devices. A prototype for an organic photodetector driven by such stray fields is demonstrated. The photoresponsivity, without any optimization, can achieve ~0.1 mA W(-1). This study provides a different operation principle for the generation of photocurrent in organic optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, the polarity-tunable photoresponse may lead to new photoresponsive memory devices.

  18. Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Non-collisional heating and energization of ions is a powerful process in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas and in many astrophysical settings. Tearing activity in the RFP (including linearly and nonlinearly driven modes which span the plasma column) saturates through dynamo-like feedback on the current density profile, rapidly releasing magnetic energy and inducing a strong impulsive, parallel-to-B electric field as poloidal magnetic flux is converted to toroidal flux. The global reconnection leads to strong ion heating with a known anisotropy in temperature (T⊥ >T| |), suggestive of a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism. In the subset of strongest reconnection events, multiple mechanisms combine to create a most interesting ion distribution. Runaway of the reduced-friction naturally-heated ions generates an asymmetric ion tail with E|| >>E⊥ . The tail is reinforced by a confinement asymmetry where runaway ions approach the limit of classical cross-field transport despite magnetic stochasticity from the broad spectrum of tearing modes. Confinement is lower in other regions of the v⊥ /v| | plane and reduces to Rechester-Rosenbluth-like transport experienced by thermal particles. Experiments with neutral beam injection elegantly confirm the ion runaway process and fast ion confinement characteristics in MST. Neutral particle analyzers measure an unrestricted parallel acceleration of the fast test particle distribution during the reconnection event. The energy gain is larger for higher initial ion energy (reduced drag), and deceleration is observed with reversed electric field (counter-current injection) according to runaway dynamics and confirmed with Fokker-Planck modeling. Full orbit test particle tracing in the 3D time evolving electric and magnetic fields (from visco-resistive MHD simulations) corroborates the understanding of fast ion confinement. Work supported by by US DoE and NSF.

  19. Design of pressure-driven microfluidic networks using electric circuit analogy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang W; Lee, Kangsun; Ahn, Byungwook; Furlani, Edward P

    2012-02-07

    This article reviews the application of electric circuit methods for the analysis of pressure-driven microfluidic networks with an emphasis on concentration- and flow-dependent systems. The application of circuit methods to microfluidics is based on the analogous behaviour of hydraulic and electric circuits with correlations of pressure to voltage, volumetric flow rate to current, and hydraulic to electric resistance. Circuit analysis enables rapid predictions of pressure-driven laminar flow in microchannels and is very useful for designing complex microfluidic networks in advance of fabrication. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the physics of pressure-driven laminar flow, the formal analogy between electric and hydraulic circuits, applications of circuit theory to microfluidic network-based devices, recent development and applications of concentration- and flow-dependent microfluidic networks, and promising future applications. The lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and microfluidics community will gain insightful ideas and practical design strategies for developing unique microfluidic network-based devices to address a broad range of biological, chemical, pharmaceutical, and other scientific and technical challenges.

  20. Reversible electrically-driven magnetic domain wall rotation in multiferroic heterostructures to manipulate suspended on-chip magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Mark; Sohn, Hyunmin; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Hockel, Joshua; Wetzlar, Kyle; Keller, Scott; McLellan, Brenda; Marcus, Matthew; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kläui, Mathias; Carman, Gregory; Bokor, Jeffrey; Candler, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate reversible electrically-driven, strain-mediated domain wall (DW) rotation in Ni rings fabricated on piezoelectric [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.66-[PbTiO3]0.34 (PMN-PT) substrates. An electric field applied across the PMN-PT substrate induces a strain in the Ni rings producing DW rotation around the ring toward the dominant PMN-PT strain axis by inverse magnetostriction. We observe DWs reversibly cycled between their initial and rotated state as a function of the applied electric field with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photo-emission electron microscopy. The DW rotation is analytically predicted using a fully coupled micromagnetic/elastodyanmic multi-physics simulation to verify that the experimental behavior is caused by the electrically-generated strain in this multiferroic system. Finally, this DW rotation is used to capture and manipulate magnetic particles in a fluidic environment to demonstrate a proof-of-concept energy-efficient pathway for multiferroic-based lab-on-a-chip applications. Supported by TANMS (NSF 11-537), E3S, US Dept of Energy (DE-AC02-05CH11231), EU, and DFG.

  1. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  2. Nonlinear spin control by terahertz-driven anisotropy fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baierl, S.; Hohenleutner, M.; Kampfrath, T.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Kimel, A. V.; Huber, R.; Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.

    2016-11-01

    Future information technologies, such as ultrafast data recording, quantum computation or spintronics, call for ever faster spin control by light. Intense terahertz pulses can couple to spins on the intrinsic energy scale of magnetic excitations. Here, we explore a novel electric dipole-mediated mechanism of nonlinear terahertz-spin coupling that is much stronger than linear Zeeman coupling to the terahertz magnetic field. Using the prototypical antiferromagnet thulium orthoferrite (TmFeO3), we demonstrate that resonant terahertz pumping of electronic orbital transitions modifies the magnetic anisotropy for ordered Fe3+ spins and triggers large-amplitude coherent spin oscillations. This mechanism is inherently nonlinear, it can be tailored by spectral shaping of the terahertz waveforms and its efficiency outperforms the Zeeman torque by an order of magnitude. Because orbital states govern the magnetic anisotropy in all transition-metal oxides, the demonstrated control scheme is expected to be applicable to many magnetic materials.

  3. Nanoscale Electric Field Sensor-Development and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brame, Jon; Woods, Nathan

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this project is to test a carbon nanotube based electric field sensing device. The device consists of a miniature gold needle suspended on a mat of carbon nanotubes over a trench on a Si/Si02 substrate. Field tests were made by recording the electric field inside dust devils in a Nevada desert, and those electric fields were simulated in a lab environment. Further tests to determine the device sensitivity were performed by manually manipulating the gold needle with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tip. We report on fabrication techniques, field and lab test results and AFM testing results.

  4. Simultaneous electric-field measurements on nearby balloons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Electric-field payloads were flown simultaneously on two balloons from Great Whale River, Canada, on September 21, 1971, to provide data at two points in the upper atmosphere that differed in altitude by more than one atmospheric density scale height and in horizontal position by 30-140 km. The altitude dependences in the two sets of data prove conclusively that the vertical electric field at balloon altitudes stems from fair-weather atmospheric electricity sources and that the horizontal fields are mapped down ionospheric fields, since the weather-associated horizontal fields were smaller than 2 mV/m.

  5. Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.; Kim, J.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Sears, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    While reconnection-driven ion heating is common in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, the underlying mechanisms for converting magnetic to kinetic energy remain not fully understood. Reversed field pinch discharges are often characterized by rapid ion heating during impulsive reconnection, generating an ion distribution with an enhanced bulk temperature, mainly perpendicular to magnetic field. In the Madison Symmetric Torus, a subset of discharges with the strongest reconnection events develop a very anisotropic, high energy tail parallel to magnetic field in addition to bulk perpendicular heating, which produces a fusion neutron flux orders of magnitude higher than that expected from a Maxwellian distribution. Here, we demonstrate that two factors in addition to a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism must be considered to explain this distribution. First, ion runaway can occur in the strong parallel-to-B electric field induced by a rapid equilibrium change triggered by reconnection-based relaxation; this effect is particularly strong on perpendicularly heated ions which experience a reduced frictional drag relative to bulk ions. Second, the confinement of ions varies dramatically as a function of velocity. Whereas thermal ions are governed by stochastic diffusion along tearing-altered field lines (and radial diffusion increases with parallel speed), sufficiently energetic ions are well confined, only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field. High energy ions traveling mainly in the direction of toroidal plasma current are nearly classically confined, while counter-propagating ions experience an intermediate confinement, greater than that of thermal ions but significantly less than classical expectations. The details of ion confinement tend to reinforce the asymmetric drive of the parallel electric field, resulting in a very asymmetric, anisotropic distribution.

  6. Sizing Power Components of an Electrically Driven Tail Cone Thruster and a Range Extender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Bowman, Cheryl; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The aeronautics industry has been challenged on many fronts to increase efficiency, reduce emissions, and decrease dependency on carbon-based fuels. This paper provides an overview of the turboelectric and hybrid electric technologies being developed under NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) Project and discusses how these technologies can impact vehicle design. The discussion includes an overview of key hybrid electric studies and technology investments, the approach to making informed investment decisions based on key performance parameters and mission studies, and the power system architectures for two candidate aircraft. Finally, the power components for a single-aisle turboelectric aircraft with an electrically driven tail cone thruster and for a hybrid-electric nine-passenger aircraft with a range extender are parametrically sized, and the sensitivity of these components to key parameters is presented.

  7. Disrupting long-range polar order with an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long-Qing; Hong, Wei; Tan, Xiaoli

    2016-05-01

    Electric fields are known to favor long-range polar order through the aligning of electric dipoles in relation to Coulomb's force. Therefore, it would be surprising to observe a disordered polar state induced from an ordered state by electric fields. Here we show such an unusual phenomenon in a polycrystalline oxide where electric fields induce a ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition. The nonergodic relaxor phase with disordered dipoles appears as an intermediate state under electric fields during polarization reversal of the ferroelectric phase. Using the phenomenological theory, the underlying mechanism for this unexpected behavior can be attributed to the slow kinetics of the ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition, as well as its competition against domain switching during electric reversal. The demonstrated material could also serve as a model system to study the transient stages in first-order phase transitions; the slow kinetics does not require the use of sophisticated ultrafast tools.

  8. Rocket borne instrument to measure electric fields inside electrified clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhnke, L. H. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the electric field in the atmosphere which includes a pair of sensors carried on a rocket for sensing the voltages in the atmosphere being measured is described. One of the sensors is an elongated probe with a fine point which causes a corona current to be produced as it passes through the electric field. An electric circuit is coupled between the probe and the other sensor and includes a high ohm resistor which linearizes the relationship between the corona current and the electric field being measured. A relaxation oscillator and transmitter are provided for generating and transmitting an electric signal having a frequency corresponding to the magnitude of the electric field.

  9. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

  10. Dipole Relaxation in an Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Derives an expression for the orientational entropy of a rigid rod (electric dipole) from Boltzmann's equation. Subsequent application of Newton's second law of motion produces Debye's classical expression for the relaxation of an electric dipole in a viscous medium. (Author/GS)

  11. Middle atmospheric electric fields over thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    This grant has supported a variety of investigations all having to do with the external electrodynamics of thunderstorms. The grant was a continuation of work begun while the PI was at the Aerospace Corporation (under NASA Grant NAS6-3109) and the general line of investigation continues today under NASA Grants NAG5-685 and NAG6-111. This report will briefly identify the subject areas of the research and associated results. The period actually covered by the grant NAG5-604 included the following analysis and flights: (1) analysis of five successful balloon flights in 1980 and 1981 (under the predecessor NASA grant) in the stratosphere over thunderstorms; (2) development and flight of the Hy-wire tethered balloon system for direct measurement of the atmospheric potential to 250 kV (this involved multiple tethered balloon flight periods from 1981 through 1986 from several locations including Wallops Island, VA, Poker Flat and Ft. Greely, AK and Holloman AFB, NM.); (3) balloon flights in the stratosphere over thunderstorms to measure vector electric fields and associated parameters in 1986 (2 flights), 1987 (4 flights), and 1988 (2 flights); and (4) rocket-borne optical lightning flash detectors on two rocket flights (1987 and 1988) (the same detector design that was used for the balloon flights listed under #3). In summary this grant supported 8 stratospheric zero-pressure balloon flights, tethered aerostat flights every year between 1982-1985, instruments on 2 rockets, and analysis of data from 6 stratospheric flights in 1980/81.

  12. Electric and Magnetic Fields | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-31

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are a combination of electric and magnetic fields of energy that surround any electrical device when it is plugged in and turned on. Scientific experiments have not clearly shown whether or not exposure to EMF increases cancer risk. Scientists continue to study the issue.

  13. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  14. Parallel electric field in flux restoration during ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.; Zaniquelli, M.E.D. ); Galembeck, F. )

    1991-01-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane permeability may be restored by applying an electric field parallel to the plane of the membrane in the feed compartment of ultrafiltration cells. Two different electrode arrangements are described. Under some conditions, flux restoration is complete. An electric field parallel to the membrane can thus be used to eliminate membrane polarization and fouling.

  15. Electric-field-vector measurement in a glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, B.N.; Garscadden, A.

    1985-10-01

    The magnetic quantum number selection rule implies that radiation that is linearly polarized perpendicular to the electric field will not excite ..delta..m = 0 transitions. This phenomenon in Stark spectra has been used to determine the electric field vector in a positive column dc discharge in helium. The technique is applicable to both linear and nonlinear Stark effects.

  16. Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmijn, Ad. J.

    1982-11-01

    Sharks, skates, and rays receive electrical information about the positions of their prey, the drift of ocean currents, and their magnetic compass headings. At sea, dogfish and blue sharks were observed to execute apparent feeding responses to dipole electric fields designed to mimic prey. In training experiments, stingrays showed the ability to orient relative to uniform electric fields similar to those produced by ocean currents. Voltage gradients of only 5 nanovolts per centimeter would elicit either behavior.

  17. Exploiting Electric and Magnetic Fields for Underwater Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    numerical models in order to quantify the practical limits on standoff excitation for induction coil (magnetic dipole) and electrode (electric dipole...commercially available electric (Ag/AgCl electrodes) and magnetic (wideband induction coil B-field sensors) receivers formed an initial testbed for...improved performance using an electric field source rather than marinized versions of terrestrial induction coil sources (e.g., EM-61S).  Interaction with

  18. Dynamic modeling of optically pumped electrically driven terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadou, A.; Thobel, J.-L.; Lamari, S.

    2017-03-01

    Based on our four-level rate equations model, we analyze through numerical simulations the dynamics of the electron density, population inversion and terahertz intensity present within the cavity of a mid-infrared optically pumped electrically driven THz quantum cascade laser. We find in particular that the mid-infrared pump intensity influences significantly the dynamical behavior of the present device. Moreover, compared to its homologue, the conventional electrically injected THz quantum cascade laser, this system presents much faster dynamics. In addition, within the premises of our model, we derive in the most general case the equation that allows for the determination of the turn-on delay time tth.

  19. Parametric Resonances of a Conductive Pipe Driven by an Alternating Magnetic Field in the Presence of a Static Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2012-01-01

    The parametric oscillations of an oscillator driven electromagnetically are presented. The oscillator is a conductive pipe hung from a spring, and driven by the oscillating magnetic field of a surrounding coil in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is an interesting case of parametric oscillations since the pipe is neither a magnet nor a…

  20. Mechanics of water pore formation in lipid membrane under electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Bing; Li, Dechang; Diao, Jiajie; Ji, Baohua

    2017-02-01

    Transmembrane water pores are crucial for substance transport through cell membranes via membrane fusion, such as in neural communication. However, the molecular mechanism of water pore formation is not clear. In this study, we apply all-atom molecular dynamics and bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to study the process of water pore formation under an electric field. We show that water molecules can enter a membrane under an electric field and form a water pore of a few nanometers in diameter. These water molecules disturb the interactions between lipid head groups and the ordered arrangement of lipids. Following the movement of water molecules, the lipid head groups are rotated and driven into the hydrophobic region of the membrane. The reorientated lipid head groups inside the membrane form a hydrophilic surface of the water pore. This study reveals the atomic details of how an electric field influences the movement of water molecules and lipid head groups, resulting in water pore formation.

  1. Fluctuations of electrical conductivity: a new source for astrophysical magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gissinger, Christophe; Petrelis, Francois; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2016-04-01

    We consider the generation of magnetic field by the flow of a fluid for which the electrical conductivity is nonuniform. We calculate the properties of this effect both analytically and numerically, and find a new amplification mechanism leading to dynamo action for flows much simpler than those considered so far. In particular, the fluctuations of the electrical conductivity provide a way to bypass anti-dynamo theorems. For astrophysical objects, we show through three-dimensional global numerical simulations that the temperature-driven fluctuations of the electrical conductivity can amplify an otherwise decaying large scale equatorial dipolar field. This effect could play a role for the generation of the unusually tilted magnetic field of the iced giants Neptune and Uranus.

  2. Nonclassical properties of electronic states of aperiodic chains in a homogeneous electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisak, B. J.; Wołoszyn, M.

    2009-07-01

    The electronic energy levels of one-dimensional aperiodic systems driven by a homogeneous electric field are studied by means of a phase-space description based on the Wigner distribution function. The formulation provides physical insight into the quantum nature of the electronic states for the aperiodic systems generated by the Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences. The nonclassical parameter for electronic states is studied as a function of the magnitude of homogeneous electric field to achieve the main result of this work, which is to prove that the nonclassical properties of the electronic states in the aperiodic systems determine the transition probability between electronic states in the region of anticrossings. The localization properties of electronic states and the uncertainty product of momentum and position variables are also calculated as functions of the electric field.

  3. Lamb-shift and electric field measurements in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doveil, F.; Chérigier-Kovacic, L.; Ström, P.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field is a quantity of particular relevance in plasma physics. Indeed, its fluctuations are responsible for different macroscopic phenomena such as anomalous transport in fusion plasmas. Answering a long-standing challenge, we offer a new method to locally and non-intrusively measure weak electric fields and their fluctuations in plasmas, by means of a beam of hydrogen ions or atoms. We present measurements of the electric field in vacuum and in a plasma where Debye shielding is measured. For the first time, we have used the Lamb-shift resonance to measure oscillating electric fields around 1 GHz and observed the strong enhancement of the Lyman-α signal. The measurement is both direct and non-intrusive. This method provides sensitivity (mV cm-1) and temporal resolution (ns) that are three orders higher compared to current diagnostics. It thus allows measuring fluctuations of the electric field at scales not previously reached experimentally.

  4. Peptide assembly-driven metal-organic framework (MOF) motors for micro electric generators

    DOE PAGES

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L.; ...

    2014-11-22

    Peptide–metal–organic framework (Pep-MOF) motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface tension gradients created via peptide self-assembly around frameworks, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnets fast enough to generate an electric power of 0.1 μW. Finally, a new rigid Pep-MOF motor can be recycled by refilling the peptide fuel into the nanopores of the MOF.

  5. Minimum-energy control of a class of electrically driven vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahinkaya, Y. E.; Sridhar, R.

    1972-01-01

    A minimum-energy controller is designed and built for a class of electrically driven vehicles according to the theoretical concepts determined by the application of modern control theory. Theoretical results are obtained by making several justifiable assumptions in the dynamical equations of the system and solving the resulting stochastic optimal control problem by Bellman's dynamic programming technique. Several practical and economical considerations are taken into account for the mechanization of the minimum-energy control law.

  6. Peptide assembly-driven metal-organic framework (MOF) motors for micro electric generators.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-14

    Peptide-metal-organic framework (Pep-MOF) motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface tension gradients created via peptide self-assembly around frameworks, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnets fast enough to generate an electric power of 0.1 μW. A new rigid Pep-MOF motor can be recycled by refilling the peptide fuel into the nanopores of the MOF.

  7. Electrically Driven Single Phase Thermal Management: STP-H5 EHD Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrically Driven Single Phase Thermal Management: STP-H5 iEHDS Experiment is a technology demonstration of prototype proof of concept hardware to establish the feasilibilty and long term operation of this hardware. This is a structural thermal plate that will operate continuous as part of the STP-H5 ISEM experiment for up to 18 months. This presentation discusses the design, fabrication and environmental operational paramertes of the experiment hardware.

  8. MMS Multipoint electric field observations of small-scale magnetic holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick D.; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnes, Werner; Gershman, Daniel; Giles, Barbara; Nakamura, Rumi; Stawarz, Julia; Holmes, Justin; Sturner, Andrew; Malaspina, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earth's magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (ρi). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E × B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E × B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  9. Resonant parametric excitations driven by lower-hybrid fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalon, E.

    1980-11-01

    Three-wave parametric excitation in inhomogeneous plasmas is examined in a two-dimensional geometry relevant to supplementary rf heating of tokamaks. The stabilization of resonant parametric excitation due to a linear mismatch in wavenumbers and to the Landau-damping rates of the decay waves is analyzed, assuming that the magnitude of the pump field is constant in time and in the spatial region where the resonant interaction takes place. Both types of temporally growing modes and spatially amplified instabilities are studied, using a WKB analysis. It is shown that by increasing the strength of the mismatch K prime or the width of the pump L, the growth rate of the fastest growing normal mode will decrease. The amount of spatial amplification is also reduced by the mismatch in wavenumbers and by the damping rates of the excited waves. Because of the finite spatial extent of the pump electric field, the amplification length is smaller than or equal to L, depending on the strength of the mismatch and damping rates.

  10. High-order-harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms driven by plasmon-enhanced laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikman, Y.; Yavuz, I.; Ciappina, M. F.; Chacón, A.; Altun, Z.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in Rydberg atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous laser fields, induced, for instance, by plasmonic enhancement. It is well known that the laser intensity should exceed a certain threshold in order to stimulate HHG when noble gas atoms in their ground state are used as an active medium. One way to enhance the coherent light coming from a conventional laser oscillator is to take advantage of the amplification obtained by the so-called surface plasmon polaritons, created when a low-intensity laser field is focused onto a metallic nanostructure. The main limitation of this scheme is the low damage threshold of the materials employed in the nanostructure engineering. In this work we propose the use of Rydberg atoms, driven by spatially inhomogeneous, plasmon-enhanced laser fields, for HHG. We exhaustively discuss the behavior and efficiency of these systems in the generation of coherent harmonic emission. Toward this aim we numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an atom, with an electron initially in a highly excited n th Rydberg state, located in the vicinity of a metallic nanostructure. In this zone the electric field changes spatially on scales relevant for the dynamics of the laser-ionized electron. We first use a one-dimensional model to investigate systematically the phenomena. We then employ a more realistic situation, in which the interaction of a plasmon-enhanced laser field with a three-dimensional hydrogen atom is modeled. We discuss the scaling of the relevant input parameters with the principal quantum number n of the Rydberg state in question and demonstrate that harmonic emission can be achieved from Rydberg atoms well below the damage threshold, thus without deterioration of the geometry and properties of the metallic nanostructure.

  11. Field-driven dynamics of microcapillaries filled with nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Fred; Khayyatzadeh, Pouya; Abukhdeir, Nasser M.

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) composites have long been a focus of study for their unique electro-optical properties and the feasibility of manufacturing them on a large scale, resulting in applications such as switchable windows. LC domains within PDLCs are typically spheroidal, as opposed to rectangular in LCD technology, and thus exhibit substantially different behaviour in the presence of an external field. In this work, continuum simulations were performed in order to capture the complex formation and electric field-driven switching dynamics of approximations of PDLC domains. A simplified elliptic cylinder (microcapillary) geometry is used and the effects of varying aspect ratio, surface anchoring, and external field strength were studied using the Landau-de Gennes model. The observed nematic formation and reorientation dynamics were found to be governed by the presence and motion of defects within the domain. Aspect ratio was found to strongly influence domain texture by providing regions of high curvature to which defects are attracted. Simulations also predict the presence of a geometry-controlled transition from nematic order enhanced by an external field (low aspect ratio) to nematic order frustrated by an external field (high aspect ratio). This work was made possible by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Compute Ontario.

  12. Simulation Study of Magnetic Fields generated by the Electromagnetic Filamentation Instability driven by Pair Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Using a 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron (cold) jet propagating into ambient electron-positron and electron-ion plasmas without initial magnetic fields in order to investigate the nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. We have also performed simulations with broad Lorentz factor distribution of jet electrons and positrons, which are assumed to be created by the photon annihilation. The growth time and nonlinear saturation levels depend on the initial jet parallel velocity distributions and ambient plasma. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shocks accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The nonlinear fluctuation amplitude of densities, currents, electric, and magnetic fields in the electron-ion ambient plasma are larger than those in the electron-positron ambient plasma. We have shown that plasma instabilities driven by these streaming electron-positron pairs are responsible for the excitation of near-equipartition, turbulent magnetic fields. These fields maintain a strong saturated level on timescales much longer than the electron skin depth at least for the duration of the simulations. Our results reveal the importance of the electromagnetic filamentation instability in ensuring an effective coupling between electron-positron pairs and ions, and may help explain the origin of large upstream fields in GRB shock.

  13. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Hashi, S.; Ishiyama, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  14. Novel electric field effects on Landau levels in graphene.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Vinu; Shankar, R; Baskaran, G

    2007-03-16

    A new effect in graphene in the presence of crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields is predicted. Landau levels are shown to be modified in an unexpected fashion by the electric field, leading to a collapse of the spectrum, when the value of electric to magnetic field ratio exceeds a certain critical value. Our theoretical results, strikingly different from the standard 2D electron gas, are explained using a "Lorentz boost," and as an "instability of a relativistic quantum field vacuum." It is a remarkable case of emergent relativistic type phenomena in nonrelativistic graphene. We also discuss few possible experimental consequence.

  15. Radial electric fields in the vicinity of locked magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Itoh, K.; Ida, K.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2010-12-15

    The radial electric field in the vicinity of magnetic islands locked by resonant magnetic perturbations (static error fields) is numerically studied using a set of reduced two-fluid equations. The asymmetric radial electric fields across locked magnetic islands are observed, which are due to the symmetry breaking effects such as the cylindrical geometry and inhomogeneous electron diamagnetic drift. It is found that the magnitude of the difference (between maximum and minimum radial electric fields around O-point) is proportional to the averaged electron diamagnetic drift frequency inside magnetic islands and the square of the island width, but inversely proportional to the square root of the ion viscosity.

  16. Charge and current reservoirs for electric and magnetic field enhancement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxing; Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2010-05-10

    Two optical antenna designs incorporating structures termed charge and current reservoirs are proposed to realize localized high electric and magnetic field enhancement, respectively. Simulation results show that the fan-rod electric antenna design combines the advantages of the rod antenna and the bowtie antenna, and has higher field enhancement than either. The performance of a loop shaped magnetic antenna consisting of a pair of metallic strips with offsets is also verified numerically, with high magnetic field enhancement being observed in the simulation. In both of the designs, the concepts of charge and current reservoirs contribute to high electric and magnetic field enhancement.

  17. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    PubMed Central

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm–1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  18. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1), using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  19. Lorentz factor determination for local electric fields in semiconductor devices utilizing hyper-thin dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, J. W.

    2015-11-28

    The local electric field (the field that distorts, polarizes, and weakens polar molecular bonds in dielectrics) has been investigated for hyper-thin dielectrics. Hyper-thin dielectrics are currently required for advanced semiconductor devices. In the work presented, it is shown that the common practice of using a Lorentz factor of L = 1/3, to describe the local electric field in a dielectric layer, remains valid for hyper-thin dielectrics. However, at the very edge of device structures, a rise in the macroscopic/Maxwell electric field E{sub diel} occurs and this causes a sharp rise in the effective Lorentz factor L{sub eff}. At capacitor and transistor edges, L{sub eff} is found to increase to a value 2/3 < L{sub eff} < 1. The increase in L{sub eff} results in a local electric field, at device edge, that is 50%–100% greater than in the bulk of the dielectric. This increase in local electric field serves to weaken polar bonds thus making them more susceptible to breakage by standard Boltzmann and/or current-driven processes. This has important time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) implications for all electronic devices utilizing polar materials, including GaN devices that suffer from device-edge TDDB.

  20. Electric-field-induced rotation of Brownian metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Arcenegui, Juan J; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We describe the physical mechanism responsible for the rotation of Brownian metal nanowires suspended in an electrolyte exposed to a rotating electric field. The electric field interacts with the induced charge in the electrical double layer at the metal-electrolyte interface, causing rotation due to the torque on the induced dipole and to the induced-charge electro-osmotic flow around the particle. Experiments demonstrate that the primary driving mechanism is the former of these two. Our analysis contrasts with previous work describing the electrical manipulation of metallic particles with electric fields, which neglected the electrical double layer. Theoretical values for the rotation speed are calculated and good agreement with experiments is found.

  1. Recent measurements of middle atmospheric electric fields and related parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, A. M.; Tyutin, A. A.; Bragin, O. A.; Kikhtenko, V. N.

    1994-03-01

    In 1989, two series of rocket measurements were carried out to investigate middle atmosphere electric fields. The measurements were taken both in the Northern Hemisphere on Heiss Island (80 deg 37 N and 58 deg 03 min E) and in the Southern Hemisphere in the Indian Ocean (40-60 deg S and approx. 45 deg E) on board the research vessel 'Akademik Shirshov'. Along with the vertical electric fields, aerosol content and positive ion density were also measured. Some of the rocket launches were made during the extremely strong solar proton events (SPE) of October 1989. The experiments showed the strong variability of the electric fields in the middle atmosphere at polar and high middle latitudes. In all the measurements the maximum of the vertical electric field height profile in the lower mesosphere was observed to be more than approx. 1 V/m. The electric field strength and the field direction at maximum varied considerably among the launches. A maximum value of +12 V/m was detected at a height of about 58 km at 58 deg 30 mins on 21 October 1989 during the SPE. The simultaneous measurements of the electric field strength, positive ion density and aerosols point out both an ion-aerosol interaction and a connection between the mesospheric electric fields and aerosol content.

  2. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort.

  3. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  4. Electrically controlled spin-transistor operation in a helical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.

    2016-03-01

    A proposal of an electrically controlled spin transistor in a helical magnetic field is presented. In the proposed device, the transistor action is driven by the Landau-Zener transitions that lead to a backscattering of spin polarized electrons and switching the transistor into the high-resistance state (off state). The on/off state of the transistor can be controlled by the all-electric means using Rashba spin-orbit coupling that can be tuned by the voltages applied to the side electrodes.

  5. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET.

  6. Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Gregory P.; Clarke, Dominic; Morley, Erica L.; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use information from surrounding electric fields to make foraging decisions. Electroreception in air, a nonconductive medium, is a recently discovered sensory capacity of insects, yet the sensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate two putative electric field sensors: antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Examining their mechanical and neural response, we show that electric fields cause deflections in both antennae and hairs. Hairs respond with a greater median velocity, displacement, and angular displacement than antennae. Extracellular recordings from the antennae do not show any electrophysiological correlates to these mechanical deflections. In contrast, hair deflections in response to an electric field elicited neural activity. Mechanical deflections of both hairs and antennae increase with the electric charge carried by the bumblebee. From this evidence, we conclude that sensory hairs are a site of electroreception in the bumblebee. PMID:27247399

  7. Electric Field-Mediated Processing of Polymers. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnek, G. E.; Bowlin, G. L.; Haas, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    Significant opportunities exist for the processing of polymers (homopolymers and blends) using electric fields. We suggest that a broad range of properties can be achieved using a relatively small number of polymers, with electric fields providing the ability to tailor properties via the control of shape, morphology, and orientation. Specific attention is given to electrospinning, but we note that electroaerosol formation and field-modulated film casting represent additional processing options.

  8. Beyond Orientation: The Impact of Electric Fields on Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Liedel, Clemens; Boker, A.; Pester, Christian; Ruppel, Markus A; Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Since the first report on electric field-induced alignment of block copolymers (BCPs) in 1991, electric fields have been shown not only to direct the orientation of BCP nanostructures in bulk, solution, and thin films, but also to reversibly induce order-order transitions, affect the order-disorder transition temperature, and control morphologies' dimensions with nanometer precision. Theoretical and experimental results of the past years in this very interesting field of research are summarized and future perspectives are outlined.

  9. Fermionic Particle Production by Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogut, Kenan; Yanar, Hilmi; Havare, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Creation of fermionic particles by a time-dependent electric field and a space-dependent magnetic field is studied with the Bogoulibov transformation method. Exact analytic solutions of the Dirac equation are obtained in terms of the Whittaker functions and the particle creation number density depending on the electric and magnetic fields is determined. Supported by the Research Fund of Mersin University in TURKEY with project number: 2016-1-AP4-1425

  10. Analysis of DE-1 PWI electric field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of low frequency electric field oscillations may be accomplished with the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on DE 1. Oscillations at a frequency around 1 Hz are below the range of the conventional plasma wave receivers, but they can be detected by using a special processing of the quasi-static electric field data. With this processing it is also possible to determine if the electric field oscillations are predominately parallel or perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The quasi-static electric field in the DE 1 spin/orbit plane is measured with a long-wire 'double probe'. This antenna is perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which in turn is approximately perpendicular to the geomagnetic field in the polar magnetosphere. The electric field data are digitally sampled at a frequency of 16 Hz. The measured electric field signal, which has had phase reversals introduced by the rotating antenna, is multiplied by the sine of the rotation angle between the antenna and the magnetic field. This is called the 'perpendicular' signal. The measured time series is also multiplied with the cosine of the angle to produce a separate 'parallel' signal. These two separate time series are then processed to determine the frequency power spectrum.

  11. Bio-amplifier with Driven Shield Inputs to Reduce Electrical Noise and its Application to Laboratory Teaching of Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Ichihara, Toshiaki; Abe, Toshihiko; Mushiake, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    We describe a custom-designed bio-amplifier and its use in teaching neurophysiology to undergraduate students. The amplifier has the following features: 1) differential amplification with driven shield inputs, which makes it workable even in electrically unshielded environments, 2) high input impedance to allow recordings of small signals through high signal source impedance, 3) dual fixed frequency bandpass filters (1–340Hz for surface EMG, EEG, local field potential etc and 320Hz – 3.4kHz for neuronal action potential recording) and independent gain controllers (up to x107,000) to allow the recording of different signals from the same source (e.g., local field potential and spiking activity of neurons), and 4) printed circuit board technology for easy replication with consistent quality. We compared its performance with a commercial amplifier in an electrically noisy environment. Even without any electrostatic shield, it recorded clear electromyographic activity with little interference from other electric appliances. In contrast, the commercial amplifier’s performance severely deteriorated under the same condition. We used this amplifier to build a computer-controlled stimulation and measurement system for electroencephalographic recordings by undergraduate students. The students successfully recorded various sensory evoked potentials with clarity that otherwise would have required costly instruments. This amplifier is a low-cost yet reliable instrument for electro-physiological recording both in education and research. PMID:23504543

  12. Variations of electric field and electric resistivity of air caused by dust motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Renno, N.; Elliott, H.

    2013-08-01

    report results of a field campaign conducted in the Nevada desert with a suite of electric field instruments consisting of a field mill (FM) and a short dipole antenna (SDA). Furthermore, we show that a combination of the measurements of these two instruments allows the estimation of the electric resistivity of air, an important quantity that is extremely difficult to measure near the Earth's surface. The electric resistivity of air is found to vary between 1.5 · 1013 and 6 · 1013 Ω m and to correlate with changes in electric field. Vertical DC electric fields with amplitudes up to 6 kV m-1 were observed to correspond to clouds of dust blowing through the measurement site. Enhanced DC and AC electric fields are measured during periods when horizontal wind speed exceeds 7 m s-1, or around twice the background value. We suggest that low-frequency emissions, below ~200 Hz, are generated by the motion of electrically charged particles in the vicinity of the SDA electrode and propose a simple model to reproduce the observed spectra. According to this model, the spectral response is controlled by three parameters, (i) the speed of the charged particles, (ii) the charge concentration, and (iii) the minimum distance between the particle and the electrode. In order to explain the electric fields measured with the FM sensors at different heights, we developed a multilayer model that relates the electric field to the charge distribution. For example, a nonlinear variation of the electric field observed by the FM sensors below 50 cm is simulated by a near-surface layer of tens of centimeters that is filled with electrically charged particles that carry a predominantly negative charge in the vicinity of the soil. The charge concentration inside this layer is estimated to vary between 1012 and 5 · 1013 electrons m-3.

  13. Electrifying white biotechnology: engineering and economic potential of electricity-driven bio-production.

    PubMed

    Harnisch, Falk; Rosa, Luis F M; Kracke, Frauke; Virdis, Bernardino; Krömer, Jens O

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals by electricity-driven bio-production (i.e., using electric energy to drive biosynthesis) holds great promises. However, this electrification of white biotechnology is particularly challenging to achieve because of the different optimal operating conditions of electrochemical and biochemical reactions. In this article, we address the technical parameters and obstacles to be taken into account when engineering microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for bio-production. In addition, BES-based bio-production processes reported in the literature are compared against industrial needs showing that a still large gap has to be closed. Finally, the feasibility of BES bio-production is analysed based on bulk electricity prices. Using the example of lysine production from sucrose, we demonstrate that there is a realistic market potential as cost savings of 8.4 % (in EU) and 18.0 % (in US) could be anticipated, if the necessary yields can be obtained.

  14. Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.

    PubMed

    Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-04-30

    The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density.

  15. Wide-Viewing-Angle Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell Controlled by Complex Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seung Ho; Kim, Hyang Yul; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Nam, Sang-Hee; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Lee, Seung Hee

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell driven by a complex electric field. In the device, the pixel electrode exists on the bottom substrate and the counter electrodes exist on the top and bottom substrates such that with a bias voltage both vertical and horizontal fields are generated. The LC molecules are hybrid aligned with homogeneous alignment on the bottom substrate where the alignment direction is coincident with one of the transmission axes of the crossed polarizers. Therefore, the cell appears to be black in the absence of an electric field. When a voltage is applied to obtain a white state, both vertical and horizontal fields enable the LC molecules to rotate with lowered tilt angles than those in the dark state. The device shows a much wider viewing angle than that of the twisted nematic mode, high light efficiency and low driving voltage in electro-optic characteristics.

  16. Langmuir wave electric fields induced by electron beams in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2017-01-01

    Solar electron beams responsible for type III radio emission generate Langmuir waves as they propagate out from the Sun. The Langmuir waves are observed via in situ electric field measurements. These Langmuir waves are not smoothly distributed but occur in discrete clumps, commonly attributed to the turbulent nature of the solar wind electron density. Exactly how the density turbulence modulates the Langmuir wave electric fields is understood only qualitatively. Using weak turbulence simulations, we investigate how solar wind density turbulence changes the probability distribution functions, mean value and variance of the beam-driven electric field distributions. Simulations show rather complicated forms of the distribution that are dependent upon how the electric fields are sampled. Generally the higher magnitude of density fluctuations reduce the mean and increase the variance of the distribution in a consistent manor to the predictions from resonance broadening by density fluctuations. We also demonstrate how the properties of the electric field distribution should vary radially from the Sun to the Earth and provide a numerical prediction for the in situ measurements of the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus spacecraft.

  17. Molecular-scale measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, Carl C.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces would be a critical step toward further understanding and modeling the detailed structure of electric double layers. The goal of this project was to perform proof-of-principle experiments to demonstrate the use of field-sensitive dyes for optical measurements of fields in electrochemical systems. A confocal microscope was developed that provides sensitive detection of the lifetime and high resolution spectra of excited fluorescence for dyes tethered to electrically conductive surfaces. Excited state lifetimes for the dyes were measured and found to be relatively unquenched when linked to indium tin oxide, but strongly quenched on gold surfaces. However, our fluorescence detection is sufficiently sensitive to measure spectra of submonolayer dye coatings even when the fluorescence was strongly quenched. Further work to create dye labeled interfaces on flat, uniform and durable substrates is necessary to make electric field measurements at interfaces using field sensitive dyes.

  18. Generation of strong electric fields in an ice film capacitor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kim, Youngsoon; Moon, Eui-seong; Lee, Du Hyeong; Kang, Hani; Kang, Heon

    2013-08-21

    We present a capacitor-type device that can generate strong electrostatic field in condensed phase. The device comprises an ice film grown on a cold metal substrate in vacuum, and the film is charged by trapping Cs(+) ions on the ice surface with thermodynamic surface energy. Electric field within the charged film was monitored through measuring the film voltage using a Kelvin work function probe and the vibrational Stark effect of acetonitrile using IR spectroscopy. These measurements show that the electric field can be increased to ∼4 × 10(8) V m(-1), higher than that achievable by conventional metal plate capacitors. In addition, the present device may provide several advantages in studying the effects of electric field on molecules in condensed phase, such as the ability to control the sample composition and structure at molecular scale and the spectroscopic monitoring of the sample under electric field.

  19. Electric Field Induced Selective Disordering in Lamellar Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, Markus A; Pester, Christian W; Langner, Karol M; Sevink, Geert; Schoberth, Heiko; Schmidt, Kristin; Urban, Volker S; Mays, Jimmy; Boker, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition and well below it.

  20. Electric field induced selective disordering in lamellar block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Markus; Pester, Christian W; Langner, Karol M; Sevink, Geert J A; Schoberth, Heiko G; Schmidt, Kristin; Urban, Volker S; Mays, Jimmy W; Böker, Alexander

    2013-05-28

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the order-disorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the order-disorder transition and well below it.

  1. Effects of carbon nanotubes on electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal cell driven by in-plane field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sang Youn; Shin, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Seok Jin; Lee, Seung Hee; Jeong, Seok Ho; Lee, Young Hee; Choi, Hyun Chul; Kim, Kyeong Jin

    2007-03-01

    Homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal (LC) cells doped with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) driven by an in-plane field were fabricated and their electro-optic characteristics were investigated. The effective cell retardation values showed no difference between doped and undoped LC cells in the absence of electric field. However, in the presence of electric field, it was smaller in the CNT-doped cell than in the undoped cell, resulting in the decrease of transmittance. Furthermore, the CNT-doped cell exhibited a slight increase in the driving voltage due to the increase of the twist elastic constant (K22) and the decrease in the decay response time due to the decrease in the rotational viscosity (γ) and γ /K22 compared to the undoped cell.

  2. Species-Independent Femtosecond Localized Electric Field Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogariu, Arthur; Goldberg, Benjamin M.; O'Byrne, Sean; Miles, Richard B.

    2017-02-01

    We present an optical measurement method using a femtosecond laser for nonintrusive measurements of electric field strength and orientation in virtually any gas or gas mixture via second-harmonic generation. This simple method takes advantage of the asymmetry in polarizability induced by an applied electric field, which enables the otherwise forbidden second-harmonic generation in any centrosymmetric or homogeneous media. The use of a femtosecond laser source permits high intensities without avalanche breakdown and leads to the measurement of electric field strength down to approximately 100 V / cm in air with submillimeter spatial resolution governed by the confocal parameter and femtosecond temporal resolution governed by the laser-pulse duration.

  3. Electric field induced lateral instability in a simple autocatalytic front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Dezsö; Tóth, Ágota; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The effect of ionic drift caused by small constant electric field on autocatalytic reaction fronts of ionic species is studied both theoretically and numerically. Besides varying the velocity of propagation, the electric field parallel to the direction of propagation may induce lateral instability in planar fronts resulting in the emergence of cellular structures. The difference in the diffusivities at the onset of instability are lowered when the electric field tends to separate the species spatially. The predictions of the linear stability analysis based on a thin-front approximation are confirmed by the numerical integration of the full two-dimensional system.

  4. Field-Induced Phenomena in Electrical Insulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-29

    excitation (penetrating charged particle or electron beam, electrical circuit), conditions of excitation (intensity, wave form),[lO] polarity...known as thermal breakdown.[66 ] Additionally, any rise in temperature due to dielectric losses within the polymer will tend to accelarate the

  5. Numerical modeling for an electric-field hyperthermia applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chou, C. K.; Chan, K. W.; Mcdougall, J.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia, in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy for treatment of cancers, is an area of current concern. Experiments have shown that hyperthermia can increase the potency of many chemotherapy drugs and the effectiveness of radiation for treating cancer. A combination of whole body or regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy or radiation should improve treatment results. Conventional methods for inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as exposing a patient in a radiant cabinet or under a hot water blanket, conduct heat very slowly from the skin to the body core. Thus a more efficient system, such as the three-plate electric-field hyperthermia applicator (EHA), is developed. This three-plate EHA has one top plate over and two lower plates beneath the patient. It is driven at 27.12 MHz with 500 Watts through a matching circuit. Using this applicator, a 50 kg pig was successfully heated to 42 C within 45 minutes. However, phantom and animal studies have indicated non-uniform heating near the side of the body. In addition, changes in the size and distance between the electrode plates can affect the heating (or electromagnetic field) pattern. Therefore, numerical models using the method of moments (MOM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are developed to optimize the heating pattern of this EHA before it is used for human trials. The accuracy of the numerical modeling has been achieved by the good agreement between the MOM and FDTD results for the three-plate EHA without a biological body. The versatile FDTD technique is then applied to optimize the EHA design with a human body. Both the numerical and measured data in phantom blocks will be presented. The results of this study will be used to design an optimized system for whole body or regional hyperthermia.

  6. The source of the electric field in the nightside magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    In the open magnetosphere model magnetic field lines from the polar caps connect to the interplanetary magnetic field and conduct an electric field from interplanetary space to the polar ionosphere. By examining the magnetic flux involved it is concluded that only slightly more than half of the magnetic flux in the polar caps belongs to open field lines and that such field lines enter or leave the magnetosphere through narrow elongated windows stretching the tail. These window regions are identified with the tail's boundary region and shift their position with changes in the interplanetary magnetic field, in particular when a change of interplanetary magnetic sector occurs. The circuit providing electric current in the magnetopause and the plasma sheet is extended across those windows; thus energy is drained from the interplanetary electric field and an electric potential drop is produced across the plasma sheet. The polar cap receives its electric field from interplanetary space on the day side from open magnetic field lines and on the night side from closed field lines leading to the plasma sheet. The theory described provides improved understanding of magnetic flux bookkeeping, of the origin of Birkeland currents, and of the boundary layer of the geomagnetic tail.

  7. Formation of Organized Protein Thin Films with External Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cecília Fabiana da G; Camargo, Paulo C; Benelli, Elaine M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the formation of protein GlnB-Hs films and on its buffer solution on siliconized glass slides has been analyzed by current versus electric field curves and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Herbaspirillum seropedicae GlnB protein (GlnB-Hs) is a globular, soluble homotrimer (36 kDa) with its 3-D structure previously determined. Concentrations of 10 nM native denatured GlnB-Hs protein were deposited on siliconized glass slides under ambient conditions. Immediately after solution deposition a maximum electric field of 30 kV/m was applied with rates of 3 V/s. The measured currents were surface currents and were analyzed as transport current. Electric current started to flow only after a minimum electric field (critical value) for the systems analyzed. The AFM images showed films with a high degree of directional organization only when the proteins were present in the solution. These results showed that the applied electric field favored directional organization of the protein GlnB-Hs films and may contribute to understand the formation of protein films under applied electric fields.

  8. Electric fields are novel determinants of human macrophage functions.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Joseph I; Rajnicek, Ann M; McCaig, Colin D; Barker, Robert N; Wilson, Heather M

    2016-06-01

    Macrophages are key cells in inflammation and repair, and their activity requires close regulation. The characterization of cues coordinating macrophage function has focused on biologic and soluble mediators, with little known about their responses to physical stimuli, such as the electrical fields that are generated naturally in injured tissue and which accelerate wound healing. To address this gap in understanding, we tested how properties of human monocyte-derived macrophages are regulated by applied electrical fields, similar in strengths to those established naturally. With the use of live-cell video microscopy, we show that macrophage migration is directed anodally by electrical fields as low as 5 mV/mm and is electrical field strength dependent, with effects peaking ∼300 mV/mm. Monocytes, as macrophage precursors, migrate in the opposite, cathodal direction. Strikingly, we show for the first time that electrical fields significantly enhance macrophage phagocytic uptake of a variety of targets, including carboxylate beads, apoptotic neutrophils, and the nominal opportunist pathogen Candida albicans, which engage different classes of surface receptors. These electrical field-induced functional changes are accompanied by clustering of phagocytic receptors, enhanced PI3K and ERK activation, mobilization of intracellular calcium, and actin polarization. Electrical fields also modulate cytokine production selectively and can augment some effects of conventional polarizing stimuli on cytokine secretion. Taken together, electrical signals have been identified as major contributors to the coordination and regulation of important human macrophage functions, including those essential for microbial clearance and healing. Our results open up a new area of research into effects of naturally occurring and clinically applied electrical fields in conditions where macrophage activity is critical.

  9. Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

    1993-04-01

    Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

  10. Electromagnetically Driven Plasma-Field Dynamics in Modified Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, Andrey; Terina, Galina

    Under sounding of an artificial ionospheric turbulence by short probing radio pulses of ordinary polarization the two types of scattered signals were observed: a "caviton" signal (CS) and a "plasma" signal (PS), which appeared with the heating transmitter switching on and disap-peared after its switching off (G.I. Terina J. Atm. Terr. Phys, 57, 1995, 273, Izv. VUZov, Radiofizika, 39, 1998, 203). The scattered signal of PS type was revealed also after the heating switching off. It was called an "aftereffect plasma signal" (AEPS) (G.I. Terina Izv .VUZov, Radiofizika, 43, 2000, 958). This signal had large time and spatial delays and appeared mostly when corresponding PS had envelope fluctuations. The aftereffect phenomenon was expressed at time on CS by amplitude increasing at once after the heating transmitter turning off. The theoretical model of this phenomenon is proposed in and some peculiarities of the aftereffect phenomena of the scattered signals in modified ionospheric plasma are considered and discussed. For theoretical interpretation of the characteristics of CS and AEPS the numerical solution of nonlinear Shrüdinger equation (NSE) with driven extension were carried out in inhomogeneous plasma layer with linear electron density profile (A.V. Kochetov, V.A. Mironov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 29, 2002, 1369) and for the one with prescribed density depletion (and A.V. Kochetov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 38, 2006, 2490). The simulation results obtained for linear inhomogeneous plasma layer and for plasma one with density depletion al-low us to interpret the aftereffect of CS and PS qualitatively. The field amplitude increase at relaxation stage displayed at calculations allows us to interpret of CS aftereffect. The large time delays of AEPS can be explained as a result of powerful radio waves trapping in the forming at the plasma resonance regions density depletions (E. Mjøhus, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1998, 14711; B. Eliasson and L. Stenflo, J

  11. Electric-field sensing using single diamond spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolde, F.; Fedder, H.; Doherty, M. W.; Nöbauer, T.; Rempp, F.; Balasubramanian, G.; Wolf, T.; Reinhard, F.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2011-06-01

    The ability to sensitively detect individual charges under ambient conditions would benefit a wide range of applications across disciplines. However, most current techniques are limited to low-temperature methods such as single-electron transistors, single-electron electrostatic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Here we introduce a quantum-metrology technique demonstrating precision three-dimensional electric-field measurement using a single nitrogen-vacancy defect centre spin in diamond. An a.c. electric-field sensitivity reaching 202+/-6Vcm-1Hz-1/2 has been achieved. This corresponds to the electric field produced by a single elementary charge located at a distance of ~150nm from our spin sensor with averaging for one second. The analysis of the electronic structure of the defect centre reveals how an applied magnetic field influences the electric-field-sensing properties. We also demonstrate that diamond-defect-centre spins can be switched between electric- and magnetic-field sensing modes and identify suitable parameter ranges for both detector schemes. By combining magnetic- and electric-field sensitivity, nanoscale detection and ambient operation, our study should open up new frontiers in imaging and sensing applications ranging from materials science to bioimaging.

  12. Field-Induced Superconductivity in Electric Double Layer Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kazunori; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Yuan, Hongtao; Ye, Jianting; Kawasaki, Masashi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-01

    Electric field tuning of superconductivity has been a long-standing issue in solid state physics since the invention of the field-effect transistor (FET) in 1960. Owing to limited available carrier density in conventional FET devices, electric-field-induced superconductivity was believed to be possible in principle but impossible in practice. However, in the past several years, this limitation has been overcome by the introduction of an electrochemical concept, and electric-field-induced superconductivity has been realized. In the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the electrochemical interfaces, an extremely high electric field is generated and hence high-density charge carriers sufficient to induce superconductivity exist and are collectively used as a charge accumulation device known as an EDL capacitor. Field-induced superconductivity has been used to establish the relationship between Tc and carrier density and can now be used to search for new superconductors. Here, we review electric-field-induced superconductivity using an FET device, with a particular focus on the latest advances in EDL transistors.

  13. Electric and magnetic fields in medicine and biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Papers Include: The effects of low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields on neuro-chemical transmission in vitro; Morphological changes in E Coli subjected to DC electrical fields; An investigation of some claimed biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Electrical phenomena and bone healing - a comparison of contemporary techniques; Clinical evaluations of a portable module emitting pulsed RF energy; The design, construction and performance of a magnetic nerve stimulator; The principle of electric field tomography and its application to selective read-out of information from peripheral nerves; Applied potential tomography - clinical applications; Impendance imaging using a linear electrode array; Mathematics as an aid to experiment: human body currents induced by power frequency electric fields; Effects of electric field near 750KV transmission line and protection against their harmful consequences; Leukemia and electromagnetic fields: a case-control study; Overhead power lines and childhood cancer; Magnetic measurement of nerve action currents - a new intraoperative recording technique; The potential use of electron spin resonance or impedance measurement to image neuronal electrical activity in the human brain.

  14. A novel methodology to study effects of the electric field on shape and surface tension of drops in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateni, A.; Susnar, S. S.; Amirfazli, A.; Neumann, A. W.

    The behavior of liquid drops and bubbles in an electric field is of importance both for improving existing and developing new technologies on the ground and in space. Examples are electrostatic spraying, ink jet printing, electro wetting, physical and chemical separations and alloy research in space. Of particular interest is the effect of electric fields on shape and surface tension of drops and bubbles. Because of mathematical limitations as well as for practical reasons we have been developing a tool for studying these two quantities under microgravity conditions. The new methodology, called Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis - Electric Field (ADSA- EF), generates numerical drop profiles in the electric field, for a given surface tension. Then, it calculates the surface tension by matching the theoretical profiles with the shape of the experimental drops. The new methodology predicts the shape of conducting drops in the electric field with high accuracy. Preliminary ground-based experiments suggest that the surface tension of liquids is changed by one or two percent in the electric field. The magnitude of this change depends on the polarity of the liquid. More definitive results for drops as well as the effect of the polarity of the electric field will be presented at the conference. However, ultimate validation requires experimental work under reduced and/or microgravity conditions. Finally, under such conditions, because of the absence of convection, the developed methodology can be a valuable tool to study electric field driven adsorption and diffusion in two component liquids.

  15. Ion trap electric field measurements using slab coupled optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumway, L.; Chadderdon, S.; Powell, A.; Li, A.; Austin, D.; Hawkins, A.; Selfridge, R.; Schultz, S.

    2014-03-01

    Ion traps are widely used in the field of mass spectrometry. These devices use high electric fields to mass-selectively trap, eject, and count the particles of a material, producing a mass spectrum of the given material. Because of their usefulness, technology pushes for smaller, more portable ion traps for field use. Making internal ion trap field measurements not yet feasible because current electric field sensors are often too bulky or their metallic composition perturbs field measurements. Using slab coupled optical sensor (SCOS) technology, we are able to build sensors that are compatible with the spacing constraints of the ion trap. These sensors are created by attaching a nonlinear crystal slab waveguide to an optical fiber. When a laser propagates through the fiber, certain wavelengths of light couple out of the fiber via the crystal and create "resonances" in the output light spectrum. These resonances shift in proportion to a given applied electric field, and by measuring that shift, we can approximate the electric field. Developing a sensor that can effectively characterize the electric fields within an ion trap will greatly assist in ion trap design, fabrication, and troubleshooting techniques.

  16. The simulation of TGF origin in lightning leader electric fields by cosmic ray shower electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. H.; Atri, D.

    2015-12-01

    With the TGF simulation package LEPTRACK we can easily create all kinds of electric field geometries and electron flux fields to simulate Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches - it is script driven, with the details of high energy scattering physics hidden from the user, and an easily accessible output database for each particle created or scattered. We will show the results of simulating a realistic scenario of TGF origin based on cosmic ray shower electron flux fields in the neighbourhood of electric field geometries expected around lightning leader tips. Electron fluxes are derived from simulations using the CORSIKA cosmic ray simulation package and leader electric field geometry from current models. Presuming a TGF observed at orbital altitudes must come from a lightning leader pointing "upwards", and that cosmic rays enter at angles pointing "downwards" to "horizontal", we will show which combinations allow the electron flux to curve into the compact electric field of the leader and gain sufficient acceleration to create a TGF photon flux observable in orbit.

  17. Ocean Electric Field for Oceanography and Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    learn about ONR concerns and provide feedback on issues, such as opportunities and priorities for Arctic Ocean research. I will continue to...University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory 1013 NE 40th Street Box 355640 Seattle, WA 98105-6698 Final Report Ocean Electric...I supervised. Both were awarded MS degrees by the UW School of Oceanography and are currently employed in ocean studies at APL-JHU and NOAA

  18. Electric Field Measurements in Non-Equilibrium Electric Discharge Plasmas Using Picosecond Four-Wave Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.

    This dissertation presents the results of development of a picosecond four wave mixing technique and its use for electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges. This technique is similar to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and is well suited for electric field measurements in high pressure plasmas with high spatial and temporal resolution. The results show that the signal intensity scales proportionally to the square of the electric field, the signal is emitted as a coherent beam, and is polarized parallel to the electric field vector, making possible electric field vector component measurements. The signal is generated when a collinear pair of pump and Stokes beams, which are generated in a stimulated Raman shifting cell (SRS), generate coherent excitation of molecules into a higher energy level, hydrogen for the present work. The coherent excitation mixes with a dipole moment induced by an external electric field. The mixing of these three "waves'" allows the molecules to radiate at their Raman frequency, producing a fourth, signal, wave which is proportional to the square of the electric field. The time resolution of this technique is limited by the coherence decay time of the molecules, which is a few hundred picoseconds.

  19. Electric field measurements during the Condor critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation of the Condor critical velocity Ba experiment (Wescott et al., 1986) for the measurements of the energetic particles and the electric field associated with a Ba explosion is described. The Ba explosion created a complex electric field pulse detected in situ by a single-axis double electric-field probe on a separate spacecraft. The measurements provide evidence of several important links in the critical-velocity chain, and are consistent with two hypotheses. The first hypothesis involves the creation of large polarization electric field due to charge separation; the second hypothesis implies a polarization of the beam by currents flowing across it. The chain of physical processes inferred from the observations is in agreement with most theories for the Alfven process.

  20. Imaging Local Electric Field Distribution by Plasmonic Impedance Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixian; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Hu, Keke; Mirkin, Michael V

    2016-02-02

    We report on imaging of local electric field on an electrode surface with plasmonic electrochemical impedance microscopy (P-EIM). The local electric field is created by putting an electrode inside a micropipet positioned over the electrode and applying a voltage between the two electrodes. We show that the distribution of the surface charge as well as the local electric field at the electrode surface can be imaged with P-EIM. The spatial distribution and the dependence of the local charge density and electric field on the distance between the micropipet and the surface are measured, and the results are compared with the finite element calculations. The work also demonstrates the possibility of integrating plasmonic imaging with scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and other scanning probe microscopies.

  1. School Facilities and Electric and Magnetic Field Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that electric and magnetic field radiation poses a health hazard should be recognized during the planning and designing of a school. A preconstruction assessment of possible exposure should be evaluated before the start of construction. (MLF)

  2. Communication: Control of chemical reactions using electric field gradients.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Shivaraj D; Tsori, Yoav

    2016-05-21

    We examine theoretically a new idea for spatial and temporal control of chemical reactions. When chemical reactions take place in a mixture of solvents, an external electric field can alter the local mixture composition, thereby accelerating or decelerating the rate of reaction. The spatial distribution of electric field strength can be non-trivial and depends on the arrangement of the electrodes producing it. In the absence of electric field, the mixture is homogeneous and the reaction takes place uniformly in the reactor volume. When an electric field is applied, the solvents separate and the reactants are concentrated in the same phase or separate to different phases, depending on their relative miscibility in the solvents, and this can have a large effect on the kinetics of the reaction. This method could provide an alternative way to control runaway reactions and to increase the reaction rate without using catalysts.

  3. Enhanced Fair-Weather Electric Fields Soon After Sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Rust, W. D.; Stolzenburg, M.; Roeder, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The typical fair weather electric field at the ground is between -100 and -300 V/m. At the NASA Kennedy Space Center and US Air Force Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC) the electric field at the ground sometimes reaches -400 to -1200 V/m within an hour or two after sunrise on days that otherwise seem to be fair weather. We refer to the enhanced negative electric fields as the "sunrise enhancement." To investigate the sunrise enhancement at KSC we measured the electric field (E) in the first few hundred meters above the ground before and during several sunrise enhancements. From these E soundings we can infer the presence of charge layers and determine their thickness and charge density.

  4. Controlling flow direction in nanochannels by electric field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Tianshou; Li, Zhigang

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the flow behavior of CsF solutions in nanochannels under external electric fields E . It is found that the channel surface energy greatly affects the flow behavior. In channels of high surface energy, water molecules, on average, move in the same direction as that of the electric field regardless of the strength of E . In low surface energy channels, however, water transports in the opposite direction to the electric field at weak E and the flow direction is changed when E becomes sufficiently large. The direction change of water flow is attributed to the coupled effects of different water-ion interactions, inhomogeneous water viscosity, and ion distribution changes caused by the electric field. The flow direction change observed in this work may be employed for flow control in complex micro- or nanofluidic systems.

  5. Drop oscillation and mass transfer in alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Carleson, T.E.

    1992-06-24

    In certain cases droplet direct contact heat transfer rates can be significantly enhanced by the application of an alternating electric field. This field can produce shape oscillations in a droplet which will enhance mixing. The theoretical evaluation of the effect of the interaction of the field with drop charge on the hydrodynamics has been completed for small amplitude oscillations. Previous work with a zero order perturbation method was followed up with a first order perturbation method to evaluate the effect of drop distortion on drop charge and field distribution. The first order perturbation results show secondary drop oscillations of four modes and two frequencies in each mode. The most significant secondary oscillation has the same mode and frequency as the second mode oscillation predicted from the first order perturbation work. The resonant frequency of all oscillations decrease with increasing electric field strength and drop charge. Work is currently underway to evaluate the heat transfer enhancement from an applied alternating electric field.

  6. Electric field structures in thin films: formation and properties.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Andrew; Plekan, Oksana; Balog, Richard; Dunger, Jack; Field, David; Jones, Nykola C

    2014-08-21

    A newly discovered class of molecular materials, so-called "spontelectrics", display spontaneous electric fields. Here we show that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite spontelectrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale by combining layers of different spontelectric materials. This is demonstrated using the spontelectric materials nitrous oxide, toluene, isoprene, isopentane, and CF2Cl2. These yield a variety of tailored electric field structures, with individual layers harboring fields between 10(7) and 10(8) V/m. Fields may be of the same sign or of opposite sign, the latter enabling the creation of nanoscale potential wells. The formation of fields is followed using an established electron beam technique, employing the ASTRID synchrotron storage ring. The influence of temperature on heterolayer structures, displaying new Curie effects, and the nature of the interfacial region between different spontelectrics are also discussed.

  7. Design of portable electric and magnetic field generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.; Campbell, L. C.; Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.

    2000-11-01

    Electric and magnetic field generators capable of producing high-amplitude output are not readily available. This presents difficulties for electromagnetic compatibility testing of new measurement systems where these systems are intended to operate in a particularly hostile electromagnetic environment. A portable electric and a portable magnetic field generator having high pulsed field output are described in this paper. The output of these generators were determined using an electromagnetic-compatible measurement system. These generators allow immunity testing in the laboratory of electronic systems to very high electrical fields, as well as for functional verification of the electronic systems on site. In the longer term, the basic design of the magnetic field generator may be developed as the generator to provide the damped sinusoid magnetic field specified in IEC 61000-4-10, which is adopted in BS EN 61000-4-10.

  8. Analysis of electric and magnetic fields leaking from induction heaters.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, D; Bini, M; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Rubino, N; Vanni, R

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation on electric and magnetic fields leaking from inductive (magnetic) heaters that are used for thermal processing of high-power electron tubes and lasers in an industrial plant. Measurements of electric and magnetic fields were done using both commercially available and laboratory-developed instrumentation. Isotropic H-field sensors were developed to allow quantitative evaluation of high-intensity magnetic fields. Ten induction heaters with nominal A.C. power ranging from 2.5 kW to 15 kW and operating at frequencies between 300 kHz and 790 kHz were surveyed. Electric field strengths up to 8 kV/m and magnetic field strengths up to 20 A/m were measured.

  9. Effective critical electric field for runaway-electron generation.

    PubMed

    Stahl, A; Hirvijoki, E; Decker, J; Embréus, O; Fülöp, T

    2015-03-20

    In this Letter we investigate factors that influence the effective critical electric field for runaway-electron generation in plasmas. We present numerical solutions of the kinetic equation and discuss the implications for the threshold electric field. We show that the effective electric field necessary for significant runaway-electron formation often is higher than previously calculated due to both (1) extremely strong dependence of primary generation on temperature and (2) synchrotron radiation losses. We also address the effective critical field in the context of a transition from runaway growth to decay. We find agreement with recent experiments, but show that the observation of an elevated effective critical field can mainly be attributed to changes in the momentum-space distribution of runaways, and only to a lesser extent to a de facto change in the critical field.

  10. Plasma rotation by electric and magnetic fields in a discharge cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.; Hong, S. H.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model for an electric discharge consisting of a spatially diverging plasma sustained electrically between a small ring cathode and a larger ring anode in a cylindrical chamber with an axial magnetic field is developed to study the rotation of the discharge plasma in the crossed electric and magnetic fields. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations which describe the electric potential and the plasma velocity fields is solved in closed form. The electric field, current density, and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number and the Hall coefficient. As a result of Lorentz forces, the plasma rotates with speeds as high as 1 million cm/sec around its axis of symmetry at typical conditions. As an application, it is noted that rotating discharges of this type could be used to develop a high-density plasma-ultracentrifuge driven by j x B forces, in which the lighter (heavier) ion and atom components would be enriched in (off) the center of the discharge cylinder.

  11. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiangyu E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn

    2015-09-14

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm{sup 2}, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  12. Effects Of Electric Field On Hydrocarbon-Fueled Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Z.-G.; Hegde, U.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed that flames are susceptible to electric fields that are much weaker than the breakdown field strength of the flame gases. When an external electric field is imposed on a flame, the ions generated in the flame reaction zone drift in the direction of the electric forces exerted on them. The moving ions collide with the neutral species and change the velocity distribution in the affected region. This is often referred to as ionic wind effect. In addition, the removal of ions from the flame reaction zone can alter the chemical reaction pathway of the flame. On the other hand, the presence of space charges carried by moving ions affects the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame often changes its shape, location and color once an external electric field is applied. The interplay between the flame movement and the change of electric field makes it difficult to determine the flame location for a given configuration of electrodes and fuel source. In normal gravity, the buoyancy-induced flow often complicates the problem and hinders detailed study of the interaction between the flame and the electric field. In this work, the microgravity environment established at the 2.2 Second Drop Tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center is utilized to effectively remove the buoyant acceleration. The interaction between the flame and the electric field is studied in a one-dimensional domain. A specially designed electrode makes flame current measurements possible; thus, the mobility of ions, ion density, and ionic wind effect can be evaluated.

  13. Fundamental Studies of Electric-Field-Induced Coherent Raman Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-07

    mechanisms of nanosecond- pulsed dielectric barrier discharges generated in open air. Our experimental observations have revealed that, in the pre...dynamics in nanosecond- pulsed discharges . a) Electric-field-induced coherent Raman scattering (E-CRS) In this section, I describe the...the electric field in hydrogen. With E-CRS method, our group has revealed very fast discharge dynamics in repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharges [4

  14. A New Electric Field in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P.; Ruffolo, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important plasma process that drives the dynamics of the plasma in the magnetosphere and plays a crucial role in the interaction between magnetospheric and magnetosheath plasma. It has been shown that when a reconnection occurs in a collisionless plasma, it exhibits the Hall electric field, an in-plane electric field structure pointing toward the X-line. In this work, we show that when the reconnection has asymmetric inflow conditions such as the reconnection at the day-side magnetopause, a new in-plane electric field structure can exist. This electric field points away from the X-line and is distinct from the known Hall electric field. We argue that the origin of the electric field is associated with the physics of finite Larmor radius. A theory and predictions of the electric field properties are presented and backed up by results from fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of asymmetric reconnection with various inflow conditions. Under normal day-side reconnection inflow conditions, the electric field is expected to occur on the magnetospheric side of the X-line pointing Earthward. Hence, it has a potential to be used as a signature for satellites, such as the upcoming Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission, to locate the reconnection sites at the day-side magnetopause. This research was supported by the postdoctoral research sponsorship of Mahidol University (KM), NSF grants ATM-0645271 - Career Award (MAS) and AGS-0953463 (PAC), NASA grants NNX08A083G - MMS IDS, NNX11AD69G, and NNX13AD72G (MAS) and NNX10AN08A (PAC), and the Thailand Research Fund (DR).

  15. Use of the Atmospheric Electric Field for Terrain Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    realistic enough to yield results applicable in the real world? And if the po- tential gradients are found to be as predicted b,,r Poisson’s equation...electric field is believed to be realistic "since the application of the atmospheric electric field for stabilization or terrain avoidance will be...phenomena) that causes the fluctuations in atmospheric potential (or potential gradient) that makes terrain avoidance or any other application of the

  16. On the Lorentz local electric field in soft-matter systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, P; Tian, W J; Zhou, L W; Huang, J P

    2009-04-23

    In electric-field-responsive soft-matter systems, the suspended particles respond to the Lorentz local field (LLF), yielding abundant important phenomena. Even though the particles can easily rotate, the LLF was conventionally adopted as a quantity that is independent of rotations in the literature. In contrast, here we design an experiment to measure the LLF between two metallic spheres, one of which is rotating, and report a rotation-driven reduction. Excellent agreement between our experiment and theory reveals the role of the relaxation of dipole moments. Its relevance to biophysics, colloidal physics, and nonlinear physics is also discussed.

  17. Effects of high external electric fields on protein conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bramanti, Alessandro; Maruccio, Giuseppe; del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Chiuri, Rocco; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross

    2005-06-01

    Resistance of biomolecules to high electric fields is a main concern for nanobioelectronics/nanobiosensing applications, and it is also a relevant issue from a fundamental perspective, to understand the dielectric properties and structural dynamics of proteins. In nanoscale devices, biomolecules may experience electric fields as high as 107 V/m in order to elicit charge transport/transfer. Understanding the effects of such fields on their structural integrity is thus crucial to assess the reliability of biomolecular devices. In this study, we show experimental evidence for the retention of native-like fold pattern by proteins embedded in high electric fields. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, deposited onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying high static electric fields (up to 106-107 V/m). The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. This behavior is also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the intrinsic intra-protein electric fields. As the general features of such inner fields are not peculiar of azurin, the conclusions presented here should have general validity.

  18. Responsive behavior of polyampholyte brushes in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qianqian; Li, Lujuan; Zuo, Chuncheng; Huang, Fengli; Hu, Dongmei

    2016-12-01

    We conducted coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the responsive behaviors of polyampholyte brushes (PABs) under external electric fields. The effects of charge sequence, chain rigidity and electric field strength on the conformational transition and local structures of grafted chains were addressed systematically. Without electric field, the calculations indicate that the thickness of the PABs is smaller compared to polyelectrolyte brushes (PEBs). The presence of electric field leads to inconsistency of densities between negatively and positively charged monomers except for the alternating brush. Counterions from the PABs can diffuse inside or outside the brush. Unlike the PABs, to separate the polyelectrolytes and their counterions the electric field needs to overcome the osmotic pressure of counterions. The critical field which induces the extension of the flexible PABs is much larger than the PEBs. Meanwhile, it was also found that the critical field which induces the collapse of the PABs decreases as the block length increases. In the limit of strong field studied, the chains with longer blocks are in a local extended state. For diblock brushes, once oppositely charged blocks in a single chain are separated, the chain will become straighter due to strong electrostatic repulsion in intrablock.

  19. Migration of amoeba cells in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous and endogenous electric fields play a role in cell physiology as a guiding mechanism for the orientation and migration of cells. Electrotaxis of living cells has been observed for several cell types, e.g. neurons, fibroblasts, leukocytes, neural crest cells, cancer cells. Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), an intensively investigated chemotactic model organism, also exhibits a strong electrotactic behavior moving toward the cathode under the influence of electric fields. Here we report experiments on the effects of DC electric fields on the directional migration of Dd cells. We apply the electric field to cells seeded into microfluidic devices equipped with agar bridges to avoid any harmful effects of the electric field on the cells (ions formation, pH changes, etc.) and a constant flow to prevent the build-up of chemical gradient that elicits chemotaxis. Our results show that the cells linearly increase their speed over time when a constant electric field is applied for a prolonged duration (2 hours). This novel phenomenon cannot be attributed to mechanotaxis as the drag force of the electroosmotic flow is too small to produce shear forces that can reorient cells. It is independent of the cellular developmental stage and to our knowledge, it was not observed in chemotaxis. This work is supported by MaxSynBio project of the Max Planck Society.

  20. Large amplitude middle atmospheric electric fields - Fact or fiction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Siefring, C. L.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the measurements of large apparent dc fields in the middle atmosphere, previously gathered by two sounding rockets, shows these fields to be spurious. In the case of one of the rockets, the evidence presented suggests that the measured electric fields, aligned with the rocket's velocity vector, may be due to a negatively charged wake. A comparison of measurements made by various electric field booms also suggests that the insulating boom coatings in one experiment may have affected the results obtained. It is recommended that insulating coatings should not be used at mesospheric altitudes, because of the detrimental effects that frictional charging may have.

  1. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian; Gu, Yu-qiu

    2017-04-01

    Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  2. Propagation of Magnetic Fields from Electrical Domestic Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, K. N.; Gaidamak, M. A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents a research into propagation of magnetic fields from electrical domestic devices. A safe distance at which magnetic induction does not exceed the background level is determined for each type of devices. It is proved that there are two stages of increasing magnetic induction as the distance from the source increases. At the first stage magnetic induction rises and electromagnetic field is formed. At the second stage exponential decrease of magnetic field induction takes place. Mathematical regularities of propagation of magnetic field from electrical domestic devices are experimentally educed.

  3. Electric field control of magnon-induced magnetization dynamics in multiferroics

    PubMed Central

    Risinggård, Vetle; Kulagina, Iryna; Linder, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We consider theoretically the effect of an inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling on the magnon-induced dynamics of a ferromagnet. The magnon-mediated magnetoelectric torque affects both the homogeneous magnetization and magnon-driven domain wall motion. In the domains, we predict a reorientation of the magnetization, controllable by the applied electric field, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that observed in other physical systems via the same mechanism. The applied electric field can also be used to tune the domain wall speed and direction of motion in a linear fashion, producing domain wall velocities several times the zero field velocity. These results show that multiferroic systems offer a promising arena to achieve low-dissipation magnetization rotation and domain wall motion by exciting spin-waves. PMID:27554064

  4. Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalden, Peter; Shu, Michael J.; Chen, Frank; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yi; Wen, Haidan; Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Landreman, Patrick; Brongersma, Mark; Fong, Scott W.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Sher, Meng-Ju; Jost, Peter; Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin; von Hoegen, Alexander; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2016-08-01

    Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag4In3Sb67Te26 . Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales—faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.

  5. Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Zalden, Peter; Shu, Michael J; Chen, Frank; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yi; Wen, Haidan; Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Landreman, Patrick; Brongersma, Mark; Fong, Scott W; Wong, H-S Philip; Sher, Meng-Ju; Jost, Peter; Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin; von Hoegen, Alexander; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M

    2016-08-05

    Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag_{4}In_{3}Sb_{67}Te_{26}. Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales-faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.

  6. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  7. Peptide Assembly-Driven Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Motors for Micro Electric Generator

    PubMed Central

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L.; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-MOF motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface gradients created via peptide self-assembly around nanopores of MOFs, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnet fast enough to generate electric power of 0.1 µW. To make the peptide-MOF generator recyclable, a new MOF is applied as a host motor engine, which has a more rigid framework with higher H2O affinity so that peptide release occurs more efficiently via guest exchange without the destruction of MOF. PMID:25418936

  8. Ponderomotive Force in the Presence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents averaged equations of particle motion in an electromagnetic wave of arbitrary frequency with its wave vector directed along the ambient magnetic field. The particle is also subjected to an E cross B drift and a background electric field slowly changing in space and acting along the magnetic field line. The fields, wave amplitude, and the wave vector depend on the coordinate along the magnetic field line. The derivations of the ponderomotive forces are done by assuming that the drift velocity in the ambient magnetic field is comparable to the particle velocity. Such a scenario leads to new ponderomotive forces, dependent on the wave magnetic field intensity, and, as a result, to the additional energy exchange between the wave and the plasma particles. It is found that the parallel electric field can lead to the change of the particle-wave energy exchange rate comparable to that produced by the previously discussed ponderomotive forces.

  9. Electrically driven magnetic domain wall rotation in multiferroic heterostructures to manipulate suspended on-chip magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hyunmin; Nowakowski, Mark E; Liang, Cheng-yen; Hockel, Joshua L; Wetzlar, Kyle; Keller, Scott; McLellan, Brenda M; Marcus, Matthew A; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kläui, Mathias; Carman, Gregory P; Bokor, Jeffrey; Candler, Robert N

    2015-05-26

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrate deterministic electrically driven, strain-mediated domain wall (DW) rotation in ferromagnetic Ni rings fabricated on piezoelectric [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.66-[PbTiO3]0.34 (PMN-PT) substrates. While simultaneously imaging the Ni rings with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy, an electric field is applied across the PMN-PT substrate that induces strain in the ring structures, driving DW rotation around the ring toward the dominant PMN-PT strain axis by the inverse magnetostriction effect. The DW rotation we observe is analytically predicted using a fully coupled micromagnetic/elastodynamic multiphysics simulation, which verifies that the experimental behavior is caused by the electrically generated strain in this multiferroic system. Finally, this DW rotation is used to capture and manipulate micrometer-scale magnetic beads in a fluidic environment to demonstrate a proof-of-concept energy-efficient pathway for multiferroic-based lab-on-a-chip applications.

  10. Electric Field-Responsive Mesoporous Suspensions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Piao, Shang Hao; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the fabrication and electrorheological (ER) characteristics of mesoporous materials and their nanocomposites with conducting polymers under an applied electric field when dispersed in an insulating liquid. Smart fluids of electrically-polarizable particles exhibit a reversible and tunable phase transition from a liquid-like to solid-like state in response to an external electric field of various strengths, and have potential applications in a variety of active control systems. The ER properties of these mesoporous suspensions are explained further according to their dielectric spectra in terms of the flow curve, dynamic moduli, and yield stress. PMID:28347119

  11. Electric field and temperature effects in irradiated MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Santos, R. B. B.; Leite, F. G.; Araújo, N. E.; Cirne, K. H.; Melo, M. A. A.; Rallo, A.; Aguiar, Vitor. A. P.; Aguirre, F.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic devices exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit degradation on their electrical characteristics, which may compromise the functionality of the device. Understanding the physical phenomena responsible for radiation damage, which may be specific to a particular technology, it is of extreme importance to develop methods for testing and recovering the devices. The aim of this work is to check the influence of thermal annealing processes and electric field applied during irradiation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) in total ionizing dose experiments analyzing the changes in the electrical parameters in these devices

  12. Static electric field enhancement in nanoscale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepetit, Bruno; Lemoine, Didier; Márquez-Mijares, Maykel

    2016-08-01

    We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.

  13. Report on Non-Contact DC Electric Field Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Bond, T; Meyer, G

    2009-06-16

    This document reports on methods used to measure DC electrostatic fields in the range of 100 to 4000 V/m using a non-contact method. The project for which this report is written requires this capability. Non-contact measurements of DC fields is complicated by the effect of the accumulation of random space-charges near the sensors which interfere with the measurement of the field-of-interest and consequently, many forms of field measurements are either limited to AC measurements or use oscillating devices to create pseudo-AC fields. The intent of this document is to report on methods discussed in the literature for non-contact measurement of DC fields. Electric field meters report either the electric field expressed in volts per distance or the voltage measured with respect to a ground reference. Common commercial applications for measuring static (DC) electric fields include measurement of surface charge on materials near electronic equipment to prevent arcing which can destroy sensitive electronic components, measurement of the potential for lightning to strike buildings or other exposed assets, measurement of the electric fields under power lines to investigate potential health risks from exposure to EM fields and measurement of fields emanating from the brain for brain diagnostic purposes. Companies that make electric field sensors include Trek (Medina, NY), MKS Instruments, Boltek, Campbell Systems, Mission Instruments, Monroe Electronics, AlphaLab, Inc. and others. In addition to commercial vendors, there are research activities continuing in the MEMS and optical arenas to make compact devices using the principles applied to the larger commercial sensors.

  14. Electronic Properties of Capped Carbon Nanotubes under an Electric Field: Inhomogeneous Electric-Field Screening Induced by Bond Alternation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2013-06-01

    We study the electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes under an electric field by investigating their electrostatic potentials, total energies, and energy gaps under a parallel electric field, based on the density functional theory with effective screening medium method. We find that, in the capped carbon nanotubes, screening against the external electric field strongly depends on local atomic arrangement due to the inhomogeneous charge distribution arising from its bond alternation induced by the pentagonal rings in the cap region. In the case of armchair nanotubes, we find that the relative permittivity and energy gap between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied states oscillate in triple periodicity in their units with respect to the length. The electric field induces the charge redistribution in which the charge accumulation and depletion only occur around the pentagonal rings at or vicinity of the top/bottom of the nanotubes.

  15. Full 180° magnetization reversal with electric fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, J J; Hu, J M; Ma, J; Zhang, J X; Chen, L Q; Nan, C W

    2014-12-16

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals.

  16. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  17. Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

  18. Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals.

  19. Oscillations emerging from noise-driven steady state in networks with electrical synapses and subthreshold resonance

    PubMed Central

    Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Clopath, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a critical role in cognitive phenomena and have been observed in many brain regions. Experimental evidence indicates that classes of neurons exhibit properties that could promote oscillations, such as subthreshold resonance and electrical gap junctions. Typically, these two properties are studied separately but it is not clear which is the dominant determinant of global network rhythms. Our aim is to provide an analytical understanding of how these two effects destabilize the fluctuation-driven state, in which neurons fire irregularly, and lead to an emergence of global synchronous oscillations. Here we show how the oscillation frequency is shaped by single neuron resonance, electrical and chemical synapses.The presence of both gap junctions and subthreshold resonance are necessary for the emergence of oscillations. Our results are in agreement with several experimental observations such as network responses to oscillatory inputs and offer a much-needed conceptual link connecting a collection of disparate effects observed in networks. PMID:25405458

  20. Oscillations emerging from noise-driven steady state in networks with electrical synapses and subthreshold resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Clopath, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Oscillations play a critical role in cognitive phenomena and have been observed in many brain regions. Experimental evidence indicates that classes of neurons exhibit properties that could promote oscillations, such as subthreshold resonance and electrical gap junctions. Typically, these two properties are studied separately but it is not clear which is the dominant determinant of global network rhythms. Our aim is to provide an analytical understanding of how these two effects destabilize the fluctuation-driven state, in which neurons fire irregularly, and lead to an emergence of global synchronous oscillations. Here we show how the oscillation frequency is shaped by single neuron resonance, electrical and chemical synapses.The presence of both gap junctions and subthreshold resonance are necessary for the emergence of oscillations. Our results are in agreement with several experimental observations such as network responses to oscillatory inputs and offer a much-needed conceptual link connecting a collection of disparate effects observed in networks.

  1. Adaptive control of rigid-link electrically-driven robots actuated with brushless DC motors

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, M.M.; Dawson, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we extend the work of [1] and [2] to design an adaptive controller for rigid-link electrically-driven (RLED) robot manipulators specifically actuated with Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motors. In particular the adaptive controller presented is tailored to handle the multi-link dynamics of a rigid-link robot as opposed to a simple inertial load. Furthermore, the linear electrical dynamics of brushed DC motors used in the development of [1], are replaced with the multiple input nonlinear dynamics of BLDC motors. The result is an adaptive controller that guarantees globally asymptotic convergence of the link position tracking error in spite of parametric uncertainty throughout the entire electro-mechanical model.

  2. New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  3. Sparse Reconstruction of Electric Fields from Radial Magnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeates, Anthony R.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate estimates of the horizontal electric field on the Sun’s visible surface are important not only for estimating the Poynting flux of magnetic energy into the corona but also for driving time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic models of the corona. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the horizontal electric field from a sequence of radial-component magnetic field maps. This problem of inverting Faraday’s law has no unique solution. Unfortunately, the simplest solution (a divergence-free electric field) is not realistically localized in regions of nonzero magnetic field, as would be expected from Ohm’s law. Our new method generates instead a localized solution, using a basis pursuit algorithm to find a sparse solution for the electric field. The method is shown to perform well on test cases where the input magnetic maps are flux balanced in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. However, we show that if the input maps have a significant imbalance of flux—usually arising from data assimilation—then it is not possible to find a localized, realistic, electric field solution. This is the main obstacle to driving coronal models from time sequences of solar surface magnetic maps.

  4. Pulsed electric field processing of egg products: a review.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K

    2016-02-01

    Thermal processing ensures safety and enhances the shelf-life of most of the food products. It alters the structural-chemical composition, modifies heat labile components, as well as affects the functional properties of food products. This has driven the development of non-thermal food processing techniques, primarily for extending the shelf-life of different food products. These techniques are currently also being evaluated for their effects on product processing, quality and other safety parameters. Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an example of non-thermal technique which can be applied for a variety of purpose in the food processing industry. PEF can be used for antimicrobial treatment of various food products to improve the storability or food safety, for extraction and recovery of some high-value compounds from a food matrix or for stabilization of various food products through inactivation of some enzymes or catalysts. Research on the application of PEF to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in different egg products is being currently focused. It has been reported that PEF effectively reduces the activity of various microorganisms in a variety of egg products. However, the PEF treatment also alters the structural and functional properties to some extent and there is a high degree of variability between different studies. In addition to integrating findings, the present review also provides several explanations for the inconsistency in findings between different studies related to PEF processing of egg products. Several specific recommendations for future research directions on PEF processing are well discussed in this review.

  5. Electric field enhanced conductivity in strongly coupled dense metal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2012-06-15

    Experimentation with dense metal plasma has shown that non-negligible increases in plasma conductivity are induced when a relatively low electric field ({approx}6 kV/cm) is applied. Existing conductivity models assume that atoms, electrons, and ions all exist in thermal equilibrium. This assumption is invalidated by the application of an appreciable electric field, where electrons are accelerated to energies comparable to the ionization potential of the surrounding atoms. Experimental data obtained from electrically exploded silver wire is compared with a finite difference hydrodynamic model that makes use of the SESAME equation-of-state database. Free electron generation through both thermal and electric field excitations, and their effect on plasma conductivity are applied and discussed.

  6. Electric field enhanced conductivity in strongly coupled dense metal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2012-06-01

    Experimentation with dense metal plasma has shown that non-negligible increases in plasma conductivity are induced when a relatively low electric field (˜6 kV/cm) is applied. Existing conductivity models assume that atoms, electrons, and ions all exist in thermal equilibrium. This assumption is invalidated by the application of an appreciable electric field, where electrons are accelerated to energies comparable to the ionization potential of the surrounding atoms. Experimental data obtained from electrically exploded silver wire is compared with a finite difference hydrodynamic model that makes use of the SESAME equation-of-state database. Free electron generation through both thermal and electric field excitations, and their effect on plasma conductivity are applied and discussed.

  7. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  8. Electric fields in micro-gravity can replace gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    The influence of the world-wide atmospheric electric field on the growth of plants seems to have been neglected. The confirmation of the existence of electrotropism shows effects on some plants similar to gravity. I propose space ex eriments withp plants that grow in microgravity but are exposed to different electric field configurations with various field strengths and polarity. The electric field in terrestrial environment shows strong effects on some plants that can be regarded as due to phototropism. In microgravity we have full control of light and electric field, and thus we can practically eliminate the effects of gravity and we can study to what degree the electric field can replace the gravitational effects on plants. In this way we can create a new habitat for some plants and study its role in the rate of growth as well as in the sensing of free space for growth of plants in absence of gravity. By varying the strength and direction of illumination of plants we can also study the relative role of phototropism and electrotropism on different plants. This should enable us to select the most suitable plants for Advanced Life Support systems (ALS) for long-duration missions in microgravity environment. Some simple space experiments for verification of these assumptions are described that should answer the basic questions how should we design the ALS for the future high performance space stations and long duration manned space flights. The selection of the suitable plants for such ALS may go along two approaches: the self supporting electrotropic plants using the optimal electric field strength and its range of variation, non electrotropic plants that creep along the "ground" or other supporting plants or special structures. Ground based fitotron experiments have shown that several kV/m electric fields overwhelm the gravity better than clinostats can do. It happens in case of electrotropic plants but also after several days for non-electrotropic plants

  9. Electric-field-induced spin wave generation using multiferroic magnetoelectric cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepov, Sergiy; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Alzate, Juan G.; Wong, Kin; Lewis, Mark; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Nath, Jayshankar; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L.; Bur, Alexandre; Wu, Tao; Carman, Gregory P.; Khitun, Alexander

    2014-02-24

    In this work, we report on the demonstration of voltage-driven spin wave excitation, where spin waves are generated by multiferroic magnetoelectric (ME) cell transducers driven by an alternating voltage, rather than an electric current. A multiferroic element consisting of a magnetostrictive Ni film and a piezoelectric [Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}]{sub (1−x)}–[PbTiO{sub 3}]{sub x} substrate was used for this purpose. By applying an AC voltage to the piezoelectric, an oscillating electric field is created within the piezoelectric material, which results in an alternating strain-induced magnetic anisotropy in the magnetostrictive Ni layer. The resulting anisotropy-driven magnetization oscillations propagate in the form of spin waves along a 5 μm wide Ni/NiFe waveguide. Control experiments confirm the strain-mediated origin of the spin wave excitation. The voltage-driven spin wave excitation, demonstrated in this work, can potentially be used for low-dissipation spin wave-based logic and memory elements.

  10. Electric field by pick-up ions and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Behar, Etienne; Nilsson, Hans; Holmstrom, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Observations by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) showed increasing distortion of the solar wind flow as Rosetta approached the Sun, i.e., as the density of the newly born ions increased. This indicates azimuthal momentum transfer from the solar wind to the newly born ions because they are displaced by the solar wind electric field up to the ion gyroradius this the solar wind velocity, and conservation of the momentum (center of the mass) makes the solar wind to azimuthally shift by "counter action" of these pick-up ion motions. To understand this azimuthal momentum transfer, it is inevitable to model the electric field by the displacement of these pick-up ions and electrons. Although the E×B drift does not make charge separation when the scale size is larger than the ion gyroradius, ions and electrons move in the opposite direction to each other within the short distance up to a gyroradius, and therefore, the charge separation occurs. Thus, the newly-ionized neutrals (ion-electron pairs) create the electric field in the opposite (shielding) direction to the solar wind electric field (like the ionopause of Venus and Mars). However, such a newly induced "shielding" electric field will simultaneously be weakened by the solar wind electrons because the solar wind is also moved by this shielding electric field to reduce it, in the same way as the plasma oscillation (time scale of about 10-4 s). In other words, the solar wind tries to maintain the solar wind electric field as far as the momentum allows. These two opposite effects must be combined when modelling the azimuthal electric field, and resultant ion/electron motions within a gyroradius, like the case for ROSETTA. Furthermore, the effect of the induced electric field by the pick-up ions and electrons will be different when the newly born ions are created as the result of photo-ionization and of the charge exchange because the electron effect is different between them. In the presentation, we model the

  11. High school students' representations and understandings of electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields postinstruction as indicated by students' performance on textbook-style questions. It has, however, inadequately captured student ideas expressed in other situations yet informative to educational research. In this study, we explore students' ideas of electric fields preinstruction as shown by students' representations produced in open-ended activities. 92 participant students completed a worksheet that involved drawing comic strips about electric charges as characters of a cartoon series. Three students who had spontaneously produced arrow diagrams were interviewed individually after class. We identified nine ideas related to electric fields that these three students spontaneously leveraged in the comic strip activity. In this paper, we describe in detail each idea and its situated context. As most research in the literature has understood students as having relatively fixed conceptions and mostly identified divergences in those conceptions from canonical targets, this study shows students' reasoning to be more variable in particular moments, and that variability includes common sense resources that can be productive for learning about electric fields.

  12. Generation of Nonlinear Electric Field Bursts in the Outer Radiation Belt through Electrons Trapping by Oblique Whistler Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Drake, James; Mozer, Forrest

    2016-04-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. The parameters favorable for the generation of TDS were studied experimentally as well as making use of 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the system with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that an outward propagating front of whistlers and hot electrons amplifies oblique whistlers which collapse into regions of intense parallel electric field with properties consistent with recent observations of TDS from the Van Allen Probe satellites. Oblique whistlers seed the parallel electric fields that are driven by the beams. The resulting parallel electric fields trap and heat the precipitating electrons. These electrons drive spikes of intense parallel electric field with characteristics similar to the TDSs seen in the VAP data. The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system. These effects are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts. The precipitating hot electrons propagate away from the source region in intense bunches rather than as a smooth flux.

  13. Generation of Nonlinear Electric Field Bursts in the Outer Radiation Belt through Electrons Trapping by Oblique Whistler Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Drake, J. F.; Mozer, F.

    2015-12-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. The parameters favorable for the generation of TDS were studied experimentally as well as making use of 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the system with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that an outward propagating front of whistlers and hot electrons amplifies oblique whistlers which collapse into regions of intense parallel electric field with properties consistent with recent observations of TDS from the Van Allen Probe satellites. Oblique whistlers seed the parallel electric fields that are driven by the beams. The resulting parallel electric fields trap and heat the precipitating electrons. These electrons drive spikes of intense parallel electric field with characteristics similar to the TDSs seen in the VAP data. The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system. These effects are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts. The precipitating hot electrons propagate away from the source region in intense bunches rather than as a smooth flux.

  14. Consistency restrictions on maximal electric-field strength in quantum field theory.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, S P; Gitman, D M

    2008-09-26

    Quantum field theory with an external background can be considered as a consistent model only if backreaction is relatively small with respect to the background. To find the corresponding consistency restrictions on an external electric field and its duration in QED and QCD, we analyze the mean-energy density of quantized fields for an arbitrary constant electric field E, acting during a large but finite time T. Using the corresponding asymptotics with respect to the dimensionless parameter eET2, one can see that the leading contributions to the energy are due to the creation of particles by the electric field. Assuming that these contributions are small in comparison with the energy density of the electric background, we establish the above-mentioned restrictions, which determine, in fact, the time scales from above of depletion of an electric field due to the backreaction.

  15. Inhomogeneities of plasma density and electric field as sources of electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyasov, Askar A.; Chernyshov, Alexander A. Mogilevsky, Mikhail M.; Golovchanskaya, Irina V. Kozelov, Boris V.

    2015-03-15

    Inhomogeneities of plasma density and non-uniform electric fields are compared as possible sources of a sort of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves that can be identified with broadband extremely low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the topside auroral ionosphere. Such waves are excited by inhomogeneous energy-density-driven instability. To gain a deeper insight in generation of these waves, computational modeling is performed with various plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that inhomogeneities of plasma density can give rise to this instability even in the absence of electric fields. By using both satellite-observed and model spatial distributions of plasma density and electric field in our modeling, we show that specific details of the spatial distributions are of minor importance for the wave generation. The solutions of the nonlocal inhomogeneous energy-density-driven dispersion relation are investigated for various ion-to-electron temperature ratios and directions of wave propagation. The relevance of the solutions to the observed spectra of broadband extremely low frequency emissions is shown.

  16. Aqueous electrolyte surfaces in strong electric fields: molecular insight into nanoscale jets and bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirsák, Jan; Moučka, Filip; Škvor, Jiří; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Exposing aqueous surfaces to a strong electric field gives rise to interesting phenomena, such as formation of a floating water bridge or an eruption of a jet in electrospinning. In an effort to account for the phenomena at the molecular level, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using several protocols on both pure water and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride subjected to an electrostatic field. All simulations consistently point to the same mechanisms which govern the rearrangement of the originally planar surface. The results show that the phenomena are primarily governed by an orientational reordering of the water molecules driven by the applied field. It is demonstrated that, for pure water, a sufficiently strong field yields a columnar structure parallel to the field with an anisotropic arrangement of the water molecules with their dipole moments aligned along the applied field not only in the surface layer but over the entire cross section of the column. Nonetheless, the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule does not seem to be affected by the field regardless of its strength and molecule's orientation. In the electrolyte solutions, the ionic charge is able to overcome the effect of the external field tending to arrange the water molecules radially in the first coordination shell of an ion. The ion-water interaction interferes thus with the water-electric field interaction, and the competition between these two forces (i.e., strength of the field versus concentration) provides the key mechanism determining the stability of the observed structures.

  17. High electric field phenomena in insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, J. R.; Sarjeant, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The present study extends previous work to include electron radiation-induced changes in monoisopropyl biphenyl (MIPB)-impregnated polypropylene film as well as the effects of neutron/gamma radiation on dry polypropylene films. Effects that were quite similar were induced by both electron and neutron radiation on the properties of interest of the polypropylene films. Impregnation of the film with MIPB had a mitigatory effect on the degradation of the properties. This report also contains the results of a simultaneous electrical and thermal aging study of a capacitor-grade polypropylene film. The data obtained in this study was fitted to models that will enable realistic prediction of lifetimes under operating conditions.

  18. Robust ion current oscillations under a steady electric field: An ion channel analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Wang, Yunshan; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Yossifon, Gilad; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear, nonequilibrium field-driven ion flux phenomenon, which unlike Teorell's nonlinear multiple field theory, requires only the application of one field: robust autonomous current-mass flux oscillations across a porous monolith coupled to a capillary with a long air bubble, which mimics a hydrophobic protein in an ion channel. The oscillations are driven by the hysteretic wetting dynamics of the meniscus when electro-osmotic flow and pressure driven backflow, due to bubble expansion, compete to approach zero mass flux within the monolith. Delayed rupture of the film around the advancing bubble cuts off the electric field and switches the monolith mass flow from the former to the latter. The meniscus then recedes and repairs the rupture to sustain an oscillation for a range of applied fields. This generic mechanism shares many analogs with current oscillations in cell membrane ion channel. At sufficiently high voltage, the system undergoes a state transition characterized by appearance of the ubiquitous 1 /f power spectrum.

  19. Localized NMR Mediated by Electrical-Field-Induced Domain Wall Oscillation in Quantum-Hall-Ferromagnet Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S; Miura, T; Watanabe, S; Nagase, K; Hirayama, Y

    2016-03-09

    We present fractional quantum Hall domain walls confined in a gate-defined wire structure. Our experiments utilize spatial oscillation of domain walls driven by radio frequency electric fields to cause nuclear magnetic resonance. The resulting spectra are discussed in terms of both large quadrupole fields created around the wire and hyperfine fields associated with the oscillating domain walls. This provides the experimental fact that the domain walls survive near the confined geometry despite of potential deformation, by which a localized magnetic resonance is allowed in electrical means.

  20. Numerical studies of light-matter interaction driven by plasmonic fields: The velocity gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, A.; Ciappina, M. F.; Lewenstein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional theoretical approaches to model strong field phenomena driven by plasmonic fields are based on the length gauge formulation of the laser-matter coupling. Obviously, from the physical point of view, there exists no preferable gauge and, consequently, the predictions and outcomes should be independent of this choice. The use of the length gauge is mainly due to the fact that the quantity obtained from finite-element simulations of plasmonic fields is the plasmonic enhanced laser electric field rather than the laser vector potential. We develop, from first principles, the velocity gauge formulation of the problem and we apply it to the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in atoms. A comparison to the results obtained with the length gauge is made. As expected, it is analytically and numerically demonstrated that both gauges give equivalent descriptions of the emitted HHG spectra resulting from the interaction of a spatially inhomogeneous field and the single active electron model of the helium atom. We discuss, however, advantages and disadvantages of using different gauges in terms of numerical efficiency, which turns out to be very different. In order to understand it, we analyze the quantum mechanical results using time-frequency Gabor distributions. This analysis, combined with classical calculations based on solutions of the Newton equation, yields important physical insight into the electronic quantum paths underlying the dynamics of the harmonic generation process. The results obtained in this way also allow us to assess the quality of the quantum approaches in both gauges and put stringent limits on the numerical parameters required for a desired accuracy.

  1. Electric Field-Induced Fluid Velocity Field Distribution in DNA Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling-Yun; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2008-10-01

    We present an analytical solution for fluid velocity Geld distribution of polyelectrolyte DNA. Both the electric field force and the viscous force in the DNA solution are considered under a suitable boundary condition. The solution of electric potential is analytically obtained by using the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The fluid velocity along the electric field is dependent on the cylindrical radius and concentration. It is shown that the electric field-induced fluid velocity will be increased with the increasing cylindrical radius, whose distribution also varies with the concentration.

  2. Wetting of sessile water drop under an external electrical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancauwenberghe, Valerie; di Marco, Paolo; Brutin, David; Amu Collaboration; Unipi Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    The enhancement of heat and mass transfer using a static electric field is an interesting process for industrial applications, due to its low energy consumption and potentially high level of evaporation rate enhancement. However, to date, this phenomenon is still not understood in the context of the evaporation of sessile drops. We previously synthesized the state of the art concerning the effect of an electric field on sessile drops with a focus on the change of contact angle and shape and the influence of the evaporation rate [1]. We present here the preliminary results of an new experiment set-up. The novelty of the set-up is the drop injection from the bottom that allows to generate safety the droplet under the electrostatic field. The evaporation at room temperature of water drops having three different volumes has been investigated under an electric field up to 10.5 kV/cm. The time evolutions of the contact angles, volumes and diameters have been analysed. As reported in the literature, the drop elongate along the direction of the electric field. Despite the hysteresis effect of the contact angle, the receding contact angle increases with the strength of the electric field. This is clearly observable for the small drops for which the gravity effect can be neglected.

  3. Electric Field Control of Ferromagnetism and Magnetic Devices Using Multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, John Thomas

    This dissertation presents a study of a heterostructure composed of room temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic BiFeO3 and ferromagnetic Co.90Fe.10, with specific interest in understanding the interfacial coupling mechanisms in this system and establishing the electric field control of a magnetization and spintronic devices. The field of spintronics has been plagued with the problem of a large energy dissipation as a consequence of the resistive losses that come during the writing of the magnetic state (i.e. reversing the magnetization direction). The primary aim of the work presented here is to investigate and understand a novel heterostructure and materials interface that can be demonstrated as a pathway to low energy spintronics. In this dissertation, I will address the specific aspects of multiferroicity, magnetoelectricity, and interface coupling that must be addressed in order to reverse a magnetization with an electric field. Furthermore, I will demonstrate the reversal of a magnetization with an electric field in single and multilayer magnetic devices. The primary advances made as a result of the work described herein are the use of epitaxial constraints to control the nanoscale domain structure of a multiferroic which is then correlated to the domain structure of the exchange coupled ferromagnet. Additionally, the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic layer is controlled with only an applied electric field at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. Lastly, using this electric field control of ferromagnetism, the first demonstration of a magnetoelectric memory bit is presented.

  4. Polarimetric Radar and Electric Field Observations of a Multicell Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruning, E. C.; Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Schuur, T.; Straka, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, W.

    2004-12-01

    Much prior thunderstorm electrification research uses one-dimensional analyses of vertical profiles of the thunderstorm electric field, often incorporating cloud-to-ground lighting strike data and radar reflectivity observations. New instrumentation has provided the opportunity to investigate thunderstorm electrification and lightning in greater spatial detail. We present data from the late stages of a multicellular storm occurring on 28-29 June 2004 during the Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment (TELEX) field program in central Oklahoma. Three-dimensional (3-D) vector electric field (measured by balloon sounding), total lighting mapping, and polarimetric radar are utilized. The maximum measured electric field exceeded -150 kV m-1. Preliminary charge analysis using the electric field vectors indicates a positive layer below 0\\deg C, followed by a large negative layer just above the melting level. Another positive and negative layer follow this. Polarimetric radar signatures within the melting layer are examined in the context of the electric field observations. Mapped lightning flashes are used to clarify and support the inferred charge structure. An interactive 3-D display is used to combine these data sources. Temporal evolution of the storm is also considered.

  5. Robust tracking control for a class of electrically driven flexible-joint robots without velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yeong-Chan; Yen, Hui-Min

    2012-02-01

    This article addresses the motion tracking control for a class of flexible-joint robotic manipulators actuated by brushed direct current motors. This class of electrically driven flexible-joint robots is perturbed by time-varying parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. A novel observer-based robust dynamic feedback tracking controller without velocity measurements will be developed such that the resulting closed-loop system is locally stable, all the states and signals are bounded and the trajectory tracking errors can be made as small as possible. Only the measurements of link position and armature current are required for feedback and so the number of sensors in the practical implementation of the developed control scheme can be greatly reduced. The observer structure is of reduced order in the sense that the observer is constructed only to estimate the velocity signals and whose dimension is half of the dimension of flexible-joint robots. Especially, for the set-point regulation problem, the developed controller is simplified to a linear time-invariant controller. Consequently, the robust tracking control scheme developed in this study can be extended to handle a broader class of uncertain electrically driven flexible-joint robots and the developed robust control schemes possess the properties of computational simplicity and easy implementation. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  6. Enhancement of survival and electricity production in an engineered bacterium by light-driven proton pumping.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ethan T; Baron, Daniel B; Naranjo, Belén; Bond, Daniel R; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2010-07-01

    Microorganisms can use complex photosystems or light-dependent proton pumps to generate membrane potential and/or reduce electron carriers to support growth. The discovery that proteorhodopsin is a light-dependent proton pump that can be expressed readily in recombinant bacteria enables development of new strategies to probe microbial physiology and to engineer microbes with new light-driven properties. Here, we describe functional expression of proteorhodopsin and light-induced changes in membrane potential in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. We report that there were significant increases in electrical current generation during illumination of electrochemical chambers containing S. oneidensis expressing proteorhodopsin. We present evidence that an engineered strain is able to consume lactate at an increased rate when it is illuminated, which is consistent with the hypothesis that proteorhodopsin activity enhances lactate uptake by increasing the proton motive force. Our results demonstrate that there is coupling of a light-driven process to electricity generation in a nonphotosynthetic engineered bacterium. Expression of proteorhodopsin also preserved the viability of the bacterium under nutrient-limited conditions, providing evidence that fulfillment of basic energy needs of organisms may explain the widespread distribution of proteorhodopsin in marine environments.

  7. Role of Stress-Driven Interfacial Instability in the Failure of Confined Electric Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Provatas, Nikolas

    2017-02-01

    We examine the possible role of stress-driven surface instability in the failure of electric interconnects found in large-scale integrated circuits. While electromigration is commonly known as the main reason behind interconnect failure, the complex interplay of electromigration-induced mass transport and stress-induced transport has also been studied extensively since the discovery of the Blech effect due to its importance in integrated-circuit design. However, the role of the dielectric medium confining the interconnect has not been properly included in previous analysis of this phenomenon. Here, we examine the classic ATG instability in the presence of dielectric confinement. We propose that thermal stress and surface transport, typically active in all metal interconnects, may trigger a surface instability at the metal-dielectric interface. In particular, we show that there exists a critical thermal stress level below which the stress-driven surface instability cannot be responsible for the failure of interconnects of any length. However, for an interconnect confined by soft low-k dielectric materials, thermal stresses can still be large enough that such stress-driven instability may break the metal conductor even if its length is below the Blech limit.

  8. Proton Radiography of Spontaneous Fields, Plasma Flows and Dynamics in X-Ray Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-11-01

    Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.

  9. Dirac oscillator in perpendicular magnetic and transverse electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, D.; Roy, P.

    2014-12-15

    We study (2+1) dimensional massless Dirac oscillator in the presence of perpendicular magnetic and transverse electric fields. Exact solutions are obtained and it is shown that there exists a critical magnetic field B{sub c} such that the spectrum is different in the two regions B>B{sub c} and Belectric field. • Exact solutions are found. • Critical cases have been examined.

  10. Electro-optic probe measurements of electric fields in plasmas.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, M; Yoshida, Z; Mushiake, T; Kawazura, Y; Osawa, R; Fujinami, K; Yano, Y; Saitoh, H; Yamasaki, M; Kashyap, A; Takahashi, N; Nakatsuka, M; Fukuyama, A

    2017-02-01

    The direct measurements of high-frequency electric fields in a plasma bring about significant advances in the physics and engineering of various waves. We have developed an electro-optic sensor system based on the Pockels effect. Since the signal is transmitted through an optical fiber, the system has high tolerance for electromagnetic noises. To demonstrate its applicability to plasma experiments, we report the first result of measurement of the ion-cyclotron wave excited in the RT-1 magnetosphere device. This study compares the results of experimental field measurements with simulation results of electric fields in plasmas.

  11. Preliminary Studies on Pulsed Electric Field Breakdown of Lead Azide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    subjected to combinations of 400.0 nm irradiation (strongly absorbed by Pb(N_)-) and strong field, for both polarities, again with no effect . It has...II n»Kt*tmy mad I4mtlty by MeeM mmt»mr) .± Lead Azide Electric Field Initiation Contact Effects Surface Effects Radiation Effect ! A9STMACT...reported. Specifically, ws-d4*eu«s the effects of contacts on the initiation of explosives by electric fields, and present preliminary weaouresents

  12. Tuning the mechanical behaviour of structural elements by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lillo, Luigi; Raither, Wolfram; Bergamini, Andrea; Zündel, Manuel; Ermanni, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    This work reports on the adoption of electric fields to tune the mechanical behaviour of structural elements. A mechanical characterization procedure, consisting of double lap joint and 3-point bending tests, is conducted on copper-polyimide laminates while applying electric fields of varying intensity. Field dependence and, thus, adaptability of shear strength and bending stiffness are shown as a function of the overlapping length and interfaces number, respectively. Further, the impact of remaining charges is investigated in both testing configurations. The findings herein lay the foundation for the implementation of electro-adaptive components in structural applications.

  13. Electro-optic probe measurements of electric fields in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, M.; Yoshida, Z.; Mushiake, T.; Kawazura, Y.; Osawa, R.; Fujinami, K.; Yano, Y.; Saitoh, H.; Yamasaki, M.; Kashyap, A.; Takahashi, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    2017-02-01

    The direct measurements of high-frequency electric fields in a plasma bring about significant advances in the physics and engineering of various waves. We have developed an electro-optic sensor system based on the Pockels effect. Since the signal is transmitted through an optical fiber, the system has high tolerance for electromagnetic noises. To demonstrate its applicability to plasma experiments, we report the first result of measurement of the ion-cyclotron wave excited in the RT-1 magnetosphere device. This study compares the results of experimental field measurements with simulation results of electric fields in plasmas.

  14. Magneto-optical properties of Fe thin films in an external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kohji; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori; Weinert, Michael; Freeman, Arthur

    2012-02-01

    Controlling magnetic properties by an external electric field (E-field) is a key challenge in magnetic physics. Previously, from first-principles calculations,ootnotetextNakamura, Shimabukuro, Fujiwara, Akiyama, Ito, Freeman, PRL102, 187201(2009); Nakamura, Akiyama, Ito, Weinert, Freeman, PRB81, 220409R(2010) we demonstrated the E-field-driven magnetocrystalline anisotropy modification in Fe thin films and at the Fe/MgO interface. Here, we extend our investigations to treat the magneto-optical properties of Fe thin films in an E-field. Calculations were carried out using the film-FLAPW methodootnotetextWimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, PRB24, 864(1981); Weinert, Wimmer, Freeman, PRB26, 4571(1982),in which an E-field is incorporated and the conductivity tensor is obtained by applying the Kubo formula of linear response theory. Results predict that for an Fe monolayer, when the E-field is introduced over 1V/å, the calculated interband conductivity in the low energy region (less than about 2eV from EF) are modified compared to that in zero field, due to a magnetization reorientation from out-of-plane to in-plane. The calculated plasma frequency is also found to be reduced by 7%, which suggests an E-field-driven magnetoresistance.

  15. Ionization and recombination in attosecond electric field pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Solov'ev, Eugene A.; Briggs, John S.

    2005-10-15

    Based on the results of a previous communication [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083003 (2004)], we study ionization and excitation of a hydrogenic atom from the ground and first excited states in short electric field pulses of several cycles. A process of ionization and recombination which occurs periodically in time is identified, for both small and extremely large peak electric field strengths. In the limit of large electric peak fields closed-form analytic expressions for the population of the initial state after single- and few-cycle pulses are derived. These formulas, strictly valid for asymptotically large momentum transfer from the field, give excellent agreement with fully numerical calculations for all momentum transfers.

  16. PIC simulation of electrodeless plasma thruster with rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Ryosuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Nishida, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-27

    For longer lifetime of electric propulsion system, an electrodeless plasma thruster with rotating electric field have been proposed utilizing a helicon plasma source. The rotating electric field may produce so-called Lissajous acceleration of helicon plasma in the presence of diverging magnetic field through a complicated mechanism originating from many parameters. Two-dimensional simulations of the Lissajous acceleration were conducted by a code based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method and Monte Carlo Collision (MCC) method for understanding plasma motion in acceleration area and for finding the optimal condition. Obtained results show that azimuthal current depends on ratio of electron drift radius to plasma region length, AC frequency, and axial magnetic field. When ratio of cyclotron frequency to the AC frequency is higher than unity, reduction of the azimuthal current by collision effect is little or nothing.

  17. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  18. Intense ionospheric electric and magnetic field pulses generated by lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Ding, J. G.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field measurements have been made in the ionosphere over an active thunderstorm and an optical detector onboard the same rocket yielded an excellent time base for the study of waves radiated into space from the discharge. In addition to detection of intense, but generally well understood whistler mode waves, very unusual electric and magnetic field pulses preceded the 1-10 kHz component of the radiated signal. These pulses lasted several ms and had a significant electric field component parallel to the magnetic field. No known propagating wave mode has this polarization nor a signal propagation velocity as high as those measured here. This study investigated and rejected an explanation based on an anomalous skin depth effect. Although only a hypothesis at this time, a more promising explanation involving the generation of the pulse via a nonlinear decay of whistler mode waves in the frequency range 10-80 kHz is being investigated.

  19. The electric field and global electrodynamics of the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The conception of the electrodynamics of the quiet-time magnetosphere obtained during the last four years of magnetospheric study is presented. Current understandings of the open magnetosphere, convective plasma flows in the plasma sheet, the shielding of the inner magnetosphere from the convective magnetospheric electric field, the space charge produced when injected electrons drift towards dawn and injected ions drift towards dusk, the disruption of the flow of the Birkeland current by plasma instabilities and the shielding of the convective electric field by the dayside magnetopause are discussed. Attention is also given to changes of magnetic field line topology magnetic storms and substorms. Unresolved questions and new tools which may play a role in the further understanding of magnetospheric electrodynamics and the role of the magnetospheric electric field are presented.

  20. Skin rejuvenation with non-invasive pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G; Watkins, Michael T; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-05-12

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.