Science.gov

Sample records for electric field sensors

  1. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  2. Electroinduction disk sensor of electric field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, S. V.; Korolyova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of the level of electric fields exposure to the technical and biological objects for a long time is an urgent task. To solve this problem, the required electric field sensors with specified metrological characteristics. The aim of the study is the establishment of theoretical assumptions for the calculation of the flat electric field sensors. It is proved that the accuracy of the sensor does not exceed 3% in the spatial range 0fields, this article examines single-axis electromotive disk sensor radius R, and the estimation errors caused by the inhomogeneity of the field. The maximum of this error is 3% in the spatial range from 0 to 5R to the source field that allows you to design better quality sensors used in different measuring systems of wide application.

  3. Electric-field sensors for bullet detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Stephen; Hull, David; Ghionea, Simon; Ludwig, William; Deligeorges, Socrates; Gudmundsson, Thorkell; Noras, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Research and experimental trials have shown that electric-field (E-field) sensors are effective at detecting charged projectiles. E-field sensors can likely complement traditional acoustic sensors, and help provide a more robust and effective solution for bullet detection and tracking. By far, the acoustic sensor is the most prevalent technology in use today for hostile fire defeat systems due to compact size and low cost, yet they come with a number of challenges that include multipath, reverberant environments, false positives and low signal-to-noise. Studies have shown that these systems can benefit from additional sensor modalities such as E-field sensors. However, E-field sensors are a newer technology that is relatively untested beyond basic experimental trials; this technology has not been deployed in any fielded systems. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has conducted live-fire experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) to collect data from E-field sensors. Three types of E-field sensors were included in these experiments: (a) an electric potential gradiometer manufactured by Quasar Federal Systems (QFS), (b) electric charge induction, or "D-dot" sensors designed and built by the Army Research Lab (ARL), and (c) a varactor based E-field sensor prototype designed by University of North Carolina-Charlotte (UNCC). Sensors were placed in strategic locations near the bullet trajectories, and their data were recorded. We analyzed the performance of each E-field sensor type in regard to small-arms bullet detection capability. The most recent experiment in October 2013 allowed demonstration of improved versions of the varactor and D-dot sensor types. Results of new real-time analysis hardware employing detection algorithms were also tested. The algorithms were used to process the raw data streams to determine when bullet detections occurred. Performance among the sensor types and algorithm effectiveness were compared to estimates from acoustics signatures

  4. A Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor for Portable Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dongping; Ma, Qichao; Xie, Yutong; Zheng, Qi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of electric field sensor is proposed for the health and safety protection of inspection staff in high-voltage environments. Compared with the traditional power frequency electric field measurement instruments, the portable instrument has some special performance requirements and, thus, a new kind of double spherical shell sensor is presented. First, the mathematical relationships between the induced voltage of the sensor, the output voltage of the measurement circuit, and the original electric field in free space are deduced theoretically. These equations show the principle of the proposed sensor to measure the electric field and the effect factors of the measurement. Next, the characteristics of the sensor are analyzed through simulation. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The influencing rules of the size and material of the sensor on the measurement results are summarized. Then, the proposed sensor and the matching measurement system are used in a physical experiment. After calibration, the error of the measurement system is discussed. Lastly, the directional characteristic of the proposed sensor is experimentally tested. PMID:29614753

  5. A Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor for Portable Measurement.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dongping; Ma, Qichao; Xie, Yutong; Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Zhanlong

    2018-03-31

    In this paper, a new type of electric field sensor is proposed for the health and safety protection of inspection staff in high-voltage environments. Compared with the traditional power frequency electric field measurement instruments, the portable instrument has some special performance requirements and, thus, a new kind of double spherical shell sensor is presented. First, the mathematical relationships between the induced voltage of the sensor, the output voltage of the measurement circuit, and the original electric field in free space are deduced theoretically. These equations show the principle of the proposed sensor to measure the electric field and the effect factors of the measurement. Next, the characteristics of the sensor are analyzed through simulation. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The influencing rules of the size and material of the sensor on the measurement results are summarized. Then, the proposed sensor and the matching measurement system are used in a physical experiment. After calibration, the error of the measurement system is discussed. Lastly, the directional characteristic of the proposed sensor is experimentally tested.

  6. High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Yun; Wang, Alan X; Lee, Beom Suk; Zhang, Xingyu; Chen, Ray T

    2011-08-29

    We design a high dynamic range electric field sensor based on domain inverted electro-optic (E-O) polymer Y-fed directional coupler for electromagnetic wave detection. This electrode-less, all optical, wideband electrical field sensor is fabricated using standard processing for E-O polymer photonic devices. Experimental results demonstrate effective detection of electric field from 16.7V/m to 750KV/m at a frequency of 1GHz, and spurious free measurement range of 70dB.

  7. Effectiveness of a worker-worn electric-field sensor to detect power-line proximity and electrical-contact.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shengke; Powers, John R; Newbraugh, Bradley H

    2010-06-01

    Construction workers suffer the most electrocutions among all industries. Currently, there are no electrical contact warning devices on the market to protect workers. This paper proposes a worker-worn electric-field sensor. As the worker is in proximity to, or in contact with, a live power-circuit, the sensor sets off an audible/visual warning alarm. The sensor also has the potential to wirelessly trip a wireless-capable circuit breaker, and to trigger a wireless transmitter to notify emergency response of an electrical contact. An experiment was conducted to measure electric-field variation on simulated human-wrists (10 defrosted hog-legs) in various proximities and in electrical-contact to a simulated power-circuit. The purpose of these tests was to determine the feasibility of developing a worker-worn electric-field detection sensor for use in protecting workers from contact with energized electrical conductors. This study observed a significant electric-field-magnitude increase as a hog-leg approaches the live-circuit, and the distinct electric-field-magnitude jump as the leg contacts with the live-circuit. The observation indicates that this sensor can be an effective device to warn the workers of electrical hazards. Additionally, the sensor has the potential to wirelessly trip a wireless-capable circuit-breaker and trigger a wireless transmitter (such as a cell phone) to notify an emergency response. The prompt notification prevents the worker from further injury caused by postponed medical-care. Widespread use of this sensor could lower electrocution and electrically related injury rates in the construction industry. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Micro-resonator-based electric field sensors with long durations of sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amir R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new fabrication method for the whispering gallery mode (WGM) micro-sphere based electric field sensor that which allows for longer time periods of sensitivity. Recently, a WGM-based photonic electric field sensor was proposed using a coupled dielectric microsphere-beam. The external electric field imposes an electrtrostriction force on the dielectric beam, deflecting it. The beam, in turn compresses the sphere causing a shift in its WGM. As part of the fabrication process, the PDMS micro-beams and the spheres are curied at high-temperature (100oC) and subsequently poled by exposing to strong external electric field ( 8 MV/m) for two hours. The poling process allows for the deposition of surface charges thereby increasing the electrostriction effect. This methodology is called curing-then-poling (CTP). Although the sensors do become sufficiently sensitive to electric field, they start de-poling after a short period (within 10 minutes) after poling, hence losing sensitivity. In an attempt to mitigate this problem and to lock the polarization for a longer period, we use an alternate methodology whereby the beam is poled and cured simultaneously (curing-while-poling or CWP). The new fabrication method allows for the retention of polarization (and hence, sensitivity to electric field) longer ( 1500 minutes). An analysis is carried out along with preliminary experiments. Results show that electric fields as small as 100 V/m can be detected with a 300 μm diameter sphere sensor a day after poling.

  9. Easily installable behavioral monitoring system with electric field sensor.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Machida, Yuichiro; Kameda, Noriyuki; Hoshino, Hiroshi; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless behavioral monitoring system equipped with an electric field sensor. The sensor unit was designed to obtain information regarding the usage of home electric appliances such as the television, microwave oven, coffee maker, etc. by measuring the electric field surrounding them. It is assumed that these usage statistics could provide information regarding the indoor behavior of a subject. Since the sensor can be used by simply attaching it to an appliance and does not require any wiring for its installation, this system can be temporarily installed in any ordinary house. A simple interface for selecting the threshold value of appliances' power on/off states was introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed system can be installed by individuals in their residences in a short time and the usage statistics of home appliances can be gathered.

  10. A sensor for vector electric field measurements through a nonlinear anisotropic optical crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Luca; Gondola, Marco; Potenza, Marco; Villa, Andrea; Malgesini, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Electrical applications require the development of electric field sensors that can reproduce vector electric field waveforms with a very large spectral width ranging from 50 Hz to at least 70 MHz. This makes it possible to measure both the normal operation modes of electrical components and abnormal behaviors such as the corona emission and partial discharges. In this work, we aim to develop a fully dielectric sensor capable of measuring two components of the electric field using a wide class of optical crystals including anisotropic ones, whereas most of the efforts in this field have been devoted to isotropic crystals. We report the results of the measurements performed at 50 Hz and with a lightning impulse, to validate the sensor.

  11. Intense transient electric field sensor based on the electro-optic effect of LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Shangpeng; Han, Rui; Sima, Wenxia; Liu, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Intense transient electric field measurements are widely applied in various research areas. An optical intense E-field sensor for time-domain measurements, based on the electro-optic effect of lithium niobate, has been studied in detail. Principles and key issues in the design of the sensor are presented. The sensor is insulated, small in size (65 mm × 15 mm × 15 mm), and suitable for high-intensity (<801 kV/m) electric field measurements over a wide frequency band (10 Hz-10 MHz). The input/output characteristics of the sensor were obtained and the sensor calibrated. Finally, an application using this sensor in testing laboratory lightning impulses and in measuring transient electric fields during switch-on of a disconnector confirmed that the sensor is expected to find widespread use in transient intense electric field measurement applications.

  12. Electric potential and electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for "illuminating" volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e-Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  13. Control of the Intrinsic Sensor Response to Volatile Organic Compounds with Fringing Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Henning, Alex; Swaminathan, Nandhini; Vaknin, Yonathan; Jurca, Titel; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Shalev, Gil; Rosenwaks, Yossi

    2018-01-26

    The ability to control surface-analyte interaction allows tailoring chemical sensor sensitivity to specific target molecules. By adjusting the bias of the shallow p-n junctions in the electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) chemical sensor, a multiple gate transistor with an exposed top dielectric layer allows tuning of the fringing electric field strength (from 0.5 × 10 7 to 2.5 × 10 7 V/m) above the EFN surface. Herein, we report that the magnitude and distribution of this fringing electric field correlate with the intrinsic sensor response to volatile organic compounds. The local variations of the surface electric field influence the analyte-surface interaction affecting the work function of the sensor surface, assessed by Kelvin probe force microscopy on the nanometer scale. We show that the sensitivity to fixed vapor analyte concentrations can be nullified and even reversed by varying the fringing field strength, and demonstrate selectivity between ethanol and n-butylamine at room temperature using a single transistor without any extrinsic chemical modification of the exposed SiO 2 surface. The results imply an electric-field-controlled analyte reaction with a dielectric surface extremely compelling for sensitivity and selectivity enhancement in chemical sensors.

  14. Methods of Using a Magnetic Field Response Sensor Within Closed, Electrically Conductive Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors are a class of sensors that are powered via oscillating magnetic fields, and when electrically active, respond with their own magnetic fields with attributes dependent upon the magnitude of the physical quantity being measured. A magnetic field response recorder powers and interrogates the magnetic sensors [see Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement- Acquisition System, NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 30, No, 6 (June 2006, page 28)]. Electrically conductive containers have low transmissivity for radio frequency (RF) energy and thus present problems for magnetic field response sensors. It is necessary in some applications to have a magnetic field response sensor s capacitor placed in these containers. Proximity to conductive surfaces alters the inductance and capacitance of the sensors. As the sensor gets closer to a conductive surface, the electric field and magnetic field energy of the sensor is reduced due to eddy currents being induced in the conductive surface. Therefore, the capacitors and inductors cannot be affixed to a conductive surface or embedded in a conductive material. It is necessary to have a fixed separation away from the conductive material. The minimum distance for separation is determined by the desired sensor response signal to noise ratio. Although the inductance is less than what it would be if it were not in proximity to the conductive surface, the inductance is fixed. As long as the inductance is fixed, all variations of the magnetic field response are due to capacitance changes. Numerous variations of inductor mounting can be utilized, such as providing a housing that provides separation from the conductive material as well as protection from impact damage. The sensor can be on the same flexible substrate with a narrow throat portion of the sensor between the inductor and the capacitor, Figure 1. The throat is of sufficient length to allow the capacitor to be appropriately placed within the container and the inductor

  15. Intense transient electric field sensor based on the electro-optic effect of LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing, E-mail: yangqing@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Shangpeng; Han, Rui

    2015-10-15

    Intense transient electric field measurements are widely applied in various research areas. An optical intense E-field sensor for time-domain measurements, based on the electro-optic effect of lithium niobate, has been studied in detail. Principles and key issues in the design of the sensor are presented. The sensor is insulated, small in size (65 mm × 15 mm × 15 mm), and suitable for high-intensity (<801 kV/m) electric field measurements over a wide frequency band (10 Hz–10 MHz). The input/output characteristics of the sensor were obtained and the sensor calibrated. Finally, an application using this sensor in testing laboratory lightning impulsesmore » and in measuring transient electric fields during switch-on of a disconnector confirmed that the sensor is expected to find widespread use in transient intense electric field measurement applications.« less

  16. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  17. Micro-Ares, An electric field sensor for ExoMars 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déprez, G.; Montmessin, F.; Witasse, O.; Lapauw, L.; Vivat, F.; Abbaki, S.; Granier, P.; Moirin, D.; Trautner, R.; Hassen-Khodja, R.; d'Almeida, E.; Chardenal, L.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Espositi, F.; Debei, S.; Rafkin, S.; Barth, E.

    2015-10-01

    For the past few years, LATMOS has been involved in the development of Micro-ARES, an electric field sensor part of the science payload (DREAMS) of the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli entry, descent and landing demonstratormodule (EDM). It is dedicated to the very first measurement and characterization of the Martian atmospheric electricity.

  18. A nondisturbing electric-field sensor using piezoelectric and converse piezoelectric resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongkwan; Kim, Ilryong; Lee, Soonchil

    1997-12-01

    An electric-field sensor was developed using both piezoelectric and converse piezoelectric resonances. Composed of no metallic parts, this probe minimizes field disturbance. The most distinguishing feature of this probe is that a signal is transmitted neither electrically nor optically, but mechanically. To demonstrate the field sensing capability of this probe, we measured both the capacitive and inductive fields inside empty and plasma-filled solenoidal coils. The result shows that the capacitive field is dominant in an empty solenoid, although it is almost completely shielded by inductively excited plasma.

  19. Inflammable Gas Mixture Detection with a Single Catalytic Sensor Based on the Electric Field Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ziyuan; Tong, Min-Ming; Meng, Wen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way to analyze mixtures of inflammable gases with a single catalytic sensor. The analysis technology was based on a new finding that an electric field on the catalytic sensor can change the output sensitivity of the sensor. The analysis of mixed inflammable gases results from processing the output signals obtained by adjusting the electric field parameter of the catalytic sensor. For the signal process, we designed a group of equations based on the heat balance of catalytic sensor expressing the relationship between the output signals and the concentration of gases. With these equations and the outputs of different electric fields, the gas concentration in a mixture could be calculated. In experiments, a mixture of methane, butane and ethane was analyzed by this new method, and the results showed that the concentration of each gas in the mixture could be detected with a single catalytic sensor, and the maximum relative error was less than 5%. PMID:24717635

  20. Optimization of Pockels electric field in transverse modulated optical voltage sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yifan; Xu, Qifeng; Chen, Kun-Long; Zhou, Jie

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the possibilities of optimizing the Pockels electric field in a transverse modulated optical voltage sensor with a spherical electrode structure. The simulations show that due to the edge effect and the electric field concentrations and distortions, the electric field distributions in the crystal are non-uniform. In this case, a tiny variation in the light path leads to an integral error of more than 0.5%. Moreover, a 2D model cannot effectively represent the edge effect, so a 3D model is employed to optimize the electric field distributions. Furthermore, a new method to attach a quartz crystal to the electro-optic crystal along the electric field direction is proposed to improve the non-uniformity of the electric field. The integral error is reduced therefore from 0.5% to 0.015% and less. The proposed method is simple, practical and effective, and it has been validated by numerical simulations and experimental tests.

  1. Electric/magnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schill, Jr., Robert A.; Popek, Marc [Las Vegas, NV

    2009-01-27

    A UNLV novel electric/magnetic dot sensor includes a loop of conductor having two ends to the loop, a first end and a second end; the first end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a first conductor within a first sheath; the second end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a second conductor within a second sheath; and the first sheath and the second sheath positioned adjacent each other. The UNLV novel sensor can be made by removing outer layers in a segment of coaxial cable, leaving a continuous link of essentially uncovered conductor between two coaxial cable legs.

  2. Organic magnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  3. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-01-01

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions. PMID:25658390

  4. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  5. Particle Simulations of the Guard Electrode Effects on the Photoelectron Distribution Around an Electric Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Kojima, H.

    2010-12-01

    In tenuous space plasma environment, photoelectrons emitted due to solar illumination produce a high-density photoelectron cloud localized in the vicinity of a spacecraft body and an electric field sensor. The photoelectron current emitted from the sensor has also received considerable attention because it becomes a primary factor in determining floating potentials of the sunlit spacecraft and sensor bodies. Considering the fact that asymmetric photoelectron distribution between sunlit and sunless sides of the spacecraft occasionally causes a spurious sunward electric field, we require quantitative evaluation of the photoelectron distribution around the spacecraft and its influence on electric field measurements by means of a numerical approach. In the current study, we applied the Particle-in-Cell plasma simulation to the analysis of the photoelectron environment around spacecraft. By using the PIC modeling, we can self-consistently consider the plasma kinetics. This enables us to simulate the formation of the photoelectron cloud as well as the spacecraft and sensor charging in a self-consistent manner. We report the progress of an analysis on photoelectron environment around MEFISTO, which is an electric field instrument for the BepiColombo/MMO spacecraft to Mercury’s magnetosphere. The photoelectron guard electrode is a key technology for ensuring an optimum photoelectron environment. We show some simulation results on the guard electrode effects on surrounding photoelectrons and discuss a guard operation condition for producing the optimum photoelectron environment. We also deal with another important issue, that is, how the guard electrode can mitigate an undesirable influence of an asymmetric photoelectron distribution on electric field measurements.

  6. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2009-02-03

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  7. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  8. Design and modeling of magnetically driven electric-field sensor for non-contact DC voltage measurement in electric power systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Decai; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the design and modeling of a magnetically driven electric-field sensor for non-contact DC voltage measurement are presented. The magnetic drive structure of the sensor is composed of a small solenoid and a cantilever beam with a cylindrical magnet mounted on it. The interaction of the magnet and the solenoid provides the magnetic driving force for the sensor. Employing magnetic drive structure brings the benefits of low driving voltage and large vibrating displacement, which consequently results in less interference from the drive signal. In the theoretical analyses, the capacitance calculation model between the wire and the sensing electrode is built. The expression of the magnetic driving force is derived by the method of linear fitting. The dynamical model of the magnetic-driven cantilever beam actuator is built by using Euler-Bernoulli theory and distributed parameter method. Taking advantage of the theoretical model, the output voltage of proposed sensor can be predicted. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results. The proposed sensor shows a favorable linear response characteristic. The proposed sensor has a measuring sensitivity of 9.87 μV/(V/m) at an excitation current of 37.5 mA. The electric field intensity resolution can reach 10.13 V/m.

  9. Pioneer Design of Non-contact Synchronized Measurement Devices Using Electric and Magnetic Field Sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Wenxuan; Zhang, Yingchen; Liu, Yong; ...

    2017-04-10

    Traditional synchrophasors rely on CTs and PTs physically connected to transmission lines or buses to acquire input signals for phasor measurement. However, it is challenging to install and maintain traditional phasor measurement units in some remote areas due to lack of facilities. Since transmission lines naturally generate alternating electrical and magnetic fields in the surrounding atmosphere, this paper presents two innovative designs for non-contact synchronized measurement devices (NCSMD), including an electric field sensor based non-contact SMD (E-NCSMD) and a magnetic field sensor based non-contact SMD (M-NCSMD). Compared with conventional synchrophasors, E-NCSMD and M-NCSMD are much more flexible to be deployedmore » and have much lower costs, making E-NCSMDs and M-NCSMD highly accessible and useful for a wide array of phasor measurement applications. Laboratory and field experiment results verified the effectiveness of the designs of both E-NCSMD and M-NCSMD.« less

  10. Pioneer Design of Non-contact Synchronized Measurement Devices Using Electric and Magnetic Field Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Wenxuan; Zhang, Yingchen; Liu, Yong

    Traditional synchrophasors rely on CTs and PTs physically connected to transmission lines or buses to acquire input signals for phasor measurement. However, it is challenging to install and maintain traditional phasor measurement units in some remote areas due to lack of facilities. Since transmission lines naturally generate alternating electrical and magnetic fields in the surrounding atmosphere, this paper presents two innovative designs for non-contact synchronized measurement devices (NCSMD), including an electric field sensor based non-contact SMD (E-NCSMD) and a magnetic field sensor based non-contact SMD (M-NCSMD). Compared with conventional synchrophasors, E-NCSMD and M-NCSMD are much more flexible to be deployedmore » and have much lower costs, making E-NCSMDs and M-NCSMD highly accessible and useful for a wide array of phasor measurement applications. Laboratory and field experiment results verified the effectiveness of the designs of both E-NCSMD and M-NCSMD.« less

  11. Perovskite nickelates as electric-field sensors in salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Schwanz, Derek; Narayanan, Badri; Kotiuga, Michele; Dura, Joseph A.; Cherukara, Mathew; Zhou, Hua; Freeland, John W.; Li, Jiarui; Sutarto, Ronny; He, Feizhou; Wu, Chongzhao; Zhu, Jiaxin; Sun, Yifei; Ramadoss, Koushik; Nonnenmann, Stephen S.; Yu, Nanfang; Comin, Riccardo; Rabe, Karin M.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2018-01-01

    Designing materials to function in harsh environments, such as conductive aqueous media, is a problem of broad interest to a range of technologies, including energy, ocean monitoring and biological applications. The main challenge is to retain the stability and morphology of the material as it interacts dynamically with the surrounding environment. Materials that respond to mild stimuli through collective phase transitions and amplify signals could open up new avenues for sensing. Here we present the discovery of an electric-field-driven, water-mediated reversible phase change in a perovskite-structured nickelate, SmNiO3. This prototypical strongly correlated quantum material is stable in salt water, does not corrode, and allows exchange of protons with the surrounding water at ambient temperature, with the concurrent modification in electrical resistance and optical properties being capable of multi-modal readout. Besides operating both as thermistors and pH sensors, devices made of this material can detect sub-volt electric potentials in salt water. We postulate that such devices could be used in oceanic environments for monitoring electrical signals from various maritime vessels and sea creatures.

  12. Optical electric field sensor sensitivity direction rerouting and enhancement using a passive integrated dipole antenna.

    PubMed

    Seng, Frederick; Yang, Zhenchao; King, Rex; Shumway, LeGrand; Stan, Nikola; Hammond, Alec; Warnick, Karl F; Schultz, Stephen

    2017-06-10

    This work introduces a passive dipole antenna integrated into the packaging of a slab-coupled optical sensor to enhance the directional sensitivity of electro-optic electric field measurements parallel to the fiber axis. Using the passive integrated dipole antenna described in this work, a sensor that can typically only sense fields transverse to the fiber direction is able to sense a 1.25 kV/m field along the fiber direction with a gain of 17.5. This is verified through simulation and experiment.

  13. Electric Field Sensor for Lightning Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premlet, B.; Mohammed, R.; Sabu, S.; Joby, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Electric field mills are used popularly for atmospheric electric field measurements. Atmospheric Electric Field variation is the primary signature for Lightning Early Warning systems. There is a characteristic change in the atmospheric electric field before lightning during a thundercloud formation.A voltage controlled variable capacitance is being proposed as a method for non-contacting measurement of electric fields. A varactor based mini electric field measurement system is developed, to detect any change in the atmospheric electric field and to issue lightning early warning system. Since this is a low-cost device, this can be used for developing countries which are facing adversities. A network of these devices can help in forming a spatial map of electric field variations over a region, and this can be used for more improved atmospheric electricity studies in developing countries.

  14. Ti:LiNbO3 Integrated Optic Electric-Field Sensors based on Electro-Optic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hongsik

    2016-07-01

    The need for electric-field sensing technology has widely increased, playing a critical role in various scientific and technical areas. This article comprehensively reviews and compares Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optic electric-field sensors, including the asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), 1 × 2 directional coupler (DC), and Y-fed balanced-bridge Mach-Zehnder interferometer (YBB-MZI), based on the operating principles, the electrical and optical performance, and measurements of each fabricated device. We also discuss future works to improve the sensitivity, operating stability, response speed, and bandwidth.

  15. Perovskite nickelates as electric-field sensors in salt water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Schwanz, Derek; Narayanan, Badri

    Designing materials to function in harsh environments, such as conductive aqueous media, is a problem of broad interest to a range of technologies, including energy, ocean monitoring and biological applications(1-4). The main challenge is to retain the stability and morphology of the material as it interacts dynamically with the surrounding environment. Materials that respond to mild stimuli through collective phase transitions and amplify signals could open up new avenues for sensing. Here we present the discovery of an electric-field-driven, water-mediated reversible phase change in a perovskite-structured nickelate, SmNiO35-7. This prototypical strongly correlated quantum material is stable in salt water, doesmore » not corrode, and allows exchange of protons with the surrounding water at ambient temperature, with the concurrent modification in electrical resistance and optical properties being capable of multi-modal readout. Besides operating both as thermistors and pH sensors, devices made of this material can detect sub-volt electric potentials in salt water. We postulate that such devices could be used in oceanic environments for monitoring electrical signals from various maritime vessels and sea creatures« less

  16. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  17. Wireless Sensing System Using Open-circuit, Electrically-conductive Spiral-trace Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless sensing system includes a sensor made from an electrical conductor shaped to form an open-circuit, electrically-conductive spiral trace having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the sensor resonates to generate a harmonic response having a frequency, amplitude and bandwidth. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to the sensor and wirelessly detects the sensor's response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth.

  18. Novel techniques for optical sensor using single core multi-layer structures for electric field detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amir R.; Kamel, Mohamed A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies the effect of the electrostriction force on the single optical dielectric core coated with multi-layers based on whispering gallery mode (WGM). The sensing element is a dielectric core made of polymeric material coated with multi-layers having different dielectric and mechanical properties. The external electric field deforming the sensing element causing shifts in its WGM spectrum. The multi-layer structures will enhance the body and the pressure forces acting on the core of the sensing element. Due to the gradient on the dielectric permittivity; pressure forces at the interface between every two layers will be created. Also, the gradient on Young's modulus will affect the overall stiffness of the optical sensor. In turn the sensitivity of the optical sensor to the electric field will be increased when the materials of each layer selected properly. A mathematical model is used to test the effect for that multi-layer structures. Two layering techniques are considered to increase the sensor's sensitivity; (i) Pressure force enhancement technique; and (ii) Young's modulus reduction technique. In the first technique, Young's modulus is kept constant for all layers, while the dielectric permittivity is varying. In this technique the results will be affected by the value dielectric permittivity of the outer medium surrounding the cavity. If the medium's dielectric permittivity is greater than that of the cavity, then the ascending ordered layers of the cavity will yield the highest sensitivity (the core will have the smallest dielectric permittivity) to the applied electric field and vice versa. In the second technique, Young's modulus is varying along the layers, while the dielectric permittivity has a certain constant value per layer. On the other hand, the descending order will enhance the sensitivity in the second technique. Overall, results show the multi-layer cavity based on these techniques will enhance the sensitivity compared to the typical

  19. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun

    2016-01-28

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3} and 10 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3}, the outputmore » performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.« less

  20. US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Standard for Characterization of Electric-Field Sensors, 10 Hz to 10 kHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has designed and build a one-of-a-kind electric-field sensor...direction. (Right) Computer- aided design model of the ARL electric-field cage with insulated mounting

  1. Tunable, multiwavelength-swept fiber laser based on nematic liquid crystal device for fiber-optic electric-field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sung-Jo; Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2018-03-01

    We propose a tunable multiwavelength-swept laser based on a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon, which is embedded in the resonator of a wavelength-swept laser. We achieve the continuous wavelength tuning of the multiwavelength-swept laser by applying the electric field to the NLC FP etalon. The free spectral range of the fabricated NLC FP etalon is approximately 7.9 nm. When the electric field applied to the NLC FP etalon exceeds the threshold value (Fréedericksz threshold voltage), the output of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be tuned continuously. The tuning range of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be achieved at a value greater than 75 nm, which has a considerably wider tunable range than a conventional multiwavelength laser based on an NLC FP etalon. The slope efficiencies in the spectral and temporal domains for the tunable multiwavelength-swept laser are 22.2 nm/(mVrms / μm) and 0.17 ms/(mVrms / μm), respectively in the linear region. Therefore, the developed multiwavelength-swept laser based on the NLC FP etalon can be applied to an electric-field sensor. Because the wavelength measurement and time measurement have a linear relationship, the electric-field sensor can detect a rapid change in the electric-field intensity by measuring the peak change of the pulse in the temporal domain using the NLC FP etalon-based multiwavelength-swept laser.

  2. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications: 2017 Research Award Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for illuminating volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Initial results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, atmospheric science, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  3. Electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Bryan M.; Wachsman, Eric D.; Van Assche, IV, Frederick Martin

    2015-05-19

    Electrode configurations for electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases are provided. According to an embodiment, electric-field electrodes can be incorporated in devices such as gas sensors and fuel cells to shape an electric field provided with respect to sensing electrodes for the gas sensors and surfaces of the fuel cells. The shaped electric fields can alter surface dynamics, system thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and adsorption/desorption processes. In one embodiment, ring-shaped electric-field electrodes can be provided around sensing electrodes of a planar gas sensor.

  4. Easily Installable Wireless Behavioral Monitoring System with Electric Field Sensor for Ordinary Houses

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, S; Hoshino, H; Tamura, T

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an indoor behavioral monitoring system for improving the quality of life in ordinary houses. It employs a device that uses weak radio waves for transmitting the obtained data and it is designed such that it can be installed by a user without requiring any technical knowledge or extra constructions. This study focuses on determining the usage statistics of home electric appliances by using an electromagnetic field sensor as a detection device. The usage of the home appliances is determined by measuring the electromagnetic field that can be observed in an area near the appliance. It is assumed that these usage statistics could provide information regarding the indoor behavior of a subject. Since the sensor is not direction sensitive and does not require precise positioning and wiring, it can be easily installed in ordinary houses by the end users. For evaluating the practicability of the sensor unit, several simple tests have been performed. The results indicate that the proposed system could be useful for collecting the usage statistics of home appliances. PMID:19415135

  5. Use of electric field sensors for recording respiration, heart rate, and stereotyped motor behaviors in the rodent home cage.

    PubMed

    Noble, Donald J; MacDowell, Camden J; McKinnon, Michael L; Neblett, Tamra I; Goolsby, William N; Hochman, Shawn

    2017-02-01

    Numerous environmental and genetic factors can contribute significantly to behavioral and cardiorespiratory variability observed experimentally. Affordable technologies that allow for noninvasive home cage capture of physio-behavioral variables should enhance understanding of inter-animal variability including after experimental interventions. We assessed whether EPIC electric field sensors (Plessey Semiconductors) embedded within or attached externally to a rodent's home cage could accurately record respiration, heart rate, and motor behaviors. Current systems for quantification of behavioral variables require expensive specialty equipment, while measures of respiratory and heart rate are often provided by surgically implanted or chronically affixed devices. Sensors accurately encoded imposed sinusoidal changes in electric field tested at frequencies ranging from 0.5-100Hz. Mini-metronome arm movements were easily detected, but response magnitude was highly distance dependent. Sensors accurately reported respiration during whole-body plethysmography. In anesthetized rodents, PVC tube-embedded sensors provided accurate mechanical detection of both respiratory and heart rate. Comparable success was seen in naturally behaving animals at rest or sleeping when sensors were attached externally. Video-verified motor behaviors (sniffing, grooming, chewing, and rearing) were detectable and largely separable by their characteristic voltage fluctuations. Larger movement-related events had comparably larger voltage dynamics that easily allowed for a broad approximation of overall motor activity. Spectrograms were used to quickly depict characteristic frequencies in long-lasting recordings, while filtering and thresholding software allowed for detection and quantification of movement-related physio-behavioral events. EPIC electric field sensors provide a means for affordable non-contact home cage detection of physio-behavioral variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Micro-ARES, an electric-field sensor for ExoMars 2016: Electric fields modelling, sensitivity evaluations and end-to-end tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déprez, Grégoire; Montmessin, Franck; Witasse, Olivier; Lapauw, Laurent; Vivat, Francis; Abbaki, Sadok; Granier, Philippe; Moirin, David; Trautner, Roland; Hassen-Khodja, Rafik; d'Almeida, Éric; Chardenal, Laurent; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Esposito, Francesca; Debei, Stefano; Rafkin, Scott; Barth, Erika

    2014-05-01

    For the past few years, LATMOS has been involved in the development of micro-ARES, an electric field sensor part of the science payload (DREAMS) of the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli entry, descent and landing demonstrator. It is dedicated to the very first measurement and characterization of the Martian atmospheric electricity which is suspected to be at the very basis of various phenomenon such as dust lifting, formation of oxidizing agents or Schumann resonances. Although the data collection will be restricted to a few days of operations, these first results will be of importance to understand the Martian dust cycle, the electrical environment and possibly relevant to atmospheric chemistry. The instrument, a compact version of the ARES instrument for the ExoMars Humboldt payload, is composed of an electronic board, with an amplification line and a real-time data processing DSP, which handles the electric signal measured between the spherical electrode (located at the top of a 27-cm high antenna) that adjusts itself to the local atmospheric potential, and the lander chassis, connected to the mechanical ground. Since the electric fields on Mars have never been measured before, we can rely on two sources in order to know their expected order of magnitude. The first one is the measurement of the atmospheric electric fields on Earth, at the surface (in dust storms or the so-called dust-devils) or in the high atmosphere (closer to the Martian temperature and pressure conditions). The second one is the computer simulation of the phenomenon, that we obtained by combining two models. On the one hand, the mesoscale PRAMS model, developed at SwRI, which has the ability to simulate the dust transportation, and on the other hand the implementation made at LATMOS of Farell's 2005 dust-triboelectricity equations. Those models allowed us to simulate electric fields up to tens or even hundreds of kilo-volts per meter inside dust devils, which corresponds to the observations made on

  7. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a MEMS-Based Three-Dimensional Electric Field Sensor with Low Cross-Axis Coupling Interference

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Biyun; Peng, Chunrong; Ren, Ren; Chu, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Zhouwei; Lei, Hucheng; Xia, Shanhong

    2018-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the development of three-dimensional (3D) electric field sensors (EFSs) is their susceptibility to cross-axis coupling interference. The output signal for each sensing axis of a 3D EFS is often coupled by electric field components from the two other orthogonal sensing axes. In this paper, a one-dimensional (1D) electric field sensor chip (EFSC) with low cross-axis coupling interference is presented. It is designed to be symmetrical, forming a pair of in-plane symmetrically-located sensing structures. Using a difference circuit, the 1D EFSC is capable of sensing parallel electric fields along symmetrical structures and eliminating cross-axis coupling interference, which is contrast to previously reported 1D EFSCs designed for perpendicular electric field component measurement. Thus, a 3D EFS with low cross-axis coupling interference can be realized using three proposed 1D EFSCs. This 3D EFS has the advantages of low cross-axis coupling interference, small size, and high integration. The testing and calibration systems of the proposed 3D EFS were developed. Experimental results show that in the range of 0–120 kV/m, cross-axis sensitivities are within 5.48%, and the total measurement errors of this 3D EFS are within 6.16%. PMID:29543744

  8. Electric field-assisted deposition of nanowires on carbon nanotubes for nanoelectronics and sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kousik; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2005-02-01

    Manipulation and control of matter at the nanoscale and atomic scale levels are crucial for the success of nanoscale sensors and actuators. The ability to control and synthesize multilayer structures using carbon nanotubes that will enable the building of electronic devices within a nanotube is still in its infancy. In this paper, we present results on selective electric field-assisted deposition of metals on carbon nanotubes realizing metallic nanowire structures. Silver and platinum nanowires have been fabricated using this approach for their applications in chemical sensing as catalytic materials to sniff toxic agents and in the area of biomedical nanotechnology for construction of artificial muscles. Electric field-assisted deposition allows the deposition of metals with a high degree of selectivity on carbon nanotubes by manipulating the charges on the surface of the nanotubes and forming electrostatic double-layer supercapacitors. Deposition of metals primarily occurred due to electrochemical reduction, electrophoresis, and electro-osmosis inside the walls of the nanotube. SEM and TEM investigations revealed silver and platinum nanowires between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. The present technique is versatile and enables the fabrication of a host of different types of metallic and semiconducting nanowires using carbon nanotube templates for nanoelectronics and a myriad of sensor applications.

  9. Wireless Temperature Sensor Having No Electrical Connections and Sensing Method for Use Therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Marie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor includes an electrical conductor and a dielectric material on the conductor. The conductor is electrically unconnected and is shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses, each of which has a frequency associated therewith. The material is selected such that it experiences changes in either dielectric or magnetic permeability attributes in the presence of a temperature change. Shifts from the sensor's baseline frequency response indicate that the material has experienced a temperature change.

  10. Field-effect enhanced triboelectric colloidal quantum dot flexible sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingju; Xu, Qiwei; Fan, Shicheng; Dick, Carson R.; Wang, Xihua

    2017-10-01

    Flexible electronics, which is of great importance as fundamental sensor and communication technologies for many internet-of-things applications, has established a huge market encroaching into the trillion-dollar market of solid state electronics. For the capability of being processed by printing or spraying, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) play an increasingly important role in flexible electronics. Although the electrical properties of CQD thin-films are expected to be stable on flexible substrates, their electrical performance could be tuned for applications in flexible touch sensors. Here, we report CQD touch sensors employing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) triboelectric films. The electrical response of touching activity is enhanced by incorporating CQD field-effect transistors into the device architecture. Thanks to the use of the CQD thin film as a current amplifier, the field-effect CQD touch sensor shows a fast response to various touching materials, even being bent to a large curvature. It also shows a much higher output current density compared to a PDMS triboelectric touch sensor.

  11. SansEC: A New Dimension to Sensing Electrical Sensors with No Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This DVD contains an introduction to SansEC, a new electrical sensor technology without electrical connections. This new class of sensors represents a stand-alone 2-dimensional geometric pattern of electrically open circuits without electrical connections. The sensor is powered with an external, harmonic magnetic field and as the property being sensed changes, responds to frequency, amplitude or bandwidth changes. This response is interrogated using an external antenna, a single electrical component having no electrical connections. The sensor can be encased in any nonconductive material to provide protection from its environment. If the container is nonconductive, the sensor can be placed external to the container without contacting it, making installation very simple. An encased sensor can also be placed inside a container for measuring the level of any fluid or material, including acids. Any readout device can be used with the sensor, including standard or digital gauges. SansEC sensors can be used to measure real-time fluid slosh to determine if a fuel tank's internal structural isogrid can be used to replace some of the baffles surface, thus reducing the overall baffle weight and giving a better understanding of the effect that isogrids have on fluid motion. Any SansEC sensor can also be used for damage or tamper detection. When damaged, torn or tampered with, the measured response shift in frequency is commensurate to the detected damage, with the response frequency increasing with rising damage. The unique sensor design allows it to function even if damaged, because unlike other circuits, there is no single point on the sensor that, if damaged, renders it non-functional. The broad metallic coverage of the array allows the array to be one of many thermal insulation layers. Two such arrays were tested to understand the effects of high velocity damage. Each test article was targeted with metal projectiles emulating micrometeorite or orbital debris impact. Even

  12. Spatial feature tracking impedence sensor using multiple electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.

    1998-08-11

    Linear and other features on a workpiece are tracked by measuring the fields generated between electrodes arrayed in pairs. One electrode in each pair operates as a transmitter and the other as a receiver, and both electrodes in a pair are arrayed on a carrier. By combining and subtracting fields between electrodes in one pair and between a transmitting electrode in one pair and a receiving electrode in another pair, information describing the location and orientation of the sensor relative to the workpiece in up to six degrees of freedom may be obtained. Typical applications will measure capacitance, but other impedance components may be measured as well. The sensor is designed to track a linear feature axis or a protrusion or pocket in a workpiece. Seams and ridges can be tracked by this non-contact sensor. The sensor output is useful for robotic applications. 10 figs.

  13. Spatial feature tracking impedence sensor using multiple electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.

    1998-01-01

    Linear and other features on a workpiece are tracked by measuring the fields generated between electrodes arrayed in pairs. One electrode in each pair operates as a transmitter and the other as a receiver, and both electrodes in a pair are arrayed on a carrier. By combining and subtracting fields between electrodes in one pair and between a transmitting electrode in one pair and a receiving electrode in another pair, information describing the location and orientation of the sensor relative to the workpiece in up to six degrees of freedom may be obtained. Typical applications will measure capacitance, but other impedance components may be measured as well. The sensor is designed to track a linear feature axis or a protrusion or pocket in a workpiece. Seams and ridges can be tracked by this non-contact sensor. The sensor output is useful for robotic applications.

  14. Novel E-Field Sensor for Projectile Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-22

    aircrafts. They used an array of three plate induction sensors and a simple algorithm to deter mine the direction of the planes [9]. In more recent...publications [10, 11, 12] researchers present increasingly more advanced algorithms and sensors. The techniques developed thus far have not received...the electric field pulse is being detected by a group of sensors in array with known distances between the sensors, so triangulation algorithms could

  15. Analysis of electrical tomography sensitive field based on multi-terminal network and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongbo; Su, Xingguo; Xu, Meng; Wang, Huaxiang

    2010-08-01

    Electrical tomography (ET) aims at the study of the conductivity/permittivity distribution of the interested field non-intrusively via the boundary voltage/current. The sensor is usually regarded as an electric field, and finite element method (FEM) is commonly used to calculate the sensitivity matrix and to optimize the sensor architecture. However, only the lumped circuit parameters can be measured by the data acquisition electronics, it's very meaningful to treat the sensor as a multi terminal network. Two types of multi terminal network with common node and common loop topologies are introduced. Getting more independent measurements and making more uniform current distribution are the two main ways to minimize the inherent ill-posed effect. By exploring the relationships of network matrixes, a general formula is proposed for the first time to calculate the number of the independent measurements. Additionally, the sensitivity distribution is analyzed with FEM. As a result, quasi opposite mode, an optimal single source excitation mode, that has the advantages of more uniform sensitivity distribution and more independent measurements, is proposed.

  16. Thin-Film Magnetic-Field-Response Fluid-Level Sensor for Non-Viscous Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative method has been developed for acquiring fluid-level measurements. This method eliminates the need for the fluid-level sensor to have a physical connection to a power source or to data acquisition equipment. The complete system consists of a lightweight, thin-film magnetic-field-response fluid-level sensor (see Figure 1) and a magnetic field response recorder that was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System (LAR-16908-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. The sensor circuit is a capacitor connected to an inductor. The response recorder powers the sensor using a series of oscillating magnetic fields. Once electrically active, the sensor responds with its own harmonic magnetic field. The sensor will oscillate at its resonant electrical frequency, which is dependent upon the capacitance and inductance values of the circuit.

  17. Sensor devices comprising field-structured composites

    DOEpatents

    Martin, James E.; Hughes, Robert C.; Anderson, Robert A.

    2001-02-27

    A new class of sensor devices comprising field-structured conducting composites comprising a textured distribution of conducting magnetic particles is disclosed. The conducting properties of such field-structured materials can be precisely controlled during fabrication so as to exhibit a large change in electrical conductivity when subject to any environmental influence which changes the relative volume fraction. Influences which can be so detected include stress, strain, shear, temperature change, humidity, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and the presence or absence of certain chemicals. This behavior can be made the basis for a wide variety of sensor devices.

  18. AC electric field for rapid assembly of nanostructured polyaniline onto microsized gap for sensor devices.

    PubMed

    La Ferrara, Vera; Rametta, Gabriella; De Maria, Antonella

    2015-07-01

    Interconnected network of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) is giving strong potential for enhancing device performances than bulk PANI counterparts. For nanostructured device processing, the main challenge is to get prototypes on large area by requiring precision, low cost and high rate assembly. Among processes meeting these requests, the alternate current electric fields are often used for nanostructure assembling. For the first time, we show the assembly of nanostructured PANI onto large electrode gaps (30-60 μm width) by applying alternate current electric fields, at low frequencies, to PANI particles dispersed in acetonitrile (ACN). An important advantage is the short assembly time, limited to 5-10 s, although electrode gaps are microsized. That encouraging result is due to a combination of forces, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP), induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) flow and alternate current electroosmotic (ACEO) flow, which speed up the assembly process when low frequencies and large electrode gaps are used. The main achievement of the present study is the development of ammonia sensors created by direct assembling of nanostructured PANI onto electrodes. Sensors exhibit high sensitivity to low gas concentrations as well as excellent reversibility at room temperature, even after storage in air. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Wireless Open-Circuit In-Plane Strain and Displacement Sensor Requiring No Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless in-plane strain and displacement sensor includes an electrical conductor fixedly coupled to a substrate subject to strain conditions. The electrical conductor is shaped between its ends for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field, and remains electrically unconnected to define an unconnected open-circuit having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The sensor also includes at least one electrically unconnected electrode having an end and a free portion extending from the end thereof. The end of each electrode is fixedly coupled to the substrate and the free portion thereof remains unencumbered and spaced apart from a portion of the electrical conductor so-shaped. More specifically, at least some of the free portion is disposed at a location lying within the magnetic field response generated by the electrical conductor. A motion guidance structure is slidingly engaged with each electrode's free portion in order to maintain each free portion parallel to the electrical conductor so-shaped.

  20. A MEMS sensor for AC electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leland, Eli Sidney

    This manuscript describes the development of a new MEMS sensor for the measurement of AC electric current. The sensor is comprised of a MEMS piezoelectric cantilever with a microscale permanent magnet mounted to the cantilever's free end. When placed near a wire carrying AC current, the magnet couples to the oscillating magnetic field surrounding the wire, causing the cantilever to deflect, and piezoelectric coupling produces a sinusoidal voltage proportional to the current in the wire. The sensor is itself passive, requiring no power supply to operate. It also operates on proximity and need only be placed near a current carrier in order to function. The sensor does not need to encircle the current carrier and it therefore can measure current in two-wire zip-cords without necessitating the separation of the two conductors. Applications for tins sensor include measuring residential and commercial electricity use and monitoring electric power distribution networks. An analytical model describing the behavior of the current sensor was developed. This model was also adapted to describe the power output of an energy scavenger coupled to a wire carrying AC current. A mesoscale sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 75 mV/A when measuring AC electric current in a zip-cord. A mesoscale energy scavenger produced 345 muW when coupled to a zip-cord carrying 13 A. MEMS current sensors were fabricated from aluminum nitride piezoelectric cantilevers and composite permanent magnets. The cantilevers were fabricated using a four-mask process. Microscale permanent magnets were dispenser-printed using NdFeB magnetic powder with an epoxy binder. The MEMS AC current sensor was interfaced with amplification circuitry and packaged inside an almninum enclosure. The sensor was also integrated with a mesoscale energy scavenger and power conditioning circuitry to create a fully self-powered current sensor. Unamplified sensitivity of the sensor was 0.1-1.1 mV/A when measuring currents in single

  1. Aircraft electric field measurements: Calibration and ambient field retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Bailey, Jeff; Christian, Hugh J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    An aircraft locally distorts the ambient thundercloud electric field. In order to determine the field in the absence of the aircraft, an aircraft calibration is required. In this work a matrix inversion method is introduced for calibrating an aircraft equipped with four or more electric field sensors and a high-voltage corona point that is capable of charging the aircraft. An analytic, closed form solution for the estimate of a (3 x 3) aircraft calibration matrix is derived, and an absolute calibration experiment is used to improve the relative magnitudes of the elements of this matrix. To demonstrate the calibration procedure, we analyze actual calibration date derived from a Lear jet 28/29 that was equipped with five shutter-type field mill sensors (each with sensitivities of better than 1 V/m) located on the top, bottom, port, starboard, and aft positions. As a test of the calibration method, we analyze computer-simulated calibration data (derived from known aircraft and ambient fields) and explicitly determine the errors involved in deriving the variety of calibration matrices. We extend our formalism to arrive at an analytic solution for the ambient field, and again carry all errors explicitly.

  2. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  3. Electric Field Encephalography as a tool for functional brain research: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Yury; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG) based on measuring electric fields of the brain and demonstrate, using computer modeling, that given the appropriate electric field sensors this technique may have significant advantages over the current EEG technique. Unlike EEG, EFEG can be used to measure brain activity in a contactless and reference-free manner at significant distances from the head surface. Principal component analysis using simulated cortical sources demonstrated that electric field sensors positioned 3 cm away from the scalp and characterized by the same signal-to-noise ratio as EEG sensors provided the same number of uncorrelated signals as scalp EEG. When positioned on the scalp, EFEG sensors provided 2-3 times more uncorrelated signals. This significant increase in the number of uncorrelated signals can be used for more accurate assessment of brain states for non-invasive brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback applications. It also may lead to major improvements in source localization precision. Source localization simulations for the spherical and Boundary Element Method (BEM) head models demonstrated that the localization errors are reduced two-fold when using electric fields instead of electric potentials. We have identified several techniques that could be adapted for the measurement of the electric field vector required for EFEG and anticipate that this study will stimulate new experimental approaches to utilize this new tool for functional brain research.

  4. Microspacecraft and Earth observation: Electrical field (ELF) measurement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Tanya; Elkington, Scot; Parker, Scott; Smith, Grover; Shumway, Andrew; Christensen, Craig; Parsa, Mehrdad; Larsen, Layne; Martinez, Ranae; Powell, George

    1990-01-01

    The Utah State University space system design project for 1989 to 1990 focuses on the design of a global electrical field sensing system to be deployed in a constellation of microspacecraft. The design includes the selection of the sensor and the design of the spacecraft, the sensor support subsystems, the launch vehicle interface structure, on board data storage and communications subsystems, and associated ground receiving stations. Optimization of satellite orbits and spacecraft attitude are critical to the overall mapping of the electrical field and, thus, are also included in the project. The spacecraft design incorporates a deployable sensor array (5 m booms) into a spinning oblate platform. Data is taken every 0.1 seconds by the electrical field sensors and stored on-board. An omni-directional antenna communicates with a ground station twice per day to down link the stored data. Wrap-around solar cells cover the exterior of the spacecraft to generate power. Nine Pegasus launches may be used to deploy fifty such satellites to orbits with inclinations greater than 45 deg. Piggyback deployment from other launch vehicles such as the DELTA 2 is also examined.

  5. Reception and learning of electric fields in bees.

    PubMed

    Greggers, Uwe; Koch, Gesche; Schmidt, Viola; Dürr, Aron; Floriou-Servou, Amalia; Piepenbrock, David; Göpfert, Martin C; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-05-22

    Honeybees, like other insects, accumulate electric charge in flight, and when their body parts are moved or rubbed together. We report that bees emit constant and modulated electric fields when flying, landing, walking and during the waggle dance. The electric fields emitted by dancing bees consist of low- and high-frequency components. Both components induce passive antennal movements in stationary bees according to Coulomb's law. Bees learn both the constant and the modulated electric field components in the context of appetitive proboscis extension response conditioning. Using this paradigm, we identify mechanoreceptors in both joints of the antennae as sensors. Other mechanoreceptors on the bee body are potentially involved but are less sensitive. Using laser vibrometry, we show that the electrically charged flagellum is moved by constant and modulated electric fields and more strongly so if sound and electric fields interact. Recordings from axons of the Johnston organ document its sensitivity to electric field stimuli. Our analyses identify electric fields emanating from the surface charge of bees as stimuli for mechanoreceptors, and as biologically relevant stimuli, which may play a role in social communication.

  6. Residual stress evaluation by Barkhausen signals with a magnetic field sensor for high efficiency electrical motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchida, Yuji; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    The iron loss of industrial motors increases by residual stress during manufacturing processes. It is very important to make clear the distribution of the residual stress in the motor cores to reduce the iron loss in the motors. Barkhausen signals which occur on electrical steel sheets can be used for the evaluation of the residual stress because they are very sensitive to the material properties. Generally, a B-sensor is used to measure Barkhausen signals, however, we developed a new H-sensor to measure them and applied it into the stress evaluation. It is supposed that the Barkhausen signals by using a H-sensor can be much effective to the residual stress on the electrical steel sheets by referring our results regarding to the stress evaluations. We evaluated the tensile stress of the electrical steel sheets by measuring Barkhausen signals by using our developed H-sensor for high efficiency electrical motors.

  7. Effects of the guard electrode on the photoelectron distribution around an electric field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Kojima, H.

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a numerical model of a double-probe electric field sensor equipped with a photoelectron guard electrode for the particle-in-cell simulation. The model includes typical elements of modern double-probe sensors on, e.g., BepiColombo/MMO, Cluster, and THEMIS spacecraft, such as a conducting boom and a preamplifier housing called a puck. The puck is also used for the guard electrode, and its potential is negatively biased by reference to the floating spacecraft potential. We apply the proposed model to an analysis of an equilibrium plasma environment around the sensor by assuming that the sun illuminates the spacecraft from the direction perpendicular to the sensor deployment axis. As a simulation result, it is confirmed that a substantial number of spacecraft-originating photoelectrons are once emitted sunward and then fall onto the puck and sensing element positions. In order to effectively repel such photoelectrons coming from the sun direction, a potential hump for electrons, i.e., a negative potential region, should be created in a plasma region around the sunlit side of the guard electrode surface. The simulation results reveal the significance of the guard electrode potential being not only lower than the spacecraft body but also lower than the background plasma potential of the region surrounding the puck and the sensing element. One solution for realizing such an operational condition is to bias the guard potential negatively by reference to the sensor potential because the sensor is usually operated nearly at the background plasma potential.

  8. Reception and learning of electric fields in bees

    PubMed Central

    Greggers, Uwe; Koch, Gesche; Schmidt, Viola; Dürr, Aron; Floriou-Servou, Amalia; Piepenbrock, David; Göpfert, Martin C.; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees, like other insects, accumulate electric charge in flight, and when their body parts are moved or rubbed together. We report that bees emit constant and modulated electric fields when flying, landing, walking and during the waggle dance. The electric fields emitted by dancing bees consist of low- and high-frequency components. Both components induce passive antennal movements in stationary bees according to Coulomb's law. Bees learn both the constant and the modulated electric field components in the context of appetitive proboscis extension response conditioning. Using this paradigm, we identify mechanoreceptors in both joints of the antennae as sensors. Other mechanoreceptors on the bee body are potentially involved but are less sensitive. Using laser vibrometry, we show that the electrically charged flagellum is moved by constant and modulated electric fields and more strongly so if sound and electric fields interact. Recordings from axons of the Johnston organ document its sensitivity to electric field stimuli. Our analyses identify electric fields emanating from the surface charge of bees as stimuli for mechanoreceptors, and as biologically relevant stimuli, which may play a role in social communication. PMID:23536603

  9. Electric field feedback for Magneto(elasto)Electric magnetometer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.-T.; Zhuang, X.; Sing, M. Lam Chok; Dolabdjian, C.; Finkel, P.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.

    2017-12-01

    Magneto(elasto)Electric (ME) sensors based on magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composites have been investigated to evaluate their performances to sense a magnetic signal. Previous results have shown that the dielectric loss noise in the piezoelectric layer exhibits as the dominant intrinsic noise at low frequencies, which limits the sensor performances. Also, it has intrinsically no DC capability. To avoid a part of this limitation, modulation detection methods are evaluated through a frequency up-conversion technique [1-4]. Moreover, classical magnetic field feedback techniques can be used to increase the dynamic range, the sensing stability and the system linearity, too. In this paper, we propose a new method to feedback the system by using both the magneto-capacitance modulation and an electric field feedback technique. Our development shows the feasibility of the method and the results match with the theoretical description and material properties. Even if the present results are not totally satisfactory, they give the proof of concept and yield a way for the development of very low power magnetometers.

  10. Characterization Techniques for a MEMS Electric-Field Sensor in Vacuum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    nected so that the noise contributions of the transimpedance amplifier and the digitizer may be determined. The raw voltage data, after processing...of Vrms/rtHz. The noise may be seen in terms of the device trans- duction physics, signal conditioning ( transimpedance amp), and DAQ. (right) Field...Sensor using Thermal Actua- tors with Mechanically Amplified Response,” Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Confer- ence, 2007. TRANSDUCERS

  11. Evaluation and refinement of a field-portable drinking water toxicity sensor utilizing electric cell-substrate impedance sensing and a fluidic biochip.

    PubMed

    Widder, Mark W; Brennan, Linda M; Hanft, Elizabeth A; Schrock, Mary E; James, Ryan R; van der Schalie, William H

    2015-07-01

    The US Army's need for a reliable and field-portable drinking water toxicity sensor was the catalyst for the development and evaluation of an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) device. Water testing technologies currently available to soldiers in the field are analyte-specific and have limited capabilities to detect broad-based water toxicity. The ECIS sensor described here uses rainbow trout gill epithelial cells seeded on fluidic biochips to measure changes in impedance for the detection of possible chemical contamination of drinking water supplies. Chemicals selected for testing were chosen as representatives of a broad spectrum of toxic industrial compounds. Results of a US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-sponsored evaluation of the field portable device were similar to previously published US Army testing results of a laboratory-based version of the same technology. Twelve of the 18 chemicals tested following USEPA Technology Testing and Evaluation Program procedures were detected by the ECIS sensor within 1 h at USEPA-derived human lethal concentrations. To simplify field-testing methods further, elimination of a procedural step that acclimated cells to serum-free media streamlined the test process with only a slight loss of chemical sensitivity. For field use, the ECIS sensor will be used in conjunction with an enzyme-based sensor that is responsive to carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  13. Analysis of the variation of atmospheric electric field during solar events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacza, J.; Raulin, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    We present the capability of a new network of electric field mill sensors to monitor the atmospheric electric field at various locations in South America. The first task is to obtain a diurnal curve of atmospheric electric field variations under fair weather conditions, which we will consider as a reference curve. To accomplish this, we made daily, monthly, seasonal and annual averages. For all sensor location, the results show significant similarities with the Carnegie curve. The Carnegie curve is the characteristic curve in universal time of atmospheric electric field in fair weather and one thinks it is related to the currents flowing in the global atmospheric electric circuit. Ultimately, we pretend to study departures of the daily observations from the standard curve. This difference can be caused by solar, geophysical and atmospheric phenomena such as the solar activity cycle, solar flares and energetic charged particles, galactic cosmic rays, seismic activity and/or specific meteorological events. As an illustration we investigate solar effects on the atmospheric electric field observed at CASLEO (Lat. 31.798°S, Long. 69.295°W, Altitude: 2552 masl) by the method of superposed epoch analysis, between January 2010 and December 2015.

  14. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  15. CMOS image sensor with lateral electric field modulation pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging with sub-nanosecond time response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Seo, Min-Woong; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a time-resolved CMOS image sensor with a high-speed lateral electric field modulation (LEFM) gating structure for time domain fluorescence lifetime measurement. Time-windowed signal charge can be transferred from a pinned photodiode (PPD) to a pinned storage diode (PSD) by turning on a pair of transfer gates, which are situated beside the channel. Unwanted signal charge can be drained from the PPD to the drain by turning on another pair of gates. The pixel array contains 512 (V) × 310 (H) pixels with 5.6 × 5.6 µm2 pixel size. The imager chip was fabricated using 0.11 µm CMOS image sensor process technology. The prototype sensor has a time response of 150 ps at 374 nm. The fill factor of the pixels is 5.6%. The usefulness of the prototype sensor is demonstrated for fluorescence lifetime imaging through simulation and measurement results.

  16. Method for evaluating human exposure to 60 HZ electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Deno, D.W.; Silva, M.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes a method that has been successfully used to evaluate human exposure to 60 Hz electric fields. An exposure measuring system that uses an electric field sensor vest and data collection instrumentation is presented. Exposure concepts and activity factors are discussed and experimental data collected with the exposure system are provided. This method can be used to measure exposure to a wide range of electric field with intensities from less than 1 V/m to more than 10 kV/m. Results may be translated to characterize various exposure criteria (time histogram of unperturbed field, surface fields, internal current density, totalmore » body current, etc).« less

  17. Analyzing spatial coherence using a single mobile field sensor.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Peter

    2007-04-01

    According to the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, the intensity distribution of a spatially incoherent source and the mutual coherence function of the light impinging on two wave sensors are related. It is the comparable relationship using a single mobile sensor moving at a certain velocity relative to the source that is calculated in this paper. The auto-corelation function of the electric field at the sensor contains information about the intensity distribution. This expression could be employed in aperture synthesis.

  18. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  19. Near field planar microwave probe sensor for nondestructive condition assessment of wood products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Nilesh Kumar; Singh, Surya Prakash; Akhtar, M. Jaleel

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the unified methodology based on the newly designed electrically small planar resonant microwave sensor to detect the subsurface defect in wood products is presented. The proposed planar sensor involves loading of the specially designed coupled microstrip line with a novel small resonating element at its end. The novel design topology of the proposed near field sensor substantially increases the overall resolution and sensitivity of the microwave scanning system due to the strong localization of the electric field in the electrically small sensing region. A detailed electromagnetic and quasi static analysis of the near field scanning mechanism is also described in this work, which helps to understand the physics involved in the proposed scanning mechanism. The prototype of the designed sensor is fabricated on a 0.8 mm Roger 5880 substrate, and accordingly, the scattering parameters of the sensor under both loaded and unloaded conditions are measured. The measured and simulated scattering parameters under the unloaded condition are compared to validate the fabricated sensor, and a closed match between the simulated and measured resonance frequencies is observed. The fabricated sensor is used here for two potential applications, viz., the dielectric sensing of various low permittivity contrast dielectric materials and subsurface imaging of wood products to trace concealed defects and moisture content under the thin paint layer. The proposed resonant sensor can potentially be used to develop the low profile, low cost, non-destructive, and non-invasive quality monitoring system for inspecting various types of wood products without peeling off the upper paint coating.

  20. An embedded measurement system for the electrical characterization of EGFET as a pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz Batista, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    This work presents the development of an electronic system for the electrical characterization of pH sensors based on the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET). We designed an electronic circuit with a microcontroller (PIC15F14K50) as the main component in order to provide two programmable output voltages as well as circuits to measure electric current and voltages. The instrument performance analysis was carried out using a glass electrode as a sensitive membrane for investigating the EGFET operation as a pH sensor. The results show that the system is an alternative to the commercial equipment for the electrical characterization of sensors based on field effect devices. In addition, some of the key features expected of this electronic module are: low cost, flexibility, portability and communication with a personal computer using a USB port.

  1. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  2. Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Gregory P.; Clarke, Dominic; Morley, Erica L.; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use information from surrounding electric fields to make foraging decisions. Electroreception in air, a nonconductive medium, is a recently discovered sensory capacity of insects, yet the sensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate two putative electric field sensors: antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Examining their mechanical and neural response, we show that electric fields cause deflections in both antennae and hairs. Hairs respond with a greater median velocity, displacement, and angular displacement than antennae. Extracellular recordings from the antennae do not show any electrophysiological correlates to these mechanical deflections. In contrast, hair deflections in response to an electric field elicited neural activity. Mechanical deflections of both hairs and antennae increase with the electric charge carried by the bumblebee. From this evidence, we conclude that sensory hairs are a site of electroreception in the bumblebee. PMID:27247399

  3. Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Gregory P; Clarke, Dominic; Morley, Erica L; Robert, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use information from surrounding electric fields to make foraging decisions. Electroreception in air, a nonconductive medium, is a recently discovered sensory capacity of insects, yet the sensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate two putative electric field sensors: antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Examining their mechanical and neural response, we show that electric fields cause deflections in both antennae and hairs. Hairs respond with a greater median velocity, displacement, and angular displacement than antennae. Extracellular recordings from the antennae do not show any electrophysiological correlates to these mechanical deflections. In contrast, hair deflections in response to an electric field elicited neural activity. Mechanical deflections of both hairs and antennae increase with the electric charge carried by the bumblebee. From this evidence, we conclude that sensory hairs are a site of electroreception in the bumblebee.

  4. General Matrix Inversion for the Calibration of Electric Field Sensor Arrays on Aircraft Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. M.; Koshak, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a matrix calibration procedure that uniquely relates the electric fields measured at the aircraft with the external vector electric field and net aircraft charge. Our calibration method is being used with all of our aircraft/electric field sensing combinations and can be generalized to any reasonable combination of electric field measurements and aircraft. We determine a calibration matrix that represents the individual instrument responses to the external electric field. The aircraft geometry and configuration of field mills (FMs) uniquely define the matrix. The matrix can then be inverted to determine the external electric field and net aircraft charge from the FM outputs. A distinct advantage of the method is that if one or more FMs need to be eliminated or de-emphasized (for example, due to a malfunction), it is a simple matter to reinvert the matrix without the malfunctioning FMs. To demonstrate our calibration technique, we present data from several of our aircraft programs (ER-2, DC-8, Altus, Citation).

  5. A Molecular Dynamics of Cold Neutral Atoms Captured by Carbon Nanotube Under Electric Field and Thermal Effect as a Selective Atoms Sensor.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elson C; Neto, Abel F G; Maneschy, Carlos E; Chen, James; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Neto, A M J C

    2015-05-01

    Here we analyzed several physical behaviors through computational simulation of systems consisting of a zig-zag type carbon nanotube and relaxed cold atoms (Rb, Au, Si and Ar). These atoms were chosen due to their different chemical properties. The atoms individually were relaxed on the outside of the nanotube during the simulations. Each system was found under the influence of a uniform electric field parallel to the carbon nanotube and under the thermal effect of the initial temperature at the simulations. Because of the electric field, the cold atoms orbited the carbon nanotube while increasing the initial temperature allowed the variation of the radius of the orbiting atoms. We calculated the following quantities: kinetic energy, potential energy and total energy and in situ temperature, molar entropy variation and average radius of the orbit of the atoms. Our data suggest that only the action of electric field is enough to generate the attractive potential and this system could be used as a selected atoms sensor.

  6. Electric-Field Sensing with a Scanning Fiber-Coupled Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadeddu, D.; Munsch, M.; Rossi, N.; Gérard, J.-M.; Claudon, J.; Warburton, R. J.; Poggio, M.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the application of a fiber-coupled quantum dot (QD) in a tip as a scanning probe for electric-field imaging. We map the out-of-plane component of the electric field induced by a pair of electrodes by the measurement of the quantum-confined Stark effect induced on a QD spectral line. Our results are in agreement with finite-element simulations of the experiment. Furthermore, we present results from analytic calculations and simulations which are relevant to any electric-field sensor embedded in a dielectric tip. In particular, we highlight the impact of the tip geometry on both the resolution and sensitivity.

  7. The Vector Electric Field Instrument on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Bromund, K.; Fourre, R.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; McCarthy, M.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. VEFI is a NASA GSFC instrument designed 1) to investigate the role of the ambient electric fields in initiating nighttime ionospheric density depletions and turbulence; 2) to determine the electric fields associated with abrupt, large amplitude, density depletions and 3) to quantify the spectrum of the wave electric fields and plasma densities (irregularities) associated with density depletions or Equatorial Spread-F. The VEFI instrument includes a vector electric field double probe detector, a Langmuir trigger probe, a flux gate magnetometer, a lightning detector and associated electronics. The heart of the instrument is the set of double probe detectors designed to measure DC and AC electric fields using 6 identical, mutually orthogonal, deployable 9.5 m booms tipped with 10 cm diameter spheres containing embedded preamplifiers. A description of the instrument and its sensors will be presented. If available, representative measurements will be provided.

  8. Nanomaterials for in vivo imaging of mechanical forces and electrical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlenbacher, Randy D.; Kolbl, Rea; Lay, Alice; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2018-02-01

    Cellular signalling is governed in large part by mechanical forces and electromagnetic fields. Mechanical forces play a critical role in cell differentiation, tissue organization and diseases such as cancer and heart disease; electrical fields are essential for intercellular communication, muscle contraction, neural signalling and sensory perception. Therefore, quantifying a biological system's forces and fields is crucial for understanding physiology and disease pathology and for developing medical tools for repair and recovery. This Review highlights advances in sensing mechanical forces and electrical fields in vivo, focusing on optical probes. The emergence of biocompatible optical probes, such as genetically encoded voltage indicators, molecular rotors, fluorescent dyes, semiconducting nanoparticles, plasmonic nanoparticles and lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles, offers exciting opportunities to push the limits of spatial and temporal resolution, stability, multi-modality and stimuli sensitivity in bioimaging. We further discuss the materials design principles behind these probes and compare them across various metrics to facilitate sensor selection. Finally, we examine which advances are necessary to fully unravel the role of mechanical forces and electrical fields in vivo, such as the ability to probe the vectorial nature of forces, the development of combined force and field sensors, and the design of efficient optical actuators.

  9. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Candid; Cubells-Beltran, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications. PMID:22408486

  10. Evaluation and Refinement of a Field-Portable Drinking Water Toxicity Sensor Utilizing Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing and a Fluidic Biochip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Potential interferences tested were chlorine and chloramine (commonly used for drinking water disinfection ), geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB...Protection Agency maximum residual disinfectant level for chlorine and chloramine is set at 4 mg l1 under the Safe Drinking Water Act and thus would...Evaluation and refinement of a field-portable drinking water toxicity sensor utilizing electric cell–substrate impedance sensing and a fluidic

  11. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.

  12. Non-Contact Circuit for Real-Time Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    addresses these needs, and additionally has “smart” features that adjust integrated circuits ( ICs ) on the sensor during start-up based upon the...Hall effect sensors, the datasheet information on the MLX91205 gives a dynamic range of 66 to 96 dB for frequencies of 10 Hz and 10 kHz, respectively...Electric Field Sensors. 18 August 2009. 4. Melexis. IMC-Hall Current Sensor, MLX91205 Datasheet . June. 2012 5. Vinci SJ, Hull DM. Electrostatic

  13. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Following preliminary investigations of the low frequency electric and magnetic fields that may exists in the Earth-ionospheric cavity, measurements were taken with state-of-the art spectrum analyzers. As a follow up to this activity, an investigation was initiated to determine sources and values for possible low frequency signal that would appear in the cavity. The lowest cavity resonance is estimated at about 8 Hz, but lower frequencies may be an important component of our electromagnetic environment. The potential field frequencies produced by the electron were investigated by a classical model that included possible cross coupling of the electric and gravitation fields. During this work, an interesting relationship was found that related the high frequency charge field with the extremely low frequency of the gravitation field. The results of numerical calculations were surprisingly accurate and this area of investigation is continuing. The work toward continued development of a standardized monitoring facility is continuing with the potential of installing the prototype at West Virginia State College early in 1990. This installation would be capable of real time monitoring of ELF signals in the Earth-ionoshpere cavity and would provide some directional information. A high gain, low noise, 1/f frequency corrected preamplifier was designed and tested for the ferrite core magnetic sensor. The potential application of a super conducting sensor for the ELF magnetic field detection is under investigation. It is hoped that a fully operational monitoring network could pinpoint the location of ELF signal sources and provide new information on where these signals originate and what causes them, assuming that they are natural in origin.

  14. Electric field at the ground in a large tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, W. P.; Hunyady, S. J.; Aulich, G. D.

    2000-08-01

    A number of observers have reported lightning, diffuse luminosity, or other manifestations of electrical activity in tornadoes. To try to quantify these observations, eight instruments with sensors for electric field and other parameters were placed in front of a large tornado that passed by Allison, Texas, on June 8, 1995. The edge of the tornado vortex passed over two of the instruments and near other instruments. When the two instruments were in the low-pressure region near the edge of the vortex, they indicated electric field amplitudes less than about 3 kV/m, which is low compared with amplitudes of 10 kV/m or greater that are often present below thunderclouds. The thunderstorm produced frequent lightning, but there is no evidence from the measurements or from visual observations of lightning in the vortex. However, there was one interesting electrical effect associated with the tornado: the electric field at the two instruments in the vortex relaxed to zero quickly after lightning flashes, whereas the electric field at nearby instruments outside the vortex did not relax quickly after the same lightning flashes. The most likely cause of the rapid relaxation is shielding of the electric field at the ground by charge induced on soil, leaves, grass, and other debris lofted by the strong winds.

  15. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Heitzinger, Clemens; Vacic, Aleksandar; Reed, Mark A.

    2013-06-01

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor.

  16. Study of electric field distorted by space charges under positive lightning impulse voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zezhong; Geng, Yinan

    2018-03-01

    Actually, many insulation problems are related to electric fields. And measuring electric fields is an important research topic of high-voltage engineering. In particular, the electric field distortion caused by space charge is the basis of streamer theory, and thus quantitatively measuring the Poisson electric field caused by space charge is significant to researching the mechanism of air gap discharge. In this paper, we used our photoelectric integrated sensor to measure the electric field distribution in a 1-m rod-plane gap under positive lightning impulse voltage. To verify the reliability of this quantitative measurement, we compared the measured results with calculated results from a numerical simulation. The electric-field time domain waveforms on the axis of the 1-m rod-plane out of the space charge zone were measured with various electrodes. The Poisson electric fields generated by space charge were separated from the Laplace electric field generated by applied voltages, and the amplitudes and variations were measured for various applied voltages and at various locations. This work also supplies the feasible basis for directly measuring strong electric field under high voltage.

  17. On the Magnitude of the Electric Field Near Thunderstorm-Associated Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Ward, Jennifer G.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte G.; Dye, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Electric field measurements made in and near clouds during two airborne field mill programs are presented. Aircraft equipped with multiple electric field mills and cloud physics sensors were flown near active convection and into thunderstorm anvil and debris clouds. The magnitude of the electric field was measured as a function of position with respect to the cloud edge in order to provide an observational basis for modifications to the lightning launch commit criteria (LLCC) used by the U.S. space program. These LLCC are used to reduce the risk that an ascending launch vehicle will trigger a lightning strike that could cause the loss of the mission or vehicle. The results suggest that even with fields of tens of kV/m inside electrically active convective clouds, the fields external to these clouds decay to less than 3 kV/m within fifteen kilometers of cloud edge. Fields exceeding 3 kV/m were not found external to anvil and debris clouds.

  18. The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.; Bale, S. D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P. R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malsapina, D. M.; Bolton, M. K.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Baker, D. N.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J. C.; Chaston, C. C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C. M.; Cattell, C. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A.; Tao, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in the spin plane with tip-to-tip separations of 100 meters. The third component of the electric field is measured by two spherical sensors separated by ˜15 m, deployed at the ends of two stacer booms oppositely directed along the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrument provides a continuous stream of measurements over the entire orbit of the low frequency electric field vector at 32 samples/s in a survey mode. This survey mode also includes measurements of spacecraft potential to provide information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure. Survey mode spectral information allows the continuous evaluation of the peak value and spectral power in electric, magnetic and density fluctuations from several Hz to 6.5 kHz. On-board cross-spectral data allows the calculation of field-aligned wave Poynting flux along the magnetic field. For higher frequency waveform information, two different programmable burst memories are used with nominal sampling rates of 512 samples/s and 16 k samples/s. The EFW burst modes provide targeted measurements over brief time intervals of 3-d electric fields, 3-d wave magnetic fields (from the EMFISIS magnetic search coil sensors), and spacecraft potential. In the burst modes all six sensor-spacecraft potential measurements are telemetered enabling interferometric timing of small-scale plasma structures. In the first burst mode, the instrument stores all or a substantial fraction of the high frequency

  19. Recent Advances in the Design of Electro-Optic Sensors for Minimally Destructive Microwave Field Probing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Joon; Kang, No-Weon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kim, Junyeon; Whitaker, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review recent design methodologies for fully dielectric electro-optic sensors that have applications in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of devices and materials that radiate, guide, or otherwise may be impacted by microwave fields. In many practical NDE situations, fiber-coupled-sensor configurations are preferred due to their advantages over free-space bulk sensors in terms of optical alignment, spatial resolution, and especially, a low degree of field invasiveness. We propose and review five distinct types of fiber-coupled electro-optic sensor probes. The design guidelines for each probe type and their performances in absolute electric-field measurements are compared and summarized. PMID:22346604

  20. Electric fish as natural models for technical sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Emde, Gerhard; Bousack, Herbert; Huck, Christina; Mayekar, Kavita; Pabst, Michael; Zhang, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Instead of vision, many animals use alternative senses for object detection. Weakly electric fish employ "active electrolocation", during which they discharge an electric organ emitting electrical current pulses (electric organ discharges, EOD). Local EODs are sensed by electroreceptors in the fish's skin, which respond to changes of the signal caused by nearby objects. Fish can gain information about attributes of an object, such as size, shape, distance, and complex impedance. When close to the fish, each object projects an 'electric image' onto the fish's skin. In order to get information about an object, the fish has to analyze the object's electric image by sampling its voltage distribution with the electroreceptors. We now know a great deal about the mechanisms the fish use to gain information about objects in their environment. Inspired by the remarkable capabilities of weakly electric fish in detecting and recognizing objects with their electric sense, we are designing technical sensor systems that can solve similar sensing problems. We applied the principles of active electrolocation to devices that produce electrical current pulses in water and simultaneously sense local current densities. Depending on the specific task, sensors can be designed which detect an object, localize it in space, determine its distance, and measure certain object properties such as material properties, thickness, or material faults. We present first experiments and FEM simulations on the optimal sensor arrangement regarding the sensor requirements e. g. localization of objects or distance measurements. Different methods of the sensor read-out and signal processing are compared.

  1. General Matrix Inversion Technique for the Calibration of Electric Field Sensor Arrays on Aircraft Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. M.; Koshak, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    A matrix calibration procedure has been developed that uniquely relates the electric fields measured at the aircraft with the external vector electric field and net aircraft charge. The calibration method can be generalized to any reasonable combination of electric field measurements and aircraft. A calibration matrix is determined for each aircraft that represents the individual instrument responses to the external electric field. The aircraft geometry and configuration of field mills (FMs) uniquely define the matrix. The matrix can then be inverted to determine the external electric field and net aircraft charge from the FM outputs. A distinct advantage of the method is that if one or more FMs need to be eliminated or deemphasized [e.g., due to a malfunction), it is a simple matter to reinvert the matrix without the malfunctioning FMs. To demonstrate the calibration technique, data are presented from several aircraft programs (ER-2, DC-8, Altus, and Citation).

  2. Evaluation of electrical capacitance tomography sensor based on the coupling of fluid field and electrostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiamin; Wang, Haigang; Yang, Wuqiang

    2016-07-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is based on capacitance measurements from electrode pairs mounted outside of a pipe or vessel. The structure of ECT sensors is vital to image quality. In this paper, issues with the number of electrodes and the electrode covering ratio for complex liquid-solids flows in a rotating device are investigated based on a new coupling simulation model. The number of electrodes is increased from 4 to 32 while the electrode covering ratio is changed from 0.1 to 0.9. Using the coupling simulation method, real permittivity distributions and the corresponding capacitance data at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 s with a rotation speed of 96 rotations per minute (rpm) are collected. Linear back projection (LBP) and Landweber iteration algorithms are used for image reconstruction. The quality of reconstructed images is evaluated by correlation coefficient compared with the real permittivity distributions obtained from the coupling simulation. The sensitivity for each sensor is analyzed and compared with the correlation coefficient. The capacitance data with a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 45, 50, 55 and 60 dB are generated to evaluate the effect of data noise on the performance of ECT sensors. Furthermore, the SNRs of experimental data are analyzed for a stationary pipe with permittivity distribution. Based on the coupling simulation, 16-electrode ECT sensors are recommended to achieve good image quality.

  3. Fiberoptic Applications in Sensors and Telemetry for the Electric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werneck, M. M.; Silva, A. V.; Souza, N. C. C.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Beres, C.; Yugue, E. S.; Carvalho, C. C.; Maciel, F. L.; Silva-Neto, J.; Guimarães, C. R. F.; Allil, R. C. S. B.; Baliosian, J. A. G.

    2008-10-01

    This presentation features the origin and the work of the Photonics and Instrumentation Laboratory (LIF) in instrumentation, fiberoptic sensors and POF technology. LIF started its work in 1986, twenty and two years ago, with only one lecturer and a few students. The first project was the development of the first Brazilian plotter with the purpose, at the time, to substitute expensive imported technology. LIF has today 25 people between students, technicians, scientists, engineers and teachers. We present here several successful projects of fiberoptic sensors using both silica and POF fibers, most of them applied on the field mainly for the electric power industry. Described are: a oil leakage sensor in petroleum hoses, PMMA evanescent sensors, temperature by the ruby fluorescence phenomenon, a current sensor calibrator for 500 kV current transformers, a leakage sensor to measure 500 kV insulators in extra-high voltage transmission line, etc. Many of the sensors presented here have been tested in the field, patented and transferred to the industry. We have also technical collaboration with several industries in Brazil, one of them a spin-off from LIF. Our objective is to become a reference centre in POF technology in Latin America and for this we are intended to keep producing "out of the shelves" POF technology and innovative industry solutions for many areas.

  4. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 2; Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory and "pitch down method" developed in Part I of this study are applied to complete the calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m and a 5 V/m error in the mean fair weather field function, the 3-D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m, the method retrieves the 3-D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair weather field estimate is typically within 1 V/m of the true fair weather field. Using this side constraint and data from fair weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. The resulting calibration matrix was then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably with the results obtained from earlier calibration analyses that were based on iterative techniques.

  5. Utilisation of the magnetic sensor in a smartphone for facile magnetostatics experiment: magnetic field due to electrical current in straight and loop wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septianto, R. D.; Suhendra, D.; Iskandar, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a research into the utilisation of a smartphone for the study of magnetostatics on the basis of experiments. The use of such a device gives great measurement result and thus it can replace magnetic sensor tools that are relatively expensive. For the best experimental result, firstly the position of the magnetic sensor in the smartphone has to be considered by way of value mapping of a magnetic field due to permanent magnet. The magnetostatics experiment investigated in this research was the measurement of magnetic field due to electrical currents in two shapes of wire, straight and looped. The current flow, the distance between the observation point and the wire, and the diameter of the loop were the variable parameters investigated to test the smartphone’s capabilities as a measurement tool. To evaluate the experimental results, the measured data were compared with theoretical values that were calculated by using both an analytical and a numerical approach. According to the experiment results, the measured data had good agreement with the results from the analytical and the numerical approach. This means that the use of the magnetic sensor in a smartphone in physics experiments is viable, especially for magnetic field measurement.

  6. Sensing Properties of a Novel Temperature Sensor Based on Field Assisted Thermal Emission.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhigang; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Zhenzhen; Tong, Jiaming; Chen, Qiyu; Zhang, Jianpeng; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Li, Xin; Li, Yunjia

    2017-02-27

    The existing temperature sensors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited by low sensitivity, complicated processes, or dependence on microscopy to observe the experimental results. Here we report the fabrication and successful testing of an ionization temperature sensor featuring non-self-sustaining discharge. The sharp tips of nanotubes generate high electric fields at relatively low voltages, lowering the work function of electrons emitted by CNTs, and thereby enabling the safe operation of such sensors. Due to the temperature effect on the electron emission of CNTs, the collecting current exhibited an exponential increase with temperature rising from 20 °C to 100 °C. Additionally, a higher temperature coefficient of 0.04 K -1 was obtained at 24 V voltage applied on the extracting electrode, higher than the values of other reported CNT-based temperature sensors. The triple-electrode ionization temperature sensor is easy to fabricate and converts the temperature change directly into an electrical signal. It shows a high temperature coefficient and good application potential.

  7. Sensing Properties of a Novel Temperature Sensor Based on Field Assisted Thermal Emission

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhigang; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Zhenzhen; Tong, Jiaming; Chen, Qiyu; Zhang, Jianpeng; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Li, Xin; Li, Yunjia

    2017-01-01

    The existing temperature sensors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited by low sensitivity, complicated processes, or dependence on microscopy to observe the experimental results. Here we report the fabrication and successful testing of an ionization temperature sensor featuring non-self-sustaining discharge. The sharp tips of nanotubes generate high electric fields at relatively low voltages, lowering the work function of electrons emitted by CNTs, and thereby enabling the safe operation of such sensors. Due to the temperature effect on the electron emission of CNTs, the collecting current exhibited an exponential increase with temperature rising from 20 °C to 100 °C. Additionally, a higher temperature coefficient of 0.04 K−1 was obtained at 24 V voltage applied on the extracting electrode, higher than the values of other reported CNT-based temperature sensors. The triple-electrode ionization temperature sensor is easy to fabricate and converts the temperature change directly into an electrical signal. It shows a high temperature coefficient and good application potential. PMID:28264427

  8. The detection of the electric field vertical distribution underneath thundercloud: Principle and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soula, Serge; Chauzy, Serge

    1991-01-01

    During the Florida 89 experiment at Kennedy Space Center, a new system was used in order to obtain the vertical distribution of the electric field underneath thunderstorms. It consists of a standard shutter field mill at ground level and five other field sensors suspended from a cable fastened to a tethered balloon located at an altitude of about 1000 meters. It also includes a reception station for telemetered information transmitted by sensors, a processing system in order to store data, and real time display on a screen to show the simultaneous field variations at each level along with the instantaneous electric field profile. The first results obtained show the great importance of the electric field vertical distribution. The field detected at a height of 600m reaches 65 kV/m while that at the surface does not exceed 5 kV/m. The field intensity in altitude is a better criterion for determining the right moment to launch a rocket devoted to flash triggering. Using Gauss's law, the simultaneous field variations at several levels are used in order to evaluate charge densities. Average values close to 1nC.m(-3) are calculated in layers up to 600 m. The calculation of different average charge densities leads to the characterization of the layer between cloud and ground just before the leader propagation in the case of cloud to ground flash.

  9. Silicon Field Effect Transistors as Dual-Use Sensor-Heater Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Bobby; Elibol, Oguz H.; Nair, Pradeep R.; Dorvel, Brian R.; Butler, Felice; Ahsan, Zahab; Bergstrom, Donald E.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Bashir, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the temperature mediated applications of a previously proposed novel localized dielectric heating method on the surface of dual purpose silicon field effect transistor (FET) sensor-heaters and perform modeling and characterization of the underlying mechanisms. The FETs are first shown to operate as electrical sensors via sensitivity to changes in pH in ionic fluids. The same devices are then demonstrated as highly localized heaters via investigation of experimental heating profiles and comparison to simulation results. These results offer further insight into the heating mechanism and help determine the spatial resolution of the technique. Two important biosensor platform applications spanning different temperature ranges are then demonstrated: a localized heat-mediated DNA exchange reaction and a method for dense selective functionalization of probe molecules via the heat catalyzed complete desorption and reattachment of chemical functionalization to the transistor surfaces. Our results show that the use of silicon transistors can be extended beyond electrical switching and field-effect sensing to performing localized temperature controlled chemical reactions on the transistor itself. PMID:21214189

  10. Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistor Sensors with Minimal Sensor to Sensor Variations and Enhanced Sensing Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Sufi; D'Emic, Christopher; Jagtiani, Ashish; Kratschmer, Ernst; Miao, Xin; Zhu, Yu; Mo, Renee; Sosa, Norma; Hamann, Hendrik F; Shahidi, Ghavam; Riel, Heike

    2018-06-22

    Silicon nanowire field effect transistor (FET) sensors have demonstrated their ability for rapid and label free detection of proteins, nucleotide sequences, and viruses at ultralow concentrations with the potential to be a transformative diagnostic technology. Their nanoscale size gives them their unique ultralow detection ability but also makes their fabrication challenging with large sensor to sensor variations, thus limiting their commercial applications. In this work, a combined approach of nanofabrication, device simulation, materials and electrical characterization is applied towards identifying and improving fabrication steps that induce sensor to sensor variations. An enhanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process for fabricating silicon nanowire FET sensors is demonstrated. Nanowire (30 nm width) FETs with aqueous solution as gates are shown to have the Nernst limit sub-threshold swing SS = 60 mV/decade with ~1.7% variations, whereas literature values for SS are ≥ 80 mV/decade with larger (>10 times) variations. Also, their threshold voltage variations are significantly (~3 times) reduced, compared to literature values. Furthermore, these improved FETs have significantly reduced drain current hysteresis (~0.6 mV) and enhanced on-current to off-current ratios (~10 6 ). These improvements resulted in nanowire FET sensors with lowest (~3%) reported sensor to sensor variations, compared to literature studies. Also, these improved nanowire sensors have the highest reported sensitivity and enhanced signal to noise ratio with the lowest reported defect density of 1x10 18 eV -1 cm -3 in comparison to literature data. In summary, this work brings the nanowire sensor technology a step closer to commercial products for early diagnosis and monitoring of diseases.

  11. Reduced voltage sensitivity in a K+-channel voltage sensor by electric field remodeling

    PubMed Central

    González-Pérez, Vivian; Stack, Katherine; Boric, Katica; Naranjo, David

    2010-01-01

    Propagation of the nerve impulse relies on the extreme voltage sensitivity of Na+ and K+ channels. The transmembrane movement of four arginine residues, located at the fourth transmembrane segment (S4), in each of their four voltage-sensing domains is mostly responsible for the translocation of 12 to 13 eo across the transmembrane electric field. Inserting additional positively charged residues between the voltage-sensing arginines in S4 would, in principle, increase voltage sensitivity. Here we show that either positively or negatively charged residues added between the two most external sensing arginines of S4 decreased voltage sensitivity of a Shaker voltage-gated K+-channel by up to ≈50%. The replacement of Val363 with a charged residue displaced inwardly the external boundaries of the electric field by at least 6 Å, leaving the most external arginine of S4 constitutively exposed to the extracellular space and permanently excluded from the electric field. Both the physical trajectory of S4 and its electromechanical coupling to open the pore gate seemed unchanged. We propose that the separation between the first two sensing charges at resting is comparable to the thickness of the low dielectric transmembrane barrier they must cross. Thus, at most a single sensing arginine side chain could be found within the field. The conserved hydrophobic nature of the residues located between the voltage-sensing arginines in S4 may shape the electric field geometry for optimal voltage sensitivity in voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:20194763

  12. Voltage Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Lewis Research Center Small Business Innovation Research contract, SRICO, Inc. developed a fiber optic voltage sensor to measure voltage in electronic systems in spacecraft. The sensor uses glass and light to sense and transmit electricity, and is relatively safe and accurate. SRICO then commercialized the sensor for measurement of electric field and voltage in applications such as electric power systems and hazardous environments, lightning detection, and fiber optic communication systems.

  13. Electric Field Feature of Moving Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, You Jun

    2001-05-01

    A new fundamental relationship of electric field with magnetic field has been inferred from the fundamental experimental laws and theories of classical electromagnetics. It can be described as moving magnetic field has or gives electric feature. When a field with magnetic induction of B moves in the velocity of V, it will show electric field character, the electric field intensity E is E = B x V and the direction of E is in the direction of the vector B x V. It is improper to use the time-varying electromagnetics theories as the fundamental theory of the electromagnetics and group the electromagnetic field into static kind and time-varying kind for the static is relative to motional not only time-varying. The relationship of time variation of magnetic field induction or magnetic flux with electric field caused by magnetic field is fellowship not causality. Thus time-varying magnetic field can cause electric field is not a nature principle. Sometime the time variation of magnetic flux is equal to the negative electromotive force or the time variation of magnetic field induction is equal to the negative curl of electric field caused by magnetic field motion, but not always. And not all motion of magnetic field can cause time variation of magnetic field. Therefore Faraday-Lenz`s law can only be used as mathematics tool to calculate the quantity relation of the electricity with the magnetism in some case like the magnetic field moving in uniform medium. Faraday-Lenz`s law is unsuitable to be used in moving uniform magnetic field or there is magnetic shield. Key word: Motional magnetic field, Magnetic induction, Electric field intensity, Velocity, Faraday-Lenz’s law

  14. An approach to improving the signal-to-optical-noise ratio of pulsed magnetic field photonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang-ping; Li, Yu-quan

    2008-12-01

    During last years, interest in pulsed magnetic field sensors has widely increased. In fact, magnetic field measurement has a critical part in various scientific and technical areas. In order to research on pulsed magnetic field characteristic and corresponding measuring and defending means, a sensor with high immunity to electrical noise, high sensitivity, high accuracy and wide dynamic range is needed. The conventional magnetic field measurement system currently use active metallic probes which can disturb the measuring magnetic field and make sensor very sensitive to electromagnetic noise. Photonic magnetic field sensor exhibit great advantages with respect to the electronic ones: a very good galvanic insulation, high sensitivity and very wide bandwidth. Photonic sensing technology is fit for demand of a measure pulsed magnetic field. A type of pulsed magnetic field photonic sensor has been designed, analyzed, and tested. The cross polarization angle in photonic sensor effect on the signal-to-optical-noise ratio is theoretically analyzed in this paper. A novel approach for improving the signal-to-optical-noise ratio of pulsed magnetic field sensors was proposed. The experiments have proved that this approach is practical. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the signal-to-optical-noise ratio can potentially be considerably improved by setup suitable for the cross polarization angle.

  15. Configurable UUV Sensor Network II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-13

    the South Florida Ocean Test Facility (SFOMF). A larger 3”-diameter ball-shaped electric field sensor was developed and fabricated. A pre -amplifier...magnetic field sensors, and tested at the South Florida Ocean Test Facility (SFOMF). A larger 3”-diameter ball-shaped electric field sensor was developed...and fabricated. Testing of the 3”-diameter ball-shaped sensor at UI showed a noise floor of IpV/m RMS in the frequency band 0.02-20 Hz. UUV

  16. Microfabricated sensors for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monberg, James; Henning, Albert K.

    1995-09-01

    Public awareness of the risks of exposure to electromagnetic radiation has grown over the past ten yeras. The effects of power lines on human and animal health have drawn particular attention. Some longitudinal studies of cancer rates near power lines show a significant correlation, while others show a null result. The studies have suffered from inadequate sensors for the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in vivo. In this work, we describe the design, construction, and testing of electrically passive, microfabricated single-pole antennas and coils. These sensors will be used in vivo to study the effects of electromagnetic radiation on animals. Our testing to date has been limited to in vitro studies of the magnetic field probes. Magnetic field pickup coils were fabricated with up to 100 turns, over a length of up to 1000 micrometers . Measurements were carried out with the sensors in air, and in water of various saline concentrations. Magnetic fields were applied using a Helmholtz coil. Both dc and ac fields were applied. The results indicate that small-area measurements of electromagnetic fields in vitro can be made successfully, provided adequate shielding and amplification are used.

  17. Thin film metallic sensors in an alternating magnetic field for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Z. A.; Boekelheide, Z.

    In magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia in an alternating magnetic field for cancer therapy, it is important to monitor the temperature in situ. This can be done optically or electrically, but electronic measurements can be problematic because conducting parts heat up in a changing magnetic field. Microfabricated thin film sensors may be advantageous because eddy current heating is a function of size, and are promising for further miniaturization of sensors and fabrication of arrays of sensors. Thin films could also be used for in situ magnetic field sensors or for strain sensors. For a proof of concept, we fabricated a metallic thin film resistive thermometer by photolithographically patterning a 500Å Au/100Å Cr thin film on a glass substrate. Measurements were taken in a solenoidal coil supplying 0.04 T (rms) at 235 kHz with the sensor parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the parallel orientation, the resistive thermometer mirrored the background heating from the coil, while in the perpendicular orientation self-heating was observed due to eddy current heating of the conducting elements by Faraday's law. This suggests that metallic thin film sensors can be used in an alternating magnetic field, parallel to the field, with no significant self-heating.

  18. Analysis of Surface Electric Field Measurements from an Array of Electric Field Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Deierling, W.

    2016-12-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has operated an distributed array of over 30 electric field mills over the past 18 years, providing a unique data set of surface electric field measurements over a very long timespan. In addition to the electric field instruments there are many meteorological towers around KSC that monitor the local meteorological conditions. Utilizing these datasets we have investigated and found unique spatial and temporal signatures in the electric field data that are attributed to local meteorological effects and the global electric circuit. The local and global scale influences on the atmospheric electric field will be discussed including the generation of space charge from the ocean surf, local cloud cover, and a local enhancement in the electric field that is seen at sunrise.

  19. Magnetic field sensor based on the Ampere's force using dual-polarization DBR fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuang; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Baiou

    2015-08-01

    A novel magnetic field sensor using distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser by Ampere's force effect is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The key sensing element, that is the dual-polarization DBR fiber laser, is fixed on the middle part of two copper plates which carry the current. Ampere's force is applied onto the coppers due to an external magnetic field generated by a DC solenoid. Thus, the lateral force from the coppers is converted to a corresponding beat frequency signal shift produced by the DBR laser. The electric current sensing is also realized by the same configuration and same principle simultaneously in an intuitive manner. Good agreement between the theory calculation and the experimental results is obtained, which shows a good linearity. This sensor's sensitivity to the magnetic field and to the electric current finally reaches ~258.92 kHz/mT and ~1.08727 MHz/A, respectively.

  20. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunwei, E-mail: lcwnefu@126.com, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com; State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001; Tian, Xiubo, E-mail: lcwnefu@126.com, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com

    2016-08-15

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process wasmore » simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.« less

  1. Local sensor based on nanowire field effect transistor from inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presnov, Denis E.; Bozhev, Ivan V.; Miakonkikh, Andrew V.; Simakin, Sergey G.; Trifonov, Artem S.; Krupenin, Vladimir A.

    2018-02-01

    We present the original method for fabricating a sensitive field/charge sensor based on field effect transistor (FET) with a nanowire channel that uses CMOS-compatible processes only. A FET with a kink-like silicon nanowire channel was fabricated from the inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator wafer very close (˜100 nm) to the extremely sharp corner of a silicon chip forming local probe. The single e-beam lithographic process with a shadow deposition technique, followed by separate two reactive ion etching processes, was used to define the narrow semiconductor nanowire channel. The sensors charge sensitivity was evaluated to be in the range of 0.1-0.2 e /√{Hz } from the analysis of their transport and noise characteristics. The proposed method provides a good opportunity for the relatively simple manufacture of a local field sensor for measuring the electrical field distribution, potential profiles, and charge dynamics for a wide range of mesoscopic objects. Diagnostic systems and devices based on such sensors can be used in various fields of physics, chemistry, material science, biology, electronics, medicine, etc.

  2. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  3. Magnetic and electric field meters developed for the US Department of Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work done at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of DOE on the measurement of power line fields. A magnetic field meter is discussed that uses fiber optics to couple a small measuring probe to a remote readout device. The use of fiber optics minimizes electric field perturbation due to the presence of the probe and provides electric isolation for the probe, so that it could be used in a high field or high voltage environment. Power to operate the sensor electronics is transferred via an optical fiber, and converted to electrical form by a small photodiode array. The fundamental, the second and third harmonics of the field are filtered and separately measured, as well as the broadband rms level of the field. The design of the meter is described in detail and data from laboratory tests are presented. The report also describes work done to improve the performance of a DC bushing in a Swedish factory, using the improved meter. The DC electric fields are measured with synchronous detection to provide field magnitude data in two component directions.

  4. Electrophoretic and field-effect graphene for all-electrical DNA array technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangyu; Abbott, Jeffrey; Qin, Ling; Yeung, Kitty Y M; Song, Yi; Yoon, Hosang; Kong, Jing; Ham, Donhee

    2014-09-05

    Field-effect transistor biomolecular sensors based on low-dimensional nanomaterials boast sensitivity, label-free operation and chip-scale construction. Chemical vapour deposition graphene is especially well suited for multiplexed electronic DNA array applications, since its large two-dimensional morphology readily lends itself to top-down fabrication of transistor arrays. Nonetheless, graphene field-effect transistor DNA sensors have been studied mainly at single-device level. Here we create, from chemical vapour deposition graphene, field-effect transistor arrays with two features representing steps towards multiplexed DNA arrays. First, a robust array yield--seven out of eight transistors--is achieved with a 100-fM sensitivity, on par with optical DNA microarrays and at least 10 times higher than prior chemical vapour deposition graphene transistor DNA sensors. Second, each graphene acts as an electrophoretic electrode for site-specific probe DNA immobilization, and performs subsequent site-specific detection of target DNA as a field-effect transistor. The use of graphene as both electrode and transistor suggests a path towards all-electrical multiplexed graphene DNA arrays.

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening Using a Piezo-Electric Sensor.

    PubMed

    Erdenebayar, Urtnasan; Park, Jong Uk; Jeong, Pilsoo; Lee, Kyoung Joung

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we propose a novel method for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection using a piezo-electric sensor. OSA is a relatively common sleep disorder. However, more than 80% of OSA patients remain undiagnosed. We investigated the feasibility of OSA assessment using a single-channel physiological signal to simplify the OSA screening. We detected both snoring and heartbeat information by using a piezo-electric sensor, and snoring index (SI) and features based on pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis were extracted from the filtered piezo-electric sensor signal. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier to detect OSA events. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 45 patients from mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. The method achieved a mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 72.5%, 74.2%, and 71.5%; 85.8%, 80.5%, and 80.0%; and 70.3%, 77.1%, and 71.9% for the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. Finally, these results not only show the feasibility of OSA detection using a piezo-electric sensor, but also illustrate its usefulness for monitoring sleep and diagnosing OSA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening Using a Piezo-Electric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we propose a novel method for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection using a piezo-electric sensor. OSA is a relatively common sleep disorder. However, more than 80% of OSA patients remain undiagnosed. We investigated the feasibility of OSA assessment using a single-channel physiological signal to simplify the OSA screening. We detected both snoring and heartbeat information by using a piezo-electric sensor, and snoring index (SI) and features based on pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis were extracted from the filtered piezo-electric sensor signal. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier to detect OSA events. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 45 patients from mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. The method achieved a mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 72.5%, 74.2%, and 71.5%; 85.8%, 80.5%, and 80.0%; and 70.3%, 77.1%, and 71.9% for the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. Finally, these results not only show the feasibility of OSA detection using a piezo-electric sensor, but also illustrate its usefulness for monitoring sleep and diagnosing OSA. PMID:28480645

  7. Soil water sensor response to bulk electrical conductivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil water monitoring using electromagnetic (EM) sensors can facilitate observations of water content at high temporal and spatial resolutions. These sensors measure soil dielectric permittivity (Ka) which is largely a function of volumetric water content. However, bulk electrical conductivity BEC c...

  8. Distributed Sensor Fusion for Scalar Field Mapping Using Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    La, Hung Manh; Sheng, Weihua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, autonomous mobile sensor networks are deployed to measure a scalar field and build its map. We develop a novel method for multiple mobile sensor nodes to build this map using noisy sensor measurements. Our method consists of two parts. First, we develop a distributed sensor fusion algorithm by integrating two different distributed consensus filters to achieve cooperative sensing among sensor nodes. This fusion algorithm has two phases. In the first phase, the weighted average consensus filter is developed, which allows each sensor node to find an estimate of the value of the scalar field at each time step. In the second phase, the average consensus filter is used to allow each sensor node to find a confidence of the estimate at each time step. The final estimate of the value of the scalar field is iteratively updated during the movement of the mobile sensors via weighted average. Second, we develop the distributed flocking-control algorithm to drive the mobile sensors to form a network and track the virtual leader moving along the field when only a small subset of the mobile sensors know the information of the leader. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate our proposed algorithms.

  9. Gating capacitive field-effect sensors by the charge of nanoparticle/molecule hybrids.

    PubMed

    Poghossian, Arshak; Bäcker, Matthias; Mayer, Dirk; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-01-21

    The semiconductor field-effect platform is a powerful tool for chemical and biological sensing with direct electrical readout. In this work, the field-effect capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure - the simplest field-effect (bio-)chemical sensor - modified with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been applied for a label-free electrostatic detection of charged molecules by their intrinsic molecular charge. The EIS sensor detects the charge changes in AuNP/molecule inorganic/organic hybrids induced by the molecular adsorption or binding events. The feasibility of the proposed detection scheme has been exemplarily demonstrated by realizing capacitive EIS sensors consisting of an Al-p-Si-SiO2-silane-AuNP structure for the label-free detection of positively charged cytochrome c and poly-d-lysine molecules as well as for monitoring the layer-by-layer formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), representing typical model examples of detecting small proteins and macromolecules and the consecutive adsorption of positively/negatively charged polyelectrolytes, respectively. For comparison, EIS sensors without AuNPs have been investigated, too. The adsorption of molecules on the surface of AuNPs has been verified via the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. In addition, a theoretical model of the functioning of the capacitive field-effect EIS sensor functionalized with AuNP/charged-molecule hybrids has been discussed.

  10. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  11. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 1; Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers) and also helps improve absolute calibration. Additionally, this paper introduces an alternate way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has some benefits over conventional analyses. It is accomplished by using the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  12. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part I: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It also allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers). Additionally, this paper introduces a novel way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has several benefits over conventional analyses. In the new approach, absolute calibration is completed by inspecting the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  13. An oil fraction neural sensor developed using electrical capacitance tomography sensor data.

    PubMed

    Zainal-Mokhtar, Khursiah; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita

    2013-08-26

    This paper presents novel research on the development of a generic intelligent oil fraction sensor based on Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) data. An artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been employed as the intelligent system to sense and estimate oil fractions from the cross-sections of two-component flows comprising oil and gas in a pipeline. Previous works only focused on estimating the oil fraction in the pipeline based on fixed ECT sensor parameters. With fixed ECT design sensors, an oil fraction neural sensor can be trained to deal with ECT data based on the particular sensor parameters, hence the neural sensor is not generic. This work focuses on development of a generic neural oil fraction sensor based on training a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) ANN with various ECT sensor parameters. On average, the proposed oil fraction neural sensor has shown to be able to give a mean absolute error of 3.05% for various ECT sensor sizes.

  14. An Oil Fraction Neural Sensor Developed Using Electrical capacitance Tomography Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Zainal-Mokhtar, Khursiah; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents novel research on the development of a generic intelligent oil fraction sensor based on Electrical capacitance Tomography (ECT) data. An artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been employed as the intelligent system to sense and estimate oil fractions from the cross-sections of two-component flows comprising oil and gas in a pipeline. Previous works only focused on estimating the oil fraction in the pipeline based on fixed ECT sensor parameters. With fixed ECT design sensors, an oil fraction neural sensor can be trained to deal with ECT data based on the particular sensor parameters, hence the neural sensor is not generic. This work focuses on development of a generic neural oil fraction sensor based on training a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) ANN with various ECT sensor parameters. On average, the proposed oil fraction neural sensor has shown to be able to give a mean absolute error of 3.05% for various ECT sensor sizes. PMID:24064598

  15. High sensitivity electric field monitoring system for control of field-induced CD degradation in reticles (EFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebald, Thomas; Rider, Gavin

    2009-04-01

    It has recently been reported [1] that production reticles are subject to progressive CD degradation during use and intense study is under way to try and identify the causes of it. One damage mechanism which has already been identified and quantified [2] is electric field induced migration of chrome (EFM). This can be caused by electric fields that are more than 100x weaker than those that cause ESD. Such low level electric fields can be experienced by a reticle during normal handling and processing steps, as well as coming from external sources during transportation and storage. The field strength of concern is lower than most electrostatic field meters are designed to measure and it can be difficult or impossible to measure such fields inside the cramped environment of equipment. To measure this risk a new sensor device ("E-Reticle") has been developed having the same materials of construction and form factor as a standard chrome-on-quartz reticle. It allows the electric field that a reticle would experience during normal use and handling to be measured and recorded. Results from testing of this device in a semiconductor production facility are reported, showing that certain processes like reticle washing are inherently hazardous. It also enables identification of problems with electrostatic protection measures inside equipment, such as unbalanced ionizers or poor load port grounding. The device is shown to be capable of recording electric fields in the reticle handling environment that are below the recommended maximum that is being proposed for the 2009 ITRS guidelines.

  16. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircrfaft Field Mill Data: Part II: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William; Mach, D. M.; Christian H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman M. G.

    2006-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory developed in Part I of this study is applied to complete a relative calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the Lagrange multiplier method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -1) and a 5 V m(sup -1) error in the mean fair-weather field function, the 3D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair-weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -l), the method retrieves the 3D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair-weather field estimate is typically within 1 V m(sup -1) of the true fair-weather field. Using this type of side constraint and data from fair-weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. Absolute calibration was completed using the pitch down method developed in Part I, and conventional analyses. The resulting calibration matrices were then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably in many respects with results derived from earlier (iterative) techniques of calibration.

  17. The Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Acuna, M.; Kujawski, J.; Fourre, R.; Uribe, P.; Hunsaker, F.; Rowland, D.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Maynard, N.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. VEFI is a NASA/GSFC instrument funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory whose main objectives are to: 1) investigate the role of the ambient electric fields in initiating nighttime ionospheric density depletions and turbulence; 2) determine the quasi-DC electric fields associated with abrupt, large amplitude, density depletions, and 3) quantify the spectrum of the wave electric fields and plasma densities (irregularities) associated with density depletions typically referred to as equatorial spread-F. The VEFI instrument includes a vector electric field double probe detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux-gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics. The heart of the instrument is the set of detectors designed to measure DC and AC electric fields using 6 identical booms that provide 3 axis, 20-m tip-to-tip orthogonal double probes. Each probe extends a 10 cm diameter sphere containing an embedded preamplifier. VEFI also includes a burst memory that enables snapshots of data from 1-8 channels of selected instruments to be sampled at rates of up to 32 kHz each. The bursts may be triggered by the detection of density depletions, intense electric field wave activity in a given band, lightning detector pulses, or an event at a pre-determined time or location. All VEFI instrument components are working exceptionally well. A description of the instrument, its sensors, and their sampling frequencies and sensitivities will be presented. Representative measurements will be shown.

  18. Optical and Electric Multifunctional CMOS Image Sensors for On-Chip Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Takashi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ohta, Jun

    2010-12-29

    In this review, the concept, design, performance, and a functional demonstration of multifunctional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors dedicated to on-chip biosensing applications are described. We developed a sensor architecture that allows flexible configuration of a sensing pixel array consisting of optical and electric sensing pixels, and designed multifunctional CMOS image sensors that can sense light intensity and electric potential or apply a voltage to an on-chip measurement target. We describe the sensors' architecture on the basis of the type of electric measurement or imaging functionalities.

  19. Passive, Highly-Sensitive, Room-Temperature Magnetic Field Sensors and Arrays for Detection and Imaging of Hidden Threats in Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    units made from the various sensors. This was because the different types of ME laminates have different electrical properties ( resistance and...DC resistance of a sensor (Rdc) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 338 19a. NAME OF...3.3.6. Electric -field tuning effect ..................................................................70 A.3.4. Dielectric loss noise reduction

  20. Optimal distance of multi-plane sensor in three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenhua; Yue, Shihong; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Huaxiang

    2017-12-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a visual imaging technique for obtaining the conductivity and permittivity distributions in the domain of interest. As an advanced technique, EIT has the potential to be a valuable tool for continuously bedside monitoring of pulmonary function. The EIT applications in any three-dimensional (3 D) field are very limited to the 3 D effects, i.e. the distribution of electric field spreads far beyond the electrode plane. The 3 D effects can result in measurement errors and image distortion. An important way to overcome the 3 D effect is to use the multiple groups of sensors. The aim of this paper is to find the best space resolution of EIT image over various electrode planes and select an optimal plane spacing in a 3 D EIT sensor, and provide guidance for 3 D EIT electrodes placement in monitoring lung function. In simulation and experiment, several typical conductivity distribution models, such as one rod (central, midway and edge), two rods and three rods, are set at different plane spacings between the two electrode planes. A Tikhonov regularization algorithm is utilized for reconstructing the images; the relative error and the correlation coefficient are utilized for evaluating the image quality. Based on numerical simulation and experimental results, the image performance at different spacing conditions is evaluated. The results demonstrate that there exists an optimal plane spacing between the two electrode planes for 3 D EIT sensor. And then the selection of the optimal plane spacing between the electrode planes is suggested for the electrodes placement of multi-plane EIT sensor.

  1. Influence and Correction from the Human Body on the Measurement of a Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dongping; Liu, Huaitong; Zhou, Qiang; Xie, Yutong; Ma, Qichao

    2016-01-01

    According to the operating specifications of existing electric field measuring instruments, measuring technicians must be located far from the instruments to eliminate the influence of the human body occupancy on a spatial electric field. Nevertheless, in order to develop a portable safety protection instrument with an effective electric field warning function for working staff in a high-voltage environment, it is necessary to study the influence of an approaching human body on the measurement of an electric field and to correct the measurement results. A single-shaft electric field measuring instrument called the Type LP-2000, which was developed by our research team, is used as the research object in this study. First, we explain the principle of electric field measurement and describe the capacitance effect produced by the human body. Through a theoretical analysis, we show that the measured electric field value decreases as a human body approaches. Their relationship is linearly proportional. Then, the ratio is identified as a correction coefficient to correct for the influence of human body proximity. The conclusion drawn from the theoretical analysis is proved via simulation. The correction coefficient kb = 1.8010 is obtained on the basis of the linear fitting of simulated data. Finally, a physical experiment is performed. When no human is present, we compare the results from the Type LP-2000 measured with Narda EFA-300 and the simulated value to verify the accuracy of the Type LP-2000. For the case of an approaching human body, the correction coefficient kb* = 1.9094 is obtained by comparing the data measured with the Type LP-2000 to the simulated value. The correction coefficient obtained from the experiment (i.e., kb*) is highly consistent with that obtained from the simulation (i.e., kb). Two experimental programs are set; under these programs, the excitation voltages and distance measuring points are regulated to produce different electric field

  2. Influence and Correction from the Human Body on the Measurement of a Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dongping; Liu, Huaitong; Zhou, Qiang; Xie, Yutong; Ma, Qichao

    2016-06-10

    According to the operating specifications of existing electric field measuring instruments, measuring technicians must be located far from the instruments to eliminate the influence of the human body occupancy on a spatial electric field. Nevertheless, in order to develop a portable safety protection instrument with an effective electric field warning function for working staff in a high-voltage environment, it is necessary to study the influence of an approaching human body on the measurement of an electric field and to correct the measurement results. A single-shaft electric field measuring instrument called the Type LP-2000, which was developed by our research team, is used as the research object in this study. First, we explain the principle of electric field measurement and describe the capacitance effect produced by the human body. Through a theoretical analysis, we show that the measured electric field value decreases as a human body approaches. Their relationship is linearly proportional. Then, the ratio is identified as a correction coefficient to correct for the influence of human body proximity. The conclusion drawn from the theoretical analysis is proved via simulation. The correction coefficient kb = 1.8010 is obtained on the basis of the linear fitting of simulated data. Finally, a physical experiment is performed. When no human is present, we compare the results from the Type LP-2000 measured with Narda EFA-300 and the simulated value to verify the accuracy of the Type LP-2000. For the case of an approaching human body, the correction coefficient kb* = 1.9094 is obtained by comparing the data measured with the Type LP-2000 to the simulated value. The correction coefficient obtained from the experiment (i.e., kb*) is highly consistent with that obtained from the simulation (i.e., kb). Two experimental programs are set; under these programs, the excitation voltages and distance measuring points are regulated to produce different electric field

  3. Stretching magnetism with an electric field in a nitride semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Sztenkiel, D.; Foltyn, M.; Mazur, G. P.; Adhikari, R.; Kosiel, K.; Gas, K.; Zgirski, M.; Kruszka, R.; Jakiela, R.; Li, Tian; Piotrowska, A.; Bonanni, A.; Sawicki, M.; Dietl, T.

    2016-01-01

    The significant inversion symmetry breaking specific to wurtzite semiconductors, and the associated spontaneous electrical polarization, lead to outstanding features such as high density of carriers at the GaN/(Al,Ga)N interface—exploited in high-power/high-frequency electronics—and piezoelectric capabilities serving for nanodrives, sensors and energy harvesting devices. Here we show that the multifunctionality of nitride semiconductors encompasses also a magnetoelectric effect allowing to control the magnetization by an electric field. We first demonstrate that doping of GaN by Mn results in a semi-insulating material apt to sustain electric fields as high as 5 MV cm−1. Having such a material we find experimentally that the inverse piezoelectric effect controls the magnitude of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy specific to Mn3+ ions in GaN. The corresponding changes in the magnetization can be quantitatively described by a theory developed here. PMID:27782126

  4. Electro-active device using radial electric field piezo-diaphragm for sonic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electro-active transducer for sonic applications includes a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns to form a piezo-diaphragm coupled to a mounting frame. When the device is used as a sonic actuator, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied to the electrode patterns. When the device is used as a sonic sensor, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when the ferroelectric material experiences deflection in a direction substantially perpendicular thereto. In each case, the electrode patterns are designed to cause the electric field to: i) originate at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and ii) extend radially outward from the region of the ferroelectric material (at which the electric field originates) and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The mounting frame perimetrically surrounds the peizo-diaphragm and enables attachment of the piezo-diaphragm to a housing.

  5. Measuring electrically charged particle fluxes in space using a fiber optic loop sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the potential of a fiber optic loop sensor for the measurement of electrically charged particle fluxes in space. The key elements of the sensor are a multiple turn loop of low birefringence, single mode fiber, with a laser diode light source, and a low noise optical receiver. The optical receiver is designed to be shot noise limited, with this being the limiting sensitivity factor for the sensor. The sensing element is the fiber optic loop. Under a magnetic field from an electric current flowing along the axis of the loop, there is a non-vanishing line integral along the fiber optic loop. This causes a net birefringence producing two states of polarization whose phase difference is correlated to magnetic field strength and thus, current in the optical receiver electronic processing. The objectives in this program were to develop a prototype laser diode powered fiber optic sensor. The performance specification of a minimum detectable current density of 1 (mu)amp/sq m-(radical)Hz, should be at the shot noise limit of the detection electronics. OPTRA has successfully built and tested a 3.2 m diameter loop with 137 turns of low birefringence optical fiber and achieved a minimum detectable current density of 5.4 x 10(exp-5) amps/(radical)Hz. If laboratory space considerations were not an issue, with the length of optical fiber available to us, we would have achieved a minimum detectable current density of 4 x 10(exp -7) amps/(radical)Hz.

  6. Study on a Haptic Sensor Using MCF (Magnetic Compound Fluid) Electric Conductive Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    To provide a new composite material having a high degree of sensitivity regarding both electrical conduction and temperature for the field of robotics or sensing, we have developed magnetic rubber that contains a network-like magnetic cluster. We compared the temperature response of MCF rubber with others rubbers made under various experimental conditions, allowing us to find an optimum condition for making MCF rubber. The temperature response was obtained by an experimental equation. We also compared the electric conductivity of MCF rubber with that of ordinary electric conductive rubber and found that its electric sensitivity was lower at a small deformation, but increased at larger deformations. Therefore, MCF rubber has proven itself effective as a switching sensor when a small deformation is applied.

  7. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  8. Quantum Field Energy Sensor based on the Casimir Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    The Casimir effect converts vacuum fluctuations into a measurable force. Some new energy technologies aim to utilize these vacuum fluctuations in commonly used forms of energy like electricity or mechanical motion. In order to study these energy technologies it is helpful to have sensors for the energy density of vacuum fluctuations. In today's scientific instrumentation and scanning microscope technologies there are several common methods to measure sub-nano Newton forces. While the commercial atomic force microscopes (AFM) mostly work with silicon cantilevers, there are a large number of reports on the use of quartz tuning forks to get high-resolution force measurements or to create new force sensors. Both methods have certain advantages and disadvantages over the other. In this report the two methods are described and compared towards their usability for Casimir force measurements. Furthermore a design for a quantum field energy sensor based on the Casimir force measurement will be described. In addition some general considerations on extracting energy from vacuum fluctuations will be given.

  9. Measurement of Electrical Conductivity into Tomato Cultivation Beds using Small Insertion Type Electrical Conductivity Sensor Designed for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Kazuko; Futagawa, Masato; Ban, Yoshihiro; Asano, Yoshiyuki; Sawada, Kazuaki

    Our group has studied on-site monitoring sensor for agricultural field. An electrical conductivity (EC) sensor had been fabricated using Si integrated circuit technology. EC information of solutions shows ion concentrations dissolving in water, and can be used as the index of nutrient concentration for plants. So, it is important to measure EC in real time and on site. Because our EC sensor (5mm×5mm in size) is smaller than other commercial ones (several centimeters), it is easy to insert and achieve measurement in rock wool. In this study, our sensor measured long term EC values in tomato cultivation soil and rock wool medium. At first, we calibrated a relationship between output voltages and EC values on the sensor. The sensor was confirmed about enough EC measurement range from 8 to 969mS/m. In long period measurement, the sensor was confirmed about continuous operation for over five months, and intermittent measurement for over a year. In measurement in the cultivation soil, the sensor indicated that water was kept and diffused in the soil. In contrast, it was found that water diffused without keeping in it in rock wool medium. We confirmed our small EC sensor is useful for on-site monitoring and analysis of solution concentration distribution in several kinds of cultivation bed in real time.

  10. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  11. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters. PMID:22163551

  12. Importance of the Debye Screening Length on Nanowire Field Effect Transistor Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J.; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Reed, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors. PMID:17914853

  13. Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors.

    PubMed

    Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-11-01

    Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors.

  14. Electro-Active Transducer Using Radial Electric Field To Produce/Motion Sense Out-Of-Plane Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electro-active transducer includes a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns. When the device is used as an actuator, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied to the electrode patterns. When the device is used as a sensor. the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when the ferroelectric material experiences deflection in a direction substantially perpendicular thereto. In each case, the electrode patterns are designed to cause the electric field to: i) originate at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns. and ii) extend radially outward from the region of the ferroelectric material (at which the electric field originates) and substantially parallel to the ferroelectric material s plane.

  15. Label-free electrical detection of pyrophosphate generated from DNA polymerase reactions on field-effect devices.

    PubMed

    Credo, Grace M; Su, Xing; Wu, Kai; Elibol, Oguz H; Liu, David J; Reddy, Bobby; Tsai, Ta-Wei; Dorvel, Brian R; Daniels, Jonathan S; Bashir, Rashid; Varma, Madoo

    2012-03-21

    We introduce a label-free approach for sensing polymerase reactions on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using a chelator-modified silicon-on-insulator field-effect transistor (SOI-FET) that exhibits selective and reversible electrical response to pyrophosphate anions. The chemical modification of the sensor surface was designed to include rolling-circle amplification (RCA) DNA colonies for locally enhanced pyrophosphate (PPi) signal generation and sensors with immobilized chelators for capture and surface-sensitive detection of diffusible reaction by-products. While detecting arrays of enzymatic base incorporation reactions is typically accomplished using optical fluorescence or chemiluminescence techniques, our results suggest that it is possible to develop scalable and portable PPi-specific sensors and platforms for broad biomedical applications such as DNA sequencing and microbe detection using surface-sensitive electrical readout techniques.

  16. Research on precise pneumatic-electric displacement sensor with large measurement range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhehao; Yuan, Yibao; Liu, Baoshuai

    2017-10-01

    This research mainly focuses on precise pneumatic-electric displacement sensor which has large measurement range. Under the high precision, measurement range can be expanded so that the need of high precision as well as large range can be satisfied in the field of machining inspection technology. This research was started by the analysis of pneumatic-measuring theory. Then, an gas circuit measuring system which is based on differential pressure was designed. This designed system can reach two aims: Firstly, to convert displacement signal into gas signal; Secondly, to reduce the measurement error which caused by pressure and environmental turbulence. Furthermore, in consideration of the high requirement for linearity, sensitivity and stability, the project studied the pneumatic-electric transducer which puts the SCX series pressure sensor as a key part. The main purpose of this pneumatic-electric transducer is to convert gas signal to suitable electrical signal. Lastly, a broken line subsection linearization circuit was designed, which can nonlinear correct the output characteristic curve so as to enlarge the linear measurement range. The final result could be briefly described like this: under the condition that measuring error is less than 1μm, measurement range could be extended to approximately 200μm which is much higher than the measurement range of traditional pneumatic measuring instrument. Meanwhile, it can reach higher exchangeability and stability in order to become more suitable to engineering application.

  17. Optical and Electric Multifunctional CMOS Image Sensors for On-Chip Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Takashi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ohta, Jun

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the concept, design, performance, and a functional demonstration of multifunctional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors dedicated to on-chip biosensing applications are described. We developed a sensor architecture that allows flexible configuration of a sensing pixel array consisting of optical and electric sensing pixels, and designed multifunctional CMOS image sensors that can sense light intensity and electric potential or apply a voltage to an on-chip measurement target. We describe the sensors’ architecture on the basis of the type of electric measurement or imaging functionalities. PMID:28879978

  18. Swelling characteristics of acrylic acid polyelectrolyte hydrogel in a dc electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; Tavakoli, Javad; Sarvestani, Alireza S.

    2007-10-01

    A novel application of environmentally sensitive polyelectrolytes is in the fabrication of BioMEMS devices as sensors and actuators. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) gels are anionic polyelectrolyte networks that exhibit volume expansion in aqueous physiological environments. When an electric field is applied to PAA polyelectrolyte gels, the fixed anionic polyelectrolyte charges and the requirement of electro-neutrality in the network generate an osmotic pressure, above that in the absence of the electric field, to expand the network. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of an externally applied dc electric field on the volume expansion of the PAA polyelectrolyte gel in a simulated physiological solution of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). For swelling studies in the electric field, two platinum-coated plates, as electrodes, were wrapped in a polyethylene sheet to protect the plates from corrosion and placed vertically in a vessel filled with PBS. The plates were placed on a rail such that the distance between the two plates could be adjusted. The PAA gel was synthesized by free radical crosslinking of acrylic acid monomer with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) crosslinker. Our results demonstrate that volume expansion depends on the intensity of the electric field, the PAA network density, network homogeneity, and the position of the gel in the field relative to positive/negative electrodes. Our model predictions for PAA volume expansion, based on the dilute electrolyte concentration in the gel network, is in excellent agreement with the experimental findings in the high-electric-field regime (250-300 Newton/Coulomb).

  19. Smart Elasto-Magneto-Electric (EME) Sensors for Stress Monitoring of Steel Cables: Design Theory and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ru; Duan, Yuanfeng; Or, Siu Wing; Zhao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    An elasto-magnetic (EM) and magneto-electric (ME) effect based elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensor has been proposed recently by the authors for stress monitoring of steel cables with obvious superiorities over traditional elasto-magnetic sensors. For design optimization and engineering application of the EME sensor, the design theory is interpreted with a developed model taking into account the EM coupling effect and ME coupling effect. This model is able to approximate the magnetization changes that a steel structural component undergoes when subjected to excitation magnetic field and external stress, and to simulate the induced ME voltages of the ME sensing unit located in the magnetization area. A full-scale experiment is then carried out to verify the model and to calibrate the EME sensor as a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool to monitor the cable stress. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results using the developed model. The proposed EME sensor proves to be feasible for stress monitoring of steel cables with high sensitivity, fast response, and ease of installation. PMID:25072348

  20. Smart elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensors for stress monitoring of steel cables: design theory and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Duan, Yuanfeng; Or, Siu Wing; Zhao, Yang

    2014-07-28

    An elasto-magnetic (EM) and magneto-electric (ME) effect based elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensor has been proposed recently by the authors for stress monitoring of steel cables with obvious superiorities over traditional elasto-magnetic sensors. For design optimization and engineering application of the EME sensor, the design theory is interpreted with a developed model taking into account the EM coupling effect and ME coupling effect. This model is able to approximate the magnetization changes that a steel structural component undergoes when subjected to excitation magnetic field and external stress, and to simulate the induced ME voltages of the ME sensing unit located in the magnetization area. A full-scale experiment is then carried out to verify the model and to calibrate the EME sensor as a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool to monitor the cable stress. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results using the developed model. The proposed EME sensor proves to be feasible for stress monitoring of steel cables with high sensitivity, fast response, and ease of installation.

  1. The Electric Field of a Weakly Electric Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasnow, Brian K.

    Freshwater fish of the genus Apteronotus (family Gymnotidae) generate a weak, high frequency electric field (<100 mV/cm, 0.5-10 kHz) which permeates their local environment. These nocturnal fish are acutely sensitive to perturbations in their electric field caused by other electric fish, and nearby objects whose impedance is different from the surrounding water. This thesis presents high temporal and spatial resolution maps of the electric potential and field on and near Apteronotus. The fish's electric field is a complicated and highly stable function of space and time. Its characteristics, such as spectral composition, timing, and rate of attenuation, are examined in terms of physical constraints, and their possible functional roles in electroreception. Temporal jitter of the periodic field is less than 1 musec. However, electrocyte activity is not globally synchronous along the fish's electric organ. The propagation of electrocyte activation down the fish's body produces a rotation of the electric field vector in the caudal part of the fish. This may assist the fish in identifying nonsymmetrical objects, and could also confuse electrosensory predators that try to locate Apteronotus by following its fieldlines. The propagation also results in a complex spatiotemporal pattern of the EOD potential near the fish. Visualizing the potential on the same and different fish over timescales of several months suggests that it is stable and could serve as a unique signature for individual fish. Measurements of the electric field were used to calculate the effects of simple objects on the fish's electric field. The shape of the perturbation or "electric image" on the fish's skin is relatively independent of a simple object's size, conductivity, and rostrocaudal location, and therefore could unambiguously determine object distance. The range of electrolocation may depend on both the size of objects and their rostrocaudal location. Only objects with very large dielectric

  2. Temperature compensated current sensor using reference magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-10-09

    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference magnetic field generated within the current sensor housing is detected by a separate but identical magnetic field sensor and is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  3. Electrical coupling of single cardiac rat myocytes to field-effect and bipolar transistors.

    PubMed

    Kind, Thomas; Issing, Matthias; Arnold, Rüdiger; Müller, Bernt

    2002-12-01

    A novel bipolar transistor for extracellular recording the electrical activity of biological cells is presented, and the electrical behavior compared with the field-effect transistor (FET). Electrical coupling is examined between single cells separated from the heart of adults rats (cardiac myocytes) and both types of transistors. To initiate a local extracellular voltage, the cells are periodically stimulated by a patch pipette in voltage clamp and current clamp mode. The local extracellular voltage is measured by the planar integrated electronic sensors: the bipolar and the FET. The small signal transistor currents correspond to the local extracellular voltage. The two types of sensor transistors used here were developed and manufactured in the laboratory of our institute. The manufacturing process and the interfaces between myocytes and transistors are described. The recordings are interpreted by way of simulation based on the point-contact model and the single cardiac myocyte model.

  4. Development of a rotating electric field conductance sensor for measurement of water holdup in vertical oil–gas–water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da-Yang; Jin, Ning-De; Zhuang, Lian-Xin; Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Ren, Ying-Yu

    2018-07-01

    Three types of rotating electric field conductance sensors (REFCSs) with four, six, and eight electrodes are designed and optimized in this paper to measure the water holdup of oil–gas–water three-phase flow in vertical upward 20 mm inner diameter pipe. The geometric parameters of the REFCSs are optimized using finite element method to access highly sensitive and homogeneous detection fields. The performance of the REFCSs in the water holdup measurement of three-phase flows is experimentally evaluated by generalizing the Maxwell equation. Based on the measured water holdup from the REFCSs, the slippage behaviors in oil–gas–water are uncovered and the superficial velocity of the water phase is determined. The results show that the REFCSs present a high resolution in the water holdup measurement. The REFCS with eight electrodes has better performance than those with four- and six-electrodes, which indicates that its configuration and geometric parameters are more suitable for vertical oil–gas–water three-phase flow measurement in 20 mm inner diameter pipe.

  5. Cryosurgery with pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Charlotte S; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  6. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  7. Electrochemical processes and mechanistic aspects of field-effect sensors for biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weiguo; Diallo, Abdou Karim; Dailey, Jennifer L.; Besar, Kalpana

    2017-01-01

    Electronic biosensing is a leading technology for determining concentrations of biomolecules. In some cases, the presence of an analyte molecule induces a measured change in current flow, while in other cases, a new potential difference is established. In the particular case of a field effect biosensor, the potential difference is monitored as a change in conductance elsewhere in the device, such as across a film of an underlying semiconductor. Often, the mechanisms that lead to these responses are not specifically determined. Because improved understanding of these mechanisms will lead to improved performance, it is important to highlight those studies where various mechanistic possibilities are investigated. This review explores a range of possible mechanistic contributions to field-effect biosensor signals. First, we define the field-effect biosensor and the chemical interactions that lead to the field effect, followed by a section on theoretical and mechanistic background. We then discuss materials used in field-effect biosensors and approaches to improving signals from field-effect biosensors. We specifically cover the biomolecule interactions that produce local electric fields, structures and processes at interfaces between bioanalyte solutions and electronic materials, semiconductors used in biochemical sensors, dielectric layers used in top-gated sensors, and mechanisms for converting the surface voltage change to higher signal/noise outputs in circuits. PMID:29238595

  8. Static Electric Fields and Lightning Over Land and Ocean in Florida Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. G.; Cummins, K. L.; Simpson, A. A.; Hinckley, A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and the charge structure of the associated clouds behave differently over land and ocean. Existing literature has raised questions over the years on the behavior of thunderstorms and lightning over oceans, and there are still open scientific questions. We expand on the observational datasets by obtaining identical electric field observations over coastal land, near-shore, and deep ocean regions during both clear air and thunderstorm periods. Oceanic observations were obtained using two 3-meter NOAA buoys that were instrumented with Campbell Scientific electric field mills to measure the static electric fields. These data were compared to selected electric field records from the existing on-shore electric field mill suite of 31 sensors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). CG lightning occurrence times, locations and peak current values for both on-shore and ocean were provided by the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network. The buoy instruments were first evaluated on-shore at the Florida coast, to calibrate field enhancements and to confirm proper behavior of the system in elevated-field environments. The buoys were then moored 20NM and 120NM off the coast of KSC in February (20NM) and August (120NM) 2014. Statistically larger CG peak currents were reported over the deep ocean for first strokes and for subsequent strokes with new contacts points. Storm-related static fields were significantly larger at both oceanic sites, likely due to decreased screening by nearby space charge. Time-evolution of the static field during storm development and propagation indicated weak or missing lower positive charge regions in most storms that initiated over the deep ocean, supporting one mechanism for the observed high peak currents in negative first strokes over the deep ocean. This project also demonstrated the practicality of off-shore electric field measurements for safety-related decision making at KSC.

  9. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two.

  10. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-10-28

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two. 12 figs.

  11. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  12. Electrical characterization of FBK small-pitch 3D sensors after γ-ray, neutron and proton irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Mendicino, R.; Seidel, S.; Sultan, D. M. S.

    2017-11-01

    In view of applications in the tracking detectors at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), we have developed a new generation of 3D pixel sensors featuring small-pitch (50 × 50 or 25 × 100 μ m2) and thin active layer (~ 100 μ m). Owing to the very short inter-electrode distance (~ 30 μ m), charge trapping effects can be strongly mitigated, making these sensors extremely radiation hard. However, the downscaled sensor structure also lends itself to high electric fields as the bias voltage is increased, motivating investigation of leakage current increase in order to prevent premature electrical breakdown due to impact ionization. In order to assess the characteristics of heavily irradiated samples, using 3D diodes as test devices, we have carried out a dedicated campaign that included several irradiations (γ -rays, neutrons, and protons) at different facilities. In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization of a subset of the irradiated samples, also in comparison to their pre-irradiation properties. Results demonstrate that hadron irradiated devices can be safely operated at a voltage high enough to allow for full depletion (hence high efficiency) also at the maximum fluence foreseen at the HL-LHC.

  13. Simultaneous tuning of electric field intensity and structural properties of ZnO: Graphene nanostructures for FOSPR based nicotine sensor.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-05-15

    We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied. The peak PL intensity was found to be highest for ZnO: graphene nanofibers. The optimized value of f in ZnO: graphene nanofiber was reconfirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on the fiber optic probe fabricated with Ag/ZnO: graphene layer and optimized parameters for in-situ detection of nicotine. The interaction of nicotine with ZnO: graphene nanostructures alters the dielectric function of ZnO: graphene nanostructure which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. From the sensing signal, the performance parameters were measured including sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, repeatability and selectivity. The real sample prepared using cigarette tobacco leaves and analyzed using the fabricated sensor makes it suitable for practical applications. The achieved values of LOD and LOQ are found to be unrivalled in comparison to the reported ones. The sensor possesses additional advantages such as, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low cost, capability of online monitoring, remote sensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil specific re-calibration of water content sensors for a field-scale sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasch, Caley K.; Brown, David J.; Anderson, Todd; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining accurate soil moisture data from a sensor network requires sensor calibration. Soil moisture sensors are factory calibrated, but multiple site specific factors may contribute to sensor inaccuracies. Thus, sensors should be calibrated for the specific soil type and conditions in which they will be installed. Lab calibration of a large number of sensors prior to installation in a heterogeneous setting may not be feasible, and it may not reflect the actual performance of the installed sensor. We investigated a multi-step approach to retroactively re-calibrate sensor water content data from the dielectric permittivity readings obtained by sensors in the field. We used water content data collected since 2009 from a sensor network installed at 42 locations and 5 depths (210 sensors total) within the 37-ha Cook Agronomy Farm with highly variable soils located in the Palouse region of the Northwest United States. First, volumetric water content was calculated from sensor dielectric readings using three equations: (1) a factory calibration using the Topp equation; (2) a custom calibration obtained empirically from an instrumented soil in the field; and (3) a hybrid equation that combines the Topp and custom equations. Second, we used soil physical properties (particle size and bulk density) and pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at saturation, field capacity, and wilting point for each installation location and depth. We also extracted the same reference points from the sensor readings, when available. Using these reference points, we re-scaled the sensor readings, such that water content was restricted to the range of values that we would expect given the physical properties of the soil. The re-calibration accuracy was assessed with volumetric water content measurements obtained from field-sampled cores taken on multiple dates. In general, the re-calibration was most accurate when all three reference points (saturation, field capacity, and wilting

  15. Sensor Applications of Soft Magnetic Materials Based on Magneto-Impedance, Magneto-Elastic Resonance and Magneto-Electricity

    PubMed Central

    García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V.; Barandiarán, José M.; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT. PMID:24776934

  16. Fiber-optic sensors for aerospace electrical measurements: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors are being developed for electrical current, voltage, and power measurements in aerospace applications. These sensors are presently designed to cover ac frequencies from 60 Hz to 20 kHz. The current sensor, based on the Faraday effect in optical fiber, is in advanced development after some initial testing. Concentration is on packaging methods and ways to maintain consistent sensitivity with changes in temperature. The voltage sensor, utilizing the Pockels effect in a crystal, has excelled in temperature tests. This paper reports on the development of these sensors, the results of evaluation, improvements now in progress, and the future direction of the work.

  17. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  18. Development of the Langmuir Electric Field Array (LEFA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E.; Edens, H. E.; Hager, W. W.; Hunyady, S.; Alvidrez, V.; Lapierre, J.; Morris, K.; Vaive, G.; Wang, T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    An electric-field-change (ΔE) sensor (also called a ``slow antenna'') is a long proven instrument in atmospheric electricity research. While there is still value to be derived from single-station measurements of ΔE, multi-station measurements better constrain the data interpretation. Modern publications still cite the work of Krehbiel [et al] for the insights gleaned from the 8-station array they deployed in 1979. In particular, with four independent measurements, one can locate the center of charge discharged in a cloud-to-ground (CG) flash. With seven measurements, one can locate the two charge centers connected during an intra-cloud (IC) flash. The measurements become more interesting when multi-station ΔE data is combined with radio-frequency emission data from a lightning mapping array (LMA). The ΔE array allows an independent check of the assumptions about charge layers made in the interpretation of LMA data, as well as giving greater visibility into the effects of positive streamers. The Langmuir Electric Field Array (LEFA) is designed to accommodate the very large amplitude range of ΔE data characteristic of lightning. Such design is more important in an array than a single station, as the goal is explicitly to correlate data from ten stations spaced some kilometers apart. To address the dynamic range challenge, every ΔE sensor is a set of three independent sensors, integrated into a 19-inch-steel-mixing bowl. The electronic gain is a factor of 4 greater for the sensitive (S) channel than for the medium (M) channel, and 20X greater for the (S) channel compared to the insensitive (I) channel. Further, the electrode sensor areas decrease by factors of 5, moving from S, to M, to I, so that the (S) channel is hundreds of times more sensitive than the (I) channel. Since each channel is digitized with 16-bits of resolution, the ideal full range of the instrument is roughly equal to a single channel digitized at 24 bits. Digitizing the same signal at three

  19. Electric current generation in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide without application of external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhave, Preben; Kukhtarev, Nickolai; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Edwards, Matthew E.; Reagan, Michael A.; Lyuksyutov, Sergei F.

    2003-10-01

    A holographic radial diffraction grating (HRDG) is an efficient optical element for splitting single laser beam on three 0, -1st, and +1st- diffraction order beams. The rotation of the grating at certain velocity allows a window for quality control over the frequency detuning between -1st, and +1st diffracted beams. The running interference fringes produced by the beams and projected on photorefractive crystal induce running holographic gratings in the crystal. This simple configuration is an effective tool for the study of such phenomena as space charge waves [1], domains motion [2], and electric current generation [3]. Specifics of photorefractive mechanism in cubic photorefractive crystals (BSO, BTO) normally require a use of external electric field to produce reasonable degree of refractive index modulation to observe associated with it phenomena. In this work we provide a direct experimental observation of the electric current generated in photorefractive BSO using running grating technique without an applied electric field. Moving interference fringes modulate a photoconductivity and an electric field in photorefractive crystal thus creating the photo electro-motive force (emf) and the current. The magnitude of the current varies between 1 and 10 nA depending on the rotation speed of HRDG. The peculiarities of the current behavior include a backward current flow, and current oscillations. The holographic current generated through this technique can find applications in non-destructive testing for ultra-sensitive vibrometry, materials characterization, and for motion sensors. References [1] S.F. Lyuksyutov, P. Buchhave, and M.V. Vasnetsov, Physical Review Letters, 79, No.1, 67-70 (1997) [2] P. Buchhave, S. Lyuksyutov, M. Vasnetsov, and C. Heyde, Journal Optical Society of America B, 13, No.11 2595-2602 (1996) [3] M. Vasnetsov, P. Buchhave, and S. Lyuksyutov Optics Communications, 137, 181-191 (1997)

  20. Analytic Solution to the Problem of Aircraft Electric Field Mill Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William

    2003-01-01

    It is by no means a simple task to retrieve storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with electric field mill sensors. The presence of the aircraft distorts the ambient field in a complicated way. Before retrievals of the storm field can be made, the field mill measurement system must be "calibrated". In other words, a relationship between impressed (i.e., ambient) electric field and mill output must be established. If this relationship can be determined, it is mathematically inverted so that ambient field can be inferred from the mill outputs. Previous studies have primarily focused on linear theories where the relationship between ambient field and mill output is described by a "calibration matrix" M. Each element of the matrix describes how a particular component of the ambient field is enhanced by the aircraft. For example the product M(sub ix), E(sub x), is the contribution of the E(sub x) field to the i(th) mill output. Similarly, net aircraft charge (described by a "charge field component" E(sub q)) contributes an amount M(sub iq)E(sub q) to the output of the i(th) sensor. The central difficulty in obtaining M stems from the fact that the impressed field (E(sub x), E(sub y), E(sub z), E(sub q) is not known but is instead estimated. Typically, the aircraft is flown through a series of roll and pitch maneuvers in fair weather, and the values of the fair weather field and aircraft charge are estimated at each point along the aircraft trajectory. These initial estimates are often highly inadequate, but several investigators have improved the estimates by implementing various (ad hoc) iterative methods. Unfortunately, none of the iterative methods guarantee absolute convergence to correct values (i.e., absolute convergence to correct values has not been rigorously proven). In this work, the mathematical problem is solved directly by analytic means. For m mills installed on an arbitrary aircraft, it is shown that it is possible to solve for a single 2m

  1. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín L; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A; García-Ramírez, Pedro J; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration.

  2. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  3. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Jackson, S. P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-01-01

    This document is a progress report of work done in 1985 on the Communications and Control for Electric Power Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  4. Comparison between field mill and corona point instrumentation at Kennedy Space Center - Use of these data with a model to determine cloudbase electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, R.; Anderson, B.; Govaert, J.; Fairall, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    A novel coronal current-determining instrument is being used at NASA-KSC which overcomes previous difficulties with wind sensitivity and a voltage-threshold 'deadband'. The mounting of the corona needle at an elevated location reduces coronal and electrode layer space-charge influences on electric fields, rendering the measurement of space charge density possible. In conjunction with a space-charge compensation model, these features allow a more realistic estimation of cloud base electric fields and the potential for lightning strike than has previously been possible with ground-based sensors.

  5. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  6. Electric Field Fluctuations in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Dayton; Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    Charge transfer in solution, such as autoionization and ion pair dissociation in water, is governed by rare electric field fluctuations of the solvent. Knowing the statistics of such fluctuations can help explain the dynamics of these rare events. Trajectories short enough to be tractable by computer simulation are virtually certain not to sample the large fluctuations that promote rare events. Here, we employ importance sampling techniques with classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water to study statistics of electric field fluctuations far from their means. We find that the distributions of electric fields located on individual water molecules are not in general gaussian. Near the mean this non-gaussianity is due to the internal charge distribution of the water molecule. Further from the mean, however, there is a previously unreported Bjerrum-like defect that stabilizes certain large fluctuations out of equilibrium. As expected, differences in electric fields acting between molecules are gaussian to a remarkable degree. By studying these differences, though, we are able to determine what configurations result not only in large electric fields, but also in electric fields with long spatial correlations that may be needed to promote charge separation.

  7. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  8. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  9. Direct observation of λ-DNA molecule reversal movement within microfluidic channels under electric field with single molecule imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengyun, Yang; Kaige, Wang; Dan, Sun; Wei, Zhao; Hai-qing, Wang; Xin, He; Gui-ren, Wang; Jin-tao, Bai

    2016-07-01

    The electrodynamic characteristics of single DNA molecules moving within micro-/nano-fluidic channels are important in the design of biomedical chips and bimolecular sensors. In this study, the dynamic properties of λ-DNA molecules transferring along the microchannels driven by the external electrickinetic force were systemically investigated with the single molecule fluorescence imaging technique. The experimental results indicated that the velocity of DNA molecules was strictly dependent on the value of the applied electric field and the diameter of the channel. The larger the external electric field, the larger the velocity, and the more significant deformation of DNA molecules. More meaningfully, it was found that the moving directions of DNA molecules had two completely different directions: (i) along the direction of the external electric field, when the electric field intensity was smaller than a certain threshold value; (ii) opposite to the direction of the external electric field, when the electric field intensity was greater than the threshold electric field intensity. The reversal movement of DNA molecules was mainly determined by the competition between the electrophoresis force and the influence of electro-osmosis flow. These new findings will theoretically guide the practical application of fluidic channel sensors and lab-on-chips for precisely manipulating single DNA molecules. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378083), the International Cooperation Foundation of the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011DFA12220), the Major Research Plan of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91123030), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant Nos. 2010JS110 and 2013SZS03-Z01).

  10. Design and characterization of microstrip based E-field sensor for GSM and UMTS frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, N.; Dubey, S. K.; Negi, P. S.; Ojha, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    An Electric (E-) field sensor based on coplanar waveguide-fed microstrip antenna to measure E-field strength for dual-band operation at 914 MHz and 2.1 GHz is proposed, designed, and characterized. The parametric optimization of the design has been performed to obtain resonance at global system for mobile communication and universal mobile telecommunication system frequency band. Low return loss (-17 dB and -19 dB), appropriate gain (0.50 dB and 1.55 dB), and isotropic behaviour (directivity ˜ 1 dB), respectively, at 914 MHz and 2.1 GHz, are obtained for probing application. Antenna factor (AF) is used as an important parameter to characterize the performance of the E-field sensor. The AF measurement is explained in detail and results are reported. Finally, using the designed E-field sensor, the E-field strength measurements are carried out in a transverse electromagnetic cell. The key sources of uncertainties in the measurement are identified, evaluated, and incorporated into the final results. The measurement results are compared with theoretical values, which are found in good agreement. For comparative validation, the results are evaluated with reference to an already calibrated commercially available isotropic probe.

  11. Design and characterization of microstrip based E-field sensor for GSM and UMTS frequency bands.

    PubMed

    Narang, N; Dubey, S K; Negi, P S; Ojha, V N

    2016-12-01

    An Electric (E-) field sensor based on coplanar waveguide-fed microstrip antenna to measure E-field strength for dual-band operation at 914 MHz and 2.1 GHz is proposed, designed, and characterized. The parametric optimization of the design has been performed to obtain resonance at global system for mobile communication and universal mobile telecommunication system frequency band. Low return loss (-17 dB and -19 dB), appropriate gain (0.50 dB and 1.55 dB), and isotropic behaviour (directivity ∼ 1 dB), respectively, at 914 MHz and 2.1 GHz, are obtained for probing application. Antenna factor (AF) is used as an important parameter to characterize the performance of the E-field sensor. The AF measurement is explained in detail and results are reported. Finally, using the designed E-field sensor, the E-field strength measurements are carried out in a transverse electromagnetic cell. The key sources of uncertainties in the measurement are identified, evaluated, and incorporated into the final results. The measurement results are compared with theoretical values, which are found in good agreement. For comparative validation, the results are evaluated with reference to an already calibrated commercially available isotropic probe.

  12. Adaptive electric potential sensors for smart signal acquisition and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prance, R. J.; Beardsmore-Rust, S.; Prance, H.; Harland, C. J.; Stiffell, P. B.

    2007-07-01

    Current applications of the Electric Potential Sensor operate in a strongly (capacitively) coupled limit, with the sensor physically close to or touching the source. This mode of operation screens the sensor effectively from the majority of external noise. To date however the full capability of these sensors operating in a remote mode has not been realised outside of a screened environment (Faraday cage). This paper describes the results of preliminary work in tailoring the response of the sensors to particular signals and so reject background noise, thereby enhancing both the dynamic range and signal to noise ratio significantly.

  13. Automated Identification of Initial Storm Electrification and End-of-Storm Electrification Using Electric Field Mill Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Launa M.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operations are located in a region which experiences one of the highest lightning densities across the United States. As a result, on average, KSC loses almost 30 minutes of operational availability each day for lightning sensitive activities. KSC is investigating using existing instrumentation and automated algorithms to improve the timeliness and accuracy of lightning warnings. Additionally, the automation routines will be warning on a grid to minimize under-warnings associated with not being located in the center of the warning area and over-warnings associated with encompassing too large an area. This study discusses utilization of electric field mill data to provide improved warning times. Specifically, this paper will demonstrate improved performance of an enveloping algorithm of the electric field mill data as compared with the electric field zero crossing to identify initial storm electrification. End-of-Storm-Oscillation (EOSO) identification algorithms will also be analyzed to identify performance improvement, if any, when compared with 30 minutes after the last lightning flash.

  14. Interfacial fields in organic field-effect transistors and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidczyk, Thomas J.

    Organic electronics are currently being commercialized and present a viable alternative to conventional electronics. These organic materials offer the ability to chemically manipulate the molecule, allowing for more facile mass processing techniques, which in turn reduces the cost. One application where organic semiconductors (OSCs) are being investigated is sensors. This work evaluates an assortment of n- and p-channel semiconductors as organic field-effect transistor (OFET) sensors. The sensor responses to dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor and solid along with trinitrotoluene (TNT) solid were studied. Different semiconductor materials give different magnitude and direction of electrical current response upon exposure to DNT. Additional OFET parameters---mobility and threshold voltage---further refine the response to the DNT with each OFET sensor requiring a certain gate voltage for an optimized response to the vapor. The pattern of responses has sufficient diversity to distinguish DNT from other vapors. To effectively use these OFET sensors in a circuit, the threshold voltage needs to be tuned for each transistor to increase the efficiency of the circuit and maximize the sensor response. The threshold voltage can be altered by embedding charges into the dielectric layer of the OFET. To study the quantity and energy of charges needed to alter the threshold voltage, charge carriers were injected into polystyrene (PS) and investigated with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC). Lateral heterojunctions of pentacene/PS were scanned using SKPM, effectively observing polarization along a side view of a lateral nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor dielectric interface. TSDC was used to observe charge migration out of PS films and to estimate the trap energy level inside the PS, using the initial rise method. The process was further refined to create lateral heterojunctions that were actual working OFETs, consisting of a

  15. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  16. Microfabricated Electrical Connector for Atomic Force Microscopy Probes with Integrated Sensor/Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Terunobu; Staufer, Urs; Rooij, Nico F. de

    2002-06-01

    A microfabricated, electrical connector is proposed for facilitating the mounting of atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, which have an integrated sensor and/or actuator. Only a base chip, which acts as a socket, is permanently fixed onto a printed circuit board and electronically connected by standard wire bonding. The AFM chip, the “plug”, is flipped onto the base chip and pressed from the backside by a spring. Electrical contact with the eventual stress sensors, capacitive or piezoelectric sensor/actuators, is provided by contact bumps. These bumps of about 8 μm height are placed onto the base chip. They touch the pads on the AFM chip that were originally foreseen to be for wire bonding and thus provide the electrical contact. This connector schema was successfully used to register AFM images with piezoresistive cantilevers.

  17. A Spherical Electro Optic High Voltage Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    electro - optic (EO) crystal is introduced for photonic measurement of pulsed high-voltage fields. A spherical shape is used in order to reduce electric field gradients in the vicinity of the sensor. The sensor is pure dielectric and is interrogated remotely using a laser. The sensor does not require the connection of any conducting components, which results in the highest electrical isolation. The spherical nature of the crystal coupled with the incident laser beam, and crossed polarizers (intensity modulation scheme). automatically produces interference figures. The

  18. Underwater electric field detection system based on weakly electric fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wei; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electric field detection system. However, due to the insufficient detection capacity of the electric field, the detection distance is not enough, and the detection accuracy is not high. In this paper, a method of underwater detection based on rotating current field theory is proposed to improve the performance of underwater electric field detection system. First of all, we built underwater detection system based on the theory of the spin current field mathematical model with the help of the results of previous researchers. Then we completed the principle prototype and finished the metal objects in the water environment detection experiments, laid the foundation for the further experiments.

  19. Influence of electrical boundary conditions on profiles of acoustic field and electric potential of shear-horizontal acoustic waves in potassium niobate plates.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, I E; Nedospasov, I A; Kolesov, V V; Qian, Z; Wang, B; Zhu, F

    2018-05-01

    The profiles of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward shear-horizontal (SH) acoustic waves of a higher order propagating in X-Y potassium niobate plate have been theoretically investigated. It has been shown that by changing electrical boundary conditions on a surface of piezoelectric plates, it is possible to change the distributions of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward acoustic waves. The dependencies of the distribution of a mechanical displacement and electrical potential over the plate thickness for electrically open and electrically shorted plates have been plotted. The influence of a layer with arbitrary conductivity placed on a one or on the both plate surfaces on the profiles under study, phase and group velocities of the forward and backward acoustic waves in X-Y potassium niobate has been also investigated. The obtained results can be useful for development of the method for control of a particle or electrical charge movement inside the piezoelectric plates, as well a sensor for definition of the thin film conductivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Noninvasive electrical impedance sensor for in vivo tissue discrimination at radio frequencies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Du, Jun; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jianxun

    2014-09-01

    Compared to traditional open surgery, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) allows for a more rapid and less painful recovery. However, the lack of significant haptic feedback in MIS can make tissue discrimination difficult. This paper tests a noninvasive electrical impedance sensor for in vivo discrimination of tissue types in MIS. The sensor consists of two stainless steel spherical electrodes used to measure the impedance spectra over the frequency range of 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The sensor helps ensure free movement on an organ surface and prevents soft tissues from being injured during impedance measurement. Since the recorded electrical impedance is correlated with the force pressed on the electrode and the mechanical property of the tissue, the electrode-tissue contact impedance is calculated theoretically. We show that the standard deviation of the impedance ratio at each frequency point is sufficient to distinguish different tissue types. Both in vitro experiment in a pig kidney and in vivo experiment in rabbit organs were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the electrical impedance sensor. The experimental results indicated that the sensor, used with the proposed data-processing method, provides accurate and reliable biological tissue discrimination. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films

    DOE PAGES

    Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Yan, Hongping; Gu, Xiaodan; ...

    2017-01-17

    Recent improvements in solution-coated organic semiconductors (OSCs) evidence their high potential for cost-efficient organic electronics and sensors. Molecular packing structure determines the charge transport property of molecular solids. However, it remains challenging to control the molecular packing structure for a given OSC. Here, the application of alternating electric fields is reported to fine-tune the crystal packing of OSC solution-shearing coated at ambient conditions. First, a theoretical model based on dielectrophoresis is developed to guide the selection of the optimal conditions (frequency and amplitude) of the electric field applied through the solution-shearing blade during coating of OSC thin films. Next, electricmore » field-induced polymorphism is demonstrated for OSCs with both herringbone and 2D brick-wall packing motifs in 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene, respectively. Favorable molecular packing can be accessible in some cases, resulting in higher charge carrier mobilities. In conclusion, this work provides a new approach to tune the properties of solution-coated OSCs in functional devices for high-performance printed electronics.« less

  2. Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

  3. Photovoltaic dependence of photorefractive grating on the externally applied dc electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, M. K.; Yadav, R. A.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic dependence of photorefractive grating (i.e., space-charge field and phase-shift of the index grating) on the externally applied dc electric field in photovoltaic-photorefractive materials has been investigated. The influence of photovoltaic field (EPhN), diffusion field and carrier concentration ratio r (donor/acceptor impurity concentration ratio) on the space-charge field (SCF) and phase-shift of the index grating in the presence and absence of the externally applied dc electric field have also been studied in details. Our results show that, for a given value of EPhN and r, the magnitude of the SCF and phase-shift of the index grating can be enhanced significantly by employing the lower dc electric field (EON<10) across the photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal and higher value of diffusion field (EDN>40). Such an enhancement in the magnitude of the SCF and phase-shift of the index grating are responsible for the strongest beam coupling in photovoltaic-photorefractive materials. This sufficiently strong beam coupling increases the two-beam coupling gain that may be exceed the absorption and reflection losses of the photovoltaic-photorefractive sample, and optical amplification can occur. The higher value of optical amplification in photovoltaic-photorefractive sample is required for the every applications of photorefractive effect so that technology based on the photorefractive effect such as holographic storage devices, optical information processing, acousto-optic tunable filters, gyro-sensors, optical modulators, optical switches, photorefractive-photovoltaic solitons, biomedical applications, and frequency converters could be improved.

  4. Mastication noise reduction method for fully implantable hearing aid using piezo-electric sensor.

    PubMed

    Na, Sung Dae; Lee, Gihyoun; Wei, Qun; Seong, Ki Woong; Cho, Jin Ho; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2017-07-20

    Fully implantable hearing devices (FIHDs) can be affected by generated biomechanical noise such as mastication noise. To reduce the mastication noise using a piezo-electric sensor, the mastication noise is measured with the piezo-electric sensor, and noise reduction is practiced by the energy difference. For the experiment on mastication noise, a skull model was designed using artificial skull model and a piezo-electric sensor that can measure the vibration signals better than other sensors. A 1 kHz pure-tone sound through a standard speaker was applied to the model while the lower jawbone of the model was moved in a masticatory fashion. The correlation coefficients and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) before and after application of the proposed method were compared. It was found that the signal-to-noise ratio and correlation coefficients increased by 4.48 dB and 0.45, respectively. The mastication noise is measured by piezo-electric sensor as the mastication noise that occurred during vibration. In addition, the noise was reduced by using the proposed method in conjunction with MATLAB. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed method, the correlation coefficients and signal-to-noise ratio before and after signal processing were calculated. In the future, an implantable microphone for real-time processing will be developed.

  5. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOEpatents

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  6. Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-28

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch periodmore » failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.« less

  7. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  8. Electric field encephalography for brain activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Versek, Craig William; Frasca, Tyler; Zhou, Jianlin; Chowdhury, Kaushik; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2018-05-11

    Objective - We describe an early-stage prototype of a new wireless electrophysiological sensor system, called NeuroDot, which can measure neuroelectric potentials and fields at the scalp in a new modality called Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG). We aim to establish the physical validity of the EFEG modality, and examine some of its properties and relative merits compared to EEG. Approach - We designed a wireless neuroelectric measurement device based on the Texas Instrument ADS1299 Analog Front End platform and a sensor montage, using custom electrodes, to simultaneously measure EFEG and spatially averaged EEG over a localized patch of the scalp (2cm x 2cm). The signal properties of each modality were compared across tests of noise floor, Berger effect, steady-state Visually Evoked Potential (ssVEP), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and others. In order to compare EFEG to EEG modalities in the frequency domain, we use a novel technique to compute spectral power densities and derive narrow-band SNR estimates for ssVEP signals. A simple binary choice brain-computer-interface (BCI) concept based on ssVEP is evaluated. Also, we present examples of high quality recording of transient Visually Evoked Potentials and Fields (tVEPF) that could be used for neurological studies. Main results - We demonstrate the capability of the NeuroDot system to record high quality EEG signals comparable to some recent clinical and research grade systems on the market. We show that the locally-referenced EFEG metric is resistant to certain types of movement artifacts. In some ssVEP based measurements, the EFEG modality shows promising results, demonstrating superior signal to noise ratios than the same recording processed as an analogous EEG signal. We show that by using EFEG based ssVEP SNR estimates to perform a binary classification in a model BCI, the optimal information transfer rate (ITR) can be raised from 15 to 30 bits per minute - though these preliminary results are

  9. Distributed measurement of high electric current by means of polarimetric optical fiber sensor.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Luca; Sarchi, Davide; Galtarossa, Andrea

    2015-05-04

    A novel distributed optical fiber sensor for spatially resolved monitoring of high direct electric current is proposed and analyzed. The sensor exploits Faraday rotation and is based on the polarization analysis of the Rayleigh backscattered light. Preliminary laboratory tests, performed on a section of electric cable for currents up to 2.5 kA, have confirmed the viability of the method.

  10. Magnetic current sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  11. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  12. One-Dimensional Nanostructure Field-Effect Sensors for Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Bin; Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Recently; one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure field-effect transistors (FETs) have attracted much attention because of their potential application in gas sensing. Micro/nanoscaled field-effect sensors combine the advantages of 1D nanostructures and the characteristic of field modulation. 1D nanostructures provide a large surface area-volume ratio; which is an outstanding advantage for gas sensors with high sensitivity and fast response. In addition; the nature of the single crystals is favorable for the studies of the response mechanism. On the other hand; one main merit of the field-effect sensors is to provide an extra gate electrode to realize the current modulation; so that the sensitivity can be dramatically enhanced by changing the conductivity when operating the sensors in the subthreshold regime. This article reviews the recent developments in the field of 1D nanostructure FET for gas detection. The sensor configuration; the performance as well as their sensing mechanism are evaluated. PMID:25090418

  13. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conducting bodies such as living organisms. The current density vector is used to describe the distribution of current within a body. The surface of the human body is an excellent shield for power-frequency electric fields, but power-frequency magnetic fields penetrate without significant attenuation; the electric fields induced inside the body by either exposure are comparable in magnitude. Electric fields induced inside a human by most environmental electric and magnetic fields appear to be small in magnitude compared to levels naturally occurring in living tissues. Detection of such fields thus would seem to require the existence of unknown biological mechanisms. Complete characterization of a power-frequency field requires measurement of the magnitudes and electrical phases of the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes of its three vector components. Most available instrumentation measures only a small subset, or some weighted average, of these quantities. Hand-held survey meters have been used widely to measure power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Automated data-acquisition systems have come into use more recently to make electric- and magnetic-field recordings, covering periods of hours to days, in residences and other environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206045

  14. Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement-acquisition system uses magnetic fields to power sensors and to acquire measurements from sensors. The system alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement-acquisition systems, which include a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with wires, use limited to a single type of measurement, wire degradation due to wear or chemical decay, and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Eliminating wiring for acquiring measurements can alleviate potential hazards associated with wires, such as damaged wires becoming ignition sources due to arcing. The sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic-field-responses. One or more electrical parameters (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) of each sensor can be variable and corresponds to a measured physical state of interest. The magnetic-field- response attributes (frequency, amplitude, and bandwidth) of the inductor correspond to the states of physical properties for which each sensor measures. For each sensor, the measurement-acquisition system produces a series of increasing magnetic-field harmonics within a frequency range dedicated to that sensor. For each harmonic, an antenna electrically coupled to an oscillating current (the frequency of which is that of the harmonic) produces an oscillating magnetic field. Faraday induction via the harmonic magnetic fields produces an electromotive force and therefore a current in the sensor. Once electrically active, the sensor produces its own harmonic magnetic field as the inductor stores and releases magnetic energy. The antenna of the measurement- acquisition system is switched from a transmitting to a receiving mode to acquire the magnetic-field response of the sensor. The rectified amplitude of the received response is compared to previous responses to prior transmitted harmonics, to ascertain if the measurement system has detected a

  15. A multi-electrode biomimetic electrolocation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayekar, K.; Damalla, D.; Gottwald, M.; Bousack, H.; von der Emde, G.

    2012-04-01

    We present the concept of an active multi-electrode catheter inspired by the electroreceptive system of the weakly electric fish, Gnathonemus petersii. The skin of this fish exhibits numerous electroreceptor organs which are capable of sensing a self induced electrical field. Our sensor is composed of a sending electrode and sixteen receiving electrodes. The electrical field produced by the sending electrode was measured by the receiving electrodes and objects were detected by the perturbation of the electrical field they induce. The intended application of such a sensor is in coronary diagnostics, in particular in distinguishing various types of plaques, which are major causes of heart attack. For calibration of the sensor system, finite element modeling (FEM) was performed. To validate the model, experimental measurements were carried out with two different systems. The physical system was glass tubing with metal and plastic wall insertions as targets. For the control of the experiment and for data acquisition, the software LabView designed for 17 electrodes was used. Different parameters of the electric images were analyzed for the prediction of the electrical properties and size of the inserted targets in the tube. Comparisons of the voltage modulations predicted from the FEM model and the experiments showed a good correspondence. It can be concluded that this novel biomimetic method can be further developed for detailed investigations of atherosclerotic lesions. Finally, we discuss various design strategies to optimize the output of the sensor using different simulated models to enhance target recognition.

  16. Comparing bulk electrical conductivities spatial series obtained by Time Domain Reflectometry and Electromagnetic Induction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Ali; Ajeel, Ali; dragonetti, giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The ability to determine and monitor the effects of salts on soils and plants, are of great importance to agriculture. To control its harmful effects, soil salinity needs to be monitored in space and time. This requires knowledge of its magnitude, temporal dynamics, and spatial variability. Conventional ground survey procedures by direct soil sampling are time consuming, costly and destructive. Alternatively, soil salinity can be evaluated by measuring the bulk electrical conductivity (σb) directly in the field. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors allow simultaneous measurements of water content, θ, and σb. They may be calibrated for estimating the electrical conductivity of the soil solution (σw). However, they have a relatively small observation window and thus they are thought to only provide local-scale measurements. The spatial range of the sensors is limited to tens of centimeters and extension of the information to a large area can be problematic. Also, information on the vertical distribution of the σb soil profile may only be obtained by installing sensors at different depths. In this sense, the TDR may be considered as an invasive technique. Compared to the TDR, other geophysical methods based for example on Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) techniques are non-invasive methods and represent a viable alternative to traditional techniques for soil characterization. The problem is that all these techniques give depth-weighted apparent electrical conductivity (σa) measurements, depending on the specific depth distribution of the σb, as well as on the depth response function of the sensor used. In order to deduce the actual distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the soil profile, one needs to invert the signal coming from EMI. Because of their relatively lower observation window, TDR sensors provide quasi-point values and do not adequately integrate the spatial variability of the chemical concentration distribution in the soil

  17. Auditory evoked field measurement using magneto-impedance sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K., E-mail: o-kabou@echo.nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Tajima, S.; Song, D.

    The magnetic field of the human brain is extremely weak, and it is mostly measured and monitored in the magnetoencephalography method using superconducting quantum interference devices. In this study, in order to measure the weak magnetic field of the brain, we constructed a Magneto-Impedance sensor (MI sensor) system that can cancel out the background noise without any magnetic shield. Based on our previous studies of brain wave measurements, we used two MI sensors in this system for monitoring both cerebral hemispheres. In this study, we recorded and compared the auditory evoked field signals of the subject, including the N100 (ormore » N1) and the P300 (or P3) brain waves. The results suggest that the MI sensor can be applied to brain activity measurement.« less

  18. Carbon nanostructure-based field-effect transistors for label-free chemical/biological sensors.

    PubMed

    Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Jia; Li, Le; Wang, Zhenlong; O'Neill, William; Estrela, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells.

  19. Attitude Estimation for Large Field-of-View Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis

    2005-01-01

    The QUEST measurement noise model for unit vector observations has been widely used in spacecraft attitude estimation for more than twenty years. It was derived under the approximation that the noise lies in the tangent plane of the respective unit vector and is axially symmetrically distributed about the vector. For large field-of-view sensors, however, this approximation may be poor, especially when the measurement falls near the edge of the field of view. In this paper a new measurement noise model is derived based on a realistic noise distribution in the focal-plane of a large field-of-view sensor, which shows significant differences from the QUEST model for unit vector observations far away from the sensor boresight. An extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation is then designed with the new measurement noise model. Simulation results show that with the new measurement model the extended Kalman filter achieves better estimation performance using large field-of-view sensor observations.

  20. Electric field replaces gravity in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    For several years experiments in physical laboratories and in the fitotron have shown that one can replace gravitational field with electrical fields for plants. First obvious experiments in strong electrical fields in the MV/m regi on show that any materials and living plants respond immediately to Coulomb forces. Such fields are found in nature during thunderstorms. One has to be very careful in handling such strong fields for safety reasons. The fair weather global electrical field is about 20,000 times weaker. The coulomb forces are proportional to the square of the field strength and are thus 400 milion times weaker for a field of the order of 100 V/m.Yet it was found that some plants respond to such "weak" fields. We must remember that the electrical field is a factor of 10 38 times stronger than gravitational interaction. In plants we have dissociated in water mineral salts and the ions are subject to such ernormous forces. It was shown and published that the positive charges in the air in fields of the order of 3kV/m enhance lettuce growth by a factor of four relative to fields about 30 times weaker (100V/m). Reversal of the field polarity reverses the direction of plant growth and retards the plant's growth. Such fields overpower the gravitropism in the laboratory. More so horizontal electrical field is othogonal to gravity, now the fields do not see each other. Lettuce now growth horizontally ignoring the gravitational field. We can thus select the plants whose electrotropism even in the laboratory overwhelms gravity. This is important for the long space flights that we must grow vegetarian food for the crew. The successful harvesting of wheat in orbit does not contradict our experimental findings because wheat is not electrotropic like all plants from the grass family. The results of fitotron experiments with kV/m electrical fields are richly illustrated with colour digital photographs. We also subjected the candle flame to very strong horizontal

  1. Modelling of induced electric fields based on incompletely known magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Cruciani, Silvano; Campi, Tommaso; Feliziani, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    Determining the induced electric fields in the human body is a fundamental problem in bioelectromagnetics that is important for both evaluation of safety of electromagnetic fields and medical applications. However, existing techniques for numerical modelling of induced electric fields require detailed information about the sources of the magnetic field, which may be unknown or difficult to model in realistic scenarios. Here, we show how induced electric fields can accurately be determined in the case where the magnetic fields are known only approximately, e.g. based on field measurements. The robustness of our approach is shown in numerical simulations for both idealized and realistic scenarios featuring a personalized MRI-based head model. The approach allows for modelling of the induced electric fields in biological bodies directly based on real-world magnetic field measurements.

  2. A Magnetic Field Response Recorder: A New Tool for Measurement Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A magnetic field response recorder was developed to facilitate a measurement acquisition method that uses magnetic fields to power and to interrogate all sensors. Sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic field responses when electrically activated by oscillating magnetic fields. When electrically activated, the sensor's magnetic field response attributes (frequency, amplitude and bandwidth) correspond to the one or more physical states that each sensor measures. The response recorder makes it possible to simultaneously measure two unrelated physical properties using this class of sensors. The recorder is programmable allowing it to analyze one or more response attributes simultaneously. A single sensor design will be used to demonstrate that the acquisition method and the sensor example can be used to for all phases of a component's life from manufacturing to damage that can destroy it.

  3. Consistency restrictions on maximal electric-field strength in quantum field theory.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, S P; Gitman, D M

    2008-09-26

    Quantum field theory with an external background can be considered as a consistent model only if backreaction is relatively small with respect to the background. To find the corresponding consistency restrictions on an external electric field and its duration in QED and QCD, we analyze the mean-energy density of quantized fields for an arbitrary constant electric field E, acting during a large but finite time T. Using the corresponding asymptotics with respect to the dimensionless parameter eET2, one can see that the leading contributions to the energy are due to the creation of particles by the electric field. Assuming that these contributions are small in comparison with the energy density of the electric background, we establish the above-mentioned restrictions, which determine, in fact, the time scales from above of depletion of an electric field due to the backreaction.

  4. Lattice QCD with strong external electric fields.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2013-03-15

    We study particle generation by a strong electric field in lattice QCD. To avoid the sign problem of the Minkowskian electric field, we adopt the "isospin" electric charge. When a strong electric field is applied, the insulating vacuum is broken down and pairs of charged particles are produced by the Schwinger mechanism. The competition against the color confining force is also discussed.

  5. Wireless Chemical Sensor and Sensing Method for Use Therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A wireless chemical sensor includes an electrical conductor and a material separated therefrom by an electric insulator. The electrical conductor is an unconnected open-circuit shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the first electrical conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The material is positioned at a location lying within at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses so-generated. The material changes in electrical conductivity in the presence of a chemical-of-interest.

  6. Wireless Chemical Sensor and Sensing Method for Use Therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless chemical sensor includes an electrical conductor and a material separated therefrom by an electric insulator. The electrical conductor is an unconnected open-circuit shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the first electrical conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The material is positioned at a location lying within at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses so-generated. The material changes in electrical conductivity in the presence of a chemical-of-interest.

  7. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Christian; Zheng, Yan; Easton, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Threemore » operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.« less

  8. A glucose concentration and temperature sensor based on long period fiber gratings induced by electric-arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chao; Wang, Qi

    2017-10-01

    As one of the key parameters in biological and chemical reactions, glucose concentration objectively reflects the characteristics of reactions, so the real-time monitoring of glucose concentration is important in the field of biochemical. Meanwhile, the influence from temperature should be considered. The fiber sensors have been studied extensively for decades due to the advantages of small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference and high sensitivity, which are suitable for the application of biochemical sensing. A long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor induced by electric-arc discharge has been fabricated and demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentration and temperature. The proposed sensor was fabricated by inscribing a sing mode fiber (SMF) with periodic electric-arc discharge technology. During the fabrication process, the electric-arc discharge technology was produced by a commercial fusion splicer, and the period of inscribed LPFG was determined by the movement of translation stages. A serials of periodic geometrical deformations would be formed in SMF after the fabrication, and the discharge intensity and discharge time can be adjusted though the fusion splicer settings screen. The core mode can be coupled into the cladding modes at certain wavelength when they satisfy the phase-matching conditions, and there will be several resonance dips in the transmission spectrum in LPFG. The resonance dips formed by the coupling between cladding modes and core mode have different sensitivity responses, so the simultaneous measurement for multi-parameter can be realized by monitoring the wavelength shifts of the resonance dips. Compared with the LPFG based on conventional SMF, the glucose concentration sensitivity has been obviously enhanced by etching the cladding with hydrofluoric acid solution. Based on the independent measured results, a dual-parameter measurement matrix has been built for signal demodulation. Because of the easy

  9. Integration of piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanoweb based pressure sensors for imaging of static and dynamic pressure distribution.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y J; Oh, T I; Woo, E J; Kim, K J

    2017-07-01

    Recently, highly flexible and soft pressure distribution imaging sensor is in great demand for tactile sensing, gait analysis, ubiquitous life-care based on activity recognition, and therapeutics. In this study, we integrate the piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanowebs with the conductive fabric sheets for detecting static and dynamic pressure distributions on a large sensing area. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and electric source imaging are applied for reconstructing pressure distribution images from measured current-voltage data on the boundary of the hybrid fabric sensor. We evaluated the piezo-capacitive nanoweb sensor, piezo-electric nanoweb sensor, and hybrid fabric sensor. The results show the feasibility of static and dynamic pressure distribution imaging from the boundary measurements of the fabric sensors.

  10. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  11. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B; McGuire, Allister F; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Forrester, Patrick R; Crommie, Michael F; Cui, Bianxiao; Wang, Feng

    2016-12-16

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.

  12. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    DOE PAGES

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts,more » a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.« less

  13. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts,more » a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.« less

  14. Triaxial fiber optic magnetic field sensor for MRI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filograno, Massimo L.; Pisco, Marco; Catalano, Angelo; Forte, Ernesto; Aiello, Marco; Soricelli, Andrea; Davino, Daniele; Visone, Ciro; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report a fiber-optic triaxial magnetic field sensor, based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) integrated with giant magnetostrictive material, the Terfenol-D. The realized sensor has been designed and engineered for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. A full magneto-optical characterization of the triaxial sensing probe has been carried out, providing the complex relationship among the FBGs wavelength shift and the applied magnetostatic field vector. Finally, the developed fiber optic sensors have been arranged in a sensor network composed of 20 triaxial sensors for mapping the magnetic field distribution in a MRI-room at a diagnostic center in Naples (SDN), equipped with Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) instrumentation. Experimental results reveal that the proposed sensor network can be efficiently used in MRI centers for performing quality assurance tests, paving the way for novel integrated tools to measure the magnetic dose accumulated day by day by MRI operators.

  15. Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor using reference magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-10-09

    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference magnetic field generated within the current sensor housing is detected by the magnetic field sensors and is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  16. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-03-26

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor and system capable of accurate operation at high voltages has a sensor body disposed in an E-field. The body receives a source beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the source light beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. A wave plate rotates the linear polarization to rotated polarization. A transducer utilizes Pockels electro-optic effect and induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the rotated polarization in response to the E-field. A prism redirects the beam back through the transducer, wave plate, and polarization beam displacer. The prism also converts the rotated polarization to circular or elliptical polarization. The wave plate rotates the major and minor axes of the circular or elliptical polarization to linear polarization. The polarization beam displacer separates the beam into two beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may have a transmitter for producing the beam of electro-magnetic radiation; a detector for converting the two beams into electrical signals; and a signal processor for determining the voltage.

  17. Field Emission Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications in Sensors and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    2003-03-01

    FIELD EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBON NANOTUBES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN SENSORS AND DEVICES A. Vaseashta, C. Shaffer, M. Collins, A. Mwuara Dept of Physics, Marshall University, Huntington, WV V. Pokropivny Institute for Materials Sciences of NASU, Kiev, Ukraine. D. Dimova-Malinovska Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. The dimensionality of a system has profound influence on its physical behavior. With advances in technology over the past few decades, it has become possible to fabricate and study reduced-dimensional systems, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Carbon nanotubes are especially promising candidate for cold cathode field emitter because of their electrical properties, high aspect ratio, and small radius of curvature at the tips. Electron emission from the carbon nanotubes was investigated. Based upon the field emission investigation of carbon nanotubes, several prototype devices have been suggested that operate with low swing voltages with sufficient high current densities. Characteristics that allow improved current stability and long lifetime operation for electrical and opto-electronics devices are presented. The aim of this brief overview is to illustrate the useful characteristics of carbon nanotubes and its possible application.

  18. Complex Electric-Field Induced Phenomena in Ferroelectric/Antiferroelectric Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herchig, Ryan Christopher

    Perovskite ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics have attracted a lot of attention owing to their potential for device applications including THz sensors, solid state cooling, ultra high density computer memory, and electromechanical actuators to name a few. The discovery of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale provides not only new and exciting possibilities for device miniaturization, but also a way to study the fundamental physics of nanoscale phenomena in these materials. Ferroelectric nanowires show a rich variety of physical characteristics which are advantageous to the design of nanoscale ferroelectric devices such as exotic dipole patterns, a strong dependence of the polarization and phonon frequencies on the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions, as well as a dependence of the transition temperatures on the diameter of the nanowire. Antiferroelectricity also exists at the nanoscale and, due to the proximity in energy of the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases, a phase transition from the ferroelectric to the antiferroelectric phase can be facilitated through the application of the appropriate mechanical and electrical boundary conditions. While much progress has been made over the past several decades to understand the nature of ferroelectricity/antiferroelectricity in nanowires, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, little is known about how the truncated dimensions affect the soft mode frequency dynamics or how various electrical and mechanical boundary conditions might change the nature of the phase transitions in these ferroelectric nanowires. Could nanowires offer a distinct advantage for solid state cooling applications? Few studies have been done to elucidate the fundamental physics of antiferroelectric nanowires. How the polarization in ferroelectric nanowires responds to a THz electric field remains relatively underexplored as well. In this work, the aim is to to develop and use computational tools that allow first

  19. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  20. Plasmonic metasurface cavity for simultaneous enhancement of optical electric and magnetic fields in deep subwavelength volume.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jongwoo; Kim, Sun-Je; Kim, Inki; Yun, Hansik; Mun, Sang-Eun; Rho, Junsuk; Lee, Byoungho

    2018-05-14

    It has been hard to achieve simultaneous plasmonic enhancement of nanoscale light-matter interactions in terms of both electric and magnetic manners with easily reproducible fabrication method and systematic theoretical design rule. In this paper, a novel concept of a flat nanofocusing device is proposed for simultaneously squeezing both electric and magnetic fields in deep-subwavelength volume (~λ 3 /538) in a large area. Based on the funneled unit cell structures and surface plasmon-assisted coherent interactions between them, the array of rectangular nanocavity connected to a tapered nanoantenna, plasmonic metasurface cavity, is constructed by periodic arrangement of the unit cell. The average enhancement factors of electric and magnetic field intensities reach about 60 and 22 in nanocavities, respectively. The proposed outstanding performance of the device is verified numerically and experimentally. We expect that this work would expand methodologies involving optical near-field manipulations in large areas and related potential applications including nanophotonic sensors, nonlinear responses, and quantum interactions.

  1. Simple estimation of induced electric fields in nervous system tissues for human exposure to non-uniform electric fields at power frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarao, Hiroo; Miyamoto, Hironobu; Korpinen, Leena; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Isaka, Katsuo

    2016-06-01

    Most results regarding induced current in the human body related to electric field dosimetry have been calculated under uniform field conditions. We have found in previous work that a contact current is a more suitable way to evaluate induced electric fields, even in the case of exposure to non-uniform fields. If the relationship between induced currents and external non-uniform fields can be understood, induced electric fields in nervous system tissues may be able to be estimated from measurements of ambient non-uniform fields. In the present paper, we numerically calculated the induced electric fields and currents in a human model by considering non-uniform fields based on distortion by a cubic conductor under an unperturbed electric field of 1 kV m-1 at 60 Hz. We investigated the relationship between a non-uniform external electric field with no human present and the induced current through the neck, and the relationship between the current through the neck and the induced electric fields in nervous system tissues such as the brain, heart, and spinal cord. The results showed that the current through the neck can be formulated by means of an external electric field at the central position of the human head, and the distance between the conductor and the human model. As expected, there is a strong correlation between the current through the neck and the induced electric fields in the nervous system tissues. The combination of these relationships indicates that induced electric fields in these tissues can be estimated solely by measurements of the external field at a point and the distance from the conductor.

  2. Design and Simulation Test of an Open D-Dot Voltage Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yunjie; Wang, Jingang; Wei, Gang; Yang, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, sensor development focuses on miniaturization and non-contact measurement. According to the D-dot principle, a D-dot voltage sensor with a new structure was designed based on the differential D-dot sensor with a symmetrical structure, called an asymmetric open D-dot voltage sensor. It is easier to install. The electric field distribution of the sensor was analyzed through Ansoft Maxwell and an open D-dot voltage sensor was designed. This open D-voltage sensor is characteristic of accessible insulating strength and small electric field distortion. The steady and transient performance test under 10 kV-voltage reported satisfying performances of the designed open D-dot voltage sensor. It conforms to requirements for a smart grid measuring sensor in intelligence, miniaturization and facilitation. PMID:26393590

  3. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  4. Electric field with bipolar structure during magnetic reconnection without a guide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We present a study on the polarized electric field during the collisionless magnetic reconnection of antiparallel fields using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations demonstrate clearly that electron holes and electric field with bipolar structure are produced during magnetic reconnection without a guide field. The electric field with bipolar structure can be found near the X-line and on the separatrix and the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is consistent with the observations. These structures will elongate electron's time staying in the diffusion region. In addition, the electric fields with tripolar structures are also found in our simulation.

  5. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  6. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  7. Electric field measurements from Halley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a unique location for the study of atmospheric electricity. Not only is it one of the most pollutant free places on Earth, but its proximity to the south magnetic pole means that it is an ideal location to study the effects of solar variability on the atmospheric electric field. This is due to the reduced shielding effect of the geomagnetic field at the poles which leads to a greater flux of incoming Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) as well as an increased probability of energetic particle precipitation from SEPs and relativistic electrons. To investigate such effects, two electric field mills of different design were installed at the British Antarctic Survey Halley base in February 2015 (75. 58 degrees south, 26.66 degrees west). Halley is situated on the Brunt Ice Shelf in the south east of the Weddell Sea and has snow cover all year round. Preliminary analysis has focused on selection of fair weather criteria using wind speed and visibility measurements which are vital to assess the effects of falling snow, blowing snow and freezing fog on the electric field measurements. When the effects of such adverse weather conditions are removed clear evidence of the characteristic Carnegie Curve diurnal cycle exists in the Halley electric field measurements (with a mean value of 50V/m and showing a 40% peak to peak variation in comparison to the 34% variation in the Carnegie data). Since the Carnegie Curve represents the variation in thunderstorm activity across the Earth, its presence in the Halley data confirms the presence of the global atmospheric electric circuit signal at Halley. The work presented here will discuss the details of the Halley electric field dataset, including the variability in the fair weather measurements, with a particular focus on magnetic field fluctuations.

  8. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1994-10-04

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.

  9. Electric-field-driven switching of individual magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pin-Jui; Kubetzka, André; Finco, Aurore; Romming, Niklas; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2017-02-01

    Controlling magnetism with electric fields is a key challenge to develop future energy-efficient devices. The present magnetic information technology is mainly based on writing processes requiring either local magnetic fields or spin torques, but it has also been demonstrated that magnetic properties can be altered on the application of electric fields. This has been ascribed to changes in magnetocrystalline anisotropy caused by spin-dependent screening and modifications of the band structure, changes in atom positions or differences in hybridization with an adjacent oxide layer. However, the switching between states related by time reversal, for example magnetization up and down as used in the present technology, is not straightforward because the electric field does not break time-reversal symmetry. Several workarounds have been applied to toggle between bistable magnetic states with electric fields, including changes of material composition as a result of electric fields. Here we demonstrate that local electric fields can be used to switch reversibly between a magnetic skyrmion and the ferromagnetic state. These two states are topologically inequivalent, and we find that the direction of the electric field directly determines the final state. This observation establishes the possibility to combine electric-field writing with the recently envisaged skyrmion racetrack-type memories.

  10. Effects of media stray field on electromigration characteristics in current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance spin-valve read sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui Zeng, Ding; Lee, Kyoung-il; Chung, Kyung-Won; Bae, Seongtae

    2012-05-01

    Effects of magnetic stray field retrieved from both longitudinal and perpendicular magnetic recording media (denoted by "media stray field") on electromigration (EM) characteristics of current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) giant magnetoresistance spin-valve (GMR SV) read sensors have been numerically studied to explore the electrical and magnetic stability of the read sensor under real operation. The mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) of the CPP GMR SV read sensors was found to have a strong dependence on the physical parameters of the recording media and recorded information status, such as the pulse width of media stray field, the bit length, and the head moving velocity. According to the numerical calculation results, it was confirmed that in the longitudinal media, the shorter the stray field pulse width (i.e., the sharper the media transition) allows for the longer MTTF of the CPP GMR SV read sensors; while in the perpendicular media, the sharper the media transition gives rise to a shorter MTTF. Interestingly, it was also revealed that the MTTF could be improved by reducing the bit length as well as increasing the head velocity in both longitudinal and perpendicular media. Furthermore, the bit distribution patterns, especially the number of consecutive `0' bits strongly affected the MTTF of GMR SV read sensors. The strong dependences of MTTF on the media stray field during CPP GMR SV sensor operation are thought to be mainly attributed to the thermal cycling (temperature rise and fall) caused by the resistance change due to GMR effects.

  11. Saturation of the Electric Field Transmitted to the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    We reexamined the processes leading to saturation of the electric field, transmitted into the Earth's ionosphere from the solar wind, incorporating features of the coupled system previously ignored. We took into account that the electric field is transmitted into the ionosphere through a region of open field lines, and that the ionospheric conductivity in the polar cap and auroral zone may be different. Penetration of the electric field into the magnetosphere is linked with the generation of the Alfven wave, going out from the ionosphere into the solar wind and being coupled with the field-aligned currents at the boundary of the open field limes. The electric field of the outgoing Alfven wave reduces the original electric field and provides the saturation effect in the electric field and currents during strong geomagnetic disturbances, associated with increasing ionospheric conductivity. The electric field and field-aligned currents of this Alfven wave are dependent on the ionospheric and solar wind parameters and may significantly affect the electric field and field-aligned currents, generated in the polar ionosphere. Estimating the magnitude of the saturation effect in the electric field and field-aligned currents allows us to improve the correlation between solar wind parameters and resulting disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  12. Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor for the Measurement of Electric Current Flowing through a Fuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehee

    2007-06-01

    A fiber Fabry-Perot inteferometric sensor bonded close to a fusing element has been studied for the measurement of electric current flowing through a fuse. The phase shift of the sensor output signal is proportional to the square of the electric current passing through the fuse and the sensitivity is 0.827°/mA2.

  13. Field effect sensors for PCR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taing, Meng-Houit; Sweatman, Denis R.

    2004-03-01

    The use of field effect sensors for biological and chemical sensing is widely employed due to its ability to make detections based on charge and surface potential. Because proteins and DNA almost always carry a charge [1], silicon can be used to micro fabricate such a sensor. The EIS structure (Electrolyte on Insulator on Silicon) provides a novel, label-free and simple to fabricate way to make a field effect DNA detection sensor. The sensor responds to fluctuating capacitance caused by a depletion layer thickness change at the surface of the silicon substrate through DNA adsorption onto the dielectric oxide/PLL (Poly-L-Lysine) surface. As DNA molecules diffuse to the sensor surface, they are bound to their complimentary capture probes deposited on the surface. The negative charge exhibited by the DNA forces negative charge carriers in the substrate to move away from the surface. This causes an n-type depletion layer substrate to thicken and a p-type to thin. The depletion layer thickness can be measured by its capacitance using an LCR meter. This experiment is conducted using the ConVolt (constant voltage) approach. Nucleic acids are amplified by an on chip PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) system and then fed into the sensor. The low ionic solution strength will ensure that counter-ions do not affect the sensor measurements. The sensor surface contains capture probes that bind to the pathogen. The types of pathogens we"ll be detecting include salmonella, campylobacter and E.Coli DNA. They are held onto the sensor surface by the positively charged Poly-L-Lysine layer. The electrolyte is biased through a pseudo-reference electrode. Pseudo reference electrodes are usually made from metals such as Platinum or Silver. The problem associated with "floating" biasing electrodes is they cannot provide stable biasing potentials [2]. They drift due to surface charging effects and trapped charges on the surface. To eliminate this, a differential system consisting of 2 sensors

  14. Computational dosimetry of induced electric fields during realistic movements in the vicinity of a 3 T MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Kännälä, Sami; Jokela, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Medical staff working near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed both to the static magnetic field itself and also to electric currents that are induced in the body when the body moves in the magnetic field. However, there are currently limited data available on the induced electric field for realistic movements. This study computationally investigates the movement induced electric fields for realistic movements in the magnetic field of a 3 T MRI scanner. The path of movement near the MRI scanner is based on magnetic field measurements using a coil sensor attached to a human volunteer. Utilizing realistic models for both the motion of the head and the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, the induced fields are computationally determined using the finite-element method for five high-resolution numerical anatomical models. The results show that the time-derivative of the magnetic flux density (dB/dt) is approximately linearly proportional to the induced electric field in the head, independent of the position of the head with respect to the magnet. This supports the use of dB/dt measurements for occupational exposure assessment. For the path of movement considered herein, the spatial maximum of the induced electric field is close to the basic restriction for the peripheral nervous system and exceeds the basic restriction for the central nervous system in the international guidelines. The 99th percentile electric field is a considerably less restrictive metric for the exposure than the spatial maximum electric field; the former is typically 60-70% lower than the latter. However, the 99th percentile electric field may exceed the basic restriction for dB/dt values that can be encountered during tasks commonly performed by MRI workers. It is also shown that the movement-induced eddy currents may reach magnitudes that could electrically stimulate the vestibular system, which could play a significant role in the generation of vertigo-like sensations reported

  15. Mechanical Enhancement of Sensitivity in Natural Rubber Using Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field and MCF for Application in Haptic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kunio; Saga, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are essential to the fulfillment of every condition of haptic technology, and they need simultaneously to sense shear stress as well as normal force, and temperature. They also must have a strong and simple structure, softness, and large extension. To achieve these conditions simultaneously, we enhanced the sensitivity of sensors utilizing natural rubber (NR)-latex through the application of electrolytic polymerization focused on the isoprene C=C bonds in natural rubbers such as NR-latex, and then applied a magnetic field and magnetic compound fluid (MCF) as magnetically responsive fluid. When an electric field alone was used in the rubber, the effect of electrolytic polymerization was very small compared to the effect in well-known conductive polymer solution such as plastic. The MCF developed by Shimada in 2001 involved magnetite and metal particles, and acts as a filler in NR-latex. By utilizing the magnetic, electric fields and the MCF, we aligned the electrolytically polymerized C=C along the magnetic field line with the magnetic clusters formed by the aggregation of magnetite and metal particles so as to enhance the effect of electrolytic polymerization. We then demonstrated the effectiveness of the new method of rubber vulcanization on the sensitivity of the rubber by experimentally investigating its electric and dynamic characteristics. PMID:27649210

  16. Mechanical Enhancement of Sensitivity in Natural Rubber Using Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field and MCF for Application in Haptic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kunio; Saga, Norihiko

    2016-09-18

    Sensors are essential to the fulfillment of every condition of haptic technology, and they need simultaneously to sense shear stress as well as normal force, and temperature. They also must have a strong and simple structure, softness, and large extension. To achieve these conditions simultaneously, we enhanced the sensitivity of sensors utilizing natural rubber (NR)-latex through the application of electrolytic polymerization focused on the isoprene C=C bonds in natural rubbers such as NR-latex, and then applied a magnetic field and magnetic compound fluid (MCF) as magnetically responsive fluid. When an electric field alone was used in the rubber, the effect of electrolytic polymerization was very small compared to the effect in well-known conductive polymer solution such as plastic. The MCF developed by Shimada in 2001 involved magnetite and metal particles, and acts as a filler in NR-latex. By utilizing the magnetic, electric fields and the MCF, we aligned the electrolytically polymerized C=C along the magnetic field line with the magnetic clusters formed by the aggregation of magnetite and metal particles so as to enhance the effect of electrolytic polymerization. We then demonstrated the effectiveness of the new method of rubber vulcanization on the sensitivity of the rubber by experimentally investigating its electric and dynamic characteristics.

  17. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  18. Magnetospheric electric fields and auroral oval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, Harri; Pedersen, Arne; Craven, John D.; Frank, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    DC electric field variations in a synchronous orbit (GEOS 2) during four substorms in the time sector 19 to 01 LT were investigated. Simultaneously, the imaging photometer on board DE 1 provided auroral images that are also utilized. Substorm onset is defined here as a sudden appearance of large electric fields. During the growth phase, the orientation of the electric field begins to oscillate some 30 min prior to onset. About 10 min before the onset GEOS 2 starts moving into a more tenuous plasma, probably due to a thinning of the current sheet. The onset is followed by a period of 10 to 15 min during which large electric fields occur. This interval can be divided into two intervals. During the first interval, which lasts 4 to 8 min, very large fields of 8 to 20 mV/m are observed, while the second interval contains relatively large fields (2 to 5 mV/m). A few min after the onset, the spacecraft returns to a plasma region of higher electron fluxes which are usually larger than before substorm. Some 30 min after onset, enhanced activity, lasting about 10 min, appears in the electric field. One of the events selected offers a good opportunity to study the formation and development of the Westward Traveling Surge (WST). During the traversal of the leading edge of the WTS (approximately 8 min) a stable wave mode at 5.7 mHz is detected.

  19. An analytical model for bio-electronic organic field-effect transistor sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchia, Eleonora; Giordano, Francesco; Magliulo, Maria; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2013-09-01

    A model for the electrical characteristics of Functional-Bio-Interlayer Organic Field-Effect Transistors (FBI-OFETs) electronic sensors is here proposed. Specifically, the output current-voltage characteristics of a streptavidin (SA) embedding FBI-OFET are modeled by means of the analytical equations of an enhancement mode p-channel OFET modified according to an ad hoc designed equivalent circuit that is also independently simulated with pspice. An excellent agreement between the model and the experimental current-voltage output characteristics has been found upon exposure to 5 nM of biotin. A good agreement is also found with the SA OFET parameters graphically extracted from the device transfer I-V curves.

  20. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  1. Characteristics of DC electric fields at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, Philippe; Masson, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the characteristics of DC electric field at dipolarization fronts and BBF's using multi-point Cluster observations. There are plenty of important issues that are considered, such as what kind of DC electric fields exist in such events and what are their spatial scales. One can also recognize if electrons and ions perform ExB drift motions in these events. To investigate this, we take an advantage of five different DC electric field measurements in the plasma sheet available from the EFW double probe experiment, EDI electron drift instrument, CODIF and HIA ion spectrometers, and PEACE electron spectrometer. The calibrated observations of the three spectrometers are used to determine the proton and electron drift velocity and furthermore the DC electric field, assuming that the electron and proton velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field is dominated by the ExB drift motion. Naturally when ions and electrons do not perform a proper drift motion, which can happen in the plasma sheet, the estimated DC electric field from ion and electron motion is not correct. However, surprisingly often the DC electric fields estimated from electron and ion motions are identical suggesting that this field is a real DC electric field around the measurement point. This investigation also helps understand how well different measurements are calibrated.

  2. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.

  3. The Disturbing Effect of the Stray Magnetic Fields on Magnetoimpedance Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yong; Lei, Chong; Zhi, Shaotao; Guo, Lei; Li, Hengyu; Wu, Zhizheng; Xie, Shaorong; Luo, Jun; Pu, Huayan

    2016-01-01

    The disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of Fe-based amorphous ribbons on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor has been investigated systematically in this paper. Two simple methods were used for examining the disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of ribbons on the GMI sensor. In order to study the influence of the stray magnetic fields on the GMI effect, the square-shaped amorphous ribbons were tested in front, at the back, on the left and on the top of a meander-line GMI sensor made up of soft ferromagnetic films, respectively. Experimental results show that the presence of ribbons in front or at the back of GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a lower external magnetic field. On the contrary, the presence of ribbons on the left or on the top of the GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a higher external magnetic field, which is related to the coupling effect of the external magnetic field and the stray magnetic fields. The influence of the area and angle of ribbons on GMI was also studied in this work. The GMI sensor exhibits high linearity for detection of the stray magnetic fields, which has made it feasible to construct a sensitive magnetometer for detecting the typical stray magnetic fields of general soft ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27763498

  4. Simultaneous electric-field measurements on nearby balloons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Electric-field payloads were flown simultaneously on two balloons from Great Whale River, Canada, on September 21, 1971, to provide data at two points in the upper atmosphere that differed in altitude by more than one atmospheric density scale height and in horizontal position by 30-140 km. The altitude dependences in the two sets of data prove conclusively that the vertical electric field at balloon altitudes stems from fair-weather atmospheric electricity sources and that the horizontal fields are mapped down ionospheric fields, since the weather-associated horizontal fields were smaller than 2 mV/m.

  5. Rates of Charged Clocks in an Electric Field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Murat

    2008-04-01

    The gravitational arguments leading to time dilation, redshift, and spacetime curvature are adapted to electric fields. The energy levels of two identical positively charged atoms at different potentials in a static electric field are shown to undergo blueshift. Secondly, the period of a charged simple pendulum (clock) in the electric field of a metallic sphere is shown to vary with the electric potential. The spacetime diagram for the world lines of two photons emitted and absorbed by two pendulums at different potentials at different times and the world lines of the pendulums, as in Schild's argument, is shown to be not a parallelogram in Minkowski spacetime, concluding that spacetime must be curved. A Pound-Rebka-Snider experiment in an electric field is proposed to confirm that photons undergo a frequency shift in an electric field and hence the spacetime manifold is curved. Next, Torretti's gravitational argument that spacetime around a mass distribution concentrated at a point is curved is extended to electric charge distributions to conclude that the nonuniform electric fields of such charge distributions too curve spacetime. Finally, the local equivalence of a uniform electric field times the charge to mass ratio to a uniform acceleration is shown through spacetime transformations and the electrical redshift is obtained in a uniformly accelerated frame by using this principle. These arguments lead to the conclusion that special relativistic electromagnetism is an approximation to a general relativistic multi-metric theory.

  6. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of cardiac magnetic activity.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shinsuke; Sawamura, Kenta; Mohri, Kaneo; Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to establish a convenient method for detecting biomagnetic activity in the heart. Electrical activity of the heart simultaneously induces a magnetic field. Detection of this magnetic activity will enable non-contact, noninvasive evaluation to be made. We improved the sensitivity of a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI) sensor, which is used as an electric compass in mobile phones and as a motion sensor of the operation handle in computer games, toward a pico-Tesla (pT) level, and measured magnetic fields on the surface of the thoracic wall in humans. The changes in magnetic field detected by this sensor synchronized with the electric activity of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The shape of the magnetic wave was largely altered by shifting the sensor position within 20 mm in parallel and/or perpendicular to the thoracic wall. The magnetic activity was maximal in the 4th intercostals near the center of the sterna. Furthermore, averaging the magnetic activity at 15 mm in the distance between the thoracic wall and the sensor demonstrated magnetic waves mimicking the P wave and QRS complex. The present study shows the application of PMI sensor in detecting cardiac magnetic activity in several healthy subjects, and suggests future applications of this technology in medicine and biology.

  7. Modeling And Simulation Of Electrical Prevenion System Using Arduino Uno,Gsm Modem, And Acs712 Current Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khair, Ummul; Jabbar Lubis, Abdul; Agustha, Indra; Dharmawati; Zulfin, M.

    2017-12-01

    The current electricity needs is very primary, all objects including electronics require power, it encourages people not to be able to save electricity so the theft of electric power would be done. The use of ACS712 current sensor as the sensor with arduino uno would find out the power consumption continuously and prevent the theft of electricity because of the use of electricity which has been determined by PLN and the people fetl that it is not enough for every house, so the author made a tool for prevention of theft of electric power by using the arduino uno, buzzer, ACS712 current sensor, lcd, and relay then the power usage can be controlled according to the use to prevent the occurrence of theft of electricity so the use can be seen directly on the lcd 16x2and GSM modem to give information to employees of PLN so that it can reduceelectrical theft by the public.

  8. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort.

  9. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS <100 KHZ IN ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    PubMed

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nanowire field-effect transistors for gas sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, Marios

    Sensing BTEX (Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene) pollutants is of utmost importance to reduce health risk and ensure public safety. The lack of sensitivity and selectivity of the current gas sensors and the limited number of available technologies in the field of BTEX-sensing raises the demand for the development of high-performance gas sensors for BTEX applications. The scope of this thesis is the fabrication and characterisation of high-quality field-effect transistors (FETs), with functionalised silicon nanowires (SiNWs), for the selective sensing of benzene vs. other BTEX gases. This research addresses three main challenges in SiNW FET-sensor device development: i) controllable and reproducible assembly of high-quality SiNWs for FET sensor devices using the method of dielectrophoresis (DEP), ii) almost complete elimination of harmful hysteresis effect in the SiNW FET current-voltage characteristics induced by surface states using DMF solvent, iii) selective sensing of benzene with up to ppb range of sensitivity using calix[4]arene-derivatives. It is experimentally demonstrated that frequency-controlled DEP is a powerful tool for the selection and collection of semiconducting SiNWs with advanced electrical and morphological properties, from a poly-disperse as-synthesised NWs. The DEP assembly method also leads to a controllable and reproducible fabrication of high-quality NW-based FETs. The results highlight the superiority of DEP, performed at high signal frequencies (5-20 MHz) to selectively assemble only high-quality NWs which can respond to such high DEP frequencies. The SiNW FETs, with NWs collected at high DEP frequencies, have high mobility (≈50 cm2 V-1 s-1), low sub-threshold-swing (≈1.26 V/decade), high on-current (up to 3 mA) and high on/off ratio (106-107). The DEP NW selection is also demonstrated using an industrially scalable method, to allow establishing of NW response characteristics to different DEP frequencies in a very short time

  11. ELECTRIC-FIELD-ENHANCED FABRIC FILTRATION OF ELECTRICALLY CHARGED FLYASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes measurements in which both external electric field (applied by electrodes at the fabric surface) and flyash electrical charge (controlled by an upstream corona precharger) are independent variables in a factorial performance experiment carried out in a labora...

  12. Fiber optic and laser sensors IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 22-24, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Paula, Ramon P. (Editor); Udd, Eric (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The conference presents papers on industrial uses of fiber optic sensors, point and distributed polarimetric optical fiber sensors, fiber optic electric field sensor technology, micromachined resonant structures, single-mode fibers for sensing applications, and measurement techniques for magnetic field gradient detection. Consideration is also given to electric field meter and temperature measurement techniques for the power industry, the calibration of high-temperature fiber-optic microbend pressure transducers, and interferometric sensors for dc measurands. Other topics include the recognition of colors and collision avoidance in robotics using optical fiber sensors, the loss compensation of intensity-modulating fiber-optic sensors, and an embedded optical fiber strain tensor for composite structure applications.

  13. Trends in Lightning Electrical Energy Derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, P. M.; Koshak, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present results detailing an emerging application of space-based measurement of lightning: the electrical energy. This is a little-used attribute of lightning data which can have applications for severe weather, lightning physics, and wildfires. In particular, we use data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (TRMM/LIS) to find the temporal and spatial variations in the detected spectral energy density. This is used to estimate the total lightning electrical energy, following established methodologies. Results showing the trend in time of the electrical energy, as well as the distribution around the globe, will be highlighted. While flashes have been typically used in most studies, the basic scientifically-relevant measured unit by LIS is the optical group data product. This generally corresponds to a return stroke or IC pulse. We explore how the electrical energy varies per LIS group, providing an extension and comparison with previous investigations. The result is an initial climatology of this new and important application of space-based optical measurements of lightning, which can provide a baseline for future applications using the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), the European Lightning Imager (LI), and the International Space Station Lightning Imaging Sensor (ISS/LIS) instruments.

  14. Optical sensors for electrical elements of a medium voltage distribution network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Maria, Letizia; Bartalesi, Daniele; Serragli, Paolo; Paladino, Domenico

    2012-04-01

    The aging of most of the components of the National transmission and distribution system can potentially influence the reliability of power supply in a Medium Voltage (MV) network. In order to prevent possible dangerous situations, selected diagnostic indicators on electrical parts exploiting reliable and potentially low-cost sensors are required. This paper presents results concerning two main research activities regarding the development and application of innovative optical sensors for the diagnostic of MV electrical components. The first concerns a multi-sensor prototype for the detection of pre-discharges in MV switchboards: it is the combination of three different types of sensors operating simultaneously to detect incipient failure and to reduce the occurrence of false alarms. The system is real-time controlled by an embedded computer through a LabView interface. The second activity refers to a diagnostic tool to provide significant real-time information about early aging of MV/Low Voltage (LV) transformers by means of its vibration fingerprint. A miniaturized Optical Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) based unit has been assembled for vibration measurements, wireless connected to a remote computer and controlled via LabView interface. Preliminary comparative tests were carried out with standard piezoelectric accelerometers on a conventional MV/LV test transformer under open circuit and in short-circuited configuration.

  15. On high-latitude convection field inhomogeneities, parallel electric fields and inverted-V precipitation events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, W.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model of a static electric field with a component parallel to the magnetic field is proposed for calculating the electric field and current distributions at various altitudes when the horizontal distribution of the convection electric field is given at a certain altitude above the auroral ionosphere. The model is shown to be compatible with satellite observations of inverted-V electron precipitation structures and associated irregularities in the convection electric field.

  16. Broad-Band Integrated Optical Electric Field Sensor Using Reflection Mach-Zehnder Waveguide Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahong; Zhao, Zhengang; Li, Chuan; Li, Yingna

    2017-09-01

    A lithium niobate (LiNbO3) broad-band photonic sensor using reflection-type Mach-Zehnder optical waveguide modulator has been designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated. The bare chip size of the sensor is microminiaturized as small as 20×5×0.5 mm3. The sensor has a wide band frequency response from 10 kHz to 20 GHz with variation less than ± 5 dB. The sensor system shows better linear characteristic from 100 mV/m to 700 V/m, and the sensitivity is 33 mV/m. Besides, the nanosecond EMP with intensity of 30 kV/m has been measured in the time domain.

  17. Temperature Modulation of Electric Fields in Biological Matter

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have become an important minimally invasive surgical technology for various applications including genetic engineering, electrochemotherapy and tissue ablation. This study explores the hypothesis that temperature dependent electrical parameters of tissue can be used to modulate the outcome of PEF protocols, providing a new means for controlling and optimizing this minimally invasive surgical procedure. This study investigates two different applications of cooling temperatures applied during PEF. The first case utilizes an electrode which simultaneously delivers pulsed electric fields and cooling temperatures. The subsequent results demonstrate that changes in electrical properties due to temperature produced by this configuration can substantially magnify and confine the electric fields in the cooled regions while almost eliminating electric fields in surrounding regions. This method can be used to increase precision in the PEF procedure, and eliminate muscle contractions and damage to adjacent tissues. The second configuration considered introduces a third probe that is not electrically active and only applies cooling boundary conditions. This second study demonstrates that in this probe configuration the temperature induced changes in electrical properties of tissue substantially reduce the electric fields in the cooled regions. This novel treatment can potentially be used to protect sensitive tissues from the effect of the PEF. Perhaps the most important conclusion of this investigation is that temperature is a powerful and accessible mechanism to modulate and control electric fields in biological tissues and can therefore be used to optimize and control PEF treatments. PMID:21695144

  18. Analysis of DE-1 PWI electric field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of low frequency electric field oscillations may be accomplished with the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on DE 1. Oscillations at a frequency around 1 Hz are below the range of the conventional plasma wave receivers, but they can be detected by using a special processing of the quasi-static electric field data. With this processing it is also possible to determine if the electric field oscillations are predominately parallel or perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The quasi-static electric field in the DE 1 spin/orbit plane is measured with a long-wire 'double probe'. This antenna is perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which in turn is approximately perpendicular to the geomagnetic field in the polar magnetosphere. The electric field data are digitally sampled at a frequency of 16 Hz. The measured electric field signal, which has had phase reversals introduced by the rotating antenna, is multiplied by the sine of the rotation angle between the antenna and the magnetic field. This is called the 'perpendicular' signal. The measured time series is also multiplied with the cosine of the angle to produce a separate 'parallel' signal. These two separate time series are then processed to determine the frequency power spectrum.

  19. Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, Giovanni; Fancher, Chris M.; Röhrig, Sören

    The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domainmore » reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.« less

  20. Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading

    DOE PAGES

    Esteves, Giovanni; Fancher, Chris M.; Röhrig, Sören; ...

    2017-04-08

    The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domainmore » reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.« less

  1. Electric field induced spin-polarized current

    DOEpatents

    Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2006-05-02

    A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.

  2. Electric-field-stimulated protein mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hekstra, Doeke R.; White, K. Ian; Socolich, Michael A.; Henning, Robert W.; Šrajer, Vukica; Ranganathan, Rama

    2017-01-01

    The internal mechanics of proteins—the coordinated motions of amino acids and the pattern of forces constraining these motions—connects protein structure to function. Here we describe a new method combining the application of strong electric field pulses to protein crystals with time-resolved X-ray crystallography to observe conformational changes in spatial and temporal detail. Using a human PDZ domain (LNX2PDZ2) as a model system, we show that protein crystals tolerate electric field pulses strong enough to drive concerted motions on the sub-microsecond timescale. The induced motions are subtle, involve diverse physical mechanisms, and occur throughout the protein structure. The global pattern of electric-field-induced motions is consistent with both local and allosteric conformational changes naturally induced by ligand binding, including at conserved functional sites in the PDZ domain family. This work lays the foundation for comprehensive experimental study of the mechanical basis of protein function. PMID:27926732

  3. MuSET, A High Precision Logging Sensor For Downhole Spontaneous Electrical Potential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezard, P. A.; Gautier, S.; Le Borgne, T.; Deltombe, J.

    2008-12-01

    MuSET has been designed by ALT and CNRS in the context of the EC ALIANCE research project. It is based on an existing multi-parameter borehole fluid sensor (p, T, Cw, pH, Eh) built by ALT. The new downhole geophysical tool aims to measure subsurface spontaneous electrical potentials (SP) in situ with great precision (< µV). For this, the device includes an unpolazirable Pb/PbCl2 electrode referred to a similar one at surface. Initial field testing in Montpellier (Languedoc, France), Ploemeur (Brittany, France) and Campos (Mallorca, Spain) took advantage of the set of field sites developed as part of ALIANCE then as part of the environmental research observatory (ORE) network for hydrogeology "H+". While Cretaceous marly limestone at Lavalette (Montpellier) proved to be almost exclusively the source of membrane potential, the clay-starved Miocene reefal carbonates of Campos generate a signal dominated by electrokinetic potential. This signal is generated due to nearby agricultural pumping, and associated strong horizontal flow. At the top of the salt to fresh water transtion, a discrepancy between the SP signal and the absence of vertical flow measured with a heat-pulse flowmeter hints at a capacity to detect the "fluid-junction", diffusion potential. At Ploemeur, the altered granite found in the vicinity of faults and fractures is also the source of a SP signal, mostly surface related while most fractures appear to be closed. In all, the MuSET demonstrates a capacity to identify several subsurface sources of natural electrical potential such as diffusion ones (membrane potential in the presence of clays, fickean processes due to pore fluid salinity gradients), or else the electrokinetic potential with pore fluid pressure gradients. While spontaneous electrical currents often loop out of the borehole, MuSET might be used as a radial electrical flowmeter once the diffusion components taken into account.

  4. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.; Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.

    2004-07-01

    Large mesospheric electric fields can play an essential role in middle atmospheric electrodynamics (see, e.g., Goldberg, R. A., Middle Atmospheric Electrodynamics during MAP, Adv. Space Res. 10 (10) (1990) 209). The V/m electric fields of atmospheric origin can be the possible cause of large variations in the electron collision frequency at mesospheric altitudes, and this provides a unique opportunity to take measurements of electric fields in the lower ionosphere by using remote sensing instruments employing radiowave techniques. A technique has been proposed for making estimates of large mesospheric electric field intensities on the lower edge of the ionosphere by using MF radar data and the inherent effective electron collision frequency. To do this, data collected in Canada and Ukraine were utilized. The developed technique permits the changes in mesospheric electric field intensities to be derived from MF radar data in real time. The statistical analysis of data consistent with large mesospheric electric field intensities in the 60-67km region resulted in the following inferences. There are at least two mechanisms for the generation of large mesospheric electric fields in the mesosphere. The most likely mechanism, with a probability of 60-70%, is the summation of random fields from a large number of elementary small-scale mesospheric generators, which results in a one-parameter Rayleigh distribution of the total large mesospheric electric field intensity E with a mean value of approximately 0.7-0.9V/m in the 60-67km altitude region, or in the corresponding one-parameter exponential distribution of the intensity squared E2 of large mesospheric electric fields. The second mechanism of unknown nature, with 5-15% probability, gives rise to the sporadic appearance of large mesospheric electric field intensities E>2.5V/m with a mean of 4V/m. Statistically significant seasonal differences in the averaged large mesospheric electric field parameters have not been

  5. Effects Of Electric Field On Hydrocarbon-Fueled Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Z.-G.; Hegde, U.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed that flames are susceptible to electric fields that are much weaker than the breakdown field strength of the flame gases. When an external electric field is imposed on a flame, the ions generated in the flame reaction zone drift in the direction of the electric forces exerted on them. The moving ions collide with the neutral species and change the velocity distribution in the affected region. This is often referred to as ionic wind effect. In addition, the removal of ions from the flame reaction zone can alter the chemical reaction pathway of the flame. On the other hand, the presence of space charges carried by moving ions affects the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame often changes its shape, location and color once an external electric field is applied. The interplay between the flame movement and the change of electric field makes it difficult to determine the flame location for a given configuration of electrodes and fuel source. In normal gravity, the buoyancy-induced flow often complicates the problem and hinders detailed study of the interaction between the flame and the electric field. In this work, the microgravity environment established at the 2.2 Second Drop Tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center is utilized to effectively remove the buoyant acceleration. The interaction between the flame and the electric field is studied in a one-dimensional domain. A specially designed electrode makes flame current measurements possible; thus, the mobility of ions, ion density, and ionic wind effect can be evaluated.

  6. Microstickies agglomeration by electric field.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaotang Tony; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Microstickies deposits on both paper machine and paper products when it agglomerates under step change in ionic strength, pH, temperature and chemical additives. These stickies increase the down time of the paper mill and decrease the quality of paper. The key property of microstickies is its smaller size, which leads to low removal efficiency and difficulties in measurement. Thus the increase of microstickies size help improve both removal efficiency and reduce measurement difficulty. In this paper, a new agglomeration technology based on electric field was investigated. The electric treatment could also increase the size of stickies particles by around 100 times. The synergetic effect between electric field treatment and detacky chemicals/dispersants, including polyvinyl alcohol, poly(diallylmethylammonium chloride) and lignosulfonate, was also studied.

  7. Electrically Conductive TPU Nanofibrous Composite with High Stretchability for Flexible Strain Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; He, Xiao-Xiao; Nie, Guang-Di; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Guo, Wen-Zhe; Long, Yun-Ze

    2018-03-01

    Highly stretchable and electrically conductive thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibrous composite based on electrospinning for flexible strain sensor and stretchable conductor has been fabricated via in situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) on TPU nanofibrous membrane. The PANI/TPU membrane-based sensor could detect a strain from 0 to 160% with fast response and excellent stability. Meanwhile, the TPU composite has good stability and durability. Besides, the composite could be adapted to various non-flat working environments and could maintain opportune conductivity at different operating temperatures. This work provides an easy operating and low-cost method to fabricate highly stretchable and electrically conductive nanofibrous membrane, which could be applied to detect quick and tiny human actions.

  8. AC field exposure study: human exposure to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of estimating human exposure to the 60 Hz electric fields created by transmission lines. The Activity Systems Model simulates human activities in a variety of situations where exposure to electric fields is possible. The model combines maps of electric fields, activity maps, and experimentally determined activity factors to provide histograms of time spent in electric fields of various strengths in the course of agricultural, recreational, and domestic activities. For corroboration, the study team measured actual human exposure at locations across the United States near transmission lines ranging in voltage frommore » 115 to 1200 kV. The data were collected with a specially designed vest that measures exposure. These data demonstrate the accuracy of the exposure model presented in this report and revealed that most exposure time is spent in fields of magnitudes similar to many household situations. The report provides annual exposure estimates for human activities near transmission lines and in the home and compares them with exposure data from typical laboratory animal experiments. For one exposure index, the cumulative product of time and electric field, exposure during some of the laboratory animal experiments is two to four orders of magnitude greater than cumulative exposure for a human during one year of outdoor work on a farm crossed by a transmission line.« less

  9. Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

  10. Near-membrane electric field calcium ion dehydration.

    PubMed

    Barger, James P; Dillon, Patrick F

    2016-12-01

    The dehydration of ion-water complexes prior to ion channel transit has focused on channel protein-mediated dissociation of water. Ion dehydration by the membrane electric field has not previously been considered. Near membrane electric fields have previously been shown to cause the disassociation of non-covalently bound small molecule-small molecule, small molecule-protein, and protein-protein complexes. It is well known that cosmotropic, structure making ions such as calcium and sodium significantly bind multiple water ions in solution. It is also known that these ions are often not hydrated as they pass through membrane ion channels. Using capillary electrophoresis, the range of electric fields needed to strip water molecules from calcium ions has been measured. Ion migration velocity is a linear function of the electric field. At low electric fields, the migration rate of calcium ion was shown to be linearly related to the applied electric field. Using a form of the Stoke's equation applicable to ion migration, the hydrated calcium radius was found to be 0.334nm, corresponding to a water hydration shell of 5.09 water molecules. At higher electric fields, the slope of the calcium migration velocity as a function of the electric field increased, which was modeled as a decrease in the radius of the migrating ion as the water was removed. Using a tanh function to model the transition of the ion from a hydrated to a stripped state, the transition had a midpoint at 446V/cm, and was 88% complete at 587V/cm with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The migration velocity of the stripped calcium ion was found to be a function of both the decrease in radius and an increase in the effective, electronic viscosity of the dipole medium through which the dehydrated ion moved. The size of the electric field needed to dehydrate calcium occurs 6-7nm from the cell membrane. Calcium ions within this distance from the membrane will be devoid of water molecules when they reach the

  11. Penetration electric fields: A Volland Stern approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reformulates the Volland Stern model, separating contributions from corotation and convection to predict electric field penetration of the inner magnetosphere using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. In the absence of shielding, the model electric field is EVS=ΦPC/2LYRE, where ΦPC is the polar cap potential and 2LYRE is the width of the magnetosphere along the dawn dusk meridian. ΦPC is estimated from the interplanetary electric field (IEF) and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind (PSW); values of LY were approximated using PSW and simple force-balance considerations. ACE measurements on 16 17 April 2002 were then used to calculate EVS for comparison with the eastward electric field component (EJφ) detected by the incoherent scatter radar at Jicamarca, Peru. While the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the model predicted observed ratios of EVS/IEF. During intervals of northward IMF, EJφ turned westward suggesting that a northward IMF BZ system of field-aligned currents affected the electrodynamics of the dayside ionosphere on rapid time scales.

  12. Electrical characteristics of Graphene based Field Effect Transistor (GFET) biosensor for ADH detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajan, Reena Sri; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2017-08-01

    First pristine graphene was successfully produced by mechanical exfoliation and electrically characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at University of Manchester. Since its discovery in 2004, graphene also known as `super' material that has enticed many researchers and engineers to explore its potential in ultrasensitive detection of analytes in biosensing applications. Among myriad reported sensors, biosensors based on field effect transistors (FETs) have attracted much attention. Thus, implementing graphene as conducting channel material hastens the opportunities for production of ultrasensitive biosensors for future device applications. Herein, we have reported electrical characteristics of graphene based field effect transistor (GFET) for ADH detection. GFET was modelled and simulated using Lumerical DEVICE charge transport solver (DEVICE CT). Electrical characteristics comprising of transfer and output characteristics curves are reported in this study. The device shows ambipolar curve and achieved a minimum conductivity of 0.23912 e5A at Dirac point. However, the curve shifts to the left and introduces significant changes in the minimum conductivity as drain voltage is increased. Output characteristics of GFET exhibits linear Id - Vd dependence characteristics for gate voltage ranging from 0 to 1.5 V. In addition, behavior of electrical transport through GFET was analyzed for various simulation temperatures. It clearly proves that the electrical transport in GFET is dependent on the simulation temperature as it may vary the maximum resistance in channel of the device. Therefore, this unique electrical characteristics of GFET makes it as a promising candidate for ultrasensitive detection of small biomolecules such as ADH in biosensing applications.

  13. Wireless Fluid-Level Sensors for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic-field-response sensors have been developed for use in measuring levels of fluids under extreme conditions. The sensors work without wire connections or direct physical contact with power sources, microprocessors, data-acquisition equipment, or electrical circuitry. For fuel-level sensors, the absence of wire connections offers an important safety advantage in elimination of potential ignition sources.

  14. Manipulation of positron orbits in a dipole magnetic field with fluctuating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, H.; Horn-Stanja, J.; Nißl, S.; Stenson, E. V.; Hergenhahn, U.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Singer, M.; Dickmann, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Stoneking, M. R.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the manipulation of positron orbits in a toroidal dipole magnetic field configuration realized with electric fields generated by segmented electrodes. When the toroidal circulation motion of positrons in the dipole field is coupled with time-varying electric fields generated by azimuthally segmented outer electrodes, positrons undergo oscillations of their radial positions. This enables quick manipulation of the spatial profiles of positrons in a dipole field trap by choosing appropriate frequency, amplitude, phase, and gating time of the electric fields. According to numerical orbit analysis, we applied these electric fields to positrons injected from the NEPOMUC slow positron facility into a prototype dipole field trap experiment with a permanent magnet. Measurements with annihilation γ-rays clearly demonstrated the efficient compression effects of positrons into the strong magnetic field region of the dipole field configuration. This positron manipulation technique can be used as one of essential tools for future experiments on the formation of electron-positron plasmas.

  15. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  16. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

  17. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1995-01-31

    A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figs.

  18. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  19. Three Dimensional Distribution of Sensitive Field and Stress Field Inversion of Force Sensitive Materials under Constant Current Excitation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuanfeng; Liu, Min; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2018-02-28

    Force sensitive conductive composite materials are functional materials which can be used as the sensitive material of force sensors. However, the existing sensors only use one-dimensional electrical properties of force sensitive conductive materials. Even in tactile sensors, the measurement of contact pressure is achieved by large-scale arrays and the units of a large-scale array are also based on the one-dimensional electrical properties of force sensitive materials. The main contribution of this work is to study the three-dimensional electrical properties and the inversion method of three-dimensional stress field of a force sensitive material (conductive rubber), which pushes the application of force sensitive material from one dimensional to three-dimensional. First, the mathematical model of the conductive rubber current field distribution under a constant force is established by the effective medium theory, and the current field distribution model of conductive rubber with different geometry, conductive rubber content and conductive rubber relaxation parameters is deduced. Secondly, the inversion method of the three-dimensional stress field of conductive rubber is established, which provides a theoretical basis for the design of a new tactile sensor, three-dimensional stress field and space force based on force sensitive materials.

  20. Magnetic Sensors with Picotesla Magnetic Field Sensitivity at Room Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    such small fields require cryogenic cooling such as SQUID sensors, require sophisticated detection systems such as atomic magnetometers and fluxgate ... magnetometers , or have large size and poor low frequency performance such as coil systems. [3-7] The minimum detectable field (the field noise times...Kingdon, "Development of a Combined EMI/ Magnetometer Sensor for UXO Detection," Proc. Symposium on the Applications of Geophysics to Environmental and

  1. Relationship of the interplanetary electric field to the high-latitude ionospheric electric field and currents Observations and model simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere is studied. The coupling is analyzed using observations of high-latitude ion convection measured by the Sondre Stromfjord radar in Greenland and a computer simulation. The computer simulation calculates the ionospheric electric potential distribution for a given configuration of field-aligned currents and conductivity distribution. The technique for measuring F-region in velocities at high time resolution over a large range of latitudes is described. Variations in the currents on ionospheric plasma convection are examined using a model of field-aligned currents linking the solar wind with the dayside, high-latitude ionosphere. The data reveal that high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns, electric fields, and field-aligned currents are dependent on IMF orientation; it is observed that the electric field, which drives the F-region plasma curve, responds within about 14 minutes to IMF variations in the magnetopause. Comparisons of the simulated plasma convection with the ion velocity measurements reveal good correlation between the data.

  2. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  3. Beyond 2D: Parallel Electric Fields and Dissipation in Guide Field Reconnectio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R.; Ahmadi, N.; Goodrich, K.; Eriksson, S.; Shimoda, E.; Burch, J. L.; Phan, T.; Torbert, R. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; Giles, B. L.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, NASA launched the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study phenomenon of magnetic reconnection down to the electron scale. Advantages of MMS include a 20s spin period and long axial booms, which together allow for measurement of 3-D electric fields with accuracy down to 1 mV/m. During the two dayside phases of the prime mission, MMS has observed multiple electron and ion diffusion region events at the Earth's subsolar and flank magnetopause, as well as in the magnetosheath, providing an option to study both symmetric and asymmetric reconnection at a variety of guide field strengths. We present a review of parallel electric fields observed by MMS during diffusion region events, and discuss their implications for simulations and laboratory observations of reconnection. We find that as the guide field increases, the dissipation in the diffusion region transitions from being due to currents and fields perpendicular to the background magnetic field, to being associated with parallel electric fields and currents. Additionally, the observed parallel electric fields are significantly larger than those predicted by simulations of reconnection under strong guide field conditions.

  4. Cloaking magnetic field and generating electric field with topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin

    2017-12-01

    When an electric field is applied on a topological insulator, not only the electric field is generated, but also the magnetic field is generated, vice versa. I designed topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer magnetic cloak, derived the electric field and magnetic field inside and outside the topological insulator and superconductor sphere. Simulation and calculation results show that the applied magnetic field is screened by the topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer, and the electric field is generated in the cloaked region.

  5. Range-gated field disturbance sensor with range-sensitivity compensation

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-28

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudorandomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. 8 figs.

  6. Range-gated field disturbance sensor with range-sensitivity compensation

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudorandomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies.

  7. A New Electric Field in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P.; Ruffolo, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important plasma process that drives the dynamics of the plasma in the magnetosphere and plays a crucial role in the interaction between magnetospheric and magnetosheath plasma. It has been shown that when a reconnection occurs in a collisionless plasma, it exhibits the Hall electric field, an in-plane electric field structure pointing toward the X-line. In this work, we show that when the reconnection has asymmetric inflow conditions such as the reconnection at the day-side magnetopause, a new in-plane electric field structure can exist. This electric field points away from the X-line and is distinct from the known Hall electric field. We argue that the origin of the electric field is associated with the physics of finite Larmor radius. A theory and predictions of the electric field properties are presented and backed up by results from fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of asymmetric reconnection with various inflow conditions. Under normal day-side reconnection inflow conditions, the electric field is expected to occur on the magnetospheric side of the X-line pointing Earthward. Hence, it has a potential to be used as a signature for satellites, such as the upcoming Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission, to locate the reconnection sites at the day-side magnetopause. This research was supported by the postdoctoral research sponsorship of Mahidol University (KM), NSF grants ATM-0645271 - Career Award (MAS) and AGS-0953463 (PAC), NASA grants NNX08A083G - MMS IDS, NNX11AD69G, and NNX13AD72G (MAS) and NNX10AN08A (PAC), and the Thailand Research Fund (DR).

  8. Field Performance of ISFET based Deep Ocean pH Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, C. W.; Murphy, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, ocean pH time series data was acquired from infrequent shipboard grab samples and measured using labor intensive spectrophotometry methods. However, with the introduction of robust and stable ISFET pH sensors for use in ocean applications a paradigm shift in the methods used to acquire long-term pH time series data has occurred. Sea-Bird Scientific played a critical role in the adoption this new technology by commercializing the SeaFET pH sensor and float pH Sensor developed by the MBARI chemical sensor group. Sea-Bird Scientific continues to advance this technology through a concerted effort to improve pH sensor accuracy and reliability by characterizing their performance in the laboratory and field. This presentation will focus on calibration of the ISFET pH sensor, evaluate its analytical performance, and validate performance using recent field data.

  9. Real-Time Field Data Acquisition and Remote Sensor Reconfiguration Using Scientific Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Mehta, G.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.

    2010-12-01

    Despite many technological advances, field data acquisition still consists of several manual and laborious steps. Once sensors and data loggers are deployed in the field, scientists often have to periodically return to their study sites in order to collect their data. Even when field deployments have a way to communicate and transmit data back to the laboratory (e.g. by using a satellite or a cellular modem), data analysis still requires several repetitive steps. Because data often needs to be processed and inspected manually, there is usually a significant time delay between data collection and analysis. As a result, sensor failures that could be detected almost in real-time are not noted for weeks or months. Finally, sensor reconfiguration as a result of interesting events in the field is still done manually, making rapid response nearly impossible and causing important data to be missed. By working closely with scientists from different application domains, we identified several tasks that, if automated, could greatly improve the way field data is collected, processed, and distributed. Our goals are to enable real-time data collection and validation, automate sensor reconfiguration in response to interest events in the field, and allow scientists to easily automate their data processing. We began our design by employing the Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN) architecture. SPAN uses an embedded processor in the field to coordinate sensor data acquisition from analog and digital sensors by interfacing with different types of devices and data loggers. SPAN is also able to interact with various types of communication devices in order to provide real-time communication to and from field sites. We use the Pegasus Workflow Management System (Pegasus WMS) to coordinate data collection and control sensors and deployments in the field. Because scientific workflows can be used to automate multi-step, repetitive tasks, scientists can create simple workflows to

  10. Photon small-field measurements with a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    PubMed

    Spang, F Jiménez; Rosenberg, I; Hedin, E; Royle, G

    2015-06-07

    In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors for the measurement of small photon beams is presented. The detector used consisted of an array of 520  × 520 pixels on a 25 µm pitch. Dosimetric parameters measured with this sensor were compared with data collected with an ionization chamber, a film detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The sensor performance for beam profiles measurements was evaluated for field sizes of 0.5  × 0.5 cm(2). The high spatial resolution achieved with this sensor allowed the accurate measurement of profiles, beam penumbrae and field size under lateral electronic disequilibrium. Field size and penumbrae agreed within 5.4% and 2.2% respectively with film measurements. Agreements with ionization chambers better than 1.0% were obtained when measuring tissue-phantom ratios. Output factor measurements were in good agreement with ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. The data obtained from this imaging sensor can be easily analyzed to extract dosimetric information. The results presented in this work are promising for the development and implementation of CMOS active pixel sensors for dosimetry applications.

  11. Shape Biased Low Power Spin Dependent Tunneling Magnetic Field Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondra, Mark; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Dexin; Nordman, Cathy; Anderson, John

    2001-10-01

    Spin Dependent Tunneling (SDT) devices are leading candidates for inclusion in a number of Unattended Ground Sensor applications. Continued progress at NVE has pushed their performance to 1OOs of pT I rt. Hz 1 Hz. However, these sensors were designed to use an applied field from an on-chip coil to create an appropriate magnetic sensing configuration. The power required to generate this field (^100mW) is significantly greater than the power budget (^lmW) for a magnetic sensor in an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) application. Consequently, a new approach to creating an ideal sensing environment is required. One approach being used at NVE is "shape biasing." This means that the physical layout of the SDT sensing elements is such that the magnetization of the sensing film is correct even when no biasing field is applied. Sensors have been fabricated using this technique and show reasonable promise for UGS applications. Some performance trade-offs exist. The power is easily tinder 1 MW, but the sensitivity is typically lower by a factor of 10. This talk will discuss some of the design details of these sensors as well as their expected ultimate performance.

  12. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  13. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  14. Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Benjamin M; Sun, Kai; Zeimpekis, Ioannis; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Green, Nicolas G

    2017-11-06

    Field-Effect Transistor sensors (FET-sensors) have been receiving increasing attention for biomolecular sensing over the last two decades due to their potential for ultra-high sensitivity sensing, label-free operation, cost reduction and miniaturisation. Whilst the commercial application of FET-sensors in pH sensing has been realised, their commercial application in biomolecular sensing (termed BioFETs) is hindered by poor understanding of how to optimise device design for highly reproducible operation and high sensitivity. In part, these problems stem from the highly interdisciplinary nature of the problems encountered in this field, in which knowledge of biomolecular-binding kinetics, surface chemistry, electrical double layer physics and electrical engineering is required. In this work, a quantitative analysis and critical review has been performed comparing literature FET-sensor data for pH-sensing with data for sensing of biomolecular streptavidin binding to surface-bound biotin systems. The aim is to provide the first systematic, quantitative comparison of BioFET results for a single biomolecular analyte, specifically streptavidin, which is the most commonly used model protein in biosensing experiments, and often used as an initial proof-of-concept for new biosensor designs. This novel quantitative and comparative analysis of the surface potential behaviour of a range of devices demonstrated a strong contrast between the trends observed in pH-sensing and those in biomolecule-sensing. Potential explanations are discussed in detail and surface-chemistry optimisation is shown to be a vital component in sensitivity-enhancement. Factors which can influence the response, yet which have not always been fully appreciated, are explored and practical suggestions are provided on how to improve experimental design.

  15. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design.

  16. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design. PMID:27563908

  17. Dynamics of vesicles in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovska, Petia; Gracia, Ruben

    2007-11-01

    Electromechanical forces are widely used for cell manipulation. Knowledge of the physical mechanisms underlying the interaction of cells and external fields is essential for practical applications. Vesicles are model cells made of a lipid bilayer membrane. They are examples of ``soft'' particles, i.e., their shape when subjected to flow or electric field is not given a priori but it is governed by the balance of membrane, fluid and electrical stresses. This generic ``softness'' gives rise to a very complex vesicle dynamics in external fields. In an AC electric field, as the frequency is increased, vesicles filled with a fluid less conducting than the surrounding fluid undergo shape transition from prolate to oblate ellipsoids. The opposite effect is observed with drops. We present an electro- hydrodynamic theory based on the leaky dielectric model that quantitatively describes experimental observations. We compare drops and vesicles, and show how their distinct behavior stems from different interfacial properties.

  18. Evaluation of excitation strategy with multi-plane electrical capacitance tomography sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Mingxu; Ye, Jiamin; Wang, Haigang; Zhang, Jiaolong; Yang, Wuqiang

    2016-11-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an imaging technique for measuring the permittivity change of materials. Using a multi-plane ECT sensor, three-dimensional (3D) distribution of permittivity may be represented. In this paper, three excitation strategies, including single-electrode excitation, dual-electrode excitation in the same plane, and dual-electrode excitation in different planes are investigated by numerical simulation and experiment for two three-plane ECT sensors with 12 electrodes in total. In one sensor, the electrodes on the middle plane are in line with the others. In the other sensor, they are rotated 45° with reference to the other two planes. A linear back projection algorithm is used to reconstruct the images and a correlation coefficient is used to evaluate the image quality. The capacitance data and sensitivity distribution with each measurement strategy and sensor model are analyzed. Based on simulation and experimental results using noise-free and noisy capacitance data, the performance of the three strategies is evaluated.

  19. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.

  20. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-19

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.

  1. A Compact Microwave Microfluidic Sensor Using a Re-Entrant Cavity.

    PubMed

    Hamzah, Hayder; Abduljabar, Ali; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2018-03-19

    A miniaturized 2.4 GHz re-entrant cavity has been designed, manufactured and tested as a sensor for microfluidic compositional analysis. It has been fully evaluated experimentally with water and common solvents, namely methanol, ethanol, and chloroform, with excellent agreement with the expected behaviour predicted by the Debye model. The sensor's performance has also been assessed for analysis of segmented flow using water and oil. The samples' interaction with the electric field in the gap region has been maximized by aligning the sample tube parallel to the electric field in this region, and the small width of the gap (typically 1 mm) result in a highly localised complex permittivity measurement. The re-entrant cavity has simple mechanical geometry, small size, high quality factor, and due to the high concentration of electric field in the gap region, a very small mode volume. These factors combine to result in a highly sensitive, compact sensor for both pure liquids and liquid mixtures in capillary or microfluidic environments.

  2. Enhanced Fair-Weather Electric Fields Soon After Sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Rust, W. D.; Stolzenburg, M.; Roeder, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The typical fair weather electric field at the ground is between -100 and -300 V/m. At the NASA Kennedy Space Center and US Air Force Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC) the electric field at the ground sometimes reaches -400 to -1200 V/m within an hour or two after sunrise on days that otherwise seem to be fair weather. We refer to the enhanced negative electric fields as the "sunrise enhancement." To investigate the sunrise enhancement at KSC we measured the electric field (E) in the first few hundred meters above the ground before and during several sunrise enhancements. From these E soundings we can infer the presence of charge layers and determine their thickness and charge density.

  3. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1), using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  4. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    PubMed Central

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm–1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  5. Quantitative Imaging of Microwave Electric Fields through Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S. K.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, D. E.; Thanawalla, A.; Feenstra, B. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Anlage, Steven M.; Newman, H. S.

    1998-03-01

    The ability to non-destructively image electric field patterns generated by operating microwave devices (e.g. filters, antennas, circulators, etc.) would greatly aid in the design and testing of these structures. Such detailed information can be used to reconcile discrepancies between simulated behavior and experimental data (such as scattering parameters). The near-field scanning microwave microscope we present uses a coaxial probe to provide a simple, broadband method of imaging electric fields.(S. M. Anlage, et al.) IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7, 3686 (1997).^,(See http://www.csr.umd.edu/research/hifreq/micr_microscopy.html) The signal that is measured is related to the incident electric flux normal to the face of the center conductor of the probe, allowing different components of the field to be measured by orienting the probe appropriately. By using a simple model of the system, we can also convert raw data to absolute electric field. Detailed images of standing waves on copper microstrip will be shown and compared to theory.

  6. Field-aligned currents and large-scale magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The existence of field-aligned currents (FAC) at northern and southern high latitudes was confirmed by a number of observations, most clearly by experiments on the TRIAD and ISIS 2 satellites. The high-latitude FAC system is used to relate what is presently known about the large-scale pattern of high-latitude ionospheric electric fields and their relation to solar wind parameters. Recently a simplified model was presented for polar cap electric fields. The model is of considerable help in visualizing the large-scale features of FAC systems. A summary of the FAC observations is given. The simplified model is used to visualize how the FAC systems are driven by their generators.

  7. The Rocket Electric Field Sounding (REFS) program: Prototype design and successful first launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, J. C.; Curtis, D. C.; Driesman, A. R.; Longstreth, R. K.; Rison, W.; Winn, W. P.; Jones, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    The motivation, design, and successful first flight of a sounding rocket to measure profiles of vector electrostatic field in the lower troposphere are described. The design employs eight shutter field mills amd a corona-charging system in a manner similar to aircraft previously instrumented for the measurement of electric fields. A rocket offers significant advantages over an aircraft in simplicity and calibration. A single cylindrical rotor covering most of the payload acts as the shutter for all eight mills in this design. The cylindrical symmetry and circular cross sections of the vehicle facilitate straightforward calibration. Also included in the payload are a pressure sensor, a longitudinal accelerometer, a transverse magnometer, and a novel cloud-penetration detector. A fair-weather test flight at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility demonstrated the workability of the basic design and identified a few necessary modifications.

  8. Field tests of a chemiresistor sensor for in-situ monitoring of vapor-phase contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; McGrath, L.; Wright, J.

    2003-04-01

    An in-situ chemiresistor sensor has been developed that can detect volatile organic compounds in subsurface environmental applications. Several field tests were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to test the reliability, operation, and performance of the in-situ chemiresistor sensor system. The chemiresistor consists of a carbon-loaded polymer deposited onto a microfabricated circuit. The polymer swells reversibly in the presence of volatile organic compounds as vapor-phase molecules absorb into the polymer, causing a change in the electrical resistance of the circuit. The change in resistance can be calibrated to known concentrations of analytes, and arrays of chemiresistors can be used on a single chip to aid in discrimination. A waterproof housing was constructed to allow the chemiresistor to be used in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. The integrated unit, which can be buried in soils or emplaced in wells, is connected via cable to a surface-based solar-powered data logger. A cell-phone modem is used to automatically download the data from the data logger on a periodic basis. The field tests were performed at three locations: (1) Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) Nevada Test Site; and (3) Sandia's Chemical Waste Landfill near Albuquerque, NM. The objectives of the tests were to evaluate the ruggedness, longevity, operation, performance, and engineering requirements of these sensors in actual field settings. Results showed that the sensors could be operated continuously for long periods of time (greater than a year) using remote solar-powered data-logging stations with wireless telemetry. The sensor housing, which was constructed of 304 stainless steel, showed some signs of corrosion when placed in contaminated water for several months, but the overall integrity was maintained. The detection limits of the chemiresistors were generally found to be near 0.1% of the saturated vapor pressure of the target analyte in controlled laboratory conditions (e

  9. A model for polar cap electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1976-01-01

    A model is proposed relating polar cap ionospheric electric fields to the parameters of the solar wind near the orbit of the earth. The model ignores the notion of field line merging. An essential feature is the role played by velocity shear instabilities in regions of the outer magnetosphere, in which mapping of the magnetosheath electric field would produce sunward convection. The anomalous resistivity which arises from velocity shear turbulence, suffices to essentially disconnect the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath, at any place where that resistivity is large enough. The magnetosheath-magnetosphere system, as a consequence, acts as a kind of diode or rectifier for the magnetosheath electric fields. Predictions of the model are compared with several observations related to polar cap convection.

  10. Horizontal electric fields from lightning return strokes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, E.M.; Uman, M.A.; Johnson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements are presented of simultaneous horizontal and vertical electric fields from both close and distant lightning return strokes. The data were obtained during summer 1984 at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, using an electrically isolated spherical antenna having a system bandwidth of 3 Hz to 5 MHz. Lightning signals were obtained from flashes at distances from a few to 100 kilometers. Since the horizontal electric field is in part determined by the local ground conductivity, that parameter was measured as a function of depth. The horizontal fields from lightning return strokes had typically 1/50 the peak amplitude of the verticalmore » fields and waveshapes which were consistant with available theory, as expressed by the ''wavetilt'' formula.« less

  11. Design Optimisation of a Magnetic Field Based Soft Tactile Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Raske, Nicholas; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Culmer, Peter; Hewson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the design optimisation of a magnetic field based soft tactile sensor, comprised of a magnet and Hall effect module separated by an elastomer. The aim was to minimise sensitivity of the output force with respect to the input magnetic field; this was achieved by varying the geometry and material properties. Finite element simulations determined the magnetic field and structural behaviour under load. Genetic programming produced phenomenological expressions describing these responses. Optimisation studies constrained by a measurable force and stable loading conditions were conducted; these produced Pareto sets of designs from which the optimal sensor characteristics were selected. The optimisation demonstrated a compromise between sensitivity and the measurable force, a fabricated version of the optimised sensor validated the improvements made using this methodology. The approach presented can be applied in general for optimising soft tactile sensor designs over a range of applications and sensing modes. PMID:29099787

  12. Electric fields yield chaos in microflows

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan D.; Pérez, Carlos L.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation of chaotic dynamics of a low Reynolds number electrokinetic flow. Electrokinetic flows arise due to couplings of electric fields and electric double layers. In these flows, applied (steady) electric fields can couple with ionic conductivity gradients outside electric double layers to produce flow instabilities. The threshold of these instabilities is controlled by an electric Rayleigh number, Rae. As Rae increases monotonically, we show here flow dynamics can transition from steady state to a time-dependent periodic state and then to an aperiodic, chaotic state. Interestingly, further monotonic increase of Rae shows a transition back to a well-ordered state, followed by a second transition to a chaotic state. Temporal power spectra and time-delay phase maps of low dimensional attractors graphically depict the sequence between periodic and chaotic states. To our knowledge, this is a unique report of a low Reynolds number flow with such a sequence of periodic-to-aperiodic transitions. Also unique is a report of strange attractors triggered and sustained through electric fluid body forces. PMID:22908251

  13. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  14. Electron transport in reduced graphene oxides in high electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wen-Bin; Lai, Jian-Jhong; Wang, Sheng-Tsung; Tsao, Rui-Wen; Su, Min-Chia; Tsai, Wei-Yu; Rosenstein, Baruch; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    Due to a honeycomb structure, charge carriers in graphene exhibit quasiparticles of linear energy-momentum dispersion and phenomena of Schwinger pair creation may be explored. Because graphene is easily broken in high electric fields, single-layer reduced graphene oxides (rGO) are used instead. The rGO shows a small band gap while it reveals a graphene like behavior in high electric fields. Electron transport in rGO exhibits two-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping. The temperature behavior of resistance in low electric fields and the electric field behavior of resistance at low temperatures are all well explained by the Mott model. At temperatures higher than 200 K, the electric field behavior does not agree with the model while it shows a power law behavior with an exponent of 3/2, being in agreement with the Schwinger model. Comparing with graphene, the rGO is more sustainable to high electric field thus presenting a complete high-electric field behavior. When the rGO is gated away from the charge neutral point, the turn-on electric field of Schwinger phenomena is increased. A summary figure is given to present electric field behaviors and power law variations of resistances of single-layer rGO, graphene, and MoS2.

  15. Optical Remote Sensing of Electric Fields Above Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, B. M.; Carlson, B. E.; Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Smith, D.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of thunderstorm electric fields typically require balloon-borne measurements in the region of interest. Such measurements are cumbersome and provide limited information at a single point. Remote sensing of electric fields by Kerr-effect induced optical polarization changes of background skylight circumvents many of these difficulties and can in principle provide a high-speed movie of electric field behavior. Above-thundercloud 100 kV/m quasi-static electric fields are predicted to produce polarization changes at above the part in one million level that should be detectable at a ground instrument featuring 1 cm2sr geometric factor and 1 kHz bandwidth (though more sensitivity is nonetheless desired). Currently available optical and electronic components may meet these requirements. We review the principles of this measurement and discuss the current status of a field-ready prototype instrument currently in construction.

  16. Colloidal particle electrorotation in a nonuniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Vlahovska, Petia M.; Miksis, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A model to study the dynamics of colloidal particles in nonuniform electric fields is proposed. For an isolated sphere, the conditions and threshold for sustained (Quincke) rotation in a linear direct current (dc) field are determined. Particle dynamics becomes more complex with increasing electric field strength, changing from steady spinning around the particle center to time-dependent orbiting motion around the minimum field location. Pairs of particles exhibit intricate trajectories, which are a combination of translation, due to dielectrophoresis, and rotation, due to the Quincke effect. Our model provides a basis to study the collective dynamics of many particles in a general electric field.

  17. Colloidal particle electrorotation in a nonuniform electric field.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Vlahovska, Petia M; Miksis, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    A model to study the dynamics of colloidal particles in nonuniform electric fields is proposed. For an isolated sphere, the conditions and threshold for sustained (Quincke) rotation in a linear direct current (dc) field are determined. Particle dynamics becomes more complex with increasing electric field strength, changing from steady spinning around the particle center to time-dependent orbiting motion around the minimum field location. Pairs of particles exhibit intricate trajectories, which are a combination of translation, due to dielectrophoresis, and rotation, due to the Quincke effect. Our model provides a basis to study the collective dynamics of many particles in a general electric field.

  18. Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields Derived from IMAGE EUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    The local and global patterns of plasmaspheric plasma transport reflect the influence of electric fields imposed by all sources in the inner magnetosphere. Image sequences of thermal plasma G:istribution obtained from the IMAGE Mission Extreme Ultraviolet Imager can be used to derive plasma motions and, using a magnetic field model, the corresponding electric fields. These motions and fields directly reflect the dynamic coupling of injected plasmasheet plasma and the ionosphere, in addition to solar wind and atmospheric drivers. What is being learned about the morphology of inner magnetospheric electric fields during storm and quite conditions from this new empirical tool will be presented and discussed.

  19. Photodetachment dynamics in a time-dependent oscillating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De-hua; Xu, Qin-feng; Du, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Using the time-dependent form of closed orbit theory, as developed by Haggerty and Delos [M.R. Haggerty, J.B. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 61, 053406 (2000)], and by Yang and Robicheaux [B.C. Yang, F. Robicheaux, Phys. Rev. A 93, 053413 (2016)], we study the photodetachment dynamics of a hydrogen negative ion in a time-dependent oscillating electric field. Compared to the photodetachment in a static electric field, the photodetachment dynamics of a negative ion in the time-dependent oscillating electric field become much more complicated but more interesting. Since the applied electric field is oscillating with time, the photodetachment cross section of the negative ion in the oscillating electric field is time-dependent. In a time-dependent framework, we put forward an analytical formula for calculating the instantaneous photodetachment cross section of this system. Our study suggests that the instantaneous photodetachment cross section exhibits oscillatory structure, which depends sensitively on the frequency of the oscillating electric field. With increasing frequency of the oscillating electric field, the number of closed orbits increases and the oscillatory structure in the photodetachment cross section becomes much more complicated. The connection between the detached electron's closed orbit with the oscillating cross section is analyzed quantitatively. This study provides a clear and intuitive picture for the photodetachment processes of a negative ion in the presence of an oscillating electric field. We hope that our work will be useful in guiding future experimental research.

  20. On the electric field model for an open magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhi; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Walker, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new canonical separator line type magnetospheric magnetic field and electric field model for use in magnetospheric calculations, we determine the magnetic and electric field by controlling the reconnection rate at the subsolar magnetopause. The model is applicable only for purely southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We have obtained a more realistic magnetotail configuration by applying a stretch transformation to an axially symmetric field solution. We also discuss the Stern singularity in which there is an electric field singlarity in the canonical separate line models for B(sub y) not = to 0 by using a new technique that solves for the electric field along a field line directly instead of determining it by a potential mapping. The singularity not only causes an infinite electric field on the polar cap, but also causes the boundary conditions at plus infinity and minus infinity in the solar wind to contradict each other. This means that the canonical separator line models do not represent the open magnetosphere well, except for the case of purely southward IMF.

  1. GROUNDWATER AND SOIL REMEDIATION USING ELECTRICAL FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancements of contaminants removal and degradation in low permeability soils by electrical fields are achieved by the processes of electrical heating, electrokinetics, and electrochemical reactions. Electrical heating increases soil temperature resulting in the increase of cont...

  2. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  3. Field distribution and DNA transport in solid tumors during electric field-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Joshua W; Yuan, Fan

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential in cancer treatment. However, the efficacy of cancer gene therapy is currently limited by the lack of a safe and efficient means to deliver therapeutic genes into the nucleus of tumor cells. One method under investigation for improving local gene delivery is based on the use of pulsed electric field. Despite repeated demonstration of its effectiveness in vivo, the underlying mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery remain largely unknown. Without a thorough understanding of these mechanisms, it will be difficult to further advance the gene delivery. In this review, the electric field-mediated gene delivery in solid tumors will be examined by following individual transport processes that must occur in vivo for a successful gene transfer. The topics of examination include: (i) major barriers for gene delivery in the body, (ii) distribution of electric fields at both cell and tissue levels during the application of external fields, and (iii) electric field-induced transport of genes across each of the barriers. Through this approach, the review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery and what require further investigations in future studies.

  4. Micromechanical Devices to Reduce 1/f Noise in Magnetic Field and Electric Charge Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Gerardo

    1/f noise is present in every aspect of nature. Sensors and read-out electronics have the ultimate detection limit set by the noise floor of the white noise. In order to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of low frequency signals buried by high 1/f noise, the signal can be up-converted to a high frequency signal that lies in the lower white noise regime of the sensing device. Mechanical modulation can be employed to move low frequency electronic signals to higher frequency region through the use of microresonators. This thesis has two goals: (1) develop and fabricate a hybrid micromechanical-magnetoresistive magnetic field sensor; and (2) design an electrometer to measure currents collected from air streams containing ionized nano-particles. First, we designed magnetoresistive-microelectromechanical systems (MR-MEMS) hybrid devices based on the monolithic integration of magnetic thin films and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MEMS fabrication techniques. We used MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) placed on a bulk micromachined silicon MEMS device to form a hybrid sensing device. The MEMS device was used to mechanically modulate the magnetic field signal detected by the MTJ, thereby reducing the effects of 1/f noise on the MTJ's output. Two actuator designs were investigated: cantilever and electrostatic comb-drive. The second component of the thesis presents a MEMS-based electrometer for the detection of small currents from ionized particles in a particle detection system for air-quality monitoring. One method of particle detection ionizes particles and then feeds a stream of charged particles into a Faraday cup electrometer. We replaced the Faraday cup with a filtering porous mesh sensing-electrode coupled to a MEMS electrometer with a noise floor below 1 fA rms. Experiments were conducted with fA level currents produced by 10 nm diameter particles within an airflow of 1.0 L/min. The MEMS electrometer was compared and calibrated using commercial electrometers

  5. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  6. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed. PMID:25232915

  7. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  8. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  9. Lunar Electric Fields: Observations and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Alhough the Moon is typically thought of as having a relatively dormant environment, it is in fact very electrically active. The lunar surface, not protected by any substantial atmosphere, is directly exposed to solar UV and X-rays as well as solar wind plasma and energetic particles. This creates a complex electrodynamic environment, with the surface typically charging positive in sunlight and negative in shadow, and surface potentials varying over orders of magnitude in response to changing solar illumination and plasma conditions. Observations from the Apollo era and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that surface charging also drives dust electrification and horizontal and vertical dust transport. We present a survey of the lunar electric field environment, utilizing both newly interpreted Lunar Prospector (LP) orbital observations and older Apollo surface observations, and comparing to theoretical predictions. We focus in particular on time periods when the most significant surface charging was observed by LP - namely plasmasheet crossings (when the Moon is in the Earth's magnetosphere) and space weather events. During these time periods, kV-scale potentials are observed, and enhanced surface electric fields can be expected to drive significant horizontal and vertical dust transport. Both dust and electric fields can have serious effects on habitability and operation of machinery, so understanding the coupled dust-plasma-electric field system around the Moon is critically important for planning exploration efforts, in situ resource utilization, and scientific observations on the lunar surface. Furthermore, from a pure science perspective, this represents an excellent opportunity to study fundamental surface-plasma interactions.

  10. Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews published literature and current problems relating to the assessment of occupational and residential human exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Available occupational exposure data suggest that the class of job titles known as electrical workers may be an effective surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) magnetic-field (but not electric-field) exposure. Current research in occupational-exposure assessment is directed to the construction of job-exposure matrices based on electric- and magnetic-field measurements and estimates of worker exposures to chemicals and other factors of interest. Recent work has identified five principal sources of residential magnetic fields: electric power transmission lines, electric power distribution lines, ground currents, home wiring, and home appliances. Existing residential-exposure assessments have used one or more of the following techniques: questionnaires, wiring configuration coding, theoretical field calculations, spot electric- and magnetic-field measurements, fixed-site magnetic-field recordings, personal- exposure measurements, and geomagnetic-field measurements. Available normal-power magnetic-field data for residences differ substantially between studies. It is not known if these differences are due to geographical differences, differences in measurement protocols, or instrumentation differences. Wiring codes and measured magnetic fields (but not electric fields) are associated weakly. Available data suggest, but are far from proving, that spot measurements may be more effective than wire codes as predictors of long-term historical magnetic-field exposure. Two studies find that away-from-home TWA magnetic-field exposures are less variable than at-home exposures. The importance of home appliances as contributors to total residential magnetic-field exposure is not known at this time. It also is not known what characteristics (if any) of residential electric and magnetic fields are

  11. A Novel High Sensitivity Sensor for Remote Field Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing Based on Orthogonal Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojie; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Zhanbin; Jia, Yueling

    2014-01-01

    Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors' disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted. PMID:25615738

  12. Electric Field Simulation of Surge Capacitors with Typical Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Mao, Yuxiang; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The electric field of power capacitors with different typical defects in DC working condition and impulse oscillation working condition is studied in this paper. According to the type and location of defects and considering the influence of space charge, two-dimensional models of surge capacitors with different typical defects are simulated based on ANSYS. The distribution of the electric field inside the capacitor is analyzed, and the concentration of electric field and its influence on the insulation performance are obtained. The results show that the type of defects, the location of defects and the space charge all affect the electric field distribution inside the capacitor in varying degrees. Especially the electric field distortion in the local area such as sharp corners and burrs is relatively larger, which increases the probability of partial discharge inside the surge capacitor.

  13. Sensor for detecting changes in magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1981-01-01

    A sensor for detecting changes in the magnetic field of the equilibrium-field coil of a Tokamak plasma device comprises a pair of bifilar wires disposed circumferentially, one inside and one outside the equilibrium-field coil. Each is shorted at one end. The difference between the voltages detected at the other ends of the bifilar wires provides a measure of changing flux in the equilibrium-field coil. This difference can be used to detect faults in the coil in time to take action to protect the coil.

  14. Electric Field Screening with Backflow at Pulsar Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Asano, Katsuaki; Terasawa, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Recent γ-ray observations suggest that particle acceleration occurs at the outer region of the pulsar magnetosphere. The magnetic field lines in the outer acceleration region (OAR) are connected to the neutron star surface (NSS). If copious electron-positron pairs are produced near the NSS, such pairs flow into the OAR and screen the electric field there. To activate the OAR, the electromagnetic cascade due to the electric field near the NSS should be suppressed. However, since a return current is expected along the field lines through the OAR, the outflow extracted from the NSS alone cannot screen the electric field just above the NSS. In this paper, we analytically and numerically study the electric field screening at the NSS, taking into account the effects of the backflowing particles from the OAR. In certain limited cases, the electric field is screened without significant pair cascade if only ultra-relativistic particles (γ \\gg 1) flow back to the NSS. On the other hand, if electron-positron pairs with a significant number density and mildly relativistic temperature, expected to distribute in a wide region of the magnetosphere, flow back to the NSS, these particles adjust the current and charge densities so that the electric field can be screened without pair cascade. We obtain the condition needed for the number density of particles to screen the electric field at the NSS. We also find that in the ion-extracted case from the NSS, bunches of particles are ejected to the outer region quasi-periodically, which is a possible mechanism of observed radio emission.

  15. Hybrid MEFPI/FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mao-qing; Zhao, Yong; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-12-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensor consisting of a micro extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (MEFPI) and an etched fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed, which can measure strain and magnetic field simultaneously. The etched FBG is sealed in a capillary with ferrofluids to detect the surrounding magnetic field. FBG with small diameter will be more sensitive to magnetic field is confirmed by simulation results. The MEFPI sensor that is prepared through welding a short section of hollow-core fiber (HCF) with single-mode fiber (SMF) is effective for strain detection. The experiment shows that strain and magnetic field can be successfully simultaneously detected based on hybrid MEFPI/FBG sensor. The sensitivities of the strain and magnetic field intensity are measured to be up to 1.41 pm/με and 5.11 pm/mT respectively. There is a negligible effect on each other, hence simultaneously measuring strain and magnetic field is feasible. It is anticipated that such easy preparation, compact and low-cost fiber-optic sensors for simultaneous measurement of strain and magnetic field could find important applications in practice.

  16. A Comparison of Inductive Sensors in the Characterization of Partial Discharges and Electrical Noise Using the Chromatic Technique.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Montaña, Johny; de Castro, Bruno Albuquerque; Schurch, Roger; Covolan Ulson, José Alfredo; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Bani, Nurul Aini

    2018-03-29

    Partial discharges (PDs) are one of the most important classes of ageing processes that occur within electrical insulation. PD detection is a standardized technique to qualify the state of the insulation in electric assets such as machines and power cables. Generally, the classical phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD) patterns are used to perform the identification of the type of PD source when they are related to a specific degradation process and when the electrical noise level is low compared to the magnitudes of the PD signals. However, in practical applications such as measurements carried out in the field or in industrial environments, several PD sources and large noise signals are usually present simultaneously. In this study, three different inductive sensors have been used to evaluate and compare their performance in the detection and separation of multiple PD sources by applying the chromatic technique to each of the measured signals.

  17. A Comparison of Inductive Sensors in the Characterization of Partial Discharges and Electrical Noise Using the Chromatic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Montaña, Johny; Schurch, Roger; Covolan Ulson, José Alfredo; Bani, Nurul Aini

    2018-01-01

    Partial discharges (PDs) are one of the most important classes of ageing processes that occur within electrical insulation. PD detection is a standardized technique to qualify the state of the insulation in electric assets such as machines and power cables. Generally, the classical phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD) patterns are used to perform the identification of the type of PD source when they are related to a specific degradation process and when the electrical noise level is low compared to the magnitudes of the PD signals. However, in practical applications such as measurements carried out in the field or in industrial environments, several PD sources and large noise signals are usually present simultaneously. In this study, three different inductive sensors have been used to evaluate and compare their performance in the detection and separation of multiple PD sources by applying the chromatic technique to each of the measured signals. PMID:29596337

  18. Electric Field Detection in Sawfish and Shovelnose Rays

    PubMed Central

    Wueringer, Barbara E.; Jnr, Lyle Squire; Kajiura, Stephen M.; Tibbetts, Ian R.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2012-01-01

    In the aquatic environment, living organisms emit weak dipole electric fields, which spread in the surrounding water. Elasmobranchs detect these dipole electric fields with their highly sensitive electroreceptors, the ampullae of Lorenzini. Freshwater sawfish, Pristis microdon, and two species of shovelnose rays, Glaucostegus typus and Aptychotrema rostrata were tested for their reactions towards weak artificial electric dipole fields. The comparison of sawfishes and shovelnose rays sheds light on the evolution and function of the elongated rostrum (‘saw’) of sawfish, as both groups evolved from a shovelnose ray-like ancestor. Electric stimuli were presented both on the substrate (to mimic benthic prey) and suspended in the water column (to mimic free-swimming prey). Analysis of around 480 behavioural sequences shows that all three species are highly sensitive towards weak electric dipole fields, and initiate behavioural responses at median field strengths between 5.15 and 79.6 nVcm−1. The response behaviours used by sawfish and shovelnose rays depended on the location of the dipoles. The elongation of the sawfish’s rostrum clearly expanded their electroreceptive search area into the water column and enables them to target free-swimming prey. PMID:22848543

  19. Electric-field control of magnetic moment in Pd

    PubMed Central

    Obinata, Aya; Hibino, Yuki; Hayakawa, Daichi; Koyama, Tomohiro; Miwa, Kazumoto; Ono, Shimpei; Chiba, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Several magnetic properties have recently become tunable with an applied electric field. Particularly, electrically controlled magnetic phase transitions and/or magnetic moments have attracted attention because they are the most fundamental parameters in ferromagnetic materials. In this study, we showed that an electric field can be used to control the magnetic moment in films made of Pd, usually a non-magnetic element. Pd ultra-thin films were deposited on ferromagnetic Pt/Co layers. In the Pd layer, a ferromagnetically ordered magnetic moment was induced by the ferromagnetic proximity effect. By applying an electric field to the ferromagnetic surface of this Pd layer, a clear change was observed in the magnetic moment, which was measured directly using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The results indicate that magnetic moments extrinsically induced in non-magnetic elements by the proximity effect, as well as an intrinsically induced magnetic moments in ferromagnetic elements, as reported previously, are electrically tunable. The results of this study suggest a new avenue for answering the fundamental question of “can an electric field make naturally non-magnetic materials ferromagnetic?” PMID:26391306

  20. Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.

    PubMed

    Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-04-30

    The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-07-01

    We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications.

  2. Dynamics analysis of extraction of manganese intensified by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenrui; Tao, Changyuan; Li, Huizhan; Liu, Zuohua; Liu, Renlong

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a process reinforcement technology for leaching process of pyrolusite was developed. The electric field was introduced to decrease reaction temperature and improve the leaching rate of pyrolusite. The mechanisms of electric field intensifying leaching process of pyrolusite were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) in detail. The results showed that the electric field could decrease obviously the apparent activation energy of leaching process of pyrolusite. The apparent activation energy of the leaching of pyrolusite intensified by electric field was calculated to be 53.76 kJ.mol-1. In addition, the leaching efficiency of manganese was effectively increased by 10% to 20% than that without electric field under the same conditions. This was because that the electron conduit between Fe (II)/Fe (III) and pyrite was dredged effectively by electric field.

  3. Electric-field driven jetting from dielectric liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasinghe, S. N.; Edirisinghe, M. J.

    2004-11-01

    Three dielectric (electrical conductivity ˜10-13Sm-1) Newtonian liquids with viscosity in the range 1-100 mPa s were passed through a needle at a controlled flow rate under the influence of an electric field. At an electric field strength of 1.5kV/mm, the liquid exiting the needle instantaneously transformed from dripping droplets to an elliptically pendent droplet from the apex of which a fine jet evolved. Thus, a jet can be obtained on demand, and in this letter we define this phenomenon and explain a basis for it.

  4. Directed Field Ionization: A Genetic Algorithm for Evolving Electric Field Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xinyue; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    When an ionizing electric field pulse is applied to a Rydberg atom, the electron's amplitude traverses many avoided crossings among the Stark levels as the field increases. The resulting superposition determines the shape of the time resolved field ionization spectrum at a detector. An engineered electric field pulse that sweeps back and forth through avoided crossings can control the phase evolution so as to determine the electron's path through the Stark map. In the region of n = 35 in rubidium there are hundreds of potential avoided crossings; this yields a large space of possible pulses. We use a genetic algorithm to search this space and evolve electric field pulses to direct the ionization of the Rydberg electron in rubidium. We present the algorithm along with a comparison of simulated and experimental results. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.

  5. DC Electric Fields at the Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.; Escoubet, C. P.; Masson, A.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand the transfer of energy, momentum and mass through the magnetopause one needs to know several plasma and field parameters including the DC electric field which is known to be challenging to measure in tenuous plasma regions, e.g. in the inner side of the magnetopause where the density drops below 1/cc. However, each of the Cluster spacecraft carries five different experiments that can provide information about DC electric fields, i.e. double probe antenna (EFW) and electron drift meter (EDI) as well as electron and ion spectrometers (PEACE, CIS-HIA, CIS-CODIF). Each technique is very different and has its own strengths and limitations. Therefore it is important to compare all available measurements before making a judgement on DC electric field variation at the magnetopause; note that only very rarely all five measurements are available at the same time. Although the full-resolution observations in the Cluster archive are calibrated, they can still contain various errors. However, when two experiments show the same field, it is quite likely that this is the right field because the different measurements are based on so complimentary techniques and the field varies so much when the spacecraft moves from the magnetosheath through the magnetopause into the magnetosphere, or vice versa. In this presentation we present several cases of the magnetopause crossings and how the different measurements agree and disagree around the magnetopause region.

  6. Molecules with an induced dipole moment in a stochastic electric field.

    PubMed

    Band, Y B; Ben-Shimol, Y

    2013-10-01

    The mean-field dynamics of a molecule with an induced dipole moment (e.g., a homonuclear diatomic molecule) in a deterministic and a stochastic (fluctuating) electric field is solved to obtain the decoherence properties of the system. The average (over fluctuations) electric dipole moment and average angular momentum as a function of time for a Gaussian white noise electric field are determined via perturbative and nonperturbative solutions in the fluctuating field. In the perturbative solution, the components of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum along the deterministic electric field direction do not decay to zero, despite fluctuations in all three components of the electric field. This is in contrast to the decay of the average over fluctuations of a magnetic moment in a Gaussian white noise magnetic field. In the nonperturbative solution, the component of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum in the deterministic electric field direction also decay to zero.

  7. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  8. Sensor for detecting changes in magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1980-02-26

    A sensor is described for detecting changes in the magnetic field of the equilibrium-field coil of a Tokamak plasma device that comprises a pair of bifilar wires disposed circumferentially, one inside and one outside the equilibrium-field coil. Each is shorted at one end. The difference between the voltages detected at the other ends of the bifilar wires provides a measure of changing flux in the equilibrium-field coil. This difference can be used to detect faults in the coil in time to take action to protect the coil.

  9. Differentiation of nonferrous metal particles in lubrication oil using an electrical conductivity measurement-based inductive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu; Zhang, Hongpeng; Wang, Man; Chen, Haiquan

    2018-02-01

    A method that measures the electrical conductivity of metal based on monitoring the inductance changes of coils via an inductive sensor is introduced in this work to differentiate metal particles in lubrication oil. Theoretical analysis coupled with experimentation is employed to differentiate varieties of nonferrous metal particles, including copper and aluminum particles, ranging from 860 μm to 880 μm in diameter. The results show that the inductive sensor is capable of the identification and differentiation of nonferrous metal particles in lubrication oil based on the electrical conductivity measurement. The concept demonstrated in this paper can be extended to inductive sensors in metal particle detection and other scientific and industrial applications.

  10. Processes in suspensions of nanocomposite microcapsules exposed to external electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, A. V.; Lomova, M. V.; Kim, V. P.; Chumakov, A. S.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Gorin, D. A.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Microcapsules with and without magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in the polyelectrolyte shell were prepared. The effect of external electric field on the nanocomposite polyelectrolyte microcapsules containing magnetite nanoparticles in the shell was studied in this work as a function of the electric field strength. Effect of electric fields on polyelectrolyte microcapsules and the control over integrity of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with and without inorganic nanoparticles by constant electric field has been investigated. Beads effect, aggregation and deformations of nanocomposite microcapsule shell in response to electric field were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, a new approach for effect on the nanocomposite microcapsule, including opening microcapsule shell by an electric field, was demonstrated. These results can be used for creation of new systems for drug delivery systems with controllable release by external electric field.

  11. Characteristics of DC electric fields in transient plasma sheet events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.; Escoubet, C. P.; Masson, A.

    2015-12-01

    We take an advantage of five different DC electric field measurements in the plasma sheet available from the EFW double probe experiment, EDI electron drift instrument, CODIF and HIA ion spectrometers, and PEACE electron spectrometer on the four Cluster spacecraft. The calibrated observations of the three spectrometers are used to determine the proton and electron velocity moments. The velocity moments can be used to estimate the proton and electron drift velocity and furthermore the DC electric field, assuming that the electron and proton velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field is dominated by the ExB drift motion. Naturally when ions and electrons do not perform a proper drift motion, which can happen in the plasma sheet, the estimated DC electric field from ion and electron motion is not correct. However, surprisingly often the DC electric fields estimated from electron and ion motions are identical suggesting that this field is a real DC electric field around the measurement point. As the measurement techniques are so different, it is quite plausible that when two different measurements yield the same DC electric field, it is the correct field. All five measurements of the DC electric field are usually not simultaneously available, especially on Cluster 2 where CODIF and HIA are not operational, or on Cluster 4 where EDI is off. In this presentation we investigate DC electric field in various transient plasma sheet events such as dipolarization events and BBF's and how the five measurements agree or disagree. There are plenty of important issues that are considered, e.g., (1) what kind of DC electric fields exist in such events and what are their spatial scales, (2) do electrons and ions perform ExB drift motions in these events, and (3) how well the instruments have been calibrated.

  12. Hybrid integrated label-free chemical and biological sensors.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

    2014-03-26

    Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach.

  13. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M. Haris Bin Md; Hamid, Nor Hisham Bin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT. PMID:26225972

  14. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor.

    PubMed

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M Haris Bin Md; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2015-07-27

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT.

  15. Electric fields in micro-gravity can replace gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    The influence of the world-wide atmospheric electric field on the growth of plants seems to have been neglected. The confirmation of the existence of electrotropism shows effects on some plants similar to gravity. I propose space ex eriments withp plants that grow in microgravity but are exposed to different electric field configurations with various field strengths and polarity. The electric field in terrestrial environment shows strong effects on some plants that can be regarded as due to phototropism. In microgravity we have full control of light and electric field, and thus we can practically eliminate the effects of gravity and we can study to what degree the electric field can replace the gravitational effects on plants. In this way we can create a new habitat for some plants and study its role in the rate of growth as well as in the sensing of free space for growth of plants in absence of gravity. By varying the strength and direction of illumination of plants we can also study the relative role of phototropism and electrotropism on different plants. This should enable us to select the most suitable plants for Advanced Life Support systems (ALS) for long-duration missions in microgravity environment. Some simple space experiments for verification of these assumptions are described that should answer the basic questions how should we design the ALS for the future high performance space stations and long duration manned space flights. The selection of the suitable plants for such ALS may go along two approaches: the self supporting electrotropic plants using the optimal electric field strength and its range of variation, non electrotropic plants that creep along the "ground" or other supporting plants or special structures. Ground based fitotron experiments have shown that several kV/m electric fields overwhelm the gravity better than clinostats can do. It happens in case of electrotropic plants but also after several days for non-electrotropic plants

  16. Direct comparison between satellite electric field measurements and the visual aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Electric field data from two passes of the Injun 5 satellite, one corresponding to magnetically quiet conditions and one corresponding to substorm conditions, are compared with simultaneous all-sky-camera data from College, Alaska. In each case, a significant deviation of the electric field from the expected V x B field (where V is the satellite velocity) was evident and a distinct electric field reversal could be identified. In the region of substantial electric field equatorward of the electric field reversal a diffuse auroral arc was observed during the magnetically quiet pass and auroral patches were observed during the substorm pass. The motion of the auroral patches was consistent with the general direction and magnitude of the E x B drift computed from the satellite electric field measurements. In the substorm case the electric field reversal occurred very near a discrete auroral arc at the poleward side of the diffuse arcs and patches. Comparison of the quiet time and substorm cases suggests that the convection electric field penetrates deeper into the magnetosphere during a substorm.

  17. Design of portable electric and magnetic field generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.; Campbell, L. C.; Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.

    2000-11-01

    Electric and magnetic field generators capable of producing high-amplitude output are not readily available. This presents difficulties for electromagnetic compatibility testing of new measurement systems where these systems are intended to operate in a particularly hostile electromagnetic environment. A portable electric and a portable magnetic field generator having high pulsed field output are described in this paper. The output of these generators were determined using an electromagnetic-compatible measurement system. These generators allow immunity testing in the laboratory of electronic systems to very high electrical fields, as well as for functional verification of the electronic systems on site. In the longer term, the basic design of the magnetic field generator may be developed as the generator to provide the damped sinusoid magnetic field specified in IEC 61000-4-10, which is adopted in BS EN 61000-4-10.

  18. High magnetic field test of bismuth Hall sensors for ITER steady state magnetic diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Ďuran, I; Entler, S; Kohout, M; Kočan, M; Vayakis, G

    2016-11-01

    Performance of bismuth Hall sensors developed for the ITER steady state magnetic diagnostic was investigated for high magnetic fields in the range ±7 T. Response of the sensors to the magnetic field was found to be nonlinear particularly within the range ±1 T. Significant contribution of the planar Hall effect to the sensors output voltage causing undesirable cross field sensitivity was identified. It was demonstrated that this effect can be minimized by the optimization of the sensor geometry and alignment with the magnetic field and by the application of "current-spinning technique."

  19. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  20. A percolation approach to study the high electric field effect on electrical conductivity of insulating polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benallou, Amina; Hadri, Baghdad; Martinez-Vega, Juan; El Islam Boukortt, Nour

    2018-04-01

    The effect of percolation threshold on the behaviour of electrical conductivity at high electric field of insulating polymers has been briefly investigated in literature. Sometimes the dead ends links are not taken into account in the study of the electric field effect on the electrical properties. In this work, we present a theoretical framework and Monte Carlo simulation of the behaviour of the electric conductivity at high electric field based on the percolation theory using the traps energies levels which are distributed according to distribution law (uniform, Gaussian, and power-law). When a solid insulating material is subjected to a high electric field, and during trapping mechanism the dead ends of traps affect with decreasing the electric conductivity according to the traps energies levels, the correlation length of the clusters, the length of the dead ends, and the concentration of the accessible positions for the electrons. A reasonably good agreement is obtained between simulation results and the theoretical framework.

  1. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  2. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  3. What we can learn from measurements of air electric conductivity in 222Rn-rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Pili, E.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.

    2017-02-01

    Electric conductivity of air is an important characteristic of the electric properties of an atmosphere. Testing instruments to measure electric conductivity ranging from 10-13 to 10-9 S m-1 in natural conditions found in the Earth atmosphere is not an easy task. One possibility is to use stratospheric balloon flights; another (and a simpler one) is to look for terrestrial environments with significant radioactive decay. In this paper we present measurements carried out with different types of conductivity sensors in two 222Rn-rich environments, i.e., in the Roselend underground tunnel (French Alps) and in the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety BACCARA (BAnC de CAllibrage du RAdon) chamber. The concept of the conductivity sensor is based on the classical time relaxation method. New elements in our design include isolation of the sensor sensitive part (electrode) from the external electric field and sensor miniaturization. This greatly extends the application domain of the sensor and permits to measure air electric conductivity when the external electric field is high and varies from few tens of V m-1 to up to few tens of kV m-1. This is suitable to propose the instrument for a planetary mission. Two-fold objectives were attained as the outcome of these tests and their analysis. First was directly related to the performances of the conductivity sensors and the efficiency of the conductivity sensor design to shield the external electric field. Second objective aimed at understanding the decay mechanisms of 222Rn and its progeny in atmosphere and the impact of the enclosed space on the efficiency of gas ionization.

  4. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  5. Atmospheric Electric Field Measurements at 100 Hz and High Frequency Electric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Ricardo; Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Matthews, James; Bennett, Alec; Chubb, John

    2016-04-01

    Spectral response of Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient (PG), symmetric to the Atmospheric Electric Field, gives important information about phenomena affecting these measurements with characteristic time-scales that appear in the spectra as specific periodicities. This is the case of urban pollution that has a clear weekly dependence and reveals itself on PG measurements by a ~7 day periodicity (Silva et al., 2014). While long-term time-scales (low frequencies) have been exhaustively explored in literature, short-term time-scales (high frequencies), above 1 Hz, have comparatively received much less attention (Anisimov et al., 1999). This is mainly because of the technical difficulties related with the storage of such a huge amount of data (for 100 Hz sampling two days of data uses a ~1 Gb file) and the response degradation of the field-meters at such frequencies. Nevertheless, important Electric Phenomena occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz that are worth pursuing, e.g. the Schumann Resonances have a signature of worldwide thunderstorm activity at frequencies that go from ~8 up to ~40 Hz. To that end the present work shows preliminary results on PG measurements at 100 Hz that took place on two clear-sky days (17th and 18th June 2015) on the South of Portugal, Évora (38.50° N, 7.91° W). The field-mill used is a JCI 131F installed in the University of Évora campus (at 2 m height) with a few trees and two buildings in its surroundings (~50 m away). This device was developed by John Chubb (Chubb, 2014) and manufactured by Chilworth (UK). It was calibrated in December 2013 and recent work by the author (who is honored in this study for his overwhelming contribution to atmospheric electricity) reveals basically a flat spectral response of the device up to frequencies of 100 Hz (Chubb, 2015). This makes this device suitable for the study of High Frequency Electric Phenomena. Anisimov, S.V., et al. (1999). On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures

  6. A Micromachined Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with a Shield Layer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gang; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Yong; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a piezoresistive pressure sensor with a shield layer for improved stability. Compared with the conventional piezoresistive pressure sensors, the new one reported in this paper has an n-type shield layer that covers p-type piezoresistors. This shield layer aims to minimize the impact of electrical field and reduce the temperature sensitivity of piezoresistors. The proposed sensors have been successfully fabricated by bulk-micromachining techniques. A sensitivity of 0.022 mV/V/kPa and a maximum non-linearity of 0.085% FS are obtained in a pressure range of 1 MPa. After numerical simulation, the role of the shield layer has been experimentally investigated. It is demonstrated that the shield layer is able to reduce the drift caused by electrical field and ambient temperature variation. PMID:27529254

  7. Analysis of electric field distribution in GaAs metal-semiconductor field effect transistor with a field-modulating plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Yasuko; Kuzuhara, Masaaki; Ando, Yuji; Mizuta, Masashi

    2000-04-01

    Electric field distribution in the channel of a field effect transistor (FET) with a field-modulating plate (FP) has been theoretically investigated using a two-dimensional ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. This analysis revealed that the introduction of FP is effective in canceling the influence of surface traps under forward bias conditions and in reducing the electric field intensity at the drain side of the gate edge under pinch-off bias conditions. This study also found that a partial overlap of the high-field region under the gate and that at the FP electrode is important for reducing the electric field intensity. The optimized metal-semiconductor FET with FP (FPFET) (LGF˜0.2 μm) exhibited a much lower peak electric field intensity than a conventional metal-semiconductor FET. Based on these numerically calculated results, we have proposed a design procedure to optimize the power FPFET structure with extremely high breakdown voltages while maintaining reasonable gain performance.

  8. Sparse Reconstruction of Electric Fields from Radial Magnetic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, Anthony R.

    2017-02-10

    Accurate estimates of the horizontal electric field on the Sun’s visible surface are important not only for estimating the Poynting flux of magnetic energy into the corona but also for driving time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic models of the corona. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the horizontal electric field from a sequence of radial-component magnetic field maps. This problem of inverting Faraday’s law has no unique solution. Unfortunately, the simplest solution (a divergence-free electric field) is not realistically localized in regions of nonzero magnetic field, as would be expected from Ohm’s law. Our new method generates instead a localizedmore » solution, using a basis pursuit algorithm to find a sparse solution for the electric field. The method is shown to perform well on test cases where the input magnetic maps are flux balanced in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. However, we show that if the input maps have a significant imbalance of flux—usually arising from data assimilation—then it is not possible to find a localized, realistic, electric field solution. This is the main obstacle to driving coronal models from time sequences of solar surface magnetic maps.« less

  9. Atom-Based Sensing of Weak Radio Frequency Electric Fields Using Homodyne Readout

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Fan, Haoquan; Kübler, Harald; Sheng, Jiteng; Shaffer, James P.

    2017-01-01

    We utilize a homodyne detection technique to achieve a new sensitivity limit for atom-based, absolute radio-frequency electric field sensing of 5 μV cm−1 Hz−1/2. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for the homodyne detection. With the increased sensitivity, we investigate the dominant dephasing mechanisms that affect the performance of the sensor. In particular, we present data on power broadening, collisional broadening and transit time broadening. Our results are compared to density matrix calculations. We show that photon shot noise in the signal readout is currently a limiting factor. We suggest that new approaches with superior readout with respect to photon shot noise are needed to increase the sensitivity further. PMID:28218308

  10. High sensitive space electric field sensing based on micro fiber interferometer with field force driven gold nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jingdong; Shi, Leilei

    2015-10-28

    The traditional electrical field sensing can be realized by utilizing electro-optic materials or liquid crystals, and has limitations of easy breakdown, free assembly and difficult measurement of low-frequency. Here, we propose a new method to realize safe measurement of spatial dynamic electric field by using a micro fiber interferometer integrated with gold nanofilm. The energy of the electric charge received through antenna forms the intrinsic electric field with two micro electrodes, one of which is the 120 nm gold film vibration beam micromachined by femtosecond lasers and integrated with the micro fiber. The change of the intrinsic electric field force due to the spatial electric field will cause the vibration of the film beam. By demodulating the output signal of the micro fiber interferometer, the electric field can be measured. We demonstrate the detectable frequency ranges from tens of Hz to tens of KHz, and the minimum electric field intensity is ~200 V/m at 1 KHz. Our electric field measurement technology combining optical fiber interference with gold nanostructures shows the advantages of security, high sensitivity, compact size, and multiplexed multi-point and remote detection.

  11. High sensitive space electric field sensing based on micro fiber interferometer with field force driven gold nanofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jingdong; Shi, Leilei

    2015-01-01

    The traditional electrical field sensing can be realized by utilizing electro-optic materials or liquid crystals, and has limitations of easy breakdown, free assembly and difficult measurement of low-frequency. Here, we propose a new method to realize safe measurement of spatial dynamic electric field by using a micro fiber interferometer integrated with gold nanofilm. The energy of the electric charge received through antenna forms the intrinsic electric field with two micro electrodes, one of which is the 120 nm gold film vibration beam micromachined by femtosecond lasers and integrated with the micro fiber. The change of the intrinsic electric field force due to the spatial electric field will cause the vibration of the film beam. By demodulating the output signal of the micro fiber interferometer, the electric field can be measured. We demonstrate the detectable frequency ranges from tens of Hz to tens of KHz, and the minimum electric field intensity is ~200 V/m at 1 KHz. Our electric field measurement technology combining optical fiber interference with gold nanostructures shows the advantages of security, high sensitivity, compact size, and multiplexed multi-point and remote detection. PMID:26507680

  12. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems is presented in this paper. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed.

  13. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    PubMed

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Field Estimation Using Kriged Kalman Filter (KKF) with Sparsity-Enforcing Sensor Placement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Venkat; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2018-06-01

    We propose a sensor placement method for spatio-temporal field estimation based on a kriged Kalman filter (KKF) using a network of static or mobile sensors. The developed framework dynamically designs the optimal constellation to place the sensors. We combine the estimation error (for the stationary as well as non-stationary component of the field) minimization problem with a sparsity-enforcing penalty to design the optimal sensor constellation in an economic manner. The developed sensor placement method can be directly used for a general class of covariance matrices (ill-conditioned or well-conditioned) modelling the spatial variability of the stationary component of the field, which acts as a correlated observation noise, while estimating the non-stationary component of the field. Finally, a KKF estimator is used to estimate the field using the measurements from the selected sensing locations. Numerical results are provided to exhibit the feasibility of the proposed dynamic sensor placement followed by the KKF estimation method.

  15. AC Electric Field Communication for Human-Area Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    We have proposed a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses an AC electric field signal below the resonant frequency of the human body. This technology aims to achieve a “touch and connect” intuitive form of communication by using the electric field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body, while suppressing both the electric field radiating from the human body and mutual interference. To suppress the radiation field, the frequency of the AC signal that excites the transmitter electrode must be lowered, and the sensitivity of the receiver must be raised while reducing transmission power to its minimally required level. We describe how we are developing AC electric field communication technologies to promote the further evolution of a human-area network in support of ubiquitous services, focusing on three main characteristics, enabling-transceiver technique, application-scenario modeling, and communications quality evaluation. Special attention is paid to the relationship between electro-magnetic compatibility evaluation and regulations for extremely low-power radio stations based on Japan's Radio Law.

  16. Modeling of electric field distribution in tissues during electroporation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Electroporation based therapies and treatments (e.g. electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransfer for gene therapy and DNA vaccination, tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation and transdermal drug delivery) require a precise prediction of the therapy or treatment outcome by a personalized treatment planning procedure. Numerical modeling of local electric field distribution within electroporated tissues has become an important tool in treatment planning procedure in both clinical and experimental settings. Recent studies have reported that the uncertainties in electrical properties (i.e. electric conductivity of the treated tissues and the rate of increase in electric conductivity due to electroporation) predefined in numerical models have large effect on electroporation based therapy and treatment effectiveness. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the increase in electric conductivity of tissues needs to be taken into account when modeling tissue response to the electroporation pulses and how it affects the local electric distribution within electroporated tissues. Methods We built 3D numerical models for single tissue (one type of tissue, e.g. liver) and composite tissue (several types of tissues, e.g. subcutaneous tumor). Our computer simulations were performed by using three different modeling approaches that are based on finite element method: inverse analysis, nonlinear parametric and sequential analysis. We compared linear (i.e. tissue conductivity is constant) model and non-linear (i.e. tissue conductivity is electric field dependent) model. By calculating goodness of fit measure we compared the results of our numerical simulations to the results of in vivo measurements. Results The results of our study show that the nonlinear models (i.e. tissue conductivity is electric field dependent: σ(E)) fit experimental data better than linear models (i.e. tissue conductivity is constant). This was found for both single tissue and

  17. Effect of strong electric field on the conformational integrity of insulin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianwei; Li, Yongxiu; He, Xiao; Chen, Shude; Zhang, John Z H

    2014-10-02

    A series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations up to 1 μs for bovine insulin monomer in different external electric fields were carried out to study the effect of external electric field on conformational integrity of insulin. Our results show that the secondary structure of insulin is kept intact under the external electric field strength below 0.15 V/nm, but disruption of secondary structure is observed at 0.25 V/nm or higher electric field strength. Although the starting time of secondary structure disruption of insulin is not clearly correlated with the strength of the external electric field ranging between 0.15 and 0.60 V/nm, long time MD simulations demonstrate that the cumulative effect of exposure time under the electric field is a major cause for the damage of insulin's secondary structure. In addition, the strength of the external electric field has a significant impact on the lifetime of hydrogen bonds when it is higher than 0.60 V/nm. The fast evolution of some hydrogen bonds of bovine insulin in the presence of the 1.0 V/nm electric field shows that different microwaves could either speed up protein folding or destroy the secondary structure of globular proteins deponding on the intensity of the external electric field.

  18. Neuron matters: electric activation of neuronal tissue is dependent on the interaction between the neuron and the electric field.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Steiger, Amanda

    2015-08-12

    In laboratory research and clinical practice, externally-applied electric fields have been widely used to control neuronal activity. It is generally accepted that neuronal excitability is controlled by electric current that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the excitable cell membrane. What determines the amount of polarization? Research on the mechanisms of electric stimulation focus on the optimal control of the field properties (frequency, amplitude, and direction of the electric currents) to improve stimulation outcomes. Emerging evidence from modeling and experimental studies support the existence of interactions between the targeted neurons and the externally-applied electric fields. With cell-field interaction, we suggest a two-way process. When a neuron is positioned inside an electric field, the electric field will induce a change in the resting membrane potential by superimposing an electrically-induced transmembrane potential (ITP). At the same time, the electric field can be perturbed and re-distributed by the cell. This cell-field interaction may play a significant role in the overall effects of stimulation. The redistributed field can cause secondary effects to neighboring cells by altering their geometrical pattern and amount of membrane polarization. Neurons excited by the externally-applied electric field can also affect neighboring cells by ephaptic interaction. Both aspects of the cell-field interaction depend on the biophysical properties of the neuronal tissue, including geometric (i.e., size, shape, orientation to the field) and electric (i.e., conductivity and dielectricity) attributes of the cells. The biophysical basis of the cell-field interaction can be explained by the electromagnetism theory. Further experimental and simulation studies on electric stimulation of neuronal tissue should consider the prospect of a cell-field interaction, and a better understanding of tissue inhomogeneity and anisotropy is needed to fully appreciate the neural

  19. Performance optimization in electric field gradient focusing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Farnsworth, Paul B; Tolley, H Dennis; Warnick, Karl F; Woolley, Adam T; Lee, Milton L

    2009-01-02

    Electric field gradient focusing (EFGF) is a technique used to simultaneously separate and concentrate biomacromolecules, such as proteins, based on the opposing forces of an electric field gradient and a hydrodynamic flow. Recently, we reported EFGF devices fabricated completely from copolymers functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol), which display excellent resistance to protein adsorption. However, the previous devices did not provide the predicted linear electric field gradient and stable current. To improve performance, Tris-HCl buffer that was previously doped in the hydrogel was replaced with a phosphate buffer containing a salt (i.e., potassium chloride, KCl) with high mobility ions. The new devices exhibited stable current, good reproducibility, and a linear electric field distribution in agreement with the shaped gradient region design due to improved ion transport in the hydrogel. The field gradient was calculated based on theory to be approximately 5.76 V/cm(2) for R-phycoerythrin when the applied voltage was 500 V. The effect of EFGF separation channel dimensions was also investigated; a narrower focused band was achieved in a smaller diameter channel. The relationship between the bandwidth and channel diameter is consistent with theory. Three model proteins were resolved in an EFGF channel of this design. The improved device demonstrated 14,000-fold concentration of a protein sample (from 2 ng/mL to 27 microg/mL).

  20. On the behavior of return stroke current and the remotely detected electric field change waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xuan-Min; Lay, Erin; Jacobson, Abram R.

    2012-04-01

    After accumulating a large number of remotely recorded negative return stroke electric field change waveforms, a subtle but persistent kink was found following the main return stroke peak by several microseconds. To understand the corresponding return stroke current properties behind the kink and the general return stroke radiation waveform, we analyze strokes occurring in triggered lightning flashes for which have been measured both the channel base current and simultaneous remote electric radiation field. In this study, the channel base current is assumed to propagate along the return stroke channel in a dispersive and lossy manner. The measured channel base current is band-pass filtered, and the higher-frequency component is assumed to attenuate faster than the lower-frequency component. The radiation electric field is computed for such a current behavior and is then propagated to distant sensors. It is found that such a return stroke model is capable of very closely reproducing the measured electric waveforms at multiple stations for the triggered return strokes, and such a model is considered applicable to the common behavior of the natural return stroke as well. On the basis of the analysis, a number of other observables are derived. The time-evolving current dispersion and attenuation compare well with previously reported optical observations. The observable speed tends to agree with optical and VHF observations. Line charge density that is removed or deposited by the return stroke is derived, and the implication of the charge density distribution on leader channel decay is discussed.

  1. Humidity-Induced Charge Leakage and Field Attenuation in Electric Field Microsensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Fang, Dongming; Yang, Pengfei; Peng, Chunrong; Wen, Xiaolong; Xia, Shanhong

    2012-01-01

    The steady-state zero output of static electric field measuring systems often fluctuates, which is caused mainly by the finite leakage resistance of the water film on the surface of the electric field microsensor package. The water adsorption has been calculated using the Boltzmann distribution equation at various relative humidities for borosilicate glass and polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces. At various humidities, water film thickness has been calculated, and the induced charge leakage and field attenuation have been theoretically investigated. Experiments have been performed with microsensors to verify the theoretical predictions and the results are in good agreement. PMID:22666077

  2. Optimizing focal plane electric field estimation for detecting exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groff, T.; Kasdin, N. J.; Riggs, A. J. E.

    Detecting extrasolar planets with angular separations and contrast levels similar to Earth requires a large space-based observatory and advanced starlight suppression techniques. This paper focuses on techniques employing an internal coronagraph, which is highly sensitive to optical errors and must rely on focal plane wavefront control techniques to achieve the necessary contrast levels. To maximize the available science time for a coronagraphic mission we demonstrate an estimation scheme using a discrete time Kalman filter. The state estimate feedback inherent to the filter allows us to minimize the number of exposures required to estimate the electric field. We also show progress including a bias estimate into the Kalman filter to eliminate incoherent light from the estimate. Since the exoplanets themselves are incoherent to the star, this has the added benefit of using the control history to gain certainty in the location of exoplanet candidates as the signal-to-noise between the planets and speckles improves. Having established a purely focal plane based wavefront estimation technique, we discuss a sensor fusion concept where alternate wavefront sensors feedforward a time update to the focal plane estimate to improve robustness to time varying speckle. The overall goal of this work is to reduce the time required for wavefront control on a target, thereby improving the observatory's planet detection performance by increasing the number of targets reachable during the lifespan of the mission.

  3. Endogenous Cortical Oscillations Constrain Neuromodulation by Weak Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Stephen L.; Iyengar, Apoorva K.; Foulser, A. Alban; Boyle, Michael R.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that may modulate cognition by enhancing endogenous neocortical oscillations with the application of sine-wave electric fields. Yet, the role of endogenous network activity in enabling and shaping the effects of tACS has remained unclear. Objective We combined optogenetic stimulation and multichannel slice electrophysiology to elucidate how the effect of weak sine-wave electric field depends on the ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. We hypothesized that the structure of the response to stimulation depended on matching the stimulation frequency to the endogenous cortical oscillation. Methods We studied the effect of weak sine-wave electric fields on oscillatory activity in mouse neocortical slices. Optogenetic control of the network activity enabled the generation of in vivo like cortical oscillations for studying the temporal relationship between network activity and sine-wave electric field stimulation. Results Weak electric fields enhanced endogenous oscillations but failed to induce a frequency shift of the ongoing oscillation for stimulation frequencies that were not matched to the endogenous oscillation. This constraint on the effect of electric field stimulation imposed by endogenous network dynamics was limited to the case of weak electric fields targeting in vivo-like network dynamics. Together, these results suggest that the key mechanism of tACS may be enhancing but not overriding of intrinsic network dynamics. Conclusion Our results contribute to understanding the inconsistent tACS results from human studies and propose that stimulation precisely adjusted in frequency to the endogenous oscillations is key to rational design of non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms. PMID:25129402

  4. A highly sensitive CMOS digital Hall sensor for low magnetic field applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin; He, Shu-Zhuan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Hall sensors have been widely used to measure magnetic fields. However, they are difficult to work with in a low magnetic field environment due to their low sensitivity and large offset. This paper describes a highly sensitive digital Hall sensor fabricated in 0.18 μm high voltage CMOS technology for low field applications. The sensor consists of a switched cross-shaped Hall plate and a novel signal conditioner. It effectively eliminates offset and low frequency 1/f noise by applying a dynamic quadrature offset cancellation technique. The measured results show the optimal Hall plate achieves a high current related sensitivity of about 310 V/AT. The whole sensor has a remarkable ability to measure a minimum ± 2 mT magnetic field and output a digital Hall signal in a wide temperature range from -40 °C to 120 °C.

  5. Flashback detection sensor for lean premix fuel nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Jimmy Dean [Morgantown, WV; Richards, George Alan [Morgantown, WV; Straub, Douglas L [Morgantown, WV; Liese, Eric Arnold [Morgantown, WV; Trader, Jr., John Lee; Fasching, George Edward [Morgantown, WV

    2002-08-06

    A sensor for detecting the flame occurring during a flashback condition in the fuel nozzle of a lean premix combustion system is presented. The sensor comprises an electrically isolated flashback detection electrode and a guard electrode, both of which generate electrical fields extending to the walls of the combustion chamber and to the walls of the fuel nozzle. The sensor is positioned on the fuel nozzle center body at a location proximate the entrance to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine combustion system. The sensor provides 360.degree. detection of a flashback inside the fuel nozzle, by detecting the current conducted by the flame within a time frame that will prevent damage to the gas turbine combustion system caused by the flashback condition.

  6. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensor mapping of a jet-mixing flow field

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, Stephen; Gerardi, Craig; Pointer, William David

    In this paper, we introduce the use of a Rayleigh backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensor to map the temperature field in air flow for a thermal fatigue application. The experiment involves a pair of air jets at 22 and 70°C discharging from 136 mm hexagonal channels into a 1 × 1 × 1.7 m tank at atmospheric pressure. A 40 m-long, Φ155 µm fiber optic sensor was wound back and forth across the tank midplane to form 16 horizontal measurement sections with a vertical spacing of 51 mm. This configuration generated a 2D temperature map with 2800 data points overmore » a 0.76 × 1.7 m plane. Fiber optic sensor readings were combined with PIV and infrared measurements to relate flow field characteristics to the thermal signature of the tank lid. The paper includes sensor stability data and notes issues encountered using the distributed temperature sensor in a flow field. In conclusion, sensors are sensitive to strain and humidity, and so accuracy relies upon strict control of both.« less

  7. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensor mapping of a jet-mixing flow field

    DOE PAGES

    Lomperski, Stephen; Gerardi, Craig; Pointer, William David

    2015-03-04

    In this paper, we introduce the use of a Rayleigh backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensor to map the temperature field in air flow for a thermal fatigue application. The experiment involves a pair of air jets at 22 and 70°C discharging from 136 mm hexagonal channels into a 1 × 1 × 1.7 m tank at atmospheric pressure. A 40 m-long, Φ155 µm fiber optic sensor was wound back and forth across the tank midplane to form 16 horizontal measurement sections with a vertical spacing of 51 mm. This configuration generated a 2D temperature map with 2800 data points overmore » a 0.76 × 1.7 m plane. Fiber optic sensor readings were combined with PIV and infrared measurements to relate flow field characteristics to the thermal signature of the tank lid. The paper includes sensor stability data and notes issues encountered using the distributed temperature sensor in a flow field. In conclusion, sensors are sensitive to strain and humidity, and so accuracy relies upon strict control of both.« less

  8. Research and Experiments on a Unipolar Capacitive Voltage Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Li, Songnong; Hou, Xingzhe

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sensors are an important part of the electric system. In service, traditional voltage sensors need to directly contact a high-voltage charged body. Sensors involve a large volume, complex insulation structures, and high design costs. Typically an iron core structure is adopted. As a result, ferromagnetic resonance can occur easily during practical application. Moreover, owing to the multilevel capacitor divider, the sensor cannot reflect the changes of measured voltage in time. Based on the electric field coupling principle, this paper designs a new voltage sensor; the unipolar structure design solves many problems of traditional voltage sensors like the great insulation design difficulty and high costs caused by grounding electrodes. A differential signal input structure is adopted for the detection circuit, which effectively restrains the influence of the common-mode interference signal. Through sensor modeling, simulation and calculations, the structural design of the sensor electrode was optimized, miniaturization of the sensor was realized, the voltage division ratio of the sensor was enhanced, and the phase difference of sensor measurement was weakened. The voltage sensor is applied to a single-phase voltage class line of 10 kV for testing. According to the test results, the designed sensor is able to meet the requirements of accurate and real-time measurement for voltage of the charged conductor as well as to provide a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system. Therefore, it can satisfy the development demands of the smart power grid. PMID:26307992

  9. Application of Open Garden Sensor on Hydroponic Maintenance Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, S.; Siregar, B.; Kurniawan, M.; Pranoto, H.; Andayani, U.; Fahmi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Hydroponic farming system is an agricultural system that uses direct water as a nutrient without using soil as a planting medium. This system allows smallholder farmers to have the opportunity to develop their crop production with less capital. In addition, hydroponic planting has also been widely adapted by individuals as a personal hobby. Application of technology has penetrated various fields including agricultural fields. One of the technologies that can be applied in a hydroponic farming system is the sensor. Sensors are devices that used to convert a physical quantity into a quantity of electricity so that it can be analyse with a certain electrical circuit. In this study, the technology to be applied is wireless sensor technology applied in human life to help get information quickly and accurately. Sensors to be used in this study are pH sensors, conductivity sensors, temperature sensors and humidity. In addition to sensors, the study also involved Arduino technology. Arduino is a microcontroller board that is used to interact with the environment based on programs that have been made. The final results of the application testing show that the system success to display diagram in real-time in an environment from Arduino board to database and web server.

  10. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  11. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C.; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Oliveira, João P. C. M.; Braga, Stephanie A.

    2018-01-01

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations. PMID:29695099

  12. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX®, which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX® after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes. PMID:26893024

  13. Dynamic stabilization of the magnetic field surrounding the neutron electric dipole moment spectrometer at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Afach, S.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B., E-mail: beatrice.franke@psi.ch, E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch

    The Surrounding Field Compensation (SFC) system described in this work is installed around the four-layer Mu-metal magnetic shield of the neutron electric dipole moment spectrometer located at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The SFC system reduces the DC component of the external magnetic field by a factor of about 20. Within a control volume of approximately 2.5 m × 2.5 m × 3 m, disturbances of the magnetic field are attenuated by factors of 5–50 at a bandwidth from 10{sup −3} Hz up to 0.5 Hz, which corresponds to integration times longer than several hundreds of seconds and represent the important timescale for the neutron electric dipole moment measurement.more » These shielding factors apply to random environmental noise from arbitrary sources. This is achieved via a proportional-integral feedback stabilization system that includes a regularized pseudoinverse matrix of proportionality factors which correlates magnetic field changes at all sensor positions to current changes in the SFC coils.« less

  14. Electric field measurements during the Condor critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation of the Condor critical velocity Ba experiment (Wescott et al., 1986) for the measurements of the energetic particles and the electric field associated with a Ba explosion is described. The Ba explosion created a complex electric field pulse detected in situ by a single-axis double electric-field probe on a separate spacecraft. The measurements provide evidence of several important links in the critical-velocity chain, and are consistent with two hypotheses. The first hypothesis involves the creation of large polarization electric field due to charge separation; the second hypothesis implies a polarization of the beam by currents flowing across it. The chain of physical processes inferred from the observations is in agreement with most theories for the Alfven process.

  15. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach. PMID:24675757

  16. Formation of Organized Protein Thin Films with External Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cecília Fabiana da G; Camargo, Paulo C; Benelli, Elaine M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the formation of protein GlnB-Hs films and on its buffer solution on siliconized glass slides has been analyzed by current versus electric field curves and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Herbaspirillum seropedicae GlnB protein (GlnB-Hs) is a globular, soluble homotrimer (36 kDa) with its 3-D structure previously determined. Concentrations of 10 nM native denatured GlnB-Hs protein were deposited on siliconized glass slides under ambient conditions. Immediately after solution deposition a maximum electric field of 30 kV/m was applied with rates of 3 V/s. The measured currents were surface currents and were analyzed as transport current. Electric current started to flow only after a minimum electric field (critical value) for the systems analyzed. The AFM images showed films with a high degree of directional organization only when the proteins were present in the solution. These results showed that the applied electric field favored directional organization of the protein GlnB-Hs films and may contribute to understand the formation of protein films under applied electric fields.

  17. Piezoresistive Strain Sensors Made from Carbon Nanotubes Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Alamusi; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao; Atobe, Satoshi; Liu, Yaolu; Li, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, nanocomposites based on various nano-scale carbon fillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are increasingly being thought of as a realistic alternative to conventional smart materials, largely due to their superior electrical properties. Great interest has been generated in building highly sensitive strain sensors with these new nanocomposites. This article reviews the recent significant developments in the field of highly sensitive strain sensors made from CNT/polymer nanocomposites. We focus on the following two topics: electrical conductivity and piezoresistivity of CNT/polymer nanocomposites, and the relationship between them by considering the internal conductive network formed by CNTs, tunneling effect, aspect ratio and piezoresistivity of CNTs themselves, etc. Many recent experimental, theoretical and numerical studies in this field are described in detail to uncover the working mechanisms of this new type of strain sensors and to demonstrate some possible key factors for improving the sensor sensitivity. PMID:22346667

  18. Electric Field-Mediated Processing of Polymers. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnek, G. E.; Bowlin, G. L.; Haas, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    Significant opportunities exist for the processing of polymers (homopolymers and blends) using electric fields. We suggest that a broad range of properties can be achieved using a relatively small number of polymers, with electric fields providing the ability to tailor properties via the control of shape, morphology, and orientation. Specific attention is given to electrospinning, but we note that electroaerosol formation and field-modulated film casting represent additional processing options.

  19. Self-powered, ultra-sensitive, flexible tactile sensors based on contact electrification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    A tactile sensor for sensing touch from a human finger includes a triboelectric layer and includes a material that becomes electrically charged after being in contact with the finger. The first side of a first conductive layer is in contact with the second side of triboelectric layer. The first side of a dielectric layer is in contact with the first conductive layer and the second side of the dielectric layer is in contact with a second conductive layer. When the triboelectric layer becomes electrically charged after being in contact with the finger, the first conductive layer and the second conductivemore » layer are subjected to an electric field, which has a first field strength at the first conductive layer and a second field strength, different from the first field strength, at the second conductive layer. A plurality of tactile sensors can be arranged as a keyboard.« less

  20. Soap-film flow induced by electric fields in asymmetric frames.

    PubMed

    Mollaei, S; Nasiri, M; Soltanmohammadi, N; Shirsavar, R; Ramos, A; Amjadi, A

    2018-04-01

    Net fluid flow of soap films induced by (ac or dc) electric fields in asymmetric frames is presented. Previous experiments of controllable soap film flow required the simultaneous use of an electrical current passing through the film and an external electric field or the use of nonuniform ac electric fields. Here a single voltage difference generates both the electrical current going through the film and the electric field that actuates on the charge induced on the film. The film is set into global motion due to the broken symmetry that appears by the use of asymmetric frames. If symmetric frames are used, the film flow is not steady but time dependent and irregular. Finally, we study numerically these film flows by employing the model of charge induction in ohmic liquids.

  1. Soap-film flow induced by electric fields in asymmetric frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaei, S.; Nasiri, M.; Soltanmohammadi, N.; Shirsavar, R.; Ramos, A.; Amjadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Net fluid flow of soap films induced by (ac or dc) electric fields in asymmetric frames is presented. Previous experiments of controllable soap film flow required the simultaneous use of an electrical current passing through the film and an external electric field or the use of nonuniform ac electric fields. Here a single voltage difference generates both the electrical current going through the film and the electric field that actuates on the charge induced on the film. The film is set into global motion due to the broken symmetry that appears by the use of asymmetric frames. If symmetric frames are used, the film flow is not steady but time dependent and irregular. Finally, we study numerically these film flows by employing the model of charge induction in ohmic liquids.

  2. Wide Band Low Noise Love Wave Magnetic Field Sensor System.

    PubMed

    Kittmann, Anne; Durdaut, Phillip; Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Schmalz, Julius; Spetzler, Benjamin; Meyners, Dirk; Sun, Nian X; McCord, Jeffrey; Gerken, Martina; Schmidt, Gerhard; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Faupel, Franz; Quandt, Eckhard

    2018-01-10

    We present a comprehensive study of a magnetic sensor system that benefits from a new technique to substantially increase the magnetoelastic coupling of surface acoustic waves (SAW). The device uses shear horizontal acoustic surface waves that are guided by a fused silica layer with an amorphous magnetostrictive FeCoSiB thin film on top. The velocity of these so-called Love waves follows the magnetoelastically-induced changes of the shear modulus according to the magnetic field present. The SAW sensor is operated in a delay line configuration at approximately 150 MHz and translates the magnetic field to a time delay and a related phase shift. The fundamentals of this sensor concept are motivated by magnetic and mechanical simulations. They are experimentally verified using customized low-noise readout electronics. With an extremely low magnetic noise level of ≈100 pT/[Formula: see text], a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a dynamic range of 120 dB, this magnetic field sensor system shows outstanding characteristics. A range of additional measures to further increase the sensitivity are investigated with simulations.

  3. Field-aligned currents and large scale magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1980-01-01

    D'Angelo's model of polar cap electric fields (1977) was used to visualize how high-latitude field-aligned currents are driven by the solar wind generator. The region 1 and region 2 currents of Iijima and Potemra (1976) and the cusp field-aligned currents of Wilhjelm et al. (1978) and McDiarmid et al. (1978) are apparently driven by different generators, although in both cases the solar wind is their ultimate source.

  4. Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus

    2018-02-05

    Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electric Field-Controlled Ion Transport In TiO2 Nanochannel.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jing, Wenheng; Li, Shuaiqiang; Shen, Hao; Xing, Weihong

    2015-06-03

    On the basis of biological ion channels, we constructed TiO2 membranes with rigid channels of 2.3 nm to mimic biomembranes with flexible channels; an external electric field was employed to regulate ion transport in the confined channels at a high ionic strength in the absence of electrical double layer overlap. Results show that transport rates for both Na+ and Mg2+ were decreased irrespective of the direction of the electric field. Furthermore, a voltage-gated selective ion channel was formed, the Mg2+ channel closed at -2 V, and a reversed relative electric field gradient was at the same order of the concentration gradient, whereas the Na+ with smaller Stokes radius and lower valence was less sensitive to the electric field and thus preferentially occupied and passed the channel. Thus, when an external electric field is applied, membranes with larger nanochannels have promising applications in selective separation of mixture salts at a high concentration.

  6. Auroral zone electric fields from DE 1 and 2 at magnetic conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Goertz, C. K.; Gurnett, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Burch, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Nearly simultaneous measurements of auroral zone electric fields are obtained by the Dynamics Explorer spacecraft at altitudes below 900 km and above 4,500 km during magnetic conjunctions. The measured electric fields are usually perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. The north-south meridional electric fields are projected to a common altitude by a mapping function which accounts for the convergence of the magnetic field lines. When plotted as a function of invariant latitude, graphs of the projected electric fields measured by both DE-1 and DE-2 show that the large-scale electric field is the same at both altitudes, as expected. Superimposed on the large-scale fields, however, are small-scale features with wavelengths less than 100 km which are larger in magnitude at the higher altitude. Fourier transforms of the electric fields show that the magnitudes depend on wavelength. Outside of the auroral zone the electric field spectrums are nearly identical. But within the auroral zone the high and low altitude electric fields have a ratio which increases with the reciprocal of the wavelength. The small-scale electric field variations are associated with field-aligned currents. These currents are measured with both a plasma instrument and magnetometer on DE-1.

  7. Non-perturbing voltage measurement in a coaxial cable with slab-coupled optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Stan, Nikola; Seng, Frederick; Shumway, LeGrand; King, Rex; Schultz, Stephen

    2017-08-20

    Voltage in a coaxial cable is measured by an electric-field optical fiber sensor exploiting the proportionality of voltage and electric field in a fixed structure. The sensor is inserted in a hole drilled through the dielectric of the RG-218 coaxial cable and sealed with epoxy to displace all air and prevent the adverse effects of charge buildup during high-voltage measurements. It is shown that the presence of the sensor in the coaxial cable does not significantly increase electrical reflections in the cable. A slab-coupled optical fiber sensor (SCOS) is used for its compact size and dielectric make. The dynamic range of 50 dB is shown experimentally with detection of signals as low as 1 V and up to 157 kV. A low corner of 0.3 Hz is demonstrated and the SCOS is shown to be able to measure 90 ns rise time.

  8. Electric field computation analysis for the Electric Field Detector (EFD) on board the China Seismic-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego, P.; Bertello, I.; Candidi, M.; Mura, A.; Coco, I.; Vannaroni, G.; Ubertini, P.; Badoni, D.

    2017-11-01

    The floating potential variability of the Electric Field Detector (EFD) probes, on board the Chinese Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), has been modeled, and the effects of several structural and environmental elements have been determined. The expected floating potentials of the probes are computed considering the ambient ionospheric plasma parameter variations. In addition, the ion collection variability, due to the different probe attitudes along the orbit, and its effect on each floating potential, are considered. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the shadow produced by the stubs, in order to determine the artificial electric field introduced by instrumental effects which has to be subtracted from the real measurements. The modulation of the altered electric field, due to the effect on shadowing of the ion drift, as measured by the ESA satellite Swarm A in a similar orbit, is also modeled. Such simulations are made in preparation of real EFD data analysis performed during the upcoming flight of CSES.

  9. Effects of the reconnection electric field on crescent electron distribution functions in asymmetric guide field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L. J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection with a guide field in the Earth's magnetopause, electron motion in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is largely affected by the guide field, the Hall electric field, and the reconnection electric field. The electron motion in the EDR is neither simple gyration around the guide field nor simple meandering motion across the current sheet. The combined meandering motion and gyration has essential effects on particle acceleration by the in-plane Hall electric field (existing only in the magnetospheric side) and the out-of-plane reconnection electric field. We analyze electron motion and crescent-shaped electron distribution functions in the EDR in asymmetric guide field reconnection, and perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to elucidate the effect of reconnection electric field on electron distribution functions. Recently, we have analytically expressed the acceleration effect due to the reconnection electric field on electron crescent distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field (Bessho et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 072903, 2017). We extend the theory to asymmetric guide field reconnection, and predict the crescent bulge in distribution functions. Assuming 1D approximation of field variations in the EDR, we derive the time period of oscillatory electron motion (meandering + gyration) in the EDR. The time period is expressed as a hybrid of the meandering period and the gyro period. Due to the guide field, electrons not only oscillate along crescent-shaped trajectories in the velocity plane perpendicular to the antiparallel magnetic fields, but also move along parabolic trajectories in the velocity plane coplanar with magnetic field. The trajectory in the velocity space gradually shifts to the acceleration direction by the reconnection electric field as multiple bounces continue. Due to the guide field, electron distributions for meandering particles are bounded by two paraboloids (or hyperboloids) in the

  10. Electric field effect in superconductor-ferroelectric structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemanov, V. V.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field effect (the E-effect) in superconductors has been studied since 1960 when Glover and Sherill published their results on a shift of the critical temperature T(sub c) about 0.1 mK in Sn and In thin films under the action Off the field E=300 kV/cm. Stadler was the first to study the effect or spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric substrate on the electric properties of superconductors. He observed that the reversal of polarization of TGS substrate under action of external electric field in Sn-TGS structures induced the T(sub c) shift in Sn about 1.3 mK. Since in this case the effect is determined not by the electric field but by the spontaneous polarization, we may call this effect the P-effect. High-T(sub c) superconductors opened the new possibilities to study the E- and P-effects due to low charge carrier density, as compared to conventional superconductors, and to anomalously small coherence length. Experiments in this field began in many laboratories but a breakthrough was made where a shift in T(sub c) by 50 mK was observed in YBCO thin films. Much higher effects were observed in subsequent studies. The first experiments on the P-effect in high-T(sub c) superconductors were reported elsewhere. In this report we shall give a short description of study on the P-effect in high-T(sub c) superconductors.

  11. High school students' representations and understandings of electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields postinstruction as indicated by students' performance on textbook-style questions. It has, however, inadequately captured student ideas expressed in other situations yet informative to educational research. In this study, we explore students' ideas of electric fields preinstruction as shown by students' representations produced in open-ended activities. 92 participant students completed a worksheet that involved drawing comic strips about electric charges as characters of a cartoon series. Three students who had spontaneously produced arrow diagrams were interviewed individually after class. We identified nine ideas related to electric fields that these three students spontaneously leveraged in the comic strip activity. In this paper, we describe in detail each idea and its situated context. As most research in the literature has understood students as having relatively fixed conceptions and mostly identified divergences in those conceptions from canonical targets, this study shows students' reasoning to be more variable in particular moments, and that variability includes common sense resources that can be productive for learning about electric fields.

  12. Controlling Growth Orientation of Phthalocyanine Films by Electrical Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Banks, C. E.; Frazier, D. O.; Ila, D.; Muntele, I.; Penn, B. G.; Sharma, A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Organic Phthalocyanine films have many applications ranging from data storage to various non-linear optical devices whose quality is affected by the growth orientation of Phthalocyanine films. Due to the structural and electrical properties of Phthalocyanine molecules, the film growth orientation depends strongly on the substrate surface states. In this presentation, an electrical field up to 4000 V/cm is introduced during film growth. The Phthalocyanine films are synthesized on quartz substrates using thermal evaporation. An intermediate layer is deposited on some substrates for introducing the electrical field. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used for measuring surface morphology, film structure, and optical properties, respectively. The comparison of Phthalocyanine films grown with and without the electrical field reveals different morphology, film density, and growth orientation, which eventually change optical properties of these films. These results suggest that the growth method in the electrical field can be used to synthesized Phthalocyanine films with a preferred crystal orientation as well as propose an interaction mechanism between the substrate surface and the depositing molecules. The details of growth conditions and of the growth model of how the Phthalocyanine molecules grow in the electrical field will be discussed.

  13. Silicon Photomultiplier Performance in High ELectric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, J.; Morad, J.

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 27% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) relies on the emission of light from xenon atoms after a collision with a dark matter particle. After a particle interaction in the detector, two things can happen: the xenon will emit light and charge. The charge (electrons), in the liquid xenon needs to be pulled into the gas section so that it can interact with gas and emit light. This allows LUX to convert a single electron into many photons. This is done by applying a high voltage across the liquid and gas regions, effectively ripping electrons out of the liquid xenon and into the gas. The current device used to detect photons is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). These devices are large and costly. In recent years, a new technology that is capable of detecting single photons has emerged, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). These devices are cheaper and smaller than PMTs. Their performance in a high electric fields, such as those found in LUX, are unknown. It is possible that a large electric field could introduce noise on the SiPM signal, drowning the single photon detection capability. My hypothesis is that SiPMs will not observe a significant increase is noise at an electric field of roughly 10kV/cm (an electric field within the range used in detectors like LUX). I plan to test this hypothesis by first rotating the SiPMs with no applied electric field between two metal plates roughly 2 cm apart, providing a control data set. Then using the same angles test the dark counts with the constant electric field applied. Possibly the most important aspect of LUX, is the photon detector because it's what detects the signals. Dark matter is detected in the experiment by looking at the ratio of photons to electrons emitted for a given interaction in the detector. Interactions with a low electron to photon ratio are more like to be dark matter events than those with a high electron to photon ratio. The ability to

  14. Micro-electromechanical sensors in the analytical field.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel

    2009-07-01

    Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) for use as sensors represent one of the most exciting new fields in analytical chemistry today. These systems are advantageous over currently available non-miniaturized sensors, such as quartz crystal microbalances, thickness shear mode resonators, and flexural plate wave oscillators, because of their high sensitivity, low cost and easy integration into automated systems. In this article, we present and discuss the evolution in the use of MEMS and NEMS, which are basically cantilever-type sensors, as good analytical tools for a wide variety of applications. We discuss the analytical features and the practical potential of micro(nano)-cantilever sensors, which combine the synergetic advantages of selectivity, provided by their functionalization, and the high sensitivity, which is attributed largely to the extremely small size of the sensing element. An insight is given into the different types of functionalization and detection strategies and a critical discussion is presented on the existing state of the art concerning the applications reported for mechanical microsensors. New developments and the possibilities for routine work in the near future are also covered.

  15. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S. A.; Salim, M. S.; Ahmad, R. B.; Kamaruddin, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  16. The relationship between anatomically correct electric and magnetic field dosimetry and publishe delectric and magnetic field exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Kavet, Robert; Dovan, Thanh; Reilly, J Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Electric and magnetic field exposure limits published by International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers are aimed at protection against adverse electrostimulation, which may occur by direct coupling to excitable tissue and, in the case of electric fields, through indirect means associated with surface charge effects (e.g. hair vibration, skin sensations), spark discharge and contact current. For direct coupling, the basic restriction (BR) specifies the not-to-be-exceeded induced electric field. The key results of anatomically based electric and magnetic field dosimetry studies and the relevant characteristics of excitable tissue were first identified. This permitted us to assess the electric and magnetic field exposure levels that induce dose in tissue equal to the basic restrictions, and the relationships of those exposure levels to the limits now in effect. We identify scenarios in which direct coupling of electric fields to peripheral nerve could be a determining factor for electric field limits.

  17. Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, B.; Debaiky, A.; El-Ragaby, A.; Roy, R.; El-Gamal, S.; El-Salakawy, E.

    2006-03-01

    There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors (FOS) that can measure the strains and temperature are promising candidates for life-long health monitoring of these structures. This article reports laboratory and field performance of Fabry-Perot and Bragg FOS sensors as well as electrical strain gauges in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks. The laboratory tests include tensile testing of glass FRP bars and testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with glass and carbon FRP bars under static and cyclic concentrated loads. The field tests include static and dynamic testing of two bridges reinforced with steel and glass FRP bars. The obtained strain results showed satisfactory agreement between the different gauges.

  18. Questions Students Ask: Why Not Bend Light with an Electric Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heuvelen, Alan

    1983-01-01

    In response to a question, "Why not use a magnetic or electric field to deflect light?," reviews the relation between electric charge and electric/magnetic fields. Discusses the Faraday effect, (describing matter as an intermediary in the rotation of the place of polarization) and other apparent interactions of light with electric/magnetic fields.…

  19. Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Passaro, Vittorio M N; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-11-09

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection.

  20. Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection. PMID:23202223

  1. Battery-free radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for food quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Nagraj, Nandini; Tang, Zhexiong; Mondello, Frank J.; Surman, Cheryl; Morris, William

    2012-01-01

    The market demands for new sensors for food quality and safety stimulate the development of new sensing technologies that can provide an unobtrusive sensor form factor, battery-free operation, and minimal sensor cost. Intelligent labeling of food products to indicate and report their freshness and other conditions is one of important possible applications of such new sensors. We have applied passive (battery-free) radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of food freshness and bacterial growth. In these sensors, the electric field generated in the RFID sensor antenna extends out from the plane of the RFID sensor and is affected by the ambient environment providing the opportunity for sensing. This environment may be in the form of a food sample within the electric field of the sensing region or a sensing film deposited onto the sensor antenna. Examples of applications include monitoring of freshness of milk, freshness of fish, and bacterial growth in a solution. Unlike other food freshness monitoring approaches that require a thin film battery for operation of an RFID sensor and fabrication of custom-made sensors, our developed passive RFID sensing approach combines advantages of both battery-free and cost-effective sensor design and offers response selectivity that is impossible to achieve with other individual sensors. PMID:22881825

  2. Battery-free radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Nagraj, Nandini; Tang, Zhexiong; Mondello, Frank J; Surman, Cheryl; Morris, William

    2012-09-05

    Market demands for new sensors for food quality and safety stimulate the development of new sensing technologies that can provide an unobtrusive sensor form, battery-free operation, and minimal sensor cost. Intelligent labeling of food products to indicate and report their freshness and other conditions is one important possible application of such new sensors. This study applied passive (battery-free) radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for the highly sensitive and selective detection of food freshness and bacterial growth. In these sensors, the electric field generated in the RFID sensor antenna extends from the plane of the RFID sensor and is affected by the ambient environment, providing the opportunity for sensing. This environment may be in the form of a food sample within the electric field of the sensing region or a sensing film deposited onto the sensor antenna. Examples of applications include monitoring of milk freshness, fish freshness, and bacterial growth in a solution. Unlike other food freshness monitoring approaches that require a thin film battery for operation of an RFID sensor and fabrication of custom-made sensors, the passive RFID sensing approach developed here combines the advantages of both battery-free and cost-effective sensor design and offers response selectivity that is impossible to achieve with other individual sensors.

  3. Ultrafast Electric Field Pulse Control of Giant Temperature Change in Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Y.; Liu, S.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Rappe, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    There is a surge of interest in developing environmentally friendly solid-state-based cooling technology. Here, we point out that a fast cooling rate (≈1011 K /s ) can be achieved by driving solid crystals to a high-temperature phase with a properly designed electric field pulse. Specifically, we predict that an ultrafast electric field pulse can cause a giant temperature decrease up to 32 K in PbTiO3 occurring on few picosecond time scales. We explain the underlying physics of this giant electric field pulse-induced temperature change with the concept of internal energy redistribution: the electric field does work on a ferroelectric crystal and redistributes its internal energy, and the way the kinetic energy is redistributed determines the temperature change and strongly depends on the electric field temporal profile. This concept is supported by our all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 . Moreover, this internal energy redistribution concept can also be applied to understand electrocaloric effect. We further propose new strategies for inducing giant cooling effect with ultrafast electric field pulse. This Letter offers a general framework to understand electric-field-induced temperature change and highlights the opportunities of electric field engineering for controlled design of fast and efficient cooling technology.

  4. Development of a TiO2/SiO2 waveguide-mode chip for an ultraviolet near-field fluorescence sensor.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Chiaki; Nakai, Midori; Fujimaki, Makoto; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2018-03-19

    Aimed at detecting fluorescent-labeled biological substances sensitively, a sensor that utilizes near-field light has attracted much attention. According to our calculations, a planar structure composed of two dielectric layers can enhance the electric field of UV near-field light effectively by inducing waveguide-mode (WM) resonance. The fluorescence intensity obtainable by a WM chip with an optimized structure is 5.5 times that obtainable by an optimized surface plasmon resonance chip. We confirmed the above by making a WM chip consisting of TiO 2 and SiO 2 layers on a silica glass substrate and by measuring the fluorescence intensity of a solution of quantum dots dropped on the chip.

  5. Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Liu, Anli A; Lafon, Belen; Friedman, Daniel; Dayan, Michael; Wang, Xiuyuan; Bikson, Marom; Doyle, Werner K; Devinsky, Orrin; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation aims to stimulate the brain by applying weak electrical currents at the scalp. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of electric fields in the human brain are unknown. We measured electric potentials intracranially in ten epilepsy patients and estimated electric fields across the entire brain by leveraging calibrated current-flow models. When stimulating at 2 mA, cortical electric fields reach 0.8 V/m, the lower limit of effectiveness in animal studies. When individual whole-head anatomy is considered, the predicted electric field magnitudes correlate with the recorded values in cortical (r = 0.86) and depth (r = 0.88) electrodes. Accurate models require adjustment of tissue conductivity values reported in the literature, but accuracy is not improved when incorporating white matter anisotropy or different skull compartments. This is the first study to validate and calibrate current-flow models with in vivo intracranial recordings in humans, providing a solid foundation to target stimulation and interpret clinical trials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18834.001 PMID:28169833

  6. Simulation study on electric field intensity above train roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yizhe; Li, Huawei; Yang, Shasha

    2018-04-01

    In order to understand the distribution of electric field in the space above the train roof accurately and select the installation position of the detection device reasonably, in this paper, the 3D model of pantograph-catenary is established by using SolidWorks software, and the spatial electric field distribution of pantograph-catenary model is simulated based on Comsol software. According to the electric field intensity analysis within the 0.4m space above train roof, we give a reasonable installation of the detection device.

  7. Simulations of particle structuring driven by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Vlahovska, Petia; Miksis, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments (Ouriemi and Vlahovska, 2014) show intriguing surface patterns when a uniform electric field is applied to a droplet covered with colloidal particles. Depending on the particle properties and the electric field intensity, particles organize into an equatorial belt, pole-to-pole chains, or dynamic vortices. Here we present 3D simulations of the collective particle dynamics, which account for electrohydrodynamic flow and dielectrophoresis of particles. In stronger electric fields, particles are expected to undergo Quincke rotation and impose disturbance to the ambient flow. Transition from ribbon-shaped belt to rotating clusters is observed in the presence of the rotation-induced hydrodynamical interactions. Our results provide insight into the various particle assembles discovered in the experiments.

  8. Electric-field-driven phase transition in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Zimmers, A.; Aubin, H.; Ghosh, R.; Liu, Y.; Lopez, R.

    2011-12-01

    We report on local probe measurements of current-voltage and electrostatic force-voltage characteristics of electric-field-induced insulator to metal transition in VO2 thin film. In conducting AFM mode, switching from the insulating to metallic state occurs for electric-field threshold E˜6.5×107Vm-1 at 300K. Upon lifting the tip above the sample surface, we find that the transition can also be observed through a change in electrostatic force and in tunneling current. In this noncontact regime, the transition is characterized by random telegraphic noise. These results show that electric field alone is sufficient to induce the transition; however, the electronic current provides a positive feedback effect that amplifies the phenomena.

  9. Cellulose-Based Smart Fluids under Applied Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kisuk; Gao, Chun Yan; Nam, Jae Do

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose particles, their derivatives and composites have special environmentally benign features and are abundant in nature with their various applications. This review paper introduces the essential properties of several types of cellulose and their derivatives obtained from various source materials, and their use in electro-responsive electrorheological (ER) suspensions, which are smart fluid systems that are actively responsive under applied electric fields, while, at zero electric field, ER fluids retain a liquid-like state. Given the actively controllable characteristics of cellulose-based smart ER fluids under an applied electric field regarding their rheological and dielectric properties, they can potentially be applied for various industrial devices including dampers and haptic devices. PMID:28891966

  10. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  11. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    platform, it has been demonstrated in this project that wireless monitoring units can effectively deliver real-time transmission line power flow information for less than $500 per monitor. The data delivered by such a monitor has during the course of the project been integrated with a national grid situational awareness visualization platform developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Novel vibration energy scavenging methods based on piezoelectric cantilevers were also developed as a proposed method to power such monitors, with a goal of further cost reduction and large-scale deployment. Scavenging methods developed during the project resulted in 50% greater power output than conventional cantilever-based vibrational energy scavenging devices typically used to power smart sensor nodes. Lastly, enhanced and new methods for electromagnetic field sensing using multi-axis magnetometers and infrared reflectometry were investigated for potential monitoring applications in situations with a high density of power lines or high levels of background 60 Hz noise in order to isolate power lines of interest from other power lines in close proximity. The goal of this project was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of using small form factor, highly optimized, low cost, low power, non-contact, wireless electric transmission line monitors for delivery of real-time, independent power line monitoring for the US power grid. The project was divided into three main types of activity as follows; (1) Research into expanding the range of applications for non-contact power line monitoring to enable large scale low cost sensor network deployments (Tasks 1, 2); (2) Optimization of individual sensor hardware components to reduce size, cost and power consumption and testing in a pilot field study (Tasks 3,5); and (3) Demonstration of the feasibility of using the data from the network of power line monitors via a range of custom developed alerting and data visualization applications to

  12. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H2 molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H2 molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H2 in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H2 in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H2 can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H2 molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials. PMID:20133647

  13. Slab-coupled optical sensor fabrication using side-polished Panda fibers.

    PubMed

    King, Rex; Seng, Frederick; Stan, Nikola; Cuzner, Kevin; Josephson, Chad; Selfridge, Richard; Schultz, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    A new device structure used for slab-coupled optical sensor (SCOS) technology was developed to fabricate electric field sensors. This new device structure replaces the D-fiber used in traditional SCOS technology with a side-polished Panda fiber. Unlike the D-fiber SCOS, the Panda fiber SCOS is made from commercially available materials and is simpler to fabricate. The Panda SCOS interfaces easier with lab equipment and exhibits ∼3  dB less loss at link points than the D-fiber SCOS. The optical system for the D-fiber is bandwidth limited by a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) used to amplify to the electric signal. The Panda SCOS exhibits less loss than the D-fiber and, as a result, does not require as high a gain setting on the TIA, which results in an overall higher bandwidth range. Results show that the Panda sensor also achieves comparable sensitivity results to the D-fiber SCOS. Although the Panda SCOS is not as sensitive as other side-polished fiber electric field sensors, it can be fabricated much easier because the fabrication process does not require special alignment techniques, and it is made from commercially available materials.

  14. Giant Electric Field Enhancement in Split Ring Resonators Featuring Nanometer-Sized Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiante, S.; Enderli, F.; Fabiańska, J.; Sigg, H.; Feurer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Today's pulsed THz sources enable us to excite, probe, and coherently control the vibrational or rotational dynamics of organic and inorganic materials on ultrafast time scales. Driven by standard laser sources THz electric field strengths of up to several MVm-1 have been reported and in order to reach even higher electric field strengths the use of dedicated electric field enhancement structures has been proposed. Here, we demonstrate resonant electric field enhancement structures, which concentrate the incident electric field in sub-diffraction size volumes and show an electric field enhancement as high as ~14,000 at 50 GHz. These values have been confirmed through a combination of near-field imaging experiments and electromagnetic simulations.

  15. The source of the electric field in the nightside magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    In the open magnetosphere model magnetic field lines from the polar caps connect to the interplanetary magnetic field and conduct an electric field from interplanetary space to the polar ionosphere. By examining the magnetic flux involved it is concluded that only slightly more than half of the magnetic flux in the polar caps belongs to open field lines and that such field lines enter or leave the magnetosphere through narrow elongated windows stretching the tail. These window regions are identified with the tail's boundary region and shift their position with changes in the interplanetary magnetic field, in particular when a change of interplanetary magnetic sector occurs. The circuit providing electric current in the magnetopause and the plasma sheet is extended across those windows; thus energy is drained from the interplanetary electric field and an electric potential drop is produced across the plasma sheet. The polar cap receives its electric field from interplanetary space on the day side from open magnetic field lines and on the night side from closed field lines leading to the plasma sheet. The theory described provides improved understanding of magnetic flux bookkeeping, of the origin of Birkeland currents, and of the boundary layer of the geomagnetic tail.

  16. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

  17. Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor using reference current

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul [Seminole, FL; Brubaker, Michael Allen [Loveland, CO; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane [Seminole, FL

    2008-01-22

    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference electrical current carried by a conductor positioned within the sensing window of the current sensor is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  18. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering under electric field stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, Erwan; Ould Moussa, Nawel; Louot, Christophe; Lefort, Claire; Pagnoux, Dominique; Duclère, Jean-René; Kaneyasu, Junya F.; Kano, Hideaki; Duponchel, Ludovic; Couderc, Vincent; Leproux, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    We introduce an experiment using electro-CARS, an electro-optical method based on the combination of ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (M-CARS) spectroscopy and electric field stimulation. We demonstrate that this method can effectively discriminate the resonant CARS signal from the nonresonant background owing to a phenomenon of molecular orientation in the sample medium. Such molecular orientation is intrinsically related to the induction of an electric dipole moment by the applied static electric field. Evidence of the electro-CARS effect is obtained with a solution of n -alkanes (CnH2 n +2 , 15 ≤n ≤40 ), for which an enhancement of the CARS signal-to-noise ratio is achieved in the case of CH2 and CH3 symmetric/asymmetric stretching vibrations. Additionally, an electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation experiment is performed in order to corroborate the orientational organization of molecules due to the electric field excitation. Finally, we use a simple mathematical approach to compare the vibrational information extracted from electro-CARS measurements with spontaneous Raman data and to highlight the impact of electric stimulation on the vibrational signal.

  19. Monolayer borophene electrode for effective elimination of both the Schottky barrier and strong electric field effect

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L. Z., E-mail: lzliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hkxlwu@nju.edu.cn; Xiong, S. J.; Wu, X. L., E-mail: lzliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hkxlwu@nju.edu.cn

    2016-08-08

    The formation of Schottky barriers between 2D semiconductors and traditional metallic electrodes has greatly limited the application of 2D semiconductors in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, metallic borophene was used as a substitute for the traditional noble metal electrode to contact with the 2D semiconductor. Theoretical calculations demonstrated that no Schottky barrier exists in the borophene/2D semiconductor heterostructure. The contact remains ohmic even with a strong electric field applied. This finding provides a way to construct 2D electronic devices and sensors with greatly enhanced performance.

  20. D-shaped tilted fiber Bragg grating using magnetic fluid for magnetic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Si, Guang-Yuan; Wang, Xin; Qi, Yuan-Wei

    2017-12-01

    In our work, a numerical investigation of a magnetic field sensor based on a D-shaped tilted fiber Bragg grating and magnetic fluid is performed. The sensing probe is constructed by placing the magnetic fluid film on the flat surface of the D-shaped tilted fiber Bragg grating. We investigate the resonance wavelengths of the proposed structure with different tilted angles of grating ranging from 0° to 20°, and analyze the magnetic field sensing characteristics. The simulation results show that the optical fiber sensor exhibits optimal transmission characteristics with a tilted angle of 8°. The wavelength sensitivity of the magnetic field sensor is as high as -0.18nm/Oe in the range of 30Oe-270Oe, and it demonstrates a linearity up to R2= -0.9998. Such sensor has potential applications in determining magnetic sensing field.

  1. Electric field numerical simulation of disc type electrostatic spinning spinneret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L.; Deng, ZL; Qin, XH; Liang, ZY

    2018-01-01

    Electrospinning is a new type of free-end spinning built on electric field. Different from traditional single needle spinneret, in this study, a new disc type free surface spinneret is used to produce multiple jets, this will greatly improve production efficiency of nanofiber. The electric-field distribution of spinneret is the crux of the formation and trajectory of jets. In order to probe the electric field intensity of the disc type spinneret, computational software of Ansoft Maxwell 12 is adopted for a precise and intuitive analysis. The results showed that the whole round cambered surface of the spinning solution at edge of each layer of the spinneret with the maximum curvature has the highest electric field intensity, and through the simulation of the electric field distribution of different spinneret parameters such as layer, the height and radius of the spinneret. Influences of various parameters on the electrostatic spinning are obtained.

  2. Deformation analysis of vesicles in an alternating-current electric field.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu-Gang; Liu, Ying; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-08-01

    In this paper the shape equation for axisymmetric vesicles subjected to an ac electric field is derived on the basis of the liquid-crystal model. The equilibrium morphology of a lipid vesicle is determined by the minimization of its free energy in coupled mechanical and ac electric fields. Besides elastic bending, the effects of the osmotic pressure difference, surface tension, Maxwell pressure, and flexoelectric and dielectric properties of phospholipid membrane as well are taken into account. The influences of elastic bending, osmotic pressure difference, and surface tension on the frequency-dependent behavior of a vesicle membrane in an ac electric field are examined. The singularity of the ac electric field is also investigated. Our theoretical results of vesicle deformation agree well with previous experimental and numerical results. The present study provides insights into the physical mechanisms underpinning the frequency-dependent morphological evolution of vesicles in the electric and mechanical fields.

  3. Archimedean Spiral Pairs with no Electrical Connections as a Passive Wireless Implantable Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Drazan, John F; Gunko, Aleksandra; Dion, Matthew; Abdoun, Omar; Cady, Nathaniel C; Connor, Kenneth A; Ledet, Eric H

    2015-01-01

    We have developed, modeled, fabricated, and tested a passive wireless sensor system that exhibits a linear frequency-displacement relationship. The displacement sensor is comprised of two anti-aligned Archimedean coils separated by an insulating dielectric layer. There are no electrical connections between the two coils and there are no onboard electronics. The two coils are inductively and capacitively coupled due to their close proximity. The sensor system is interrogated wirelessly by monitoring the return loss parameter from a vector network analyzer. The resonant frequency of the sensor is dependent on the displacement between the two coils. Due to changes in the inductive and capacitive coupling between the coils at different distances, the resonant frequency is modulated by coil separation. In a specified range, the frequency shift can be linearized with respect to coil separation. Batch fabrication techniques were used to fabricate copper coils for experimental testing with air as the dielectric. Through testing, we validated the performance of sensors as predicted within acceptable errors. Because of its simplicity, this displacement sensor has potential applications for in vivo sensing. PMID:27430033

  4. Sensitivity Enhancement in Magnetic Sensors Based on Ferroelectric-Bimorphs and Multiferroic Composites.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Qu, Peng; Petrov, Vladimir; Qu, Hongwei; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    2016-02-20

    Multiferroic composites with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases have been studied in recent years for use as sensors of AC and DC magnetic fields. Their operation is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems and is mediated by mechanical strain. Such sensors for AC magnetic fields require a bias magnetic field to achieve pT-sensitivity. Novel magnetic sensors with a permanent magnet proof mass, either on a ferroelectric bimorph or a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composite, are discussed. In both types, the interaction between the applied AC magnetic field and remnant magnetization of the magnet results in a mechanical strain and a voltage response in the ferroelectric. Our studies have been performed on sensors with a Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet proof mass on (i) a bimorph of oppositely-poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) platelets and (ii) a layered multiferroic composite of PZT-Metglas-Ni. The sensors have been characterized in terms of sensitivity and equivalent magnetic noise N. Noise N in both type of sensors is on the order of 200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, a factor of 10 improvement compared to multiferroic sensors without a proof mass. When the AC magnetic field is applied at the bending resonance for the bimorph, the measured N ≈ 700 pT/√Hz. We discuss models based on magneto-electro-mechanical coupling at low frequency and bending resonance in the sensors and theoretical estimates of ME voltage coefficients are in very good agreement with the data.

  5. Sensitivity Enhancement in Magnetic Sensors Based on Ferroelectric-Bimorphs and Multiferroic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Qu, Peng; Petrov, Vladimir; Qu, Hongwei; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Multiferroic composites with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases have been studied in recent years for use as sensors of AC and DC magnetic fields. Their operation is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems and is mediated by mechanical strain. Such sensors for AC magnetic fields require a bias magnetic field to achieve pT-sensitivity. Novel magnetic sensors with a permanent magnet proof mass, either on a ferroelectric bimorph or a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composite, are discussed. In both types, the interaction between the applied AC magnetic field and remnant magnetization of the magnet results in a mechanical strain and a voltage response in the ferroelectric. Our studies have been performed on sensors with a Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet proof mass on (i) a bimorph of oppositely-poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) platelets and (ii) a layered multiferroic composite of PZT-Metglas-Ni. The sensors have been characterized in terms of sensitivity and equivalent magnetic noise N. Noise N in both type of sensors is on the order of 200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, a factor of 10 improvement compared to multiferroic sensors without a proof mass. When the AC magnetic field is applied at the bending resonance for the bimorph, the measured N ≈ 700 pT/√Hz. We discuss models based on magneto-electro-mechanical coupling at low frequency and bending resonance in the sensors and theoretical estimates of ME voltage coefficients are in very good agreement with the data. PMID:26907290

  6. Analytical and numerical investigations of bubble behavior in electric fields