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Sample records for electric industry restructuring

  1. Electric industry restructuring in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective on November 25, 1997. The law will break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and it will allow non-utility generators access to the retail end user market. The law contains many compromises aimed at protecting consumers, ensuring savings, protecting employees and protecting the environment. While it appears that the legislation recognizes the sanctity of independent power producer contracts with utilities, it attempts to provide both carrots and sticks to the utilities and the IPP generators to encourage renegotiations and buy-down of the contracts. Waste-to-energy contracts are technically exempted from some of the obligations to remediate. Waste-to-energy facilities are classified as renewable energy sources which may have positive effects on the value to waste-to-energy derived power. On November 25, 1997, the law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective. The law will have two primary effects: (1) break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and (2) allow non-utility generators access to the retail end-user market.

  2. An introduction to electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J.F.; Berry, L.G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the electric industry, its residential markets, industry structure and current trends. Its purpose is to provide Weatherization grants managers with the background necessary to assess their leveraging opportunities in an industry that is experiencing sweeping changes, commonly known as electric industry restructuring. The study describes the terrain of a changing industry topography on a national and regional basis, with some state and local information also provided. Weatherization managers and subgrantees who read this paper should be better able to understand the leveraging opportunities that are emerging now in the electricity market place. The reader will be introduced to the basics of the electric industry as it presently operates, the nature of the changes that are in the process of occurring, and the driving forces that are behind those changes. The major industry players are described by type and their interests are explored in further depth. There will also be an overview of the regulatory process as it has operated historically, as well as the changes now underway at both the state and federal levels. Finally, the paper will conclude with a description of some of the assets and opportunities available to those who may be interested in participating in the restructuring process in order to expand or protect low-income programs in their own states.

  3. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  5. Technology opportunities in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Strategic Research & Development (SR&D) program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The intent of the program is to anticipate and shape the scientific and technological future of the electricity enterprise. SR&D serves those industry R&D needs that are more exploratory, precompetitive, and longer-term. To this end, SR&D seeks to anticipate technological change and, where possible, shape that change to the advantage of the electric utility enterprise and its customers. SR&D`s response to this challenge is research and development program that addresses the most probable future of the industry, but at the same time is robust against alternative futures. The EPRI SR&D program is organized into several vectors, each with a mission that relates directly to one or more EPRI industry goals, which are summarized in the paper. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, D.; Busch, J.; Starrs, T.

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  7. Restructuring the Philippine electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, S.; Ellis, M.

    1995-06-01

    The Philippine electricity industry has shown it can change, and change quickly. In contrast with the crises and changes imposed on it in the past, the industry now has as opportunity to forge a progressive, forward-looking strategy, This opportunity is enhanced by the force of law - the Department of Energy Act of 1992 mandates privatization of the National Power Corporation (NPC) - and by the easing of the power crisis which has significantly diminished political interference. In order to position the industry for growth and rising investment requirements and to support the growing role of the Philippine economy in international markets, that strategy must address the structural deficiencies that continue to plague the industry. By addressing structural changes that need to be made now, it can build on the impetus gained from its privatization mandate to improve accountability, increase efficiency and reduce government risk.

  8. Tradable allowances in a restructuring electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tschirhart, J.; Wen, S.Y.

    1999-09-01

    The SO{sub 2} tradable allowance program has been introduced into an electric industry undergoing dramatic changes. Entry of nonutilities into the industry and the emergence of stranded costs are two major changes that are shown to have an impact on the market for allowances and the industry`s incentives to switch to cleaner fuels. The degree of impact depends on the extent to which consumers bypass traditional utilities and buy from entrants, and on public utility commission policies regarding the recovery of stranded costs. In turn, the amount of stranded costs depends on fuel switching. The results follow from simulations of a two-utility model that illustrate the qualitative effects of changing policies.

  9. Analysis of electric power industry restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Yahya

    1998-10-01

    This thesis evaluates alternative structures of the electric power industry in a competitive environment. One structure is based on the principle of creating a mandatory power pool to foster competition and manage system economics. The structure is PoolCo (pool coordination). A second structure is based on the principle of allowing independent multilateral trading and decentralized market coordination. The structure is DecCo (decentralized coordination). The criteria I use to evaluate these two structures are: economic efficiency, system reliability and freedom of choice. Economic efficiency evaluation considers strategic behavior of individual generators as well as behavioral variations of different classes of consumers. A supply-function equilibria model is characterized for deriving bidding strategies of competing generators under PoolCo. It is shown that asymmetric equilibria can exist within the capacities of generators. An augmented Lagrangian approach is introduced to solve iteratively for global optimal operations schedules. Under DecCo, the process involves solving iteratively for system operations schedules. The schedules reflect generators strategic behavior and brokers' interactions for arranging profitable trades, allocating losses and managing network congestion. In the determination of PoolCo and DecCo operations schedules, overall costs of power generation (start-up and shut-down costs and availability of hydro electric power) as well as losses and costs of transmission network are considered. For system reliability evaluation, I examine the effect of PoolCo and DecCo operating conditions on the system security. Random component failure perturbations are generated to simulate the actual system behavior. This is done using Monte Carlo simulation. Freedom of choice evaluation accounts for schemes' beneficial opportunities and capabilities to respond to consumers expressed preferences. An IEEE 24-bus test system is used to illustrate the concepts

  10. The status of electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, M.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation discusses current electric utility regulatory reform with a focus on the impacts of competition in the Midwest marketplace. Information and data are presented through 14 figures and 30 tables. Regulatory issues at the state and Federal levels are very briefly outlined, including reciprocity, unbundling, stranded cost recovery, and independent system operation. Graphical data on energy capacity by source, capacity additions, wholesale markets, electricity prices, and market development are also presented.

  11. Electric utility restructuring and the California biomass energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.

    1997-05-01

    A shock jolted the electric power industry in April 1994, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) announced its intention to restructure the industry. The proposal, commonly referred to as retail wheeling, is based on the principle that market deregulation and competition will bring down the cost of electricity for all classes of customers. It would effectively break up the monopoly status of the regulated utilities and allow customers to purchase electricity directly from competing suppliers. According to the original CPUC proposal, cost alone would be the basis for determining which generating resources would be used. The proposal was modified in response to public inputs, and issued as a decision at the end of 1995. The final proposal recognized the importance of renewables, and included provisions for a minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR). A Renewables Working Group convened to develop detailed proposals for implementing the CPUC`s renewables program. Numerous proposals, which represented the range of possible programs that can be used to support renewables within the context of a restructured electric utility industry, were received.

  12. Local government: The sleeping giant in electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Public power has long been a cornerstone of consumer leverage in the electric industry. But its foundation consists of a much broader and deeper consumer authority. Understanding that authority - and present threats to it - is critical to restructuring of the electric industry as well as to the future of public power. The country has largely forgotten the role that local governments have played and continue to play in the development of the electric industry. Moreover, we risk losing sight of the options local governments may offer to protect consumers, to advance competition in the marketplace, and to enhance opportunities for technology and economic development. The future role of local government is one of the most important issues in the restructuring discussion. The basic authority of consumers rests at the local level. The resulting options consumers have to act as more than just respondents to private brokers and telemarketing calls are at the local level. And the ability for consumers to shape the marketplace and standards for what it will offer exists at the local level as well.

  13. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P S

    1997-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country`s new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties.

  14. Restructuring, ownership and efficiency in the electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser

    The first chapter considers improvements in productive efficiency that can result from a movement from a regulated framework to one that allows for market-based incentives for industry participants. Specifically, I look at the case of restructuring in the electricity generation industry. Using data from the electricity industry, this analysis considers the total effect of restructuring on one input to the production process, labor, as reflected in employment levels, payroll per employee and aggregate establishment payroll. Using concurrent payroll and employment data from non-utility ("merchant") and utility generators in both restructured and nonrestructured states, I estimate the effect of market liberalization, comprising both new entry and state-level legislation, on employment and payroll in this industry. I find that merchant owners of divested generation assets employ significantly fewer people, but that the payroll per employee is not significantly different from what workers at utility-owned plants are paid. As a result, the new merchant owners of these plants have significantly lower aggregate payroll expenses. Decomposing the effect into a merchant effect and a divestiture effect, I find that merchant ownership is the primary driver of these results. As documented in Chapter 1, merchant power plants have lower overall payroll costs than plants owned by utilities. Employment at merchant power plants is characterized by reduced staffing levels but higher average payroll per employee. A hypothesis set forth in that paper is that merchant generators employ fewer workers at the lower end of the wage distribution, resulting in a higher average payroll per employee. The second chapter of this paper examines whether employment at nonutility power plants, that is, those that are either divested or native merchant power plants, is skewed towards more skilled labor. This chapter also considers the extent to which the difference in employment levels is the result of

  15. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  16. Informatics requirements for a restructured competitive electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pickle, S.; Marnay, C.; Olken, F.

    1996-08-01

    The electric power industry in the United States is undergoing a slow but nonetheless dramatic transformation. It is a transformation driven by technology, economics, and politics; one that will move the industry from its traditional mode of centralized system operations and regulated rates guaranteeing long-run cost recovery, to decentralized investment and operational decisionmaking and to customer access to true spot market prices. This transformation will revolutionize the technical, procedural, and informational requirements of the industry. A major milestone in this process occurred on December 20, 1995, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved its long-awaited electric utility industry restructuring decision. The decision directed the three major California investor-owned utilities to reorganize themselves by the beginning of 1998 into a supply pool, at the same time selling up to a half of their thermal generating plants. Generation will be bid into this pool and will be dispatched by an independent system operator. The dispatch could potentially involve bidders not only from California but from throughout western North America and include every conceivable generating technology and scale of operation. At the same time, large customers and aggregated customer groups will be able to contract independently for their supply and the utilities will be required to offer a real-time pricing tariff based on the pool price to all their customers, including residential. In related proceedings concerning competitive wholesale power markets, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has recognized that real-time information flows between buyers and sellers are essential to efficient equitable market operation. The purpose of this meeting was to hold discussions on the information technologies that will be needed in the new, deregulated electric power industry.

  17. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  18. Assessing strategies to address transition costs in a restructuring electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-08-01

    Restructuring the US electricity industry has become the nation`s central energy issue for the 1990s. Restructuring proposals at the federal and state levels focus on more competitive market structures for generation and the integration of transmission within those structures. The proposed move to more competitive generation markets will expose utility costs that are above those experienced by alternative suppliers. Debate about these above-market, or transition, costs (e.g., their size,who will pay for them and how) has played a prominent role in restructuring proceedings. This paper presents results from a project to systematically assess strategies to address transition costs exposed by restructuring the electricity industry.

  19. The State of Restructuring the Electric Power Industry in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ricardo A.

    Through federal legislation, the electric power industry in the United States is encouraged to unbundle the ownership structure into separate entities for generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. The electric power industry represents more than 7% of the U.S. gross domestic product and some of the country's major economic sectors, such as mining and chemical processing. The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study is to explore the phenomenon of the U.S. electric power industry restructuring from the viewpoint of those who have been at the forefront of the effort. The conceptual framework for this study is based in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA), which guided the restructuring of the U.S. electric power industry. The focus of the research questions was determining the informed perceptions and lived experience of participants. A purposive sampling approach was utilized along with a semi structured, open-ended interview with 20 participants who brought context-specific knowledge of the phenomenon. A sequential inductive process of coding, categorizing, and abstracting was performed. The findings indicate that the professionals within the industry continue to struggle with what is perceived as a restructuring effort that has come to a standstill, and doubts continue regarding the benefits or disadvantages of restructuring. The study contributes to social change by informing challenges to restructuring within the electric power industry, changes that include the potential for significant impacts to customers and especially for low income residents if subsidies are removed in a restructured environment.

  20. A guide to the Blue Book: Issues in California`s Electric Industry restructuring and reform

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, C.; Bushnell, J.

    1994-09-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission`s proposal to restructure the electricity industry in that state has implications that must be explicitly identified and addressed. Here is a short list of issues that should be confronted forthrightly as the process goes forward. This article is intended as a general guide to the policy issues raised by the California Public Utilities Commission`s Order Instituting Rulemaking on the Commission`s Restructuring California`s Electric Service Industry and Reforming Regulation (referred to as the `Blue Book`). The Blue Book proposes opening portions of the California electric power industry to further competition and introducing performance-based regulation for the remaining elements of the industry. The electric power market would be divided into two sectors: the direct sector, in which customers buy from their supplier of choice, and the utility service sector in which customers buy from the utility. The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to clarify the choices to be made in pursuing these changes, and the effects of those choices on criteria by which the results of such a restructuring could be evaluated; and (2) to identify issues that present the largest technical challenges to carrying out the Commission`s proposal.

  1. Electric power industry restructuring in Australia: Lessons from down-under. Occasional paper No. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D.

    1997-01-01

    Australia`s electric power industry (EPI) is undergoing major restructuring. This restructuring includes commercialization of state-owned electric organization through privatization and through corporatization into separate governmental business units; structural unbundling of generation, transmission, retailing, and distribution; and creation of a National Electricity Market (NEM) organized as a centralized, market-based trading pool for buying and selling electricity. The principal rationales for change in the EPI were the related needs of enhancing international competitiveness, improving productivity, and lowering electric rates. Reducing public debt through privatization also played an important role. Reforms in the EPI are part of the overall economic reform package that is being implemented in Australia. Enhancing efficiency in the economy through competition is a key objective of the reforms. As the need for reform was being discussed in the early 1990s, Australia`s previous prime minister, Paul Keating, observed that {open_quotes}the engine which drives efficiency is free and open competition.{close_quotes} The optimism about the economic benefits of the full package of reforms across the different sectors of the economy, including the electricity industry, is reflected in estimated benefits of a 5.5 percent annual increase in real gross domestic product and the creation of 30,000 more jobs. The largest source of the benefits (estimated at 25 percent of total benefits) was projected to come from reform of the electricity and gas sectors.

  2. Restructuring Energy Industries: Lessons from Natural Gas

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the natural gas industry has been undergoing a restructuring similar to the transition now confronting the electric power industry. This article presents a summary of some of these gas industry experiences to provide a basis for some insights into energy industry restructuring.

  3. Electric industry restructuring, ancillary services, and the potential impact on wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Parsons, B.; Porter, K.

    1997-12-31

    The new competitive electric power environment raises increased challenges for wind power. The DOE and EPRI wind programs have dealt extensively with the traditional vertically integrated utility planning and operating environment in which the host utility owns the generation (or purchases the power) and provides dispatch and transmission services. Under this traditional environment, 1794 MW of wind power, principally in California, have been successfully integrated into the U.S. electric power system. Another 4200 MW are installed elsewhere in the world. As issues have arisen, such as intermittency and voltage regulation, they have been successfully addressed with accepted power system procedures and practices. For an intermittent, non-dispatchable resource such as wind, new regulatory rules affecting power transmission services, raise questions about which ancillary services wind plants will be able to sell, which they will be required to purchase, and what the economic impacts will be on individual wind projects. This paper begins to look at issues of concern to wind in a restructured electric industry. The paper first briefly looks at the range of unbundled services and comments on their unique significance to wind. To illustrate the concerns that arise with restructuring, the paper then takes a more detailed look at a single service: regulation. Finally, the paper takes a brief look at technologies and strategies that could improve the competitive position of wind.

  4. Efficiency, equity and the environment: Institutional challenges in the restructuring of the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Haeri, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    In the electric power industry, fundamental changes are underway in Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand and, more recently, in Asia. Rooted in increased deregulation and competition, these changes are likely to radically alter the structure of the industry. Liberalization of electric power markets in the United Kingdom is, for the most part, complete. The generation market in the United States began opening to competition following the 1987 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 set the stage for a much more dramatic change in the industry. The most far-reaching provision of the Act was its electricity title, which opened access to the electric transmission grid. With legal barriers now removed, the traditionally sheltered US electric utility market is becoming increasingly open to entry and competition. A number of important legislative, regulatory and governmental policy initiatives are underway in the Philippines that will have a profound effect on the electric power industry. In Thailand, the National Energy Planning Organization (NEPO) has undertaken a thorough investigation of industry restructuring. This paper summarizes recent international developments in the deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets in the U.K., U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. It focuses on the relevance of these experiences to development underway in the Philippines and Thailand, and presents alternative possible structures likely to emerge in these countries, drawing heavily on the authors' recent experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. The impact of these changes on the business environment for power generation and marketing will be discussed in detail, as will the opportunities these changes create for investment among private power producers.

  5. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  6. Maintaining Generation Adequacy in a Restructuring U.S. Electricity Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1999-10-01

    Historically, decisions on the amounts, locations, types, and timing of investments in new generation have been made by vertically integrated utilities with approval from state public utility commissions. As the U.S. electricity industry is restructured, these decisions are being fragmented and dispersed among a variety of organizations. As generation is deregulated and becomes increasingly competitive, decisions on whether to build new generators and to retire, maintain, or repower existing units will increasingly be made by unregulated for-profit corporations. These decisions will be based largely on investor assessments of future profitability and only secondarily on regional reliability requirements. In addition, some customers will choose to face real-time (spot) prices and will respond to the occasionally very high prices by reducing electricity use at those times. Market-determined generation levels will, relative to centrally mandated reserve margins, lead to: (1) more volatile energy prices; (2) lower electricity costs and prices; and (3) a generation mix with more baseload, and less peaking, capacity. During the transition from a vertically integrated, regulated industry to a deintegrated, competitive industry, government regulators and system operators may continue to impose minimum-installed-capacity requirements on load-serving entities. As the industry gains experience with customer responses to real-time pricing and with operation of competitive intrahour energy markets, these requirements will likely disappear. We quantitatively analyzed these issues with the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model (ORCED). Model results show that the optimal reserve margin depends on various factors, including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices (load shapes and system load factor). Because the correct reserve margin depends on these generally unpredictable factors, mandated reserve margins might be

  7. Electric Industry Restructuring in Ohio: Residential and Low Income Customer Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    Throughout the country the long standing administratively based regulatory structure for determining the cost and service parameters for electric utilities is changing. More and more market elements are coming into the structure. There is a push by many players to eliminate much of the current regulation. For the production side of electricity at least, these players argue that a market approach will do a better n job of pricing power and making it available to customers. However, the electricity industry currently has a large base of investment in power production equipment, some of which may have difficulty competing in a market-based system. What to do about this potentially uneconomic existing investment is an important question receiving a great deal of attention at the policy discussion level. Some argue that if the investment in existing facilities is uneconomic in a new market based system, that is too bad for the owners of the above-market cost facilities, and customers should bear no responsibility to help make those owners whole. Others argue that the owners of above-market cost facilities invested in those facilities in good faith and should not be made to bear the cost of a changing underlying industry structure. The arguments on both sides are long and involved, and this paper is not the place to explore them. However, it is clear that the result of the debate is uncertain, and both approaches must be explored. The purpose of this report is to analyze the current electric utility cost structure in Ohio, estimate the expected changes in that structure and cost levels under various restructuring proposals, and determine the likely impact on low income and other residential customers. The report analyzes the likely cost impacts of a variety of approaches to the above-market cost facility problem. The range of potential outcomes is very wide.

  8. Essays on the investment behavior of independent power producers in the United States electricity industry under regulatory restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jingming

    2002-09-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts at both the federal and state level to introduce greater competition and markets into the US electricity industry through regulatory restructuring. A key to the success of such efforts is the ability of the restructuring to attract investment from non-utility, independent power producers (IPPs). The two essays in this dissertation examine empirically the investment behavior of IPPs under the regulatory restructuring between 1996 and 2000. In both essays, the effects of restructuring on a firm's investment decision are decomposed into the effects that work through the investment cost and that through the expected profit from the investment. The first essay studies the entry behavior of IPPs under the restructuring. The main finding of the essay is that the restructuring has done little to lower the entry barrier faced by IPPs-high fixed cost to entry is still a main factor that hinders IPP investment. The second essay studies IPPs' decisions between investing through building new power plants ("make") and investing through acquiring divested plants ("buy"). It finds that the availability of the "buy" option does not "squeeze" out investment on new capacities. IPPs that chose to "buy" did so because they expected a lower return from "make" and hence would not have switched their investment to new capacities even if the "buy" option were not available. Therefore, divestiture is a viable policy tool for state regulators to attract more IPP investment.

  9. Electric industry restructuring and environmental issues: A comparative analysis of the experience in California, New York, and Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1996-08-01

    Since the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued its April 20, 1994, Blue Book proposal to restructure the regulation of electric utilities in California to allow more competition, over 40 states have initiated similar activities. The question of how major public policy objectives such as environmental protection, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and assistance to low-income customers can be sustained in the new competitive environment is also an important element being considered. Because many other states will undergo restructuring in the future, the experience of the {open_quotes}early adopter{close_quotes} states in addressing public policy objectives in their electric service industry restructuring processes can provide useful information to other states. The Competitive Resource Strategies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Utility Technologies, is interested in documenting and disseminating the experience of the pioneering states. The Center for Energy Analysis and Applications of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory assisted the Office of Utility Technologies in this effort with a project on the treatment of environmental issues in electric industry restructuring.

  10. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  11. Restructuring of the electricity industry and environmental issues: a California research program.

    PubMed

    Vine, E L

    2001-08-02

    As part of the restructuring of the electricity industry in many states, public benefits funding has emerged as a primary mechanism for supporting social benefits such as energy efficiency and research and development (RD). In California, a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program was established to "conduct public interest energy research that seeks to improve the quality of life for California"s citizens by providing environmentally sound, safe, reliable, and affordable energy services and products. PIER includes the full range of research, development, and demonstration activities that will advance science or technology not adequately provided by competitive and regulated markets." The PIER Program is comprised of six PIER Program funding areas, including the Energy-Related Environmental Research. The overall mission of the Energy-Related Environmental Research is to "Develop cost-effective approaches to evaluating and resolving environmental effects of energy production, delivery, and use in California, and explore how new energy applications and products can solve environmental problems." This paper describes the process used in developing these approaches and identifies a set of environmental issues that the State plans to evaluate.

  12. Electricity Restructuring and Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Joseph Dean

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation research concentrates on the causes, motivations, and results of electricity restructuring, and research on the effectiveness of economic teaching and retention. The first chapter looks at motivations for electricity restructuring in the United States in terms of the Interest Group and Public Interest setting. The second chapter…

  13. Electricity Restructuring and Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Joseph Dean

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation research concentrates on the causes, motivations, and results of electricity restructuring, and research on the effectiveness of economic teaching and retention. The first chapter looks at motivations for electricity restructuring in the United States in terms of the Interest Group and Public Interest setting. The second chapter…

  14. The impact of deregulation and restructuring: An empirical case study of the electric utility industry from 1998 through 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Deborah E.

    This qualitative study analyzed the residential electricity prices in the competitive U.S. electric market from 1998 to 2007. This analysis revealed that electricity restructuring has not yet resulted in lower prices for the majority of residential consumers in areas open to competition. This study reviewed actual experiences of eight states in the deregulated and restructured electricity markets: Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The study began with a historical look at the deregulated and restructured electricity market from 1990 to 2007. The electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition and price caps. The results indicated that both had an effect on residential prices. This study used data from the Energy Information Administration and the 8 public utility commissions. Contrary to common expectations, residential electricity costs for consumers have increased rather than decreased.

  15. Deregulation-restructuring: Evidence for individual industries

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Graniere, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    Several studies have measured the effects of regulation on a particular industry. These studies range widely in sophistication, from simple observation (comparison) of pre-transformation and post-transformation actual industry performance to econometric analysis that attempt to separate the effects of deregulation from other factors in explaining changes in an industry`s performance. The major problem with observation studies is that they are unable to measure the effect of one particular event, such as deregulation, on an industry`s performance. For example, at the same time that the United Kingdom privatized its electric power industry, it also radically restructured the industry to encourage competition and instituted a price-cap mechanism to regulate the prices of transmission, distribution, and bundled retail services. Subsequent to these changes in 1991, real prices for most UK electricity customers have fallen. It is not certain however, which of these factors was most important or even contributed to the decline in price. In any event, one must be cautious in interpreting the results of studies that attempt to measure the effect of deregulation per se for a specific industry. This report highlights major outcomes for five industries undergoing deregulation or major regulatory and restructuring reforms. These include the natural gas, transportation, UK electric power, financial, and telecommunications industries. Particular attention was given to the historical development of events in the telecommunications industry.

  16. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  17. Essays on restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Emma Leah

    This dissertation focuses on the performance of restructured electricity markets in the United States. In chapter 1, I study bidder-specific offer caps ("BSOCs") which are used to mitigate market power in three wholesale electricity markets. The price of electricity is determined through multi-unit uniform price auctions and BSOCs impose an upper limit, which is increasing in marginal cost, on each generator's bid. I apply BSOCs in both the uniform and discriminatory price auctions and characterize the equilibria in a two firm model with stochastic demand. BSOCs unambiguously increase expected production efficiency in the uniform price auction and they can increase the expected profit of the generator with the lower cap. Chapter 2, coauthored with Ramteen Sioshansi, Ph.D., compares two types of uniform price auction formats used in wholesale electricity markets, centrally committed markets and self committed markets. In centrally committed markets, generators submit two-part bids consisting of a fixed startup cost and a variable (per MWh) energy cost, and the auctioneer ensures that no generator operates at a loss. Generators in self committed markets must incorporate their startup costs into their one part energy bids. We derive Nash equilibria for both the centrally and self committed electricity markets in a model with two symmetric generators with nonconvex costs and deterministic demand. Using a numerical example, we demonstrate that if the caps on the bid elements are chosen appropriately, the two market designs are equivalent in terms of generator revenues and settlement costs. Regulators and prominent academic experts believe that electric restructuring polices have stifled investment in new generation capacity. In chapter 3 I seek to determine whether these fears are supported by empirical evidence. I examine both total investment in megawatts and the number of new investments across regions that adopted different electric restructuring policies to

  18. Essays on empirical analysis of multi-unit auctions: Impacts of financial transmission rights on the restructured electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hailing

    This dissertation uses recently developed empirical methodologies for the study of multi-unit auctions to test the impacts of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) on the competitiveness of restructured electricity markets. FTRs are a special type of financial option that hedge against volatility in the cost of transporting electricity over the grid. Policy makers seek to use the prices of FTRs as market signals to incentivize efficient investment and utilization of transmission capacity. However, prices will not send the correct signals if market participants strategically use FTRs. This dissertation uses data from the Texas electricity market to test whether the prices of FTRs are efficient to achieve such goals. The auctions studied are multi-unit, uniform-price, sealed-bid auctions. The first part of the dissertation studies the auctions on the spot market of the wholesale electricity industry. I derive structural empirical models to test theoretical predictions as to whether bidders fully internalize the effect of FTRs on profits into their bidding decisions. I find that bidders are learning as to how to optimally bid above marginal cost for their inframarginal capacities. The bidders also learn to bid to include FTRs into their profit maximization problem during the course of the first year. But starting from the second year, they deviated from optimal bidding that includes FTRs in the profit maximization problems. Counterfactual analysis show that the primary effect of FTRs on market outcomes is changing the level of prices rather than production efficiency. Finally, I find that in most months, the current allocations of FTRs are statistically equivalent to the optimal allocations. The second part of the dissertation studies the bidding behavior in the FTR auctions. I find that FTRs' strategic impact on the FTR purchasing behavior is significant for large bidders---firms exercising market power in the FTR auctions. Second, trader forecasts future FTR credit

  19. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  20. Methods to estimate stranded commitments for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for US investor-owned electric utilities range widely, from as little as $20 billion to as much as $500 billion (more than double the shareholder equity in US utilities). These potential losses are a consequence of the above-market book values for some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts, deferred income taxes, regulatory assets, and public-policy programs. Because of the wide range of estimates and the potentially large dollar amounts involved, state and federal regulators need a clear understanding of the methods used to calculate these estimates. In addition, they may want simple methods that they can use to check the reasonableness of the estimates that utilities and other parties present in regulatory proceedings. This report explains various top-down and bottom-up methods to calculate stranded commitments. The purpose of this analysis is to help regulators and others understand the implications of different analytical approaches to estimating stranded-commitment amounts. Top-down methods, because they use the utility as the unit of analysis, are simple to apply and to understand. However, their aggregate nature makes it difficult to determine what specific assets and liabilities affect their estimates. Bottom-up methods use the individual asset (e.g., power plant) or liability (e.g., power-purchase contract, fuel-supply contract, and deferred income taxes) as the unit of analysis. These methods have substantial data and computational requirements.

  1. Industry Restructuring: Extracts from Centre Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William C., Ed.

    This document contains excerpts from material previously published by Australia's TAFE (Technical and Further Education) National Centre for Research and Development on the subjects of industry restructuring, the reasons for restructuring, revising curricula, and providing a service to business and industry. Its contents are "Industry…

  2. Restructuring the energy industry: A financial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper present eight tables summarizing financial aspects of energy industry restructuring. Historical, current, and future business characteristics of energy industries are outlined. Projections of industry characteristics are listed for the next five years and for the 21st century. Future independent power procedures related to financial aspects are also outlined. 8 tabs.

  3. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry`s efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets.

  4. A state legislator looks at industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, T.

    1996-09-01

    The political challenges of addressing restructuring have caused many state legislators to shy away from the issue. With the start of the 1966 legislative year, 30 states were evaluating at least some aspect of the evolving competitive electric marketplace. Studies included open regulatory dockets (for example in Arizona and Kansas), pilot customer choice projects (such as in Ohio, MIchigan and New Hampshire), legislative studies and possible re-definition of state regulatory parameters (Kansas, Illinois and Florida), regulatory agency fact-finding (Iowa and Idaho) and development of intrastate electric pooling infrastructures (California). In addition, state actions reflect a commitment to competition at the retail level ranging from a call for determination of stranded-cost exposure for the state`s utilities (as in New York), calls for industry and public input on issues related to competition (Rhode Island, Maine, and Kansas) and the customer choice pilot projects. The range of issues and actions has been diverse, but most legislative and regulatory agency discussions have focused on easing market entry restrictions, price considerations and stranded investment by utilities. Many other significant issues must be addressed if an equitable distribution of potential competition benefits to all customer classes, regardless of geographic location, is to be achieved.

  5. Electric system restructuring and system reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Catherine Miller

    In 1996 the California legislature passed AB 1890, explicitly defining economic benefits and detailing specific mechanisms for initiating a partial restructuring the state's electric system. Critics have since sought re-regulation and proponents have asked for patience as the new institutions and markets take shape. Other states' electric system restructuring activities have been tempered by real and perceived problems in the California model. This study examines the reduced regulatory controls and new constraints introduced in California's limited restructuring model using utility and regulatory agency records from the 1990's to investigate effects of new institutions and practices on system reliability for the state's five largest public and private utilities. Logit and negative binomial regressions indicate negative impact from the California model of restructuring on system reliability as measured by customer interruptions. Time series analysis of outage data could not predict the wholesale power market collapse and the subsequent rolling blackouts in early 2001; inclusion of near-outage reliability disturbances---load shedding and energy emergencies---provided a measure of forewarning. Analysis of system disruptions, generation capacity and demand, and the role of purchased power challenge conventional wisdom on the causality of Californian's power problems. The quantitative analysis was supplemented by a targeted survey of electric system restructuring participants. Findings suggest each utility and the organization controlling the state's electric grid provided protection from power outages comparable to pre-restructuring operations through 2000; however, this reliability has come at an inflated cost, resulting in reduced system purchases and decreased marginal protection. The historic margin of operating safety has fully eroded, increasing mandatory load shedding and emergency declarations for voluntary and mandatory conservation. Proposed remedies focused

  6. Restructuring the electric power sector in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Dussan, M.I.

    1994-06-01

    A major restructuring of the Colombian electric power sector is being implemented based on the improvement of sector efficiency through the promotion of a competitive energy market and the participation of private investment. This short presentation highlights major events and difficulties in the restructuring process. The national interconnected power system has an installed generation capacity of about 10,000 MW, of which 80% is hydro and 20% is fuel-fired thermal. The current generation expansion plan calls for the installation of about 4,000 MW during the next 10 years, of which 60% is in thermal plants.

  7. Ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs in a restructured electricity industry: Issues, options, and unanswered questions

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Goldman, C.; Kito, S.

    1996-08-01

    Regulated utilities have, in the past, been responsible for {open_quotes}Public purpose{close_quotes} programs that contribute to the general social good, such as energy-efficiency programs. In several states, continuation of these programs has become a critical issue in forging the consensus required to proceed with restructuring. As a result of reviewing the restructuring process in several states, we expect this trend to continue, but do not believe a single, generic approach can or should be defined. Instead, we expect a variety of solutions based on considerations unique to individual states or regions. To help structure these discussions in states struggling with this issue, we pose a series of questions and describe a range of possible answers: (1) We encourage state public utility commissions and legislatures to provide clear guidance on goals. (2) Close attention to the primary objectives for energy efficiency is important because the objectives influence the choices of programs and activities to be supported. (3) We advocate that states adopt a pragmatic approach to resolving the potentially contentious issue of determining whether or not utilities should continue to have primary responsibility for program administration, management, and design. The approach we propose involves assessing a utility`s past performance, its cur-rent commitment to energy-efficiency activities, and the potential conflicts of interest presented, if the utility retains a central role in administering energy-efficiency programs after restructuring. (4) A state should first assess policy options to mitigate adverse incentives and conflicts of interest in the utility before examining the possibility of having a non-utility entity assume responsibility for designing and managing energy-efficiency activities. (5) If a state does pursue non-utility administration for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs, explicit attention must be paid to governance and accountability issues.

  8. Electric restructuring: Observations about what is in the public interest

    SciTech Connect

    Hoecker, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding restructuring of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. A brief assessment is made of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission orders requiring open access transmission services and open access same-time information systems. Three subtopics are pursued in some detail: competition between renewables and conservation, the role of government, and the impact of government on the market for renewables. It is concluded that renewable programs can be incorporated into competitive markets through regulatory agencies.

  9. Gauging risks: Rising interest rates and industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    With major utility industry restructuring looming, risk issues have become proportionally more important and complex. California regulators, for example, have increased the return for the state`s electric utilities to account for the pace of restructuring in the `Blue Book` proceedings. Performance-based regulatory reform efforts, new environmental regulations, and swings in interest rate trends have already been cited to support utility risk bonuses. Yet, in many cases, regulators have refused to award bonus adjustments, finding such changes to well known and reflected in the standard financial models used in setting return on equity. Nevertheless, regulators have acknowledged that restructuring might increase utilities` cost of capital. While finding that consumers might benefit from restructuring and competition at the retail level, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control advised careful consideration of downside risks. The possibility that shareholders might be left to cover high-cost investment stranded as a result of increased competition in the electric market has also figured in the return-on-equity debate. At the same time, the question of whether investors assume the risk of paying for uneconomic utility investments has become a focal point in the policy debate over stranded costs.

  10. Three essays on U.S. electricity restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergici, Sanem I.

    2008-04-01

    The traditional structure of the electricity sector in the U.S. has been that of large vertically integrated companies with sole responsibility for distributing power to end users within a franchise area. The restructuring of this sector that has occurred in the past 10-20 years has profoundly altered this picture. This dissertation examines three aspects of that restructuring process. First chapter of my dissertation investigates the impacts of divestitures of generation, an important part of the process of restructuring, on the efficiency of distribution systems. We find that while all divestitures as a group do not significantly affect distribution efficiency, those mandated by state public utility commissions have resulted in large and statistically significant adverse effects on distribution efficiency. Second chapter of my dissertation explores whether independent system operator (ISO) formation in New York has led to operating efficiencies at the unit and the system level. ISOs oversee the centralized management of the grid and the energy market and are expected to promote more efficient power generation. We test these efficiencies focusing on the generation units in New York ISO region from 1998 to 2004 and find that the NYISO formation has introduced limited efficiencies at the unit and the system level. Restructuring in the electricity industry has spawned a new wave of mergers, both raising questions and providing opportunities to examine these mergers. Third chapter of my dissertation investigates the drivers of electric utility mergers consummated between 1992 and 2004. My results provide support for disturbance theory of mergers, size hypothesis, and inefficient management hypothesis as drivers of electric utility mergers. I also find that the adjacency of the service territories is the most noteworthy determinant of the pairings between IOUs.

  11. Economic Restructuring and Emerging Patterns of Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleigh, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book contains nine papers presented during a year-long series of seminars and a conference that analyzed the relationship between economic restructuring and industrial relations involving the joint academics, union leaders, government officials, business executives, and graduate fellows. These analyses include case studies from Western…

  12. Economic Restructuring and Emerging Patterns of Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleigh, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book contains nine papers presented during a year-long series of seminars and a conference that analyzed the relationship between economic restructuring and industrial relations involving the joint academics, union leaders, government officials, business executives, and graduate fellows. These analyses include case studies from Western…

  13. Award Restructuring and the Implications for TAFE with Reference to the Restructuring Being Undertaken within the Textiles and Metals Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chataway, Graham

    A study investigated the human and physical resources implications of award restructuring in the textiles and metals industries for the Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system in Australia. (Award restructuring is based on union/employer cooperation in a process of negotiation and compromise between employers committed to increased…

  14. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  15. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  16. A summary of the California Public Utilities Commission`s two competing electric utility restructuring proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, K

    1995-11-01

    In May 1995, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) released two proposals for restructuring the state`s electric power industry. The two proposals follow more than a year of testimony and public comment after the CPUC issued the ``Blue Book`` (CPUC 1994a) on April 20, 1994, which called for retail wheeling to be phased in to all customers over 5 years. The majority proposal, supported by three of the four CPUC commissioners (one seat was vacant when the proposals were released), calls for creating a central pool, or ``poolco``; setting electric prices to reflect true costs of service, or ``real-time pricing``; and allowing parties to negotiate ``contracts for differences`` between the pool price and the contract price. The minority proposal, sponsored by Commissioner Jesse Knight, calls for retail wheeling, or ``direct access,`` and for utilities to divest or spin off their generating assets. This paper presents a summary of the major provisions of the two CPUC proposals and the possible implications and issues associated with each. It is aimed at researchers who may be aware that various efforts to restructure the electric power industry are under way and want to known more about California`s proposals, as well as those who want to known the implications of certain restructuring proposals for renewable energy technologies. Presented at the end of the paper is a summary of alternative proposals promoted by various stakeholder in response to the two CPUC proposals.

  17. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    When electricity restructuring initiatives were introduced in Alberta, and finalized with the institution of retail electricity market competition in 2001, it was argued that the changes would deliver lower electricity prices to residential consumers. However, residential electricity prices in Alberta increased dramatically in 2001, and have never returned to their pre-restructuring levels. Proponents of restructuring argue that electricity prices would have been even higher under continued regulation, citing the effect of considerably higher natural gas prices and the roles of other variables. However, many Alberta residential electricity consumers tend to attribute their higher electricity prices to factors such as market power and manipulation associated with restructuring. Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential electricity prices is developed, estimated for the prerestructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the postrestructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential

  18. Academic research response to the restructuring of the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kanes, W.H.

    1995-08-01

    The international petroleum industry is currently in the midst of massive restructuring constituting one of the more dynamic shifts in direction in its more than century long turbulent history. Policies that had been dogma through the mid-1980`s are being swept away by volatility of price and shifting ownership of the resource. In response to these forces, the multinationals are redefining the mission for exploration and production and {open_quotes}right-sizing{close_quotes}. The companies are smaller, the E & P units are more narrowly focused, and increasingly support activities are being {open_quotes}outsourced{close_quotes}: Even in the largest companies, both basic and applied research activities are being cut back sharply or curtailed completely. The restructuring of the petroleum industry is coming at a time that academic institutions are experiencing a sharp reduction of public funding for research and training. With funds diminishing for {open_quotes}curiosity-driven{close_quotes} investigations, increasingly researchers in the universities and not-for-profit laboratories are developing {open_quotes}task-driven{close_quotes} research projects. Industry funded research programs, once a fringe activity in many academic institutions, are now welcome. The Earth Sciences & Resources Institute can serve as a model for successful industry-academe research linkage. During the twenty-years of its existence, it has developed as one of the largest and most comprehensive university-based organizations of its kind. Its success derives from balancing academic freedom and intellectual property-rights with focused research results delivered in a timely fashion with partial confidentiality.

  19. Industry Restructuring and Job Loss: Helping Older Workers Get Back into Employment. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and increased competition bring with them many benefits for business, consumers and the economy. But they can also result in the restructuring of industries not able to compete with changing economic markets. In the past, Australia has witnessed restructuring in many high-profile businesses, especially those in its manufacturing…

  20. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e

  1. Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

  2. Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

  3. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2001-03-27

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. This Phase I report concentrates on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. In Phase II, a longer-term analysis will be conducted, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate marginal-cost-based and regulated prices for the state. The model dispatches the state's power plants to meet the demands from all customers based on the marginal cost of production. Consequent market-clearing prices for each hour of the year are applied to customers' demands to determine the average prices paid. The revenues from the sales are paid to each plant for their generation, resulting in a net profit or loss depending on the plant's costs and prices when it operates. Separately, the model calculates the total cost of generation, including fixed costs such as depreciation, interest and required return on equity. These costs are allocated among the customer classes to establish regulated prices for each class. These prices can be compared to the average market-based prices to see if prices increase or decrease with restructuring. An

  4. An open letter to the President on electricity restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1997-03-01

    As a former attorney general, governor and now as President, you`ve had plenty of experience with electric utility regulatory issues. You know that electricity rates and reliability are sure fire political issues whenever they change by much - up or down. It may be worth remembering that the last two-term Democratic President made electric utility reform one of the issues he rode to victory, establishing interstate regulation of utilities and creating public power as a competitive national force. I`ll skip the homilies and get straight to the point. I don`t see an advantage for you in proposing legislation early this session. The states are still experimenting, and are almost overwhelmed by change already. Interstate tensions and other factors ultimately will necessitate federal changes, but a better move now would be to send a strong statement of policy to the Hill - not legislative language. Like telecommunications, health care, and many other industries, the power industry is engulfed in a chaotic season of change. Deregulation of bulk power sales - utilities selling to other utilities - began under your predecessor and has been greatly expanded by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission under your watch. This idea is now widely accepted, and the main ongoing problems seem to involve setting the rules for governing and operating the transmission grid and monitoring market power. This legislation will as much raise questions about federalism and the best way to change national policy as it does questions of electricity prices. As we are seeing in health care, great changes can sometimes be triggered merely by a national debate and action in some of the states. In the power industry competition is already here at the wholesale level, and at least partly present at the retail level, and prices have already fallen considerably. Pushing the states too far too fast could stall or reverse progress, and many states clearly want no part of a federal mandate.

  5. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  6. Restructuring the Industrial Trades in Australia: The Dark Side of Post-Fordism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Post-Fordism suggests that trade work practices are outmoded and industrial restructuring will improve economic outcomes. This view overlooks an important characteristic of industrial trades--the integrity of the work culture--and is oblivious to the merits of the tradespersons' cultural identity. (SK)

  7. Reshaping the electric utility industry: Competitive implications for Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper briefly outlines some of the issues in the electric power industry restructuring. In addition, the impacts of these changes on the energy marketplace are discussed. Federal policy initiatives, state regulatory response, and utility management response are each described. Management skills are identified as the critical success factor for competition in the utility market.

  8. Venezuela 2000 restructures its electric power sector to ensure competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.E.

    1999-11-01

    Today, it is well known that the countries that are best equipped to develop their production are not those with the most natural resources but those who have the best trained people, most technical resources and that base their development on competitiveness. The State model is, definitely, not one that offers the greatest advantages, and Venezuela is an example of this. Even when, thanks to the economic boom the country enjoyed in the 70s and 80s, it was able to cost the investments required to develop its infrastructure and to prepare a first class human contingent, over the long term, competition was discouraged and waste encouraged. The result was that, even when Venezuela had vast economic resources compared to its relatively small population, it was not able to become the exception to the rule and succeed in applying this model--now considered obsolete in many countries--indefinitely. Another model based on private ownership has begun to take its place, one that has made it possible to cost the increasingly large investments required, involves opening up these sectors to private capital, and uses the phenomenon of globalization--a major driving force behind competition and one that has wrought considerable change in all corners of the increasingly smaller planet. This paper describes the steps that different sectors in the country have been taking to implement this new model in the electric power sector, such as developing draft legislation for regulating the Sector, very shortly to culminate in the passing of an electric power law by Congress; opening up the Sector to private investors (privatization); dividing the electric power industry into four business units (generation, transmission, distribution and marketing); the electric power market; and other innovations currently being implemented.

  9. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  10. The use - and misuse - of statistics in evaluating the benefits of restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Diane

    2007-03-15

    Statistics have an important role to play in assessing market performance. Too often, though, numbers are used more to make a splash than to enlighten, and upon closer scrutiny, the underlying analyses lack credibility. It is time to move away from a battle of sound bites and toward serious evaluation of how well restructured wholesale electricity markets are working. (author)

  11. Fossil generation restructuring in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Galambas, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Ukrainian electrical system as it was in 1991, defines the need for restructuring, outlines the restructuring process, identifies a number of major obstacles that are hindering the implementation of the fossil generation, restructuring process, and points out major problems in the coal procurement system. It describes the visits to several Ukrainian power plants, defines restructuring success to date, makes suggestions for improved restructuring progress, highlights lessons learned, and enlightens the audience on the opportunities of investing in the Ukrainian power generation industry. The primary focus is on the Fossil Generator Advisor task, which was carried out under the direction of Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. (Hagler Bailly).

  12. Avant le deluge: An investigation of some neglected dimensions of electricity restructuring in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golove, William Harry

    Chapter One of this dissertation focuses on describing the key participant groups and their principle interests in the restructuring process. The process of reaching agreement on the restructuring plan turned on each major interest group receiving satisfaction of all of its key objectives. Chapter Two explores the effective use of rhetoric in the electricity restructuring debate. Despite a lack of public involvement, the use of rhetoric appears to have been a prominent feature of the public policy process. A series of rhetorical concepts and mechanisms defined. Of these, the notions of rhetorical salience and rhetorical efficacy are most significant. The results of a field test on the impact of the particular examples of these tropes prominent in the restructuring debate on opinions regarding some of the key restructuring issues are presented. Chapter Three describes the sea change in the nature of demand side management (DSM) policy in the state, brought about by the restructuring of the electricity market. Whereas the primary goal of DSM had been resource acquisition, the new policy goal was to be market transformation. This chapter reviews the economic, and other social science theory that led to the development of demand side management programs based on a resource acquisition goal prior to restructuring and, subsequently, to a market transformation objective. Chapter Four examines the performance of the market during the period beginning in early 1998 through the first few months of 2000 at which time both the wholesale and retail markets in California were apparently functioning relatively well. The findings presented in this chapter are the result of a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with non-residential electricity customers that had chosen to receive electric service and, in some cases, value-added services from a competitive retail electricity service provider One of the key conclusions is that market rules appear to be critical to customer

  13. Comparisons of auction mechanisms in a multiple unit setting: A consideration for restructuring electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, John Charles

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of five single sided auctions that could be used in restructured electric power markets across different market sizes in a multiple unit setting. Auction selection would profoundly influence an industry over $200 billion in size in the United States, and the consequences of implementing an inappropriate mechanism would be great. Experimental methods were selected to analyze the auctions. Two rounds of experiments were conducted, the first testing the sealed offer last accepted offer (LAO) and first rejected offer (FRO), and the clock English (ENG) and sealed offer English (SOE) in markets of sizes two and six. The FRO, SOE, and ENG used the same pricing rule. Second round testing was on the LAO, FRO, and the nonuniform price multiple unit Vickrey (MUV) in markets of sizes two, four, and six. Experiments lasted 23 and 75 periods for rounds 1 and 2 respectively. Analysis of variance and contrast analysis were used to examine the data. The four performance measures used were price, efficiency, profits per unit, and supply revelation. Five basic principles were also assessed: no sales at losses, all low cost capacity should be offered and sold, no high cost capacity should sell, and the market should clear. It was expected group size and auction type would affect performance. For all performance measures, group size was a significant variable, with smaller groups showing poorer performance. Auction type was significant only for the efficiency performance measure, where clock auctions outperformed the others. Clock auctions also proved superior for the first four principles. The FRO performed poorly in almost all situations, and should not be a preferred mechanism in any market. The ENG was highly efficient, but expensive for the buyer. The SOE appeared superior to the FRO and ENG. The clock improves efficiency over the FRO while less information kept prices under the ENG. The MUV was superior in revealing costs

  14. Tinker, Tory, Wobbler, why? The political economy of electricity restructuring in Ontario, 1995--2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Charles Francis James

    The Ontario Tories' 42-year hegemony in government (1943-1985) was wrought through clever policies which often utilized Crown institutions to promote prosperity or to oblige or mollify vying interests. Ousted in 1985, though, they used their time in opposition to revise the Tory doctrine. In the 1995 election, the Tories emerged a tougher, more truculent group quite unlike their predecessors. Campaigning on their Common Sense Revolution (CSR) platform, they promised to eliminate red tape and vowed to obliterate all ostensible economic barriers which were impeding commerce in the province. In the CSR, the Tories identified Ontario Hydro (OH), the province's lauded publicly-owned power monopoly, as a troublesome and inefficient Crown entity which required fundamental reform. Portions of OH, they hinted, would likely be sold. Once elected, the Tories worked hurriedly to demolish OH and destroy public power in Ontario. For nearly 100 years, OH proved a pivotal component within the province's political economy for its provision of affordable, reliable power and its function as a policy tool to incite and direct development. A Tory government fought to instigate public power in the early 1900s and, in the late 1900s, a Tory government was fighting vigorously to rescind it. Why would they now renounce Crown power? It is the intent of this thesis to elucidate the Tory government's involvement in the transformation of Ontario's electricity industry from 1995 to 2003. Distinguishing electricity as a special, strategic staple, this thesis uses a pro-state, pro-staples industry political economy approach to discern how and why the Tory government sought to restructure the electricity sector. Essentially, it posits that the onslaught of neoliberalism, the emergence of novel generating technology, and the faltering of OH's nuclear wing all had a huge part to play in provoking the Tory government to initiate its reforms. Their reforms, though, proved too hasty, haughty, and

  15. Restructured review on Electrical Discharge Machining - A state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanavel, C.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.

    2017-03-01

    In this literature survey, an attempt made to review the Electrical Discharge machining and its related machine operating parameters and machining parameters were studied the various research works. This work is unique and innovatively constructed which helps to be aware of each parameter in machining collectively and individually. This review furnishes both indispensable and restructured information EDM, PMEDM, WEDM, MEDM, NDEDM etc. The choice of electrodes, optimization methods and influencing parameters and their influences are precisely presented and concluded with research gaps.

  16. NUGs and the new electric industry: Dream or nightmare?

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    It is the best of times and the worst of times for independent power. The future looks bright, as markets are opening rapidly and transmission access is fast disappearing as a problem. But in the short run a capacity glut in the US and uncertainty about the industry`s future pose real problems. Since Congress enacted the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, non-utility generators (NUGs) have grown from what many in the electric industry regarded as a radical fringe element into mature, well-established players in the business. But today, as the electric industry moves from a stodgy, heavily-regulated climate to a fast-paced, competitive environment, what is the outlook for NUGs? Are they poised for a boom, or is this the beginning of a downward spiral? How will NUGs cope with the industry`s transition to competition, and regulatory and corporate restructuring?

  17. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  18. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  19. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  20. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  2. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  3. Importance of change appraisal for employee well-being during organizational restructuring: findings from the Finnish paper industry's extensive transition.

    PubMed

    Pahkin, Krista; Nielsen, Karina; Väänänen, Ari; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Leppänen, Anneli; Koskinen, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008-2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal.

  4. Transition costs in the electricity industry: A summary of issues

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is evident as the restructuring debate in the U.S. electricity industry completes its third year. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission released a final rule on transmission open access-a key element to facilitate more efficient wholesale markets. The majority of states have initiated investigations or discussions on restructuring retail markets. Yet hurdles remain in formulating and implementing state-level restructuring proposals. Perhaps foremost among these hurdles is the issue of transition costs (the potential monetary losses experienced by utilities, consumers, and other economic actors as a result of government initiatives to transform electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market). Transition costs are approximately equal to the difference between the embedded cost for generation services under traditional cost-of-service regulation and the competitive-market price for power. When government takes action to open current monopoly franchises to multiple generation providers and the competitive-market price falls below embedded generation costs, then transition costs will arise. Transition costs will include one or more of the following four classes of costs: (1) assets, primarily utility-owned power plants; (2) liabilities, primarily long-term power-purchase and fuel-supply contracts; (3) regulatory assets, including deferred expenses and costs that regulators allow utilities to place on their balance sheets; and (4) public-policy programs, such as energy efficiency, low-income programs, and research and development. What is at issue in the transition-cost debate? The debate turns on four questions: (1) How large are the potential transition costs from restructuring? (2) How are these costs estimated? (3) What, if anything, might be done to address these costs? (4) Who will ultimately pay for any remaining costs and how? This paper summarizes some of the key results from a project at ORNL that addresses these four questions.

  5. Networks: Social structure and policy change in U.S. electricity restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Stephen

    This research investigates the relationships between a social network perspective and different aspects of policy change. Policy scholars have done little to examine specific mechanisms at the individual level that drive policy learning and influence processes. These processes can affect the adoption (or non-adoption) of policy within policy networks. I argue that a stakeholder's position, their centrality, in a policy network is associated with increased policy learning and influence. Further, these factors have influenced policy decisions in electricity restructuring at the state level. The dissertation adopts two approaches to the question of network structure and policy change. First, from a social structure (i.e. network) perspective, I conduct case studies of Texas, Georgia, and Arkansas---a most-similar case comparison---using institutional analysis, fieldwork, and surveys of electricity restructuring stakeholders. In Texas and Arkansas, stakeholders engaged in collaborative learning experiences, and advocates leveraged their higher centrality to gain influence among key decision-makers in the state network and connect their states to a national network. Alternatively, actors in Georgia had fewer external ties and were entrenched in a more limited set of connections that resulted in problematic and failed policy adoptions. Second, classroom policy simulations are used to support and expand upon the field research. The simulations analyze social structure more completely, with formal quantitative network analysis. They show that central actors excel in learning and have more influence than peripheral players---though influence does not necessarily result in consensus. Important control variables are considered in the simulations that could not be identified in the field research. In both the case studies and simulations, social structure and network position at the individual level clearly emerge as important components of policy change.

  6. IRP and the electricity industry of the future: Workshop results

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1994-09-01

    During the next several years, the U.S. electricity industry is likely to change dramatically. Instead of an industry dominated by vertically integrated companies that are regulated primarily by state public utility commissions, we may see an industry with many more participants and less regulation. These new participants may include independent power producers, entities that dispatch and control power plants on a real-time basis, entities that build and maintain transmission networks, entities that build and maintain distribution systems and also sell electricity and related to services to some retail customers, and a variety of other organizations that sell electricity and other services to retail customers. Because markets are intended to be the primary determinant of success, the role of state and federal regulators might be less than it has been in the past. During the past decade, utilities and state regulators have developed new ways to meet customer energy-service needs, called integrated resource planning (IRP). IRP provides substantial societal benefits through the consideration and acquisition of a broad array of resources, including renewables and demand-side management (DSM) programs as well as traditional power plants-, explicit consideration of the environmental effects of electricity production and transmission; public participation in utility planning; and attention to the uncertainties associated with different resources, future demands for electricity, and other factors. IRP might evolve in different ways as the electricity industry is restructured (Table S-I). To explore these issues, we ran a Workshop on IRP and the Electricity Industry of the Future in July 1994. This report presents the wisdom and experience of the 30 workshop participants. To focus discussions, we created three scenarios to represent a few of the many ways that the electricity industry might develop.

  7. Issues in the deregulation of the electric industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Cleve Brent

    The electric industry is undergoing a major restructuring which allows competition in the generation portion of the industry. This dissertation explores several pricing issues relevant to this restructuring. First, an extensive overview examines the industry's history, discusses major regulation theories, and relays the major issues of deregulation. Second, a literature review recounts major works in the economics literature on price discrimination, pricing efficiency, and cost estimation. Then, customer specific generation, transmission, distribution, and general and administration costs are estimated for each company. The customer classes are residential, general service, large general service, and large industrial, representing a finer division of customer classes than found in previous studies. Average prices are compiled and marginal prices are determined from a set of utility schedules. Average and marginal price/cost ratios are computed for each customer class. These ratios show that larger use customers face relative price discrimination but operate under more efficient price structures than small use consumers. Finally, issues in peak load pricing are discussed using a model which predicts inefficient capital choice by regulated utilities. Efficiency losses are estimated to be $620 million dollars a year from the lack of peak load prices under regulation. This result is based on the time-of-use pricing predictions from the Department of Energy.

  8. Banking the Furnace: Restructuring of the Steel Industry in Eight Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Trevor

    A study examined how the cross-national differences in the social contract among managers, unions, and government influenced adjustment strategies in steel. The restructuring process in eight major steel-producing countries was studied to determine who bore the costs of restructuring--employers, employees, or government--and which industrial…

  9. Banking the Furnace: Restructuring of the Steel Industry in Eight Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Trevor

    A study examined how the cross-national differences in the social contract among managers, unions, and government influenced adjustment strategies in steel. The restructuring process in eight major steel-producing countries was studied to determine who bore the costs of restructuring--employers, employees, or government--and which industrial…

  10. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  11. Some perspectives on the electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Winer, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding future directions of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. Pertinent historical aspects and current industry rules are summarized. Major issues and trends in the electricity market are outlined, and recommendations are presented. It is concluded that new rules in the industry will be set directly by customers, and that customers want renewable energy resources.

  12. Incorporating voltage security into the planning, operation and monitoring of restructured electric energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar

    As open access market principles are applied to power systems, significant changes are happening in their planning, operation and control. In the emerging marketplace, systems are operating under higher loading conditions as markets focus greater attention to operating costs than stability and security margins. Since operating stability is a basic requirement for any power system, there is need for newer tools to ensure stability and security margins being strictly enforced in the competitive marketplace. This dissertation investigates issues associated with incorporating voltage security into the unbundled operating environment of electricity markets. It includes addressing voltage security in the monitoring, operational and planning horizons of restructured power system. This dissertation presents a new decomposition procedure to estimate voltage security usage by transactions. The procedure follows physical law and uses an index that can be monitored knowing the state of the system. The expression derived is based on composite market coordination models that have both PoolCo and OpCo transactions, in a shared stressed transmission grid. Our procedure is able to equitably distinguish the impacts of individual transactions on voltage stability, at load buses, in a simple and fast manner. This dissertation formulates a new voltage stability constrained optimal power flow (VSCOPF) using a simple voltage security index. In modern planning, composite power system reliability analysis that encompasses both adequacy and security issues is being developed. We have illustrated the applicability of our VSCOPF into composite reliability analysis. This dissertation also delves into the various applications of voltage security index. Increasingly, FACT devices are being used in restructured markets to mitigate a variety of operational problems. Their control effects on voltage security would be demonstrated using our VSCOPF procedure. Further, this dissertation investigates

  13. Electricity system expansion studies to consider uncertainties and interactions in restructured markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shan

    This dissertation concerns power system expansion planning under different market mechanisms. The thesis follows a three paper format, in which each paper emphasizes a different perspective. The first paper investigates the impact of market uncertainties on a long term centralized generation expansion planning problem. The problem is modeled as a two-stage stochastic program with uncertain fuel prices and demands, which are represented as probabilistic scenario paths in a multi-period tree. Two measurements, expected cost (EC) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR), are used to minimize, respectively, the total expected cost among scenarios and the risk of incurring high costs in unfavorable scenarios. We sample paths from the scenario tree to reduce the problem scale and determine the sufficient number of scenarios by computing confidence intervals on the objective values. The second paper studies an integrated electricity supply system including generation, transmission and fuel transportation with a restructured wholesale electricity market. This integrated system expansion problem is modeled as a bi-level program in which a centralized system expansion decision is made in the upper level and the operational decisions of multiple market participants are made in the lower level. The difficulty of solving a bi-level programming problem to global optimality is discussed and three problem relaxations obtained by reformulation are explored. The third paper solves a more realistic market-based generation and transmission expansion problem. It focuses on interactions among a centralized transmission expansion decision and decentralized generation expansion decisions. It allows each generator to make its own strategic investment and operational decisions both in response to a transmission expansion decision and in anticipation of a market price settled by an Independent System Operator (ISO) market clearing problem. The model poses a complicated tri-level structure

  14. Auction development for the price-based electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekrajangpetch, Somgiat

    The restructuring of the electric power industry is to move away from the cost-based monopolistic environment of the past to the priced-based competitive environment. As the electric power industry is restructuring in many places, there are still many problems that need to be solved. The work in this dissertation contributes to solve some of the electric power auction problems. The majority of this work is aimed to help develop good markets. A LaGrangian relaxation (LR) Centralized Daily Commitment Auction (CDCA) has been implemented. It has been shown that the solution might not be optimal nor fair to some generation companies (GENCOs) when identical or similar generating units participate in a LR CDCA based auction. Supporting information for bidding strategies on how to change unit data to enhance the chances of bid acceptance has been developed. The majority of this work is based on Single Period Commodity Auction (SPCA). Alternative structures for the SPCA are outlined. Whether the optimal solution is degenerated is investigated. Good pricing criteria are summarized and the pricing method following good pricing criteria is developed. Electricity is generally considered as a homogeneous product. When availability level is used as additional characteristic to distinct electricity, electricity can be considered a heterogeneous product. The procedure to trade electricity as a heterogeneous product is developed. The SPCA is formulated as a linear program. The basic IPLP algorithm has been extended so that sensitivity analysis can be performed as in the simplex method. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine market reach. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is used in combination with the investigation of historical auction results to provide raw data for power system expansion. Market power is a critical issue in electric power deregulation. Firms with market power have an advantage over other competitor firms in terms of market reach. Various approaches to

  15. Political economy and price ratio changes: Electric industry under transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, Mary E.

    This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the

  16. Strategies for promoting renewables in a new electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes strategies for promoting renewable resources in an era characterized by competitive pressures in the electric industry. It begins with a background section to describe the perspective from which I am writing and the nature of the pressures confronting renewables in 1996. Then, the paper turns to a discussion of the regulatory and other options to promote renewables in this environment. The major conclusion of the paper is that there is no {open_quotes}magic bullet{close_quotes} to guide the development of renewables through the developing competitive era within the electric industry. Indeed, it appears that the job can get done only through a combination of different measures at all levels of government. The author believes that among the most effective measures are likely to be: a national renewable resources generation standard; conditions attached to restructuring events; regional interstate compacts; regional risk-sharing consortia supported by federal and state tax and fiscal policy; and state {open_quotes}systems benefits charges;{close_quotes}

  17. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  18. Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward L.

    2000-07-01

    The potential energy savings from emerging technologies (i.e., those technologies emerging from research and development) represent a significant resource to California and the US This paper describes how California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) have been promoting emerging technologies over the last three years to increase energy efficiency in the buildings sector. During these years, the IOUs have experienced significant changes in their regulatory environment as part of the restructuring of the energy industry in California. These regulatory changes have impacted the way emerging technologies are treated by the regulatory community and the IOUs. After reviewing these changes, the paper concludes by discussing potential opportunities to improve the market penetration of emerging technologies.

  19. [Factors associated with labor capacity in electric industry workers].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    The Brazilian electric utility sector has recently undergone major industrial restructuring, with impacts on working conditions and work organization that could jeopardize the capacity for work. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with labor capacity in a sample of 475 workers from an electric utility company in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This cross-sectional study included descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses. The mean labor capacity index (LCI) was 41.8 points (on a scale from 7.0 to 49.0). Multiple regression showed that the factors that best explained LCI variability were work stress (p < 0.001) and physical health (p < 0.001 in all the dimensions). In a separate analysis, excluding all the health dimensions, the variables associated with LCI were work stress (p < 0.001), workplace (p = 0.022), physical activity (p = 0.001), alcohol consumption (p = 0.012), and body mass index (p < 0.001). The results highlighted aspects to be considered when developing measures to protect labor capacity, with an emphasis on stress prevention and health promotion.

  20. Restructuring and the market-to-book ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, K.R.

    1997-03-01

    It`s time for a vigorous debate on the role of the market-to-book ratio in balancing interests of utility shareholders and customers. All parties--and the cause of consistency in regulation--would be better served if MBR were used as a basis for decisions involving stranded assets, performance-based ratemaking, and allocation of merger benefits. Throughout the nation, large users of electricity are making regulators, legislators and even governors aware of the need to restructure the electric industry to create more competition and allow greater customer choice of suppliers. Knowledgeable customers are eager to rid the industry of regulatory practices which have enabled utility service monopolies to obtain equity returns that have exceeded those of the Standard and Poor`s 500 index. The cost savings associated with industry restructuring have been estimated at $20 billion per year--about ten percent of total government-owned and investor-owned utility revenues. The current restructuring of the electric industry has placed all electric utility assets on the negotiating table. The purpose of this article is to examine how governors, legislators, and regulators can develop fair, efficient solutions that yield an equitable and efficient outcome in response to the many difficult problems associated with this restructuring: how to treat the economic and uneconomic assets of utilities, the latter of which threaten to wipe out a significant fraction of shareholder equity. While the principal focus of this article is electricity industry restructuring and its relation to the market-to-book ratio (MBR), the principles presented here apply also to the common carrier activities of gas, water, and telecommunications utilities. The MBRs of these utilities are presently, like electric utilities, significantly above unity. However, it is beyond the scope of this paper to address the significant impact of restructuring and the MBR on these utilities.

  1. Education and Training Policies and Programmes To Support Industrial Restructuring in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Singapore and the United States. Training Discussion Paper No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilowitz, Janet

    This literature survey analyzes the process of industrial restructuring as it is occurring in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Singapore, and the United States. It looks in particular at how various agents of education and training in these countries--the school system, public and private education and training institutions and firms--are responding…

  2. Education and Training Policies and Programmes To Support Industrial Restructuring in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Singapore and the United States. Training Discussion Paper No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilowitz, Janet

    This literature survey analyzes the process of industrial restructuring as it is occurring in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Singapore, and the United States. It looks in particular at how various agents of education and training in these countries--the school system, public and private education and training institutions and firms--are responding…

  3. Competitive restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Onetto, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    A brief summary of efforts to privatize the electric power industry in Argentina is provided in this article. The 1992 Regulatory Act, which provided seperate regulation for the generation, transportation, and distribution of electricity, is discussed with emphasis on pricing structures. Economic impacts of the Regulatory Act are described for each area of regulation.

  4. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  5. Industrial Electricity: Motors. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide provides competency-based instructional materials for training in the field of industrial electricity. Materials are not geared to a specific grade level and may be used with secondary and postsecondary students as well as part- and full-time adult students. The guide includes three sections and ten instructional units. Each…

  6. Industrial Electricity: Motors. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide provides competency-based instructional materials for training in the field of industrial electricity. Materials are not geared to a specific grade level and may be used with secondary and postsecondary students as well as part- and full-time adult students. The guide includes three sections and ten instructional units. Each…

  7. The Role of Anomalous Data in Restructuring Fourth Graders' Frameworks for Understanding Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Moje, Elizabeth B.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on students' understanding of electric circuits. Findings suggest that children's interpretive frameworks of electric circuits are reflected in the specificity of the details, consistency, and coherence of their understanding. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  8. The Role of Anomalous Data in Restructuring Fourth Graders' Frameworks for Understanding Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Moje, Elizabeth B.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on students' understanding of electric circuits. Findings suggest that children's interpretive frameworks of electric circuits are reflected in the specificity of the details, consistency, and coherence of their understanding. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  9. The New Industrial Electrics/Electronics Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Federal Inst. for Vocational Training Affairs, Berlin (Germany).

    This publication provides information on occupations in industrial electrics/electronics in the Federal Republic of Germany. Section I contains the German vocational training regulations for these occupations, including an overview of training, examinations, and the new notion of qualification. A chart illustrates the structure for training in…

  10. Industrial Electricity. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Beverley J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides a model for a postsecondary industrial electricity program. It is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophy, purpose, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a definition of the guide's purpose and program objective. Section 3 describes the occupational field,…

  11. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  12. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-10-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (˜4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (˜7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

  13. Industrial Restructuring and Retraining in Singapore. Training Policy Study No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Eng Fong; Low, Chee Kiat

    The transformation of Singapore from a stagnating colonial port city in the late 1950s into a newly industrialized city-state in the early 1990s was the outcome of planned adjustments to changing internal and external conditions. Training and retraining programs played a role in these adjustments. Although full employment prevailed in 1979, the…

  14. Restructurable Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J. (Compiler); Howell, W. E. (Compiler); Bundick, W. T. (Compiler); Ostroff, A. J. (Compiler); Hueschen, R. M. (Compiler); Belcastro, C. M. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Restructurable control system theory, robust reconfiguration for high reliability and survivability for advanced aircraft, restructurable controls problem definition and research, experimentation, system identification methods applied to aircraft, a self-repairing digital flight control system, and state-of-the-art theory application are addressed.

  15. Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

  16. Guided self-assembly and directed restructuring of mesoscopic silica using electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung

    Surfactant-templated synthesis of ceramics has received considerable attention due to the ease with which these methods produce materials with well-controlled nanometer-sized porosity. A key limitation with this approach is the pores produced by the surfactant template do not always adopt the desired long-range order. Specifically, the ability to straighten the pores, orient them in desired directions, and eliminate domain boundaries must be improved in order for these materials to be useful as membranes for filtration, sensing or catalysis. One solution to this problem is to guide the self-assembly using applied fields. The idea is to produce short-range order using self-assembly while generating long-range order using the field. Electric fields are an intriguing option because they are easily controlled and can produce orientation in different directions. Recent work by Trau et al. found that mesoscopic silica prepared under the combined influence of high strength electric fields, surface registry and confinement effects possessed oriented nanochannels. The goal of this project was to study the effects of electric fields on surfactant-templated mesoscopic silica. It was found that low strength (E ˜ 200 V/m) electric fields can both guide the self-assembly of the structure as it forms and alter the organization of material that has already ordered. This is the first demonstration of the latter effect in a templated ceramic system. Experimentally, micron-sized particles transformed into continuous fibers under the influence of the field. This macroscopic change in morphology was accompanied by alignment of the surfactant-templated pores in the direction of the field. Quantitative analysis of the response indicates these structural changes occur through an electrokinetic mechanism rather than dielectric polarization. The distinction is important as electrokinetic phenomena arise from the action of a field on free charge while polarization depends on the dielectric

  17. Image is all: Deregulation, restructuring and reputation in the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Does image affect how one views his local utility company--or energy supplier? Does one value his utility companies more if one sees a lot of image advertising and public relations stories about community involvement, environmental action and charitable work? Or does one view utilities as faceless and anonymous entities that provide necessary services one thinks little about until there`s a problem? And, more important, what is the role of utility image in an era of deregulation, as companies begin a new scramble for customers? To find an answer to these questions, American Gas and Christopher Bonner Consultants conducted a survey of A.G.A. member companies to learn what, if anything, utility companies are doing in the areas of image assessment and change. The survey was sent to more than 200 A.G.A. member companies; written responses were received from 35. In addition, 13 follow-up telephone interviews were conducted, including four with companies that had not responded in writing. The picture that emerges if of an industry that is starting to pay greater and greater attention to image. And, as utilities reorganize and redefine themselves, they are also reexamining the ways they communicate with key audiences, including employees, customers, legislators, the financial community and the news media.

  18. U.S. hospital industry restructuring and the hospital safety net.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Manheim, Larry M; Waters, Teresa M

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. hospital industry was reshaped during the 1990s, with many hospitals becoming members of health systems and networks. Our research examines whether safety net hospitals (SNHs) were generally included or excluded from these arrangements, and the factors associated with their involvement. Our analysis draws on the earlier work of Alexander and Morrisey (1988), and not only studies factors affecting SNH participation in multihospital arrangements but also updates their earlier study. We constructed measures for hospital market conditions, management, and mission, and examined network and system affiliation patterns between 1994 and 1998. Our findings suggest that larger and more technically advanced hospitals joined systems in the 1990s, which contrasts with 1980s findings that smaller, financially weak institutions joined systems. Further, SNH participation in networks and systems was more common when hospitals faced less market pressure and where only a limited number of unaffiliated hospitals remained. If networks and systems are key parties in negotiating with private payers, SNHs may be going it alone in these negotiations in highly competitive markets.

  19. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  20. Distributed resources in a more competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.

    1995-12-01

    Wisconsin Electric (WE) has been very active in the public discussion of new structures for the electric utility industry. The third revision of {open_quotes}Wisconsin Electric`s View of a More Competitive Electric Industry{close_quotes} was released on March 10, 1995. A fourth revision is now in the works, due to new ideas and issues that have been raised in the last four months. Application of Distributed Resource (DR) alternatives have not yet been addressed in publications. This paper will briefly discuss potential opportunities for DR applications in a more competitive electric industry.

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview of the electric power industry, selected NASA contributions to progress in the industry, linkages affecting the transfer and diffusion of technology, and, finally, a perspective on technology transfer issues are presented.

  2. Determining Levels of Productivity and Efficiency in the Electricity Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Malcolm

    2005-11-01

    A few major themes run fairly consistently through the history of productivity and efficiency analysis of the electricity industry: environmental controls, economies of scale, and private versus government.

  3. Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olmsted, L.L.; Bolin, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Exploring Electricity/Electronics. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with electricity and electronics. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: the…

  5. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  6. Exploring Electricity/Electronics. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with electricity and electronics. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: the…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  10. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  11. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  12. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  13. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: Selected Issues, 1998

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Provides an analytical assessment of the changes taking place in the electric power industry, including market structure, consumer choice, and ratesetting and transition costs. Also presents federal and state initiatives in promoting competition.

  14. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  15. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  16. Industrial Electricity. In-Plant Distribution. Vocational Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of industrial electricity curriculum guides, consists of materials for use in teaching a course on the in-plant distribution of electricity. Discussed in the introductory lessons are the National Electrical Code, power equipment, and blueprint reading. The next section, a series of units on branch-circuit…

  17. The role of electricity in American industry: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, C.C.

    1985-06-01

    Between 1960 and 1982 US industry reduced its use of energy by 41% for each unit of output. This astonishing increase in energy efficiency was accompanied by an equally notable trend. Over that same period, while energy use dropped, the amount of electricity needed per unit of industrial output actually increased by almost 10%. These two phenomena - reduced energy consumption and increased electricity consumption - point to an important trend that has been generally overlooked in energy analyses: the continuing electrification of US industry. The prospects for increased electrification are substantial. There are a variety of economic, productivity, and environmental advantages to the use of electricity in various process industries. For example, processing industries such as glass-making, primary metals production, chemicals, pulp and paper, and petroleum refining are making major changes toward increased electrification and associated improvements in overall energy efficiency, productivity, and economic competitiveness. Since the process industries are not labor-intensive, further electrification is unlikely to introduce unemployment problems. In fact, it is probable that the increased use of electricity in the future will actually increase job opportunities in the areas of electric generating station construction and electric equipment manufacture and maintenance.

  18. Restructuring the rotor analysis program C-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The continuing evolution of the rotary wing industry demands increasing analytical capabilities. To keep up with this demand, software must be structured to accommodate change. The approach discussed for meeting this demand is to restructure an existing analysis. The motivational factors, basic principles, application techniques, and practical lessons from experience with this restructuring effort are reviewed.

  19. Electric utility and industrial users - a new partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.

    1995-06-01

    Market forces, technological innovation and changes in political winds are affecting the electric industry in a big way. Regulatory agencies were created to protect customers in a monopolistic environment by functioning as a surrogate for the competitive environment. To ensure that the customers are charged a fair rate, and a company receives adequate recovery of its expenses to remain financially healthy and satisfy its shareholders, the regulatory agencies are working very hard to determine an appropriate balance during a rate case hearing. Now the landscape is changing at an accelerated pace. Tight fisted regulators throughout the country are hammering on the electric utilities, and have lowered the industry`s return on equity from 13.8% in 1984 to under 10% in 1994. A few decades ago, the industrial customer had no choice but to buy its electricity from the local utility. Self generation power plants are becoming more common and cost effective. Cogeneration is a much more efficient use of thermal energy. Many process industrial plants are employing cogeneration by conversion of thermal energy into electricity and steam at 50 to 60% efficiency whereas the efficiency of electricity produced by a fossil power plant, transformation into high voltage, transmission over miles of power lines, then transforming to a lower voltage at an industrial production facility is about 25%, as reported by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Thus, whether the utilities want them or not, energy options will be increasing for industrial customers. Utilities are learning what industrial sectors learned during the last 15-20 years, as value demanding customers have changed most consumer industrial manufacturers. Where product choice is involved, price becomes a major consideration.

  20. Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    A conference on Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry was held in Boston on September 8--11, 1991 to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The conference was attended by more than 150 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering consulting organizations, universities, national laboratories, and government agencies. The meeting included a keynote address, 70 papers, and 18 expert system demonstrations. Sessions covered expert systems in power system planning operations, fossil power plant applications, nuclear power plant applications, and intelligent user interfaces. The presentations showed how expert systems can provide immediate benefits to the electric power industry in many applications. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  1. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  2. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  3. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  4. Restructuring and the public good: Creating a national system benefits trust

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, R.H.

    1997-04-01

    As part of electricity legislation, the country should consider establishing an electric system benefits trust, funded by a small wires surcharge, that would provide each state matching funds to carry on public benefits programs of its choice. Such an approach is working well in the telecom area and is perhaps even more needed in electricity reform. Restructuring the electric industry is one of the most challenging transformations under way in the nation today. State and federal efforts to reform this critical industry properly focus on capturing the benefits of competition and customer choice for customers of electricity. These are laudable goals, but insufficient by themselves. One must also secure and enhance the public benefits that until now have been provided by the electric industry`s unique structure and regulatory traditions. The means of securing these public objectives must be designed into any new regulatory structures from the outset, before dramatic changes unravel the gains this industry has made.

  5. Assistance to States on Electric Industry Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Andersen

    2010-10-25

    This project seeks to educate state policymakers through a coordinated approach involving state legislatures, regulators, energy officials, and governors’ staffs. NCSL’s activities in this project focus on educating state legislators. Major components of this proposal include technical assistance to state legislatures, briefing papers, coordination with the National Council on Electricity Policy, information assistance, coordination and outreach, meetings, and a set of transmission-related activities.

  6. Structural change in industry and futures for the electricity industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.; Harris, G.

    1995-06-01

    The electricity supply industry in the United States has been experiencing major technological changes and economics of the business have altered dramatically since the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This opening of power generation business to competition was under-pinned by significant increases in gas turbine efficiency, commercialization of smaller units with high efficiencies, low gas prices, and cost consciousness on the part of independent power producers (IPPs) and major industrial customers. The pace of change continues to accelerate, driven by ongoing technological innovations and customer demands for better, more customized services and lower costs. The purpose of this report is to provoke further thought on the likely course of structural change in the electric utility industry over the next twenty years. The prime focus of the report is on technological change and its impact on economics, and the resulting organizational and structural change. This report begins with a brief look at structural change in several capital-intensive industries to identify common patterns applicable to the electricity industry. The industries selected have network-like operations, similar to the electric utility industry. This is followed by two scenarios which illuminate different plausible futures for the electric power industry. The report concludes with insights on the potential course of regulations and suitable strategies to prosper during the transition phase.

  7. Industrial production, capacity utilization, and electric power tape. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The industrial production index is a measure of the physical output of the nation's factories, mines, and electric and gas utilities expressed as a percentage of production in a base period, currently 1987. Capacity indexes, based on the Federal Reserve's industrial production indexes, are estimated for total industry, which covers manufacturing, mining, and utilities industries. Both the capacity and output indexes are expressed as a percentage of 1987 output. Utilization rates are then derived by dividing the capacity index into the associated production indexes.

  8. Electrical injuries in the US mining industry, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Homce, G T; Cawley, J C

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) conducted a study of mining industry electrical injuries reported to the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) for the years 2000 to 2009. The findings of that study are detailed in this paper, and serve to characterize the circumstances surrounding electrical injuries and identify causal factors. The study included three tasks: 1) a direct review of mining industry occupational injury data compiled by MSHA, 2) interpretation of the narrative descriptions available for the injuries (from MSHA data) and 3) a separate examination of fatal electrical injuries. Eight-hundred sixty-five electrical injuries were reported during the 10-year period studied, with 39 of those being fatalities. This makes electrical injuries disproportionately fatal with respect to most other types of injuries in mining. Electrical injury rates were higher in coal mining than noncoal mining and, within the coal sector, rates were higher in underground operations than in surface operations. Of the 865 total cases, electrical and machine maintenance or repair activities were involved in 580 (69%), and electricians and mechanics were injured in 362 cases (42%). Of the 39 fatal electrical injuries, 27 (69%) involved electrical maintenance or repair work, and in 21 of these 27 cases, the failure to de-energize, lock-out and tag the circuit was the cause or a contributing factor. Also, contractor employees had a much greater chance of an electrical injury being fatal than did mine operator employees. The top three root causes for fatal electrical injuries were 1) no or inadequate lock-out and tagging, 2) failure of power system components and 3) contact of overhead electrical power lines by mobile equipment.

  9. Electrical injuries in the US mining industry, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Homce, G.T.; Cawley, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) conducted a study of mining industry electrical injuries reported to the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) for the years 2000 to 2009. The findings of that study are detailed in this paper, and serve to characterize the circumstances surrounding electrical injuries and identify causal factors. The study included three tasks: 1) a direct review of mining industry occupational injury data compiled by MSHA, 2) interpretation of the narrative descriptions available for the injuries (from MSHA data) and 3) a separate examination of fatal electrical injuries. Eight-hundred sixty-five electrical injuries were reported during the 10-year period studied, with 39 of those being fatalities. This makes electrical injuries disproportionately fatal with respect to most other types of injuries in mining. Electrical injury rates were higher in coal mining than noncoal mining and, within the coal sector, rates were higher in underground operations than in surface operations. Of the 865 total cases, electrical and machine maintenance or repair activities were involved in 580 (69%), and electricians and mechanics were injured in 362 cases (42%). Of the 39 fatal electrical injuries, 27 (69%) involved electrical maintenance or repair work, and in 21 of these 27 cases, the failure to de-energize, lock-out and tag the circuit was the cause or a contributing factor. Also, contractor employees had a much greater chance of an electrical injury being fatal than did mine operator employees. The top three root causes for fatal electrical injuries were 1) no or inadequate lock-out and tagging, 2) failure of power system components and 3) contact of overhead electrical power lines by mobile equipment. PMID:26346041

  10. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Erdman, Bill; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  11. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  12. Introduction to Industrial Electricity-Electronics. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Leo N.; Pierce, Greg

    This manual provides a basic core of instruction for both industrial electricity and industrial electronics. The information should be adapted and modified to coincide with local conditions and supplemented by the instructor's own methods and materials. The manual includes 6 sections (instructional areas) and 24 units. Each unit of instruction…

  13. Introduction to Industrial Electricity-Electronics. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Leo N.; Pierce, Greg

    This manual provides a basic core of instruction for both industrial electricity and industrial electronics. The information should be adapted and modified to coincide with local conditions and supplemented by the instructor's own methods and materials. The manual includes 6 sections (instructional areas) and 24 units. Each unit of instruction…

  14. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  15. Flow diagram analysis of electrical fatalities in construction industry.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Ikhwan, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The current study reanalyzed 250 electrical fatalities in the construction industry from 1996 to 2002 into seven patterns based on source of electricity (power line, energized equipment, improperly installed or damaged equipment), direct contact or indirect contact through some source of injury (boom vehicle, metal bar or pipe, and other conductive material). Each fatality was coded in terms of age, company size, experience, performing tasks, source of injury, accident cause and hazard pattern. The Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was applied to the coded data of the fatal electrocution to find a subset of predictors that might derive meaningful classifications or accidents scenarios. A series of Flow Diagrams was constructed based on CHAID result to illustrate the flow of electricity travelling from electrical source to human body. Each of the flow diagrams can be directly linked with feasible prevention strategies by cutting the flow of electricity.

  16. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  17. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Electricity/Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum provides a behaviorally written guide that offers a possible list of objectives to assist in establishing or revising an electrical/electronics curriculum. Teachers may choose specific objectives to suit age group and educational level or expertise. Introductory material describes the scope and sequence of an Industrial Arts…

  18. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  19. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  20. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  1. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  2. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  3. Structure of the electric utility industry, 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, P.S.

    1980-04-01

    A vector of normalized inputs to a hypothetical 1990 electric-utility industry is created. Inputs and outputs from the industry are all considered as homogeneous components of Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) economic sectors at approximately the 2-digit (83-sector) level of aggregation. While the sector definitions are BEA-compatible, the vector is created at a 90-sector level of detail for use within the Energy Research Group (ERG) energy input-output model. The vector is listed as ERGELIN. The normalized vector of depreciation capital inputs is stored as ELINDEP. The sum of the two is the final depreciation-corrected vector of 1990 electric-utility industry inputs and is stored as EGELIND. All vectors have units Btu/Btue (1st five sectors) and $1967 per million Btue.

  4. Mercury usage and alternatives in the electrical and electronics industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, B. M.; Salem, M. A.; Smith, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. The study was initiated to identify source reduction and recycling options for mercury in the electrical and electronics industry (SIC 36) and measurement and control instrument manufacture (SIC 382). The project identified trends in pollution prevention for mercury use throughout the U.S. economy by a review of the sources and use of mercury in the economy. Regulatory trends encouraging mercury pollution prevention were examined, and current practices in the electrical and electronics industry were reviewed in details to identify potential source reduction and reuse options for mercury.

  5. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoesung

    1994-12-31

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market.

  6. Application of Laser Ablation Processing in Electric Power System Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konagai, Chikara; Sano, Yuji; Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira

    The present status of laser ablation processing applied in electric power system industries is reviewed. High average power LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with Q-switch have been developed and currently introduced into various applications. Optical fiber based laser beam delivery systems for Q-switched pulse laser are also being developed these years. Based on such laser and beam delivery technology, laser ablation processes are gradually introduced in maintenance of nuclear power plant, thermal power plant and electrical power distribution system. Cost effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the process is highly required for wide utilization in these fields.

  7. Toxics Release Inventory reporting: Focus on the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Biden, D.; Cain, R.D.; Hoone, D.; Duncan, M.F.; O'Reilly, M.J.; Dodson, S.; Koch, L.L.; Novitsky, W.M.; Ogitis, R.S.; Farkas, S.M.

    1999-07-01

    The look of EPA's annual Toxics Release Inventory Report (TRI) is about to change. Starting in the 1998 reporting year seven new industries are required to report TRI releases. The electric utility industry will join the chemical industry and others who have reported under TRI rules for the last ten years. A major change to EPA's report will be the top ten chemical list. The TRI releases that the electric utility sector will report are of a different chemical composition than those from manufacturing. Because of the layout of the TRI database, the large quantities of utility releases will shift the public focus away from organic constituents to that of less familiar combustion by-products. The resulting shift of reported chemicals could rekindle and intensify interest in air related issues such as acid rain, global warming, and deforestation, and result in public confusion over the health and safety implications associated with releases generated by coal combustion. The nature of the electric generation marketplace will also make year-to-year and company-to-company chemical release comparisons difficult with the present framework of EPA's publication of TRI data.

  8. Climate Considerations Of The Electricity Supply Systems In Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asset, Khabdullin; Zauresh, Khabdullina

    2014-12-01

    The study is focused on analysis of climate considerations of electricity supply systems in a pellet industry. The developed analysis model consists of two modules: statistical data of active power losses evaluation module and climate aspects evaluation module. The statistical data module is presented as a universal mathematical model of electrical systems and components of industrial load. It forms a basis for detailed accounting of power loss from the voltage levels. On the basis of the universal model, a set of programs is designed to perform the calculation and experimental research. It helps to obtain the statistical characteristics of the power losses and loads of the electricity supply systems and to define the nature of changes in these characteristics. Within the module, several methods and algorithms for calculating parameters of equivalent circuits of low- and high-voltage ADC and SD with a massive smooth rotor with laminated poles are developed. The climate aspects module includes an analysis of the experimental data of power supply system in pellet production. It allows identification of GHG emission reduction parameters: operation hours, type of electrical motors, values of load factor and deviation of standard value of voltage.

  9. Is there a future for electric-industry IRP?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1996-05-01

    Historically, regulators imposed resource-planning rules on electric utilities because of the utility`s obligation to serve. Given that obligation, regulators wanted utilities to plan for and procure a portfolio of resources that provided customers with low-cost electricity, stable prices, and a clean environment. What, if any, portfolio-management responsibilities will the future utility have? To answer that question, one must first define a ``utility`` in the future industry. If utilities are distribution entities with an obligation only to connect customers to the grid, then integrated resource planning (IRP) as it has been practiced during the past decade is over. If distribution entities retain an obligation to serve ``core`` customers, then IRP will continue in some form. This paper reviews recent IRPs to see how utilities and their regulators are responding to current and likely changes in the electricity industry. The paper then discusses how IRP might change in the future. These changes include the use of shorter time horizons for planning, a focus on contracts rather than utility built power plants, an emphasis on transmission and distribution planning, treatment of electricity pricing (with time and location dependence) as a resource, and substantial changes in how demand-side management (DSM) is treated. In summary, resource planning will continue. But integrated resource planning will either disappear or will play a much smaller role in utility and regulatory affairs and be conducted quite differently than in the past.

  10. Paradise lost: A study of the decline of institutions and the restructuring of organizational fields in the United States power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sine, Wesley David

    Institutional theorists have a long tradition of examining the persistence organizational forms and practices. Most institutional analysis, however, fails to discuss change in organizational forms and practices that at one time were highly taken for granted. This dissertation presents three papers that explore questions of institutional change in the context of the evolving power industry. The first paper, Dimensions of Institutional Resistance to Change, examines the qualities that make institutions more or less resistant to change. This paper surveys the literature on institutional change and suggests four institutional qualities for indexing institutional change: taken for grantedness, diffuseness, symbolic value, and integrativeness. I argue that these qualities can be used to measure the extent to which an institution is resistant to change, thus providing a means for studying and predicting the life spans of institutions. The second paper, From Hierarchies to Markets: The Deregulation of the Electric Generating Industry, uses the dimensions proposed in the first paper to understand the structural changes in the electric utility industry between 1935 and 1978. It theorizes that crisis catalyzes both organizational scrutiny, which erodes institutional symbolic value and taken-for-grantedness, and search processes for solutions, which redefine fringe alternatives within an institutional field as possible solutions. The net result is the delegitimation of incumbent institutions and the recognition of alternative solutions, creating a solution bazaar, where solutions compete to solve organizational inefficiencies made relevant by the crisis. The third paper, The Institutional Context of Founding Variation in the Emerging Independent Power Industry, presents and tests a theory of the effects of institutional structures on the genesis, development, and variation of organizational forms in a newborn industry created by radical regulatory change. Nascent industries

  11. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  12. Optimal investment and operation plans for Kenya's electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Murathe-Muthee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The research sought to determine optimal investment and operation plans for Kenya's electricity industry. A multi-period linear programming model was used to select construction, generation and transmission programs that will minimize the present value of electricity investment and operation costs (PVC) while meeting forecasted demand for the years 1982 through 2000. The basic optimal construction plan was designed to provide capability for meeting demand under dry-year conditions. Out of a total of 804 MW of new generation capacity indicated, 36% would be from hydro, 27% from geothermal and 37% from coal and oil resources. In a dry year, optimal operation of the system would generate 59% of the energy from hydro, 14% from geothermal and 27% from coal and oil sources. In average years a 14% increase in hydroenergy makes it possible to reduce fuel use by 23% and decrease the PVC by 11%.

  13. Hydrazine: usage and exposure in the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The likelihood of employee exposure to hydrazine, dimethylhydrazines (DMH), and nitrosamines was studied in the coal-fired electric power generation industry. Included in the study were a literature search, contacts with suppliers, contacts with Environmental Protection Agency scientists, and two industrial hygiene surveys at representative power facilities. At each of these facilities hydrazine-hydrate (7803578) was added to the boiler water system to act as an oxygen scavenger. The technician adding the hydrazine at one facility wore a face shield, a rubber apron and rubber gloves. At the second facility the employee wore rubber gloves and goggles. None of the employees at either site had experienced any problems of irritation from hydrazine exposure. Even the distinctive odor of hydrazine was not noticeable. The findings suggest that employee exposures to hydrazine were well below federal standards and that exposures to DMH and nitrosamines appeared unlikely.

  14. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  15. Sourcebook of Restructuring Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A., Ed.

    This three-part sourcebook identifies school restructuring initiatives with a national scope and presents comprehensive information about them. Part 1 identifies and describes national restructuring programs (e.g., Coalition of Essential Schools, Learning Tomorrow, Success for All). Each program description provides an overview of the program as…

  16. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  17. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  18. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  19. Risk management in the competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlgren, Robert William

    From 1990 until present day, the electric power industry has experienced dramatic changes worldwide. This recent evolution of the power industry has included creation and multiple iterations of competitive wholesale markets in many different forms. The creation of these competitive markets has resulted in increased short-term volatility of power prices. Vertically integrated utilities emerged from years of regulatory controls to now experience the need to perform risk assessment. The goal of this dissertation is to provide background and details of the evolution of market structures combined with examples of how to apply price risk assessment techniques such as Value-at-Risk (VaR). In Chapter 1, the history and evolution of three selected regional markets, PJM, California, and England and Wales is presented. A summary of the commonalities and differences is presented to provide an overview of the rate of transformation of the industry in recent years. The broad area of risk management in the power industry is also explored through a State-of-the-Art Literature Survey. In Chapter 2, an illustration of risk assessment to power trading is presented. The techniques of Value-at-Risk and Conditional Value-at-Risk are introduced and applied to a common scenario. The advantages and limitations of the techniques are compared through observation of their results against the common example. Volatility in the California Power Markets is presented in Chapter 3. This analysis explores the California markets in the summer of 2000 including the application of VaR analysis to the extreme volatility observed during this period. In Chapter 4, CVaR is applied to the same California historical data used in Chapter 3. In addition, the unique application of minimizing the risk of a power portfolio by minimizing CVaR is presented. The application relies on recent research into CVaR whereby the portfolio optimization problem can be reduced to a Linear Programming problem.

  20. Financing end-use solar technologies in a restructured electricity industry: Comparing the cost of public policies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Eto, J.

    1997-09-01

    Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful public policies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Public policies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of public policies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine public policies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation.

  1. Restructuring liability: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-05-01

    With recent cutbacks in staffing, clarifying orders, establish priorities, understanding accepted standards and providing experienced personnel is even more critical. "Restructuring Liability: Part 1" discusses cases that focus on basic nursing skills--assessment, monitoring and communication.

  2. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  3. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  4. Rural electric cooperatives and the cost structure of the electric power industry: A multiproduct analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1935, the federal government of the United States has administered a program designed to make electricity available to rural Americans. This dissertation traces the history of the rural electrification program, as well as its costs. While the Congress intended to simply provide help in building the capital structure of rural electric distribution systems, the program continues to flourish some 35 years after these systems first fully covered the countryside. Once the rural distribution systems were built, the government began to provide cooperatives with billions of dollars in subsidized loans for the generation of electric power. Although this program costs the taxpayers nearly $1 billion per year, no one has ever tested its efficacy. The coops' owner/members do not have the right to trade their individual ownership shares. The RECs do not fully exploit the scale and scope economies observed in the investor-owned sector of this industry. This dissertation compares the relative productive efficiencies of the RECs and the investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) in the United States. Using multiproduct translog cost functions, the estimated costs of cooperatives are compared to those of IOUs in providing identical output bundles. Three separate products are considered as outputs: (1) wholesale power; (2) power sold to large industrial customers; and (3) power sold to residential and commercial customers. It is estimated that, were the RECs forced to pay market prices for their inputs, their costs would exceed those incurred by the IOUs by about 24 percent. Several policy recommendations are made: (1) the RECs should be converted to stockholder-owned, tax-paying corporations; (2) the government should discontinue its subsidized loan program; (3) the government should sell its hydroelectric power at market prices, nullifying the current preference given to cooperatives and municipal distributors in the purchase of this currently underpriced power.

  5. Empirical studies of regulatory restructuring and incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural

  6. Potential impact of the President's economic recovery plan on the electric-utility industry - with Commonwealth Edison Company serving as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether the President's economic recovery program (ERP) will result in a set of economic conditions which: restores the industry to its former financial health, thus allowing utilities to make investment decisions which are both cost-effective to customers, and beneficial to existing and prospective investors, or leaves the electric utility industry in a financially constrained condition. Thus requiring additional remedies if necessary investments are to be made. These additional remedies might include a restructuring of the rate regulatory process, further reductions in inflation, or a relaxation of environmental, facility licensing and other regulatory proceedings which have significantly increased utility costs. The principal conclusion to be drawn from this study is that the President's economic recovery program (ERP) will not significantly improve the electric utility industry's financial health. Thus the construction of needed generating capacity will continue to be jeopardized. The primary cause for this result is that even under the improved economic conditions associated with the ERP, costs will increase, utilities will be forced to seek increases in their electricity rates, but regulatory commissions-based on historical experience-will not grant increases of sufficient size which both: allow utilities to fully recover cost increased. Result in a significant improvement in the key measures of utility financial health.

  7. Injuries among electric power industry workers, 1995-2013.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Vitaly; Fordyce, Tiffani; Leonhard, Megan; Mezei, Gabor; Vergara, Ximena; Krishen, Lovely

    2017-02-01

    Workers in the electric power industry face many risks of injury due to the high diversity of work tasks performed in potentially hazardous and unpredictable work environments. We calculated injury rates by age, sex, occupational group, and injury type among workers in the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) Occupational Health and Safety Database (OHSD), which contains recordable injury, medical claims, and personnel data from 18 participating electric power companies from 1995 to 2013. The OHSD includes a total of 63,193 injuries over 1,977,436 employee-years of follow-up, for an overall injury rate of 3.20 injuries per 100 employee-years. Annual injury rates steadily decreased from 1995 to 2000, increased sharply in 2001, and subsequently decreased to their lowest rate of 1.31 injuries per 100 employee-years in 2013. Occupations with the highest injury rates were welders (13.56 per 100 employee-years, 95% CI 12.74-14.37), meter readers (12.04 per 100 employee-years, 95% CI 11.77-12.31), and line workers (10.37 per 100 employee-years, 95% CI 10.19-10.56). Males had an overall higher injury rate compared to females (2.74 vs. 1.61 per 100 employee-years) although some occupations, such as meter reader, had higher injury rates for females. For all workers, injury rates were highest for those in the 21 to 30 age group (3.70 per 100 employee-years) and decreased with age. Welders and machinists did not follow this trend and had higher injury rates in the 65+ age group. There were 63 fatalities over the 1995 to 2013 period, with 21 fatalities (33.3%) occurring among line workers. Although injury rates have decreased over time, certain high-risk groups remain (i.e., line workers, mechanics, young males, older welders and machinists, and female meter readers). Protective measures and targeted safety programs may be warranted to ensure the safety of electric power workers. Copyright © 2016 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of hierarchical structure on South China industrial electricity-consumption correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on industrial electricity-consumption data of five southern provinces of China from 2005 to 2013, we study the industrial correlation mechanism with MST (minimal spanning tree) and HT (hierarchical tree) models. First, we comparatively analyze the industrial electricity-consumption correlation structure in pre-crisis and after-crisis period using MST model and Bootstrap technique of statistical reliability test of links. Results exhibit that all industrial electricity-consumption trees of five southern provinces of China in pre-crisis and after-crisis time are in formation of chain, and the "center-periphery structure" of those chain-like trees is consistent with industrial specialization in classical industrial chain theory. Additionally, the industrial structure of some provinces is reorganized and transferred in pre-crisis and after-crisis time. Further, the comparative analysis with hierarchical tree and Bootstrap technique demonstrates that as for both observations of GD and overall NF, the industrial electricity-consumption correlation is non-significant clustered in pre-crisis period, whereas it turns significant clustered in after-crisis time. Therefore we propose that in perspective of electricity-consumption, their industrial structures are directed to optimized organization and global correlation. Finally, the analysis of distance of HTs verifies that industrial reorganization and development may strengthen market integration, coordination and correlation of industrial production. Except GZ, other four provinces have a shorter distance of industrial electricity-consumption correlation in after-crisis period, revealing a better performance of regional specialization and integration.

  9. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  10. Financing investments in renewable energy: The role of policy design and restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-03-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilizing renewable energy technologies are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on project financing. This report describes the power plant financing process and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and finance. A cash-flow model is used to estimate the impact of various financing variables on renewable energy costs. Past and current renewable energy policies are then evaluated to demonstrate the influence of policy design on the financing process and on financing costs. The possible impacts of electricity restructuring on power plant financing are discussed and key design issues are identified for three specific renewable energy programs being considered in the restructuring process: (1) surcharge-funded policies; (2) renewables portfolio standards; and (3) green marketing programs. Finally, several policies that are intended to directly reduce financing costs and barriers are analyzed. The authors find that one of the key reasons that renewables policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy incentives. A policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums.

  11. Deregulation of the Electric Industry and Its Potential Benefits for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkiss, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    The electric utility industry is the last bastion of regulated monopolies in the United States. An overview of recent competition in the electric-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power…

  12. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  13. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Electricity/Industrial Electricity. Development Period, July, 1983--June, 1984. Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Wm. Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist vocational educators in presenting an articulated, performance-based course in electricity and industrial electricity. Addressed in the individual units of the course (included in 11 modules) are the following topics: safety, leadership, communication skills, career preparation, good work habits and…

  14. Conserving Electrical Energy in Commerce and Industry. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module contains readings which explain the need to conserve electricity and describe how major electric energy users (the industrial and commercial groups) use and conserve electricity. The module also contains 10 self-check questions (with answers) and a list of references. Students completing the module should be able to: (1) compare the…

  15. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Industrial Arts: Electricity-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

    Units of instruction at four levels are designed for use by teachers preparing industrial arts courses in electricity and electronics in junior high and high school. Exploring Electricity-Electronics introduces the subject with attention to circuits, laws, and applications. Basic Electricity-Electronics covers batteries, magnetism, transformers,…

  16. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric...

  17. Conserving Electrical Energy in Commerce and Industry. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module contains readings which explain the need to conserve electricity and describe how major electric energy users (the industrial and commercial groups) use and conserve electricity. The module also contains 10 self-check questions (with answers) and a list of references. Students completing the module should be able to: (1) compare the…

  18. 76 FR 70166 - Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... hours to document a hazardous classified location by a certified electrical engineer. Estimated Total... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry... collection requirements contained in the Electrical Standards for Construction (29 CFR part 1926, Subpart K...

  19. Analysis of electricity consumption: a study in the wood products industry

    Treesearch

    Henry Quesada-Pineda; Jan Wiedenbeck; Brian. Bond

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of industry segment, year, and US region on electricity consumption per employee, per dollar sales, and per square foot of plant area for wood products industries. Data was extracted from the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database and imported into MS Excel. The extracted dataset was examined for outliers and abnormalities with...

  20. Survey of spatial data needs and land use forecasting methods in the electric utility industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).

  1. Hospital restructuring and burnout.

    PubMed

    Greenglass, Esther R; Burke, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations are experiencing changes as a result of extensive downsizing, restructuring, and merging. In Canada, government-sponsored medicine has been affected as hospitals have merged or closed, reducing essential medical services and resulting in extensive job loss for hospital workers, particularly nurses. Hospital restructuring has also resulted in greater stress and job insecurity in nurses. The escalation of stressors has created burnout in nurses. This study examines predictors of burnout in nurses experiencing hospital restructuring using the MBI-General Survey which yields scores on three scales: Emotional exhaustion, Cynicism, and Professional efficacy. Multiple regressions were conducted where each burnout scale was the criterion and stressors (e.g., amount of work, use of generic workers to do nurses' work), restructuring effects, social support, and individual resources (e.g., control coping, self-efficacy, prior organizational commitment) were predictors. There were differences in the amount of variance accounted for in the burnout components by stressors and resources. Stressors contributed most to emotional exhaustion and least to professional efficacy. Individual resources were more likely to contribute to professional efficacy and least to emotional exhaustion. Stressors and resources accounted for approximately equal amounts of variance in cynicism. Three conclusions were drawn. First, present findings parallel others by showing that individual coping patterns contribute to professional efficacy. Second, emotional exhaustion was found to be the prototype of stress. Third, prior organizational commitment, self-efficacy, and control coping resulted in lower burnout.

  2. Restructuring the School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brison, David W.

    1972-01-01

    A plan to restructure existing school systems is proposed in order to develop in youth the commitment and skills necessary for collective solutions for social problems. Commentaries on the plan by Everett Reimer, H. L. Willis and Paul Paschke as well as Brison's reaction to the commentaries are included. (MM)

  3. Restructuring's Fatal Flaw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, William J.

    1989-01-01

    If school restructuring simply means dismantling centralized authority, the resulting centrifugal tendency will diminish accountability. Schools today need impulses of integration, not disintegration. The main problem is deciding what we want the schools to accomplish. An inset describes a Pennsylvania district's removal of reform obstacles. (MLH)

  4. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Gorham, Bethany

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  5. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  6. Industrial-electricity-conservation potential in the Pacific Northwest. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.; Hinkle, B.K.

    1983-03-01

    The findings of an update of the assessment of industrial electricity conservation potential in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) completed in February 1982 are presented. Using a detailed process energy end use data base developed by SRC in an earlier study for BPA, conservation measures were identified for nine 4-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) industries, representing the most energy intensive industries in each of the major industry groups in the PNW, in the February 1982 report. Assumptions associated with these measures were revised in response to comments from industry representatives in the PNW. An engineering-economic analysis was performed for each conservation measure. Based on the economic attractiveness of the measure relative to average hurdle rates (which are equivalent to the cost of equity) in each industry, estimates of the economic potential of each conservation measure were made. A market penetration model was then used to estimate the actual implementation of each measure over time. The conservation potential estimated for the 4-digit industries was extrapolated to the 2-digit level using an analysis of the end uses of electricity and a baseline forecast of industrial electricity requirements provided by BPA. Options for BPA and utility programs to encourage industrial electricity conservaton were identified and their costs and benefits were estimated.

  7. The Energy Opportunity: A View from an Electric Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the rapid expansion of electric power use in the United States and contends that the current emphasis must be on expanding the generating capacity of electricity from coal and nuclear fuels. Journal available from Energy Information Associates, Inc., P. O. Box 18076, Capitol Hill Station, Denver, Colorado 80218. (KC)

  8. The Energy Opportunity: A View from an Electric Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the rapid expansion of electric power use in the United States and contends that the current emphasis must be on expanding the generating capacity of electricity from coal and nuclear fuels. Journal available from Energy Information Associates, Inc., P. O. Box 18076, Capitol Hill Station, Denver, Colorado 80218. (KC)

  9. Money for nothing: Restructuring rates to encourage conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Malecek, M.

    1992-12-31

    Since Thomas Edison first tried to convince power companies to base profits on the quality of service provided rather than on the amount of power generated and sold, a strong alternative vision of the proper incentive structure for electric utilities has existed. While the power industry capitalized on Edison`s technological innovations, it ignored his business ideas. Hence, the electric utility industry developed under what we now regard as {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} cost-of-service ratemaking. Unfortunately, this ratemaking structure rewards utilities for producing and selling as much electricity as possible. Our growing understanding of the impact of electrical power production on the environment makes it imperative that we reward utilities for the efficient provision of needed electrical services and not just for the amount of power sold. This Note examines recent efforts to revamp the cost-of-service structure in order to break the link between utility sales and profits and thereby encourage conservation. First, this Note analyzes the traditional rate structure and the incentives it produces. Then, it explores two competing visions of reform. Some economists call for the total deregulation of utilities in order to send more accurate price signals to those who can most easily make conservation investments, i.e., consumers. Other commentators argue that serious systematic distortions in consumer response to energy price signals prevent deregulation from achieving efficient results. Utility commissions should retain regulatory authority, they argue, to reward utilities that provide adequate electrical service as efficiently as possible. This Note concludes that utility commissions must attempt to restructure rates to encourage more conservation.

  10. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  11. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  12. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry 1999: Mergers and Other Corporate Combinations, The

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Presents data about corporate combinations involving investor-owned utilities in the United States, discusses corporate objectives for entering into such combinations, and assesses their cumulative effects on the structure of the electric power industry.

  14. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  15. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  16. Electricity-Electronics for Industrial Arts. Instructors Lesson Plans. Industrial Arts Series, Publication Number 10,010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Roy S., Comp.

    Thirty-one lesson plans on electricity-electronics are presented in this guide designed for industrial arts instructors. Each lesson plan is organized into the following format: (1) lesson objective; (2) supplementary teaching items; (3) presentation; (4) demonstration; (5) laboratory or other activities; and (6) test items (oral, written, or…

  17. Electricity-Electronics for Industrial Arts. Instructors Lesson Plans. Industrial Arts Series, Publication Number 10,010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Roy S., Comp.

    Thirty-one lesson plans on electricity-electronics are presented in this guide designed for industrial arts instructors. Each lesson plan is organized into the following format: (1) lesson objective; (2) supplementary teaching items; (3) presentation; (4) demonstration; (5) laboratory or other activities; and (6) test items (oral, written, or…

  18. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  19. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  20. Industrial Arts Electricity/Electronics. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist administrators and teachers of industrial arts and vocational and technical school programs with the development of a meaningful curriculum in the area of electricity and electronics. Included in the volume are curriculum guides for the following courses: Self- and Career Awareness of Electricity and…

  1. Industrial Arts Electricity/Electronics. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist administrators and teachers of industrial arts and vocational and technical school programs with the development of a meaningful curriculum in the area of electricity and electronics. Included in the volume are curriculum guides for the following courses: Self- and Career Awareness of Electricity and…

  2. A Survey of the Training Needs for the Metal Casting Industry's Electrical Skilled Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mary Ann

    Additional training needs desired by the electrical skilled personnel of the metal casting industry were the focus of a study. A questionnaire was distributed to electricians and electrical engineers employed in 39 foundries in over 20 states. Of the 150 surveys, 63 responded for a 42 percent return. The questionnaire was divided into three…

  3. Impact of Computers on Electrical Engineering Education--A View from Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Commission on Education.

    A two-day conference was held in 1969 with industrial representatives and COSINE members to examine the impact that computer technology has had upon the practice of engineering in industry and to assess the meaning of these changes upon the structure of electrical engineering education. The major conclusions and recommendations of the meeting may…

  4. Delineation of effluent contaminated zones by electrical surveys at two industrial sites in Visakhapatnam, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, C.; Subbarao, N. V.

    1994-12-01

    The industrial effluents sent through open channels or closed pipes with leaks contaminate the surface layer and infiltrate to add salinity to groundwater. Extents of contaminations are delineated through isoresistivity maps. Vertical electrical sounding gives the contaminated resistivities of the second layer. The technique is used for two industrial sites: polymer and zinc smelter plants of Visakhapatnam. The results of the studies are compared.

  5. Severity of electrical accidents in the construction industry in Spain.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Cebador, Manuel; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; López-Arquillos, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    This paper analyzes the severity of workplace accidents involving electricity in the Spanish construction sector comprising 2,776 accidents from 2003 to 2008. The investigation considered the impact of 13 variables, classified into 5 categories: Personal, Business, Temporal, Material, and Spatial. The findings showed that electrical accidents are almost five times more likely to have serious consequences than the average accident in the sector and it also showed how the variables of age, occupation, company size, length of service, preventive measures, time of day, days of absence, physical activity, material agent, type of injury, body part injured, accident location, and type of location are related to the severity of the electrical accidents under consideration. The present situation makes it clear that greater effort needs to be made in training, monitoring, and signage to guarantee a safe working environment in relation to electrical hazards. This research enables safety technicians, companies, and government officials to identify priorities and to design training strategies to minimize the serious consequences of electrical accidents for construction workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  6. Fee electricity - a new headache for the gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.

    1980-01-01

    Stray current from underground primary electric cables and electric grounds can occasionally cause unusually high voltages at certain points along gas-distribution systems. Because of the parallel paths and many sources of stray neutral currents, the circuitry and voltage drops are complex. Washington Power's experience shows that (1) bare gas pipe systems remain relatively free of neutral currents because they are grounded along their entire length, (2) plastic and coated-steel pipe systems pick up stray neutral currents through holidays, bare valves, etc., and develop hazardous voltages because the steel pipe or the tracer wire of the plastic pipe is insulated from the soil, (3) pipeline voltages occur in areas having very high soil resistivities because of the poor return circuit for neutral currents back to the electric substation, and (4) the pipelines most distant from the substation experience the highest voltages because those areas contain the greatest imbalance of primary currents.

  7. Organizing the University-Industry Relationship: A Case Study of Research Policy and Curriculum Restructuring at the North-West University in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersma, F. K.; Reinecke, C. J.; Gibbons, M.

    2008-01-01

    A major requirement for transformation contained in the new education policy in South Africa is that the graduate outputs of the higher education system should match the needs of a modernizing economy. This paper addresses the organizational aspect of university-industry relationships that is an element of the transformation. In empirical terms,…

  8. Infrared Survey Techniques For An Electricity Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funnell, Ian R.

    1988-10-01

    The use of thermal imagers within the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to monitor plant performance is described. Helicopter-borne high resolution thermal imagers are used to monitor the transmission system and the range of defects that can be detected has been extended in recent years. Similar equipment is used to monitor cooling water discharge behaviour over a tidal cycle while satellite imagery is employed to analyse general warming of the water near a power station. The applications of fault detection and plant monitoring to electrical plant and heated surfaces within substations and power stations is described for several plant items.

  9. Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to related to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) {open_quotes}Everything is interconnected{close_quotes} (and should usually stay that way), and (2) {open_quotes}We can never do merely one thing.{close_quotes} The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry`s programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones. 19 refs.

  10. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  11. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    SciTech Connect

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  12. Electricity (Construction). Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the electricity trade as recommended by the successful electrician. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  13. Electrical Occupations. Trade and Industrial Education Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomolak, John D., Comp.; And Others

    Intended to be used as a teaching and learning guide, the basic course of study presented in these materials is designed to provide the essentials of the electrical occupations trade, insuring that the students who successfully complete the course will have sufficient competencies for initial employment and ample orientation for growth and…

  14. Industry sector analysis, Colombia: Electricity generation equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The article is derived from a report titled: The Electrical Generating Equipment Market in Colombia', dated Janaury 1993, prepared by Mario Cediel, American Embassy - Bogota. The article consists of 21 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

  15. Performance Issues for a Changing Electric Power Industry

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the factors affecting reliability within the electric bulk power system. Historical and projected data related to reliability issues are discussed on a national and regional basis. Current research on economic considerations associated with reliability levels is also reviewed.

  16. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  17. Electric power use by industries (monthly cumulative from 1972 to current). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.

    1985-01-01

    The electric power data are collected in a monthly survey conducted by the Federal Reserve System. The statistics are based on reports of power sold by the electric utilities, and of power generated by industrial plants. These data have been classified by type of industrial establishment according the 1977 edition of the SIC. The data are published as index numbers (1977-100) and use for estimating a significant number of the individual series in the industrial production index. The indexes of the seasonally adjusted electric power use by industries and the nonseasonally adjusted indexes comprise tables 9-A and 9-B respectively of the G12.3 Federal Reserve Board statistical release.

  18. Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, Stanley A.

    1996-11-01

    The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to relate to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) “Everything is interconnected” (and should usually stay that way), and (2) “We can never do merely one thing.” The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced—or even turned into conservation benefits—by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry's programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones.

  19. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  20. A study of industrial electricity consumption based on partial Granger causality network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Qing-Wen; Lin, Ji-Nan

    2016-11-01

    The paper studies the industrial energy transferring paths among the industries of China by distinguishing direct causality from the indirect. With complementary graphs, we propose that industrial causal relationship can be heterogeneous, and provide insights for refining robust industrial causality framework. First, by analyzing the in-weight and out-weight of the industries in Granger causality networks we find that public utilities have significant causality with other industries, and the industries with higher degree value tend to have stronger causality with others. Further, we eliminate the exogenous links by partial Granger causality model and find both Granger and partial Granger networks have consistent hub industries while some outliers emerge in partial Granger causality networks. Besides, compared with GX, GZ, HN and YN, the correlation between the volume of electricity consumption and the weight of each industry is more significant in the networks of GD and NF. By studying the characteristics of complementary graphs, we show that the industrial energy transferring paths in GD are more multidimensional, and the corresponding interdependent relationship among industries is more robust. Finally, using bootstrap method we verify the reliability of each industrial relationship network. Results exhibit that GD, GX and NF have more reliable causal relationship networks than other provinces, revealing their industrial structure to be more stable.

  1. The political economy of United States multiutilities: The United States electric power industry and communication services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quail, Christine M.

    This study consists of a political economic analysis of the multiutility industry, the industry located at the confluence of electric utilities, telephone, cable, and Internet markets. The study uses a theoretical framework based in political economy and urban theory. Methodologies used include industrial analysis and instrumental analysis. A discussion of technological convergence establishes the technical means by which multiutilities developed. Refusing technological determinism, however, the study presents a critical analysis of the history, philosophy, and regulation of utilities. Distinctions are made between public and private ownership structures in the electric utility industry. Next, the study embarks on an industrial analysis of the multiutility industry. The industrial analysis includes a discussion of the industry's history, markets, ownership types, and legal struggles. Following the broad industrial overview, two case studies are presented: Hawarden Integrated Technology, Energy and Communications (HITEC), and Con Edison Communications, LLC. HITEC is a public multiutility in the City of Hawarden, Iowa. Con Edison Communications is a private multiutility, based in New York City. The case studies provide a vehicle by which theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, as well as general trends, in the multiutility industry are localized and concretized. Finally, the study draws conclusions about the nature, history, and future of public versus private control of multiutilities' converged communications infrastructures. Questions of democratic control of media infrastructures are raised.

  2. The Politics of School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Although bureaucratic decentralization lies at the heart of educational restructuring, many state-level reform strategies adopted since 1983 perpetuate the regulatory orientation of school improvement. This article assesses the restructuring movement, exemplified by the Coalition of Essential Schools, and the overall politics of American…

  3. Restructuring for Learning with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheingold, Karen, Ed.; Tucker, Marc S., Ed.

    Presented from different perspectives, the five papers in this collection discuss three developments in education--the creation of educational environments that foster students' thinking, the use of educational technology to support student learning, and school restructuring and reform efforts. In the first paper, "Restructuring for Learning…

  4. An Empirical Analysis of a Dominant Firm’s Market Power in a Restructured Electricity Market, A Case Study of Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    supply curve slopes downward, average cost is always higher than marginal cost. As a result of pricing based on average total cost, prices under...is commonly called a load duration curve (figure 30). In a load duration curve , hourly load data is sorted from largest load ( peak demand) to...revenue from electricity sales to - all retail customers, cents/kWh, by state, 199 5 2 0 6. Supply curve for generation 23 7. Competitive market

  5. Retail competition in the electric-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmfelt, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Regulation discourages competition between electric utilities that would lead to the duplication of distribution facilities or overlapping service territories. Fringe-area restraints can take the form of municipal franchise, state law, or some other form of agreement. Economists who believe that competition improves efficiency argue that regulation is inadequate as a substitute for competition and that natural monopoly theories are not always applied appropriately. Case studies confirm that the traditional assumptions are not compatible with the fact that competition between publicly-owned and investor-owned utilities has led to lower prices and increased sales. 1 figure. (DCK)

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON…

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON…

  10. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  11. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  12. Restructurable Controls Problem Definition and Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Restructurable controls, failure classification, airframe design, failure type, control system type, post failure mission, plant identification, controller design techniques, and restructurable control concept validation tools are considered.

  13. Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

  14. The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

    In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity

  15. Capacity-expansion planning under uncertainty in the electric-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Soyster, A.L.

    1980-07-25

    This document basically represents a comparison between theory and practice of capacity-expansion planning in the electric-utility industry. The purpose of the comparison is to provide avenues for further exploration in utility decision making. The focus of the Phase II study is upon the role of uncertainty in the decision-making process. The Phase I effort was directed at modeling the Averch-Johnson theory of the regulated utility. Part I of this report reviews the Anderson study (D. Anderson, Models for Determining Least-Cost Investments in Electricity Supply). The Anderson paper has become a standard reference for capacity-planning studies in the electric-utility industry. Part II examines uncertainty and the behavior of the firm. Part III reviews 5 models of electric-utility capacity planning under uncertainty, and Part IV is concerned with capacity-planning models in practice.

  16. Could energy-intensive industries be powered by carbon-free electricity?

    PubMed

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-03-13

    While the main thrust of the Discussion Meeting Issue on 'Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production' was to explore ways in which society's net demand for materials could be reduced, this review examines the possibility of converting industrial energy demand to electricity, and switching to clean electricity sources. This review quantifies the scale of infrastructure required in the UK, focusing on wind and nuclear power as the clean electricity sources, and sets these requirements in the context of the decarbonization of the whole energy system using wind, biomass, solar power in deserts and nuclear options. The transition of industry to a clean low-carbon electricity supply, although technically possible with several different technologies, would have very significant infrastructure requirements.

  17. Estimating customer electricity savings from projects installed by the U.S. ESCO industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo; Larsen, Peter H.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2014-11-25

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering substantial energy and dollar savings in the public and institutional facilities sector, typically through the use of energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) (Larsen et al. 2012; Goldman et al. 2005; Hopper et al. 2005, Stuart et al. 2013). This ~$6.4 billion industry, which is expected to grow significantly over the next five years, may play an important role in achieving demand-side energy efficiency under local/state/federal environmental policy goals. To date, there has been little or no research in the public domain to estimate electricity savings for the entire U.S. ESCO industry. Estimating these savings levels is a foundational step in order to determine total avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from demand-side energy efficiency measures installed by U.S. ESCOs. We introduce a method to estimate the total amount of electricity saved by projects implemented by the U.S. ESCO industry using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) /National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) database of projects and LBNL’s biennial industry survey. We report two metrics: incremental electricity savings and savings from ESCO projects that are active in a given year (e.g., 2012). Overall, we estimate that in 2012 active U.S. ESCO industry projects generated about 34 TWh of electricity savings—15 TWh of these electricity savings were for MUSH market customers who did not rely on utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs (see Figure 1). This analysis shows that almost two-thirds of 2012 electricity savings in municipal, local and state government facilities, universities/colleges, K-12 schools, and healthcare facilities (i.e., the so-called “MUSH” market) were not supported by a utility customer-funded energy efficiency program.

  18. A study of causality structure and dynamics in industrial electricity consumption based on Granger network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Lin, Qing-Wen; Zheng, Xu-Zhou; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-11-01

    Based on industrial electricity consumption, we model industrial networks by Granger causality method and MST (minimum spanning tree), and then further stick onto an industrial coupling mechanism from energy-consumption perspective. First, we construct Granger causality networks of five provinces in South China of GD, GX, GZ, HN and YN based on their industrial electricity consumption data, and we demonstrate from a network-topology perspective: the distribution of weight of links of all industrial electricity-consumption Granger causality networks approximately follows power-law distribution, revealing a phenomenon that few industries may bring a tremendous influence on the rest. Moreover, correlation analysis between weight and degree of a node shows that in most Granger causality networks, both span and strength of influence of a given industry will significantly increase. Further, we analyze the relationship between the thresholds of Granger causality significance and density of corresponding networks. Results show GD and HN could be classified into a group with relatively greater global differentiation in industries and unbalanced industrial development, however, GX, GZ and YN are grouped as second cluster with relatively balanced industrial development. Furthermore, using Chu-Liu-EdmondsMST algorithm, we extract graphs of MSTs or maximal cliques from industrial electricity-consumption Granger causality networks, and research on energy transmission structure, feedback loop, and bootstrap reliability. By analyzing MSTs, we find that only GD, GX and YN can be extracted with MST graphs, and capture the probable transmission routes of key nodes. Besides we illustrate all three MST graphs are involved with feedback loops structures with various characteristics: GX has complete feed-forward section, feed-back section and feedback loop section; YN has only feed-forward section and feedback loop section; GD has multiple feedback loops section. Finally, we conduct

  19. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  20. The Early Diffusion of Smart Meters in the US Electric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Derek Ryan

    The impact of new technologies within and across industries is only felt through their widespread diffusion, yet studies of technology diffusion are scarce compared to other aspects of the innovation process. The electric power industry is one industry that is currently undergoing substantial change as a result of both technological and institutional innovations. In this dissertation I examine the economic rationale for the adoption of smart meters by electric power utilities and the relationship between smart meters and the evolving electric power industry. I contribute to empirical research on technology diffusion by studying the early diffusion of smart meters in the US electric power industry. Using a panel dataset and econometric models, I analyze the determinants of both the interfirm and intrafirm diffusion of smart meters in the United States. The empirical findings suggest multiple drivers of smart meter diffusion. Policy and regulatory support have had a significant, positive impact on adoption but have not been the only relevant determinants. The findings also suggest that utility characteristics and some combination of learning, cost reductions, and technology standards have been important determinants affecting smart meter diffusion. I also explore the policy implications resulting from this analysis for enhancing the diffusion of smart meters. The costs and benefits of adopting smart meters have been more uncertain than initially thought, suggesting that some policy support for adoption was premature. The coordination of policies is also necessary to achieve the full benefits of using smart meters.

  1. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-01-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed. PMID:3384671

  2. Dual education and industrial cooperation in electrical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dual education in higher education is a new system in Hungary introduced by Mercedes Benz with cooperation of Kecskemet College. In the new system companies support certain number of students and provide them strong practical education in their field. Students applying successfully for dual education study together with non-dual students at the university, so they go through the same university courses as their non-dual colleagues, but while non-dual students’ academic year includes 2×14 weeks active semester and 2×6 weeks exam session, all over 40 weeks, dual students have 48 working weeks including study at the university and practicing at the company. The main question of the success which one is the most effective model to be applied. This paper summarises 2 models of dual education with their advantages and disadvantages and also it presents practical realization at the University of Debrecen with special attention to measurement and instrumentation. Dual education in BSc level electrical engineering course cooperates with 6 multinational companies of the region in four specialization. Dual education also has great impact to the modernisation of engineering education. Detailed study of dual education in field of instrumentation and measurement is provided in the paper.

  3. Europe's last chance to restructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tattum, L.

    1992-12-23

    Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

  4. Potential for cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.; Edelson, E.; Kashani, A. K.; Slonski, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The nontechnical issues of industrial cogeneration for 12 California firms were analyzed under three categories of institutional settings: (1) industrial ownership without firm sales of power; (2) industrial ownership with firm sales of power; and (3) utility or third party ownership. Institutional issues were analyzed from the independent viewpoints of the primary parties of interest: the industrial firms, the electric utilities and the California Public utilities Commission. Air quality regulations and the agencies responsible for their promulgation were examined, and a life cycle costing model was used to evaluate the economic merits of representative conceptual cogeneration systems at these sites. Specific recommendations were made for mitigating measures and regulatory action relevant to industrial cogeneration in California.

  5. Industrial Education. Mini-Course Cluster: Bikes, Electricity, Small Engines. [Grade 9].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides three units to be used in a one semester course in grade 9 on the subjects of bikes, electricity, and small engines. The section on bicycles is divided into two parts, mechanical and power (i.e. motorcycles) and covers the topics of…

  6. Managing for Biodiversity: Emerging Ideas for the Electric Utility Industry-Summary Statement

    PubMed

    MATTICE; FRASER; RAGONE; DAUGHERTY; WISNIEWSKI

    1996-11-01

    / The conference entitled "Managing for Biodiversity: Emerging Ideas for the Electric Utility Industry" was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, during 19-20 March 1996. This paper provides an overview of the key points, conclusions, and recommendations from both the presentations/papers and the discussions throughout the conference.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Partnerships; Utilities; Ecosystem management; Conservation; Electrification

  7. 1987 Electric Utility Instructor Survey. Summary of Task Verification Data [and] Competency Profile of Industry Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    An initial listing of the tasks performed by electric power industry instructors was prepared by organizing and convening a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis committee of 11 persons who were considered to be expert instructors in the field. The committee members, relying on their own knowledge and experience, and with the guidance of a…

  8. Industrial Electrical Maintenance Learning Guides and Task Listing by Occupational Titles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmer, Melvin

    Seven student learning guides are provided for an industrial electrical maintenance program at the secondary, postsecondary, or adult level. Each learning guide is composed of these component parts: a title page that states the task, purpose, program and task numbers, estimated time, and prerequisites; an optional learning contract that includes…

  9. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  10. Apprentice and Ongoing Training Needs in the Electrical and Associated Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughney, James; Howes, Jenny; Worland, David; Wragg, Cheryl

    A study investigated skill shortages in the electrical and associated industries in Victoria and their nature and contributing factors. Research methods were a literature review, data analysis, and qualitative and quantitative research into apprentices, employers, and practitioners. Findings indicated a decline in the number of apprentices in…

  11. Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

  12. Industrial Education. Mini-Course Cluster: Bikes, Electricity, Small Engines. [Grade 9].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides three units to be used in a one semester course in grade 9 on the subjects of bikes, electricity, and small engines. The section on bicycles is divided into two parts, mechanical and power (i.e. motorcycles) and covers the topics of…

  13. Basic Electricity/Electronics (Industrial Arts). Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1724.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist industrial arts teachers, counselors, and administrators in improving instruction in the areas of electricity and basic electronics. Included in the first part of the guide are a course flow chart, a course description, a discussion of target grade levels and prerequisites, course goals and objectives,…

  14. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, P.

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  15. Free trade and freer petchems drive Mexican restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.

    1992-11-25

    When Mexico first opened up its protected markets in 1987 by cutting import tariffs, it thrust the chemical industry into a phase of change. Now, with the advent of the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) and the liberalization of petrochemicals by state oil group Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), restructuring has moved up a gear.

  16. From gas to electric at FERC: Will it be deja vu all over again. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbish, D.J. )

    1992-06-01

    Recent legislative proposals to increase FERC's authority to require electric utilities to provide transmission service to third parties ( wheeling') and to encourage the development of independent power producers (IPPs) suggest that FERC may soon have the necessary legislative mandate to 436' the electric utility industry - to pursue at a faster pace the same sort of restructuring it has been following since at least 1988. In view of the possibility that the electric industry may be reformed in a way that parallels the natural gas industry in some fashion, this paper examines how the Commission has gone about restructuring the natural gas industry over the past seven years, and what lessons the Commission should have learned from that experience and whether recent developments at FERC on the electric side indicate that it has learned those lessons.

  17. Enablers towards establishing and growing South Africa's waste to electricity industry.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Heinrich; Thopil, George Alex

    2017-10-01

    In South Africa the electricity generation mix is relatively un-diverse whereas globally the transformation of the sector is advancing rapidly. Coal remains the predominant fuel source and limited success has to date been achieved in the renewable energy sector. The electricity generation sector is therefore hindered from moving towards an electricity generation landscape where alternative fuel sources is utilised. This research is aimed at gaining insight into the enablers that led towards an increasing trend (observed globally) in exploiting waste as a fuel for electricity generation, and to outline the presence of obstacles that hinder separation of waste for electricity use in the South African context. Furthermore it is an attempt at informing what appropriate interventions (operational and policy) may be considered suitable for South Africa to overcome these barriers in order to enable a sustainable South African waste to electricity (WTE) Industry. Findings show that numerous barriers to a WTE exists in the South African context, however overcoming these barriers is not as simple as adopting the European model with the aim to modify the electricity generation mix and waste management landscape. Selected enablers deemed appropriate in the South African context are adapted from the European model, and are greatly influenced by the prevailing socio-economic status of South Africa. Primary enablers identified were, (i) government support is needed especially in the form of subsidisation for green energy, (ii) increase landfill costs through the implementation of a landfill tax, (iii) streamline the process for Independent Private Power Producers (IPPPs) to connect to the national grid with off-take guaranteed and the inclusion of WTE into an electricity roadmap (effectively government's strategy). The proposed enabling interventions would help in overcoming the barriers for a South African WTE industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficiency measurement for regulatory market-structure regimes of the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Cecilia Maria

    This dissertation provides an empirical evaluation of market structure reforms that have been implemented in the Electric Power Industry between 1980 and 1999. The analysis is based on the experience of Latin American countries and to some extent of OECD countries. Market structure reforms pose certain tradeoffs. Economic theory suggests that such tradeoffs depend on parameters that can only be estimated econometrically. The tradeoffs arise in industries where vertical relationships between production layers result from the interaction between competitive markets and regulated markets. The implications of different structural arrangements can be clarified by empirical work. This comparative analysis of the recent international experience in the electric power industry addresses these implications. The results of this research support the claim that vertical separation between generation, transmission and distribution is the most efficient regulatory regime, and, as such, a central feature of reform processes in the electric power industry. The empirical analysis uses the distance function as an analytical tool to estimate relative efficiency for each market structure arrangement. For this purpose, the present study assembles a panel set covering 40 countries during a 20-year period.

  19. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  20. The 10 myths against retail competition in electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.P.

    1997-02-01

    Electricity rates are too high in most of the US. Now is the time to restructure the electric utility industry and for the creation of a fully competitive electric services industry. Ten questions, challenges and ruses are often posed to supporters of a more competitive electric services industry that argue against the workability of competition in this industry. Electricity, they claim, is different. But their counterarguments are only myths. This paper discusses and refutes the following ten myths. (1) Existing industry is already efficient. There are no additional benefits to be gained from retail competition. (2) Competition will harm reliability. (3) Benefits of competition can be obtained in the wholesale market. (4) State commissions do not have the authority to create a competitive electric services industry. (5) Minor reforms to the regulatory process will accomplish the same objectives as competition. (6) Only a few large customers want choice. Special contracts will provide the same benefits without restructuring the industry. (7) Performance-based regulation, including the user of price caps, can produce the same efficiencies as competition. (8) Residential customers do not want choice. (9) Competition will make achievement of certain social objectives such as environmental protection impossible. (10) You do not want competition, you want PoolCo.

  1. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  2. SO{sub 2} trading program as a metaphor for a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    This very brief presentation focuses on the competitive market impacts of sulfur dioxide SO{sub 2} emissions trading. Key points of the presentation are highlighted in four tables. The main principles and results of the emissions trading program are outlined, and the implications of SO{sub 2} trading for the electric industry are listed. Parallels between SO{sub 2} trading and electric utility restructing identified include no market distortion by avoiding serious disadvantages to competitors, and avoidance of stranded costs through compliance flexibility. 4 tabs.

  3. Characterization of hybrid lighting systems of the Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvis, D.; Exposito, C.; Osma, G.; Amado, L.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of hybrid lighting systems of Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander, which is a pilot of green building for warm- tropical conditions. Analysis of lighting performance of inner spaces is based on lighting curves obtained from characterization of daylighting systems of these spaces. A computation tool was made in Excel-Visual Basic to simulate the behaviour of artificial lighting system considering artificial control system, user behaviour and solar condition. Also, this tool allows to estimate the electrical energy consumption of the lighting system for a day, a month and a year.

  4. The transition to fully competitive bulk power markets: Federal regulatory developments in the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Portasik, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, traditional electric utilities have become increasingly dependent upon enhanced competitive conditions in the bulk power market to improve efficiency and secure {open_quotes}least-cost{close_quotes} generation for their franchise and wholesale customers. The industry`s growing reliance on competitive wholesale markets both presaged and overtook the new legislation reflected in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). This article describes the new environment, as revealed in recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) decisions, and discusses its impact on the services and rates of affected utilities.

  5. Fabric filters for the Electric Utility Industry: Volume 1, General concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Cushing, K.M.; Pontius, D.H.; Smith, W.B.; Carr, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This publication is the first in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Multiple volumes are planned, each to be produced sequentially over the period 1987-1989. Topics to be addressed include operating principles and terminology, baghouse design considerations, bags and fabrics, flue gas dynamics, reverse-gas cleaning, reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance, shake/deflate cleaning, pulse-jet cleaning, combined SO/sub 2/ collection, and operation and maintenance. Volume 1, General Concepts contains a discussion of fly ash formation, technologies for particulate control, baghouse operating principles and terminology, filtration mechanisms, the filtration process, and baghouse application in the US utility industry. 24 refs., 20 figs.

  6. Potential for steel industry energy intensity improvements: Electricity use in minimills

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Neifer, M.; Karlson, S. |; Ross, M. |

    1992-09-01

    US steel manufacturing has experienced an extended episode of creative destruction in the past twenty years. The creative destruction has been the closure of over fifty million tons worth of annual capacity in iron-ore based steel plants concurrent with the construction of nearly thirty million tons of productive capacity in scrap-based steel plants. Our focus is on the effects of the creative destruction in steel on the use of electricity in steel manufacture. This paper utilizes the plant level data at the Center for Economic Studies at the Census to analyze the energy and technical efficiency of minimills from 1972 to 1988. We examine the potential for improvements in energy (electricity) use within the minimills segment of the industry. Since the role of this segment of the industry has changed so dramatically in the last 20 years we examine in detail the role that the plant age and vintage plays in determining energy and technical efficiency.

  7. Potential for steel industry energy intensity improvements: Electricity use in minimills

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Neifer, M. ); Karlson, S. . Dept. of Economics Argonne National Lab., IL ); Ross, M. . Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1992-01-01

    US steel manufacturing has experienced an extended episode of creative destruction in the past twenty years. The creative destruction has been the closure of over fifty million tons worth of annual capacity in iron-ore based steel plants concurrent with the construction of nearly thirty million tons of productive capacity in scrap-based steel plants. Our focus is on the effects of the creative destruction in steel on the use of electricity in steel manufacture. This paper utilizes the plant level data at the Center for Economic Studies at the Census to analyze the energy and technical efficiency of minimills from 1972 to 1988. We examine the potential for improvements in energy (electricity) use within the minimills segment of the industry. Since the role of this segment of the industry has changed so dramatically in the last 20 years we examine in detail the role that the plant age and vintage plays in determining energy and technical efficiency.

  8. Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields as risk factors in chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Troptcheva, T; Ivanova, M; Israel, M

    1998-09-01

    The risk assessment for staff in the chemical industry is usually related to accident hazards, production emergencies, blast and fire danger, or to the adverse effects of toxic substances. The combined effect of electric and magnetic fields with other factors combined with other hazards and working conditions, has not yet been studied. In all branches of industry, the members of staff who endure the most exposure to electric and magnetic fields, are electricians. This group is considered at high risk because of the increased probability of cancer. We studied electric and magnetic fields with low frequencies in the nitrogen chemical fertilizer plant "HIMCO", Vratza. Sources of extremely low frequency fields (50 Hz) are local thermal power plants, substations, open (110 kV) and closed (6 kV and 0.4 kV) distribution devices, transformers, compressors and turbocompressors, command halls, and video display units. The methods used for assessing exposure of low frequency electric and magnetic fields were based on the separate measurement of the electric and magnetic components of the field, using spot measurements and evaluation of the real time duration of exposure for different staff groups. The measured values for the different staff groups were within the limits of national and international standards. The measured magnetic flux densities in the "HIMCO" plant exceeded 3 mG, a value which is considered by many investigations in the literature, as a possible carcinogenic factor. The prolonged exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields determines the place of these physical factors in the complex of hazardous environmental factors for the staff. The simultaneous performance of combined investigations of all risk factors would result in the complete risk assessment for staff in the chemical industry. Electricians are considered to be a professional group who have an increased risk of contracting cancer. Extensive measurement and assessment of exposure of the

  9. Electrical/Electronic Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an electrical/electronic technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a…

  10. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  11. Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

  12. Economic institutions and institutional change in the United States electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, Lorel Elaine

    Historical data from the U.S. electric power industry was used to test two theories of institutional change. A transactions costs theory based on the neoclassical model was tested against a strategic bargaining model of institutional change. A comparative test of the two models supports the strategic bargaining theory, finding that relative bargaining power can influence the course of institutional change when the power advantage is held by a player who expects to reap economic gains from the change. This result has implications for expectations regarding the nature of economic institutions in that efficient institutions would not be expected to emerge if outcomes are determined by asymmetries in bargaining power. Estimation of a cost function using recent firm-level panel data from the electric power industry found no statistically significant cost differentials between publicly owned and privately owned electric utilities. Transactions costs, measured at the level of the firm, were included as an explanatory variable. The model was estimated as a one-way, fixed effects model to account for institutional variation between firms. Institutional variation was found to lead to cost differentials between individual firms, but not by ownership sector. The cost functions estimated were found to differ structurally by ownership sector, suggesting that public and private electric utilities may utilize different input combinations.

  13. State electricity profiles, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    Due to the role electricity plays in the Nation`s economic and social well-being, interested parties have been following the electric power industry`s transition by keeping abreast of the restructuring and deregulation events that are taking place almost daily. Much of the attention centers around the States and how they are restructuring the business of electricity supply within their respective jurisdictions. This report is designed to profile each State and the District of Columbia regarding not only their current restructuring activities, but also their electricity generation and concomitant statistics from 1986 through 1996. Included are data on a number of subject areas including generating capability, generation, revenues, fuel use, capacity factor for nuclear plants, retail sales, and pollutant emissions. Although the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes this type of information, there is a lack of a uniform overview for each individual State. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. In addition to basic statistics in tables and graphs, a textual section is provided for each State, discussing some of the points relative to electricity production that are noteworthy in, or unique to, that particular State. Also, each State is ranked according to the place it holds, as compared to the rest of the states, in various relevant areas, such as its average price of electricity per kilowatthour, its population, and its emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. The final chapter covers the Nation as a whole. 451 figs., 520 tabs.

  14. Electricity Consumption in the Industrial Sector of Jordan: Application of Multivariate Linear Regression and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samhouri, M.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Fouad, R. H.

    2009-08-01

    In this study two techniques, for modeling electricity consumption of the Jordanian industrial sector, are presented: (i) multivariate linear regression and (ii) neuro-fuzzy models. Electricity consumption is modeled as function of different variables such as number of establishments, number of employees, electricity tariff, prevailing fuel prices, production outputs, capacity utilizations, and structural effects. It was found that industrial production and capacity utilization are the most important variables that have significant effect on future electrical power demand. The results showed that both the multivariate linear regression and neuro-fuzzy models are generally comparable and can be used adequately to simulate industrial electricity consumption. However, comparison that is based on the square root average squared error of data suggests that the neuro-fuzzy model performs slightly better for future prediction of electricity consumption than the multivariate linear regression model. Such results are in full agreement with similar work, using different methods, for other countries.

  15. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  16. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors and the U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2003-05-16

    Distributed energy resources (DER) have been promoted as the least-cost approach to meeting steadily increasing energy demand. However, it is unclear whether DER deployment can maintain or improve the electric power supply reliability and quality currently available to consumers. This report addresses two key factors relating to this question: 1) characteristics of existing power supply reliability, and 2) costs resulting from supply interruptions characteristic of the existing power grid. Interruption cost data collected by the University of Saskatchewan was used in conjunction with data generated by the United States Department of Energy’s Annual Survey of Manufacturers, along with industry shares of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross output to derive interruption cost estimates for U.S. industries at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. Interruption cost estimates are presented as a function of outage duration (e.g., 20 minutes, 1-hour, 3-hour), and are normalized in terms of dollars per peak kW.

  17. Educational Restructuring and the Community Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E., Ed.; Romney, Valerie A., Ed.

    This document explores the application of the community education process to restructuring activities at both the state and local level. The monograph contains the following papers: "In the Forefront of Restructuring" (Larry Decker, Valerie Romney); "Building Learning Communities: Realities of Educational Restructuring" (Larry…

  18. Estimating the Extent of School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brief to Policymakers, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Findings of three studies that investigated the extent of school restructuring in American schools are presented in this paper. The data are combined from three different sources: (1) a national survey of 268 schools nominated for their successful restructuring programs; (2) a survey of 100 restructuring proposals submitted to a funding…

  19. Restructuring and Technology: Partners in Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane L.

    1991-01-01

    Accompanied by restructuring, the new technologies may transform schooling because of their power, versatility, portability, and ease of use. Restructuring can effect change if the requisite ingredients (an invitation, authority and flexibility, access to knowledge, and time) are present. Technology aids restructuring by inviting change,…

  20. Restructuring and Technology: Partners in Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane L.

    1991-01-01

    Accompanied by restructuring, the new technologies may transform schooling because of their power, versatility, portability, and ease of use. Restructuring can effect change if the requisite ingredients (an invitation, authority and flexibility, access to knowledge, and time) are present. Technology aids restructuring by inviting change,…

  1. Early Lessons in Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann; And Others

    Restructuring schools has become a rallying cry among educators. It aims to create schools that are more centered on learner's needs for active, experiential, cooperative, and culturally connected learning opportunities supportive of individual talents and learning styles. This report is based on an early evaluation of the process of restructuring…

  2. Will New Structures Stay Restructured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.; Ekholm, Mats

    Concerned with how new schooling structures, once implemented, will remain in place, this paper reviews findings of the International School Improvement Project (ISIP) about institutionalization and suggests their application to educational restructuring results. According to the ISIP study, indicators of complete institutionalization include…

  3. Leadership skills for the California electric utility industry: A qualitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, Michael

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to

  4. Electricity Production and Characterization of High-Strength Industrial Wastewaters in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Afsin Y; Ozdemir, Oguz Kaan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestami

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance. In the second step of this study, various wastewaters such as chocolate industry, gum industry and slaughterhouse industry were investigated for anode bacteria sources. Several electrochemical techniques have been employed to elucidate how wastewaters affect the MFCs' performance. Among all the mentioned wastewaters, the best performance was achieved by the MFCs fed with slaughterhouse wastewater; this device produced a maximum power density of 267 mW·m(-2).

  5. Organizational culture and knowledge management in the electric power generation industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Robert D.

    Scarcity of knowledge and expertise is a challenge in the electric power generation industry. Today's most pervasive knowledge issues result from employee turnover and the constant movement of employees from project to project inside organizations. To address scarcity of knowledge and expertise, organizations must enable employees to capture, transfer, and use mission-critical explicit and tacit knowledge. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to examine the relationship between and among organizations within the electric power generation industry developing knowledge management processes designed to retain, share, and use the industry, institutional, and technical knowledge upon which the organizations depend. The research findings show that knowledge management is a business problem within the domain of information systems and management. The risks associated with losing mission critical-knowledge can be measured using metrics on employee retention, recruitment, productivity, training and benchmarking. Certain enablers must be in place in order to engage people, encourage cooperation, create a knowledge-sharing culture, and, ultimately change behavior. The research revealed the following change enablers that support knowledge management strategies: (a) training - blended learning, (b) communities of practice, (c) cross-functional teams, (d) rewards and recognition programs, (e) active senior management support, (f) communication and awareness, (g) succession planning, and (h) team organizational culture.

  6. Natural gas in the energy industry of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Cuttica, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a gas industry perspective on the impacts of restructuring the natural gas and electric industries. The four main implications discussed are: (1) market trends, (2) strategic positioning, (3) significant market implications, and (4) issues for the future. Market trends discussed include transitioning rate of return to market competition and regulatory impacts. Significant market implications for gas-fired generation identified include limited new generation investment, extension of existing plants, and an opportunity for distributed power generation. 12 tabs.

  7. Control of predators in industrial scale microalgae cultures with Pulsed Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Rego, D; Redondo, L M; Geraldes, V; Costa, L; Navalho, J; Pereira, M T

    2015-06-01

    This work describes the utilization of Pulsed Electric Fields to control the protozoan contamination of a microalgae culture, in an industrial 2.7 m(3) microalgae photobioreactor. The contaminated culture was treated with Pulsed Electric Fields, PEF, for 6h with an average of 900 V/cm, 65 μs pulses of 50 Hz. Working with recirculation, all the culture was uniformly exposed to the PEF throughout the assay. The development of the microalgae and protozoan populations was followed and the results showed that PEF is effective on the selective elimination of protozoa from microalgae cultures, inflicting on the protozoa growth halt, death or cell rupture, without affecting microalgae productivity. Specifically, the results show a reduction of the active protozoan population of 87% after 6h treatment and 100% after few days of normal cultivation regime. At the same time, microalgae growth rate remained unaffected.

  8. Restructuring nuclear regulations.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear regulations are a subset of social regulations (laws to control activities that may negatively impact the environment, health, and safety) that concern control of ionizing radiation from radiation-producing equipment and from radioactive materials. The impressive safety record among nuclear technologies is due, in no small part, to the work of radiation safety professionals and to a protection system that has kept pace with the rapid technologic advancements in electric power generation, engineering, and medicine. The price of success, however, has led to a regulatory organization and philosophy characterized by complexity, confusion, public fear, and increasing economic costs. Over the past 20 years, regulatory costs in the nuclear sector have increased more than 250% in constant 1995 U.S. dollars. Costs of regulatory compliance can be reduced sharply, particularly when health and environmental benefits of risk reduction are questionable. Three key regulatory areas should be closely examined and modified to improve regulatory effectiveness and efficiency: a) radiation protection should be changed from a risk-based to dose-based system; b) the U.S. government should adopt the modern metric system (International System of Units), and radiation quantities and units should be simplified to facilitate international communication and public understanding; and c) a single, independent office is needed to coordinate nuclear regulations established by U.S. federal agencies and departments.

  9. The role of clean coal technologies in the evolving domestic electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the following: What will the future electric industry look like; The industry as it has been until recently; The critical factors of price and cost; The movement to allow customer choice in the states; The role of the federal government; Elements of the process, rationales, implications and new requirements. The paper then describes what the restructured market will look like and the transition process to that end.

  10. Fiberoptic Applications in Sensors and Telemetry for the Electric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werneck, M. M.; Silva, A. V.; Souza, N. C. C.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Beres, C.; Yugue, E. S.; Carvalho, C. C.; Maciel, F. L.; Silva-Neto, J.; Guimarães, C. R. F.; Allil, R. C. S. B.; Baliosian, J. A. G.

    2008-10-01

    This presentation features the origin and the work of the Photonics and Instrumentation Laboratory (LIF) in instrumentation, fiberoptic sensors and POF technology. LIF started its work in 1986, twenty and two years ago, with only one lecturer and a few students. The first project was the development of the first Brazilian plotter with the purpose, at the time, to substitute expensive imported technology. LIF has today 25 people between students, technicians, scientists, engineers and teachers. We present here several successful projects of fiberoptic sensors using both silica and POF fibers, most of them applied on the field mainly for the electric power industry. Described are: a oil leakage sensor in petroleum hoses, PMMA evanescent sensors, temperature by the ruby fluorescence phenomenon, a current sensor calibrator for 500 kV current transformers, a leakage sensor to measure 500 kV insulators in extra-high voltage transmission line, etc. Many of the sensors presented here have been tested in the field, patented and transferred to the industry. We have also technical collaboration with several industries in Brazil, one of them a spin-off from LIF. Our objective is to become a reference centre in POF technology in Latin America and for this we are intended to keep producing "out of the shelves" POF technology and innovative industry solutions for many areas.

  11. The evolution of the US ESCO industry: From ESCO to SuperESCO

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Nakagami, Hidetoshi; Murakoshi, Chiharu

    1998-10-01

    As the restructuring of the U.S. electric utility industry proceeds, utility companies are expected to be either competing or partnering with Super ESCOs to provide energy-efficiency services and energy to utility customers. In this paper, Super ESCOs and utilities were interviewed to see how these organizations are currently interacting and planning to interact in the future. As part of this investigation, the types of products and services Super ESCOs will be providing in the future and how utility restructuring will affect their business were examined.

  12. Solar cooling - comparative study between thermal and electrical use in industrial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, N.; Badea, G. V.; Epureanu, A.; Frumuşanu, G.

    2016-08-01

    The increase in the share of renewable energy sources together with the emphasis on the need for energy security bring to a spotlight the field of trigeneration autonomous microsystems, as a solution to cover the energy consumptions, not only for isolated industrial buildings, but also for industrial buildings located in urban areas. The use of solar energy for cooling has been taken into account to offer a cooling comfort in the building. Cooling and air- conditioned production are current applications promoting the use of solar energy technologies. Solar cooling systems can be classified, depending on the used energy, in electrical systems using mechanical compression chillers and systems using thermal compression by absorption or adsorption. This comparative study presents the main strengths and weaknesses of solar cooling obtained: i) through the transformation of heat resulted from thermal solar panels combined with adsorption chillers, and ii) through the multiple conversion of electricity - photovoltaic panels - battery - inverter - combined with mechanical compression chillers. Both solutions are analyzed from the standpoints of energy efficiency, dynamic performances (demand response), and costs sizes. At the end of the paper, experimental results obtained in the climatic condition of Galafi city, Romania, are presented.

  13. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  14. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  15. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.E.

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  16. [Sick leave among workers employed in restructured enterprise].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Ownership and restructuring transformations that are taking now place in Poland, as well as the situation on the labor market have their impact on the indicators, which illustrate the workers' health situation, including temporary work disability preceding the issue of the certification granting the disability pension. The aim of this analysis was to identify the changes in the extent and causes of sickness absence among workers after restructuring. The study was carried out in one of the largest transport industry enterprises during the years of its restructuring (1984-1994), covering 8588 workers, and after its restructuring (1997-1999), covering 2702 workers. Following the restructuring, the enterprise's staff was rejuvenated so that the number of workers aged over 50 years decreased by almost fifty percent. The analysis was based on the sickness absence rate calculated as the ratio between the number of days of work disability in a given period of time and the number of person-days in the same period. In 1997-1999, a 33% decrease in sickness absence among women and a 25% decrease among men were observed in the study enterprise as compared with the period of 1989-1994. However, the enhanced absence was also found due to the following diseases: mental disorders (a threefold increase in men); diseases of the musculoskeletal system (by 54% in men and by 43% in women); endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (a threefold increase in women). Following the restructuring, considerable changes in the sickness absence structure, by causes of diseases, were revealed. A substantial decrease in the share of male and female absence due to diseases of the respiratory and circulatory systems and almost threefold decrease in complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium in women were noted. In addition, over twofold increase in male and female sickness absence due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and lower but significant

  17. System integration for laser restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Wilfrido A.; Saini, Nitin; Acon, Otto

    1995-09-01

    The Center for Microelectronics Research (CMR) at the University of South Florida has pursued the development of new technologies in the area of high density interconnects. The laser restructuring of electronic circuits, fabricated using standard Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) process techniques, is an excellent alternative for custom programming of electronic circuits that allows for low cost and quick turn around of the restructured parts. A Laser System for restructuring Electronic Systems has been integrated using state of the art hardware components. This Laser System is fully computer controlled using a newly developed Microsoft Windows based software application running on a 486-66 MHz IBM compatible computer. The laser system consists of a high energy 5 watt Argon CW laser, a 2 watt double frequency pulsed Nd:YAG laser, a blocking shutter, electro-optic shutter (EOS), optic delivery system, a high precision x-y translation stage, and a video camera system used to observe the surface under laser processing. All the system components are mounted on granite table installed on four self leveling pneumatic legs for a vibration free process environment. The z-axis mechanisms consists of a stepper motor based translation stage for automatic focus controls. All control software was written using C++ programming language utilizing the power of readily available plug in boards which provide resources such as: counters, timers, image processing and IEEE-488 interfacing for remote laser control. The control environment exhibits a high degree of consistency with widely accepted visually programmed graphical 'point- and-click' interfaces.

  18. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  19. Work Restructuring Interview Guide. Judging the Quality and Effectiveness of Work Restructuring Consultants. Workforce Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Amit; Tuttle, Tom

    This guide, which was developed from a list of work restructuring best practice guidelines that was constructed by nationally recognized work restructuring professionals, businesspersons, and union representatives, is designed to help determine whether a work restructuring consultant has the substantive, process, and interpersonal skills required…

  20. Merging, partnering, and restructuring: coping with the culture clashes.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, P C; Bender, R

    1998-01-01

    Turmoil in the health-care industry caused by restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions shows no sign of letting up. This condition will continue as the industry adjusts to government and marketplace pressures. To ensure that you can carry out a merger successfully, you should look to creating a new, blended organizational culture. By viewing a model of culture as having three layers, you can develop an action plan to increase trust and open communications between the groups. An examination of organizations involved in complex changes such as a merger or acquisition shows that those who succeed focus on the human part of the equation.

  1. NETS: Capturing electricity information in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, J.D.; Alexander, L.R.; Clark, C.F.; Rosen, R.A.

    1999-05-01

    The six New England states share a common electricity market. Five of the six states, representing 95% of retail electricity sales in New England, have enacted electric industry restructuring laws. The other state, Vermont, is presently considering restructuring. Two states, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, have already implemented full retail access in the service territories of their investor-owned utilities. Each New England state has also promulgated, or is in the process of developing, a disclosure standard; some are also developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and/or generation performance standards (GPS) that will require the tracking of electricity information. Regulators in New England therefore have a common interest to explore the development of uniform electricity market rules for tracking electricity attributes. This interest served as the impetus for the New England Governors' Conference to hire Environmental Futures, the Tellus Institute, and Synapse Energy Economics to produce the New England Tracking System (NETS) Report. This article provides the policy background that forms the basis for the proposed tracking system and addresses key issues and obstacles identified in the NETS report: the collection and assignment of tracking data to electricity, and identification of an appropriate tracking system administrator. The article concludes by presenting selected comments from the public review process and subsequent next steps. A companion article on page 55 discusses the tracking methodology, detailing how allocations would be made for various wholesale transactions.

  2. Competition, antitrust, and the marketplace for electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    As the electric industry continues its unprecedented restructuring, state public utility regulators must determine which rules and analytical tools will best enable the industry`s participants to compete to provide electricity and its functional components. Even in the early stages of transformation, elements of a competitive marketplace are pervasive: generation markets are battlegrounds for increasingly diverse, numerous, and zealous participants; boundaries delineating traditional service territories are becoming blurred; associations of similarly-situated participants are forming to promote their interests; increased concentration through mergers and joint ventures looms as a possibility; vertically integrated utilities are considering or are being challenged to consider reconfiguration into a more horizontal structure; and generally, the industry`s end-users, its retail customers, are demanding choice. Large industrial customers, groups of residential customers, or entire municipalities are seeking to obtain electric service outside their native electric utilities service territories. These demands for increased consumer choice threaten the legislatively defined franchise rules, which grant monopolies to utilities in exchange for a system of regulation which includes an obligation to serve customers in the service territories both reliably and at reasonable cost. These events foreshadow an industry-wide transition to a customer-driven, competitive system for the provision of electric service in which the price for the service is determined by market-based signals. It would be unrealistic if state utility regulators did not expect commensurate change in the issues they confront and the existing methods of analysis.

  3. A health promotion program at a Japanese newspaper undergoing restructuring.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Hiromi; Suzaki, Yoshika; Takayama, Naoko; Wakeshima, Ruriko; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2010-09-01

    Occupational health activities based on a health promotion philosophy and focused on primary and secondary prevention were introduced at a Japanese newspaper company where restructuring had occurred. Japanese metabolic syndrome diagnostic standards were used to determine changes in certain lifestyle disease risk factors over 10 years. The amount of change from 1998 to 2007 was determined, and two groups (i.e., 1998 and 2007) were compared using paired t-tests. Results suggested that the occupational health activities focused on primary prevention had been effective. The authors concluded that, in situations where industrial change and corporate restructuring are occurring, occupational health activities based on a health promotion philosophy and focused on primary and secondary prevention are more effective than diagnostic activities and other types of health management focused on tertiary prevention.

  4. 1994 World Electricity Conference review

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.

    1995-03-01

    The 1994 World Electricity Conference was held in London, England, November 7--8, 1994. This year it shifted its focus to an examination of the firm advance in power sector restructuring across Europe, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean and the Iberian Peninsula. Its speakers examined the rapid progress being made in the introduction of cooperation and competition within the continent`s electricity supply industry. Delegates heard news from Eastern Europe on the drive to improve energy efficiency across the region as part of the region`s program of priorities for the power industry. In North America, California`s progressive deregulation program was highlighted, and the opening up of the power equipment supply market in both the US and Europe post-GATT was discussed. The meeting also featured papers on new fuels and new technologies in power generation where developments in superconductivity, biomass, combined heat and power, and in fuel cells were evaluated.

  5. Fabric filters for the electric utility industry: Volume 2, Sonic cleaning guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Cushing, K.M.; Pontius, D.H.; Smith, W.B.; Carr, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Volume 2, Sonic Cleaning Guidelines, provides practical guidelines for selecting, testing, and operating pneumatic, diaphragm-operated horns as a supplement to reverse-gas cleaning in utility baghouses. This volume includes a discussion of the effectiveness of various sonic horns in pilot- and full-scale testing along with costs and benefits of sonic-assisted reverse-gas cleaning. Guidelines are given for characterization and selection of horns for utility applications. Installations of horns, trial testing, operation, and maintenance are discussed. An explanation of the fundamental of sonic technology is provided. The sonic spectra and operating characteristics of commercial horns and a list of horn manufacturers are included to help in the selection of horns. 6 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Variability in Automated Responses of Commercial Buildings and Industrial Facilities to Dynamic Electricity Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Callaway, Duncan S.; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-08-16

    Changes in the electricity consumption of commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities) during Demand Response (DR) events are usually estimated using counterfactual baseline models. Model error makes it difficult to precisely quantify these changes in consumption and understand if C&I facilities exhibit event-to-event variability in their response to DR signals. This paper seeks to understand baseline model error and DR variability in C&I facilities facing dynamic electricity prices. Using a regression-based baseline model, we present a method to compute the error associated with estimates of several DR parameters. We also develop a metric to determine how much observed DR variability results from baseline model error rather than real variability in response. We analyze 38 C&I facilities participating in an automated DR program and find that DR parameter errors are large. Though some facilities exhibit real DR variability, most observed variability results from baseline model error. Therefore, facilities with variable DR parameters may actually respond consistently from event to event. Consequently, in DR programs in which repeatability is valued, individual buildings may be performing better than previously thought. In some cases, however, aggregations of C&I facilities exhibit real DR variability, which could create challenges for power system operation.

  7. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  8. Improving air-conditioning and saving electricity in the spinning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chirarattananon, S.; Liu Bing; Quoc, N.H.; Wei, T.

    1996-09-01

    In the tropics, air-conditioning is used in the spinning industry to maintain the relative humidity and the air temperature in the factory at a required level. Most of the air is recycled for most of the year. This article reports on a study in a number of factories that use varying proportions of recycled air. The study concludes that, for most of the year, fresh air should be used to reduce the cooling requirement, which would help reduce electricity use in the chillers by up to 40%, or up to 6% of the factory total. A physical model of a factory and its air-conditioning system is constructed to test the concept, as well as to develop a workable control system. The control algorithm uses a simple proportional control for the air damper, which affects the relative humidity, and an on-off control for the chilled water supply to control the temperature. The results show an improvement in the control of the condition of the air in the factory, and confirm the expected potential for saving electricity.

  9. Efficient electric motor systems for industry. Report on roundtable discussions of market problems and ways to overcome them

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of electric motor systems is one of the best energy-saving opportunities for the United States. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies estimates that by the year 2010 in the industrial sector, the opportunities for savings from improved efficiency in electric motor systems could be roughly as follows: 240 billion kilowatthours per year. $13 billion per year from US industry`s energy bill. Up to 50,000 megawatts in new powerplant capacity avoided. Up to 44 million metric tons of carbon-equivalent emissions mitigated per year, corresponding to 3 percent of present US emissions. Recognizing the benefits of this significant opportunity for energy savings, DOE has targeted improvements in the efficiency of electric motor systems as a key initiative in the effort to promote flexibility and efficiency in the way electricity is produced and used. Efficient electric motor systems will help the United States reach its national goals for energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions.

  10. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  11. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals and bacterial endotoxins via electrical and optical spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammu, Srikanth

    The first decade of the 21st century has been labeled by some as the "Sensor Decade." With a dramatic increase in sensor R&D and applications over the past 20 years, sensors are certainly on the brink of a revolution similar to what was in the field of computers in 1980s, information technology in the 1990s and wireless communication at the turn of the century. Just in the pharmaceutical industry alone, sensing needs are growing by leaps and bounds, and the sensing technologies used are as varied as the applications. Tremendous advances have been made in sensor technology and many more are on the brink of commercialization. In this work, I have attempted to balance breadth and depth in a single, practical and up-to-date resource. Understanding sensor design and operation typically requires a cross-disciplinary background, as it draws basic concepts from both engineering (chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc.), and science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.). This work is an attempt to pull together the most crucial information utilized in designing, fabricating and application of this relatively novice field of Nanomaterials. While it would be impossible to cover each and every sensor in use today, I have attempted to provide as broad a range of sensor types and applications as possible. Current industrial standards, latest techniques for fabrication and assembly, followed by their application in safeguarding the human race against from possible chemical and biological threats are discussed in detail.

  12. Industrial batteries in the electric power system of 'Electricité de France'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnol, P.

    More than 5000 industrial batteries are operating in the different power plants, substations and distribution centres of 'Electricité de France' (EDF). 2 V lead/ acid and 1.2V alkaline systems are used for different stationary stand-by applications: power station control, communication, etc. In nuclear plants, these batteries are part of the ultimate safety system ensuring the safe control of the reactor. The operating conditions of the industrial batteries at EDF, the different related battery technologies and the testing methods used to assess their operating ability are described. For selection, batteries undergo electric, seismic and ageing tests. Ageing sequences involve successive floating phases at a high temperature. Results on absorptive glass mat valve-regulated lead/acid battery testing are given. On-line monitoring methods are studied in order to evaluate the remaining available autonomy of the battery according to its state of ageing. In addition to these stand-by applications, EDF is also investigating the potential of future energy and quality applications of stationary batteries such as load levelling or storage of energy produced from renewable sources.

  13. Productivity measurement in the presence of externalities: An example from the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, Kelly Ann

    Traditional productivity measures have ensured that environmental regulations were seen as deterrents to productivity growth. Such measures are constructed in a manner which make this conclusion inevitable. Traditional productivity measures include the regulation-induced additions to inputs, whether qualitatively or quantitatively, while continuing to ignore the value of the pollution emitted. The measure proposed in this thesis is derived formally from a model of social welfare. With the exception of 'prices' for emitted pollutants, for which marginal damage estimates will proxy, the proposed measure relies upon market prices, which are then incorporated into a conventional Divisia framework. Data from the electricity generation industry are used to construct both the conventional and newly proposed TFP growth rates. The industry provides an ideal framework within which this growth measure can be tested. It is a large industry that affects a majority of society as it is both consumed as a final good and pervasively used as an intermediate good. The industry is also a large polluter. On an annual basis it has been responsible for approximately one-third of the emissions of carbon-dioxide, one-third of the emissions of nitrous oxides, and two-thirds of the sulfur dioxides emissions, nationally. Furthermore, performance of the proposed measure across various samples was allowed by the diversity of utilities in the industry both with respect to location and fuel mix. Incorporating the value of externalities results in a productivity growth measure which is substantially improved. The difference in calculated productivity gains between the two measures is shown to be sizable under a number of circumstances. As well, the empirical analysis offers some general lessons as to the treatment of various pollutants--it is clearly demonstrated that movement in one pollutant cannot be used to proxy movements in others, or be used as an indicator as to the bias of traditional TFP

  14. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  15. The Time Dilemma in School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Gary D.; Castle, Shari

    1993-01-01

    Recent survey of time usage in restructuring schools disclosed five time-management strategies, including freed-up time (temporary interventions freeing teachers from scheduling constraints), restructured or rescheduled time, common time (for teacher planning and preparation), better-used time (to replace faculty meetings and professional…

  16. States' Progress toward High School Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National High School Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As many Title I high schools approach their fifth year of failing to meet adequate yearly progress (AYP), states and districts are struggling to navigate the new waters of school restructuring as required by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. This brief outlines the provisions of the law related to restructuring and includes strategies…

  17. Analogical Reasoning in Restructuring Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Sorzio, Paolo

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment that evaluated the efficiency of analogy in the conceptual restructuring of a science topic. The experiment involved a fifth-grade class studying water and heat flow. Discovered that analogy can act as an effective trigger for restructuring knowledge. (MJP)

  18. 34 CFR 200.43 - Restructuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., such as a private management company, with a demonstrated record of effectiveness, to operate the... the LEA developed the restructuring plan under paragraph (b)(3) of this section; (ii) Continue to... developing and carrying out a restructuring plan to any rural LEA— (1) That has fewer than 600 students...

  19. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  20. Educating School Psychologists for Restructured Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfield, Sylvia

    Restructuring schools implies not only different organizational structures and different ways of operating, but different underlying assumptions. Restructuring schools would include changes in human relationships, changes in incentive structures, changes in how people work and relate to one another, and changes in some of the assumptions made…

  1. Restructuring for Urban Student Success: Essay Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara, Ed.; Levine, Jodi, Ed.; Patton, Judy, Ed.

    This publication presents essays by members of Restructuring for Urban Student Success (RUSS) and other faculty, administrators, staff, and graduate students on participating campuses. The essays describe the work of RUSS and document curricular restructuring and reform efforts occurring at RUSS partner institutions. Part 1 includes essays by RUSS…

  2. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  3. Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.

  4. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in the ninth grade, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for twenty-four units of instruction. Among the modules included are (1) introduction to the world of electricity, (2) electrical safety, (3) the electrical team, (4) resistance and resistors, (5) electric lamps and heating…

  5. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  6. Effects of Deregulation and Vertical Unbundling on the Performance of China's Electricity Generation Sector†

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hang; Van Biesebroeck, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The restructuring of the Chinese electricity sector in 2002 reshaped the market structure by vertically unbundling the dominant integrated firm and started the process of wholesale price liberalization. We estimate factor demands to study whether these reforms boosted productivity in the generation segment of the industry. Controlling explicitly for price‐heterogeneity across firms and unobservable productivity shocks, we find that the reforms are associated with reductions in labor and material use of 7 and 5 per cent, respectively. These effects only appear two years after the reforms and are robust to many specification checks. The absolute magnitudes of the estimated restructuring effects vary in intuitive ways by location, firm size or age, and for different definitions of restructured firms. PMID:27076686

  7. Development of a Questionnaire To Survey Graduates of the Electrical Systems Specialization in the Industrial Technology Department (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanella, Deborah J.

    A questionnaire was developed to survey recent graduates of the electrical systems specialization in the Industrial Technology program at the Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) School of Technology. First, the pertinent literature was reviewed and a formative committee consisting of CCSU faculty and staff and the board of trustees of…

  8. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

    2014-07-15

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings.

  9. Promoting creativity in the electric utility industry under a regulated and/or de-regulated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, H.W. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Over the years, utilities have been going through cost cutting measures and efficiency improvements in an effort to be more competitive or stay competitive within their market territory. The next logical step for a utility to take is to promote Creativity. With a creative environment in place, utilities can keep pace with the changes in the industry and maintain or attain their competitive advantage. The goal of the creative electric utility work-force is to keep up with changes in the industry and become more competitive as the market becomes more competitive. Utilities can change the way they do business by utilizing an effectively trained and skilled work-force on the subject of creative thinking. Creativity within a work-force depends on the employees desire to understand difficult aspects of his or her life. This paper will provide the foundation for linking Creativity and the electric utility industry.

  10. Three Essays in Energy Economics and Industrial Organization, with Applications to Electricity and Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Electricity industries are experiencing upward cost pressures in many parts of the world. Chapter 1 of this thesis studies the production technology of electricity distributors. Although production and cost functions are mathematical duals, practitioners typically estimate only one or the other. This chapter proposes an approach for joint estimation of production and costs. Combining such quantity and price data has the effect of adding statistical information without introducing additional parameters into the model. We define a GMM estimator that produces internally consistent parameter estimates for both the production function and the cost function. We consider a multi-output framework, and show how to account for the presence of certain types of simultaneity and measurement error. The methodology is applied to data on 73 Ontario distributors for the period 2002-2012. As expected, the joint model results in a substantial improvement in the precision of parameter estimates. Chapter 2 focuses on productivity trends in electricity distribution. We apply two methodologies for estimating productivity growth---an index based approach, and an econometric cost based approach---to our data on the 73 Ontario distributors for the period 2002 to 2012. The resulting productivity growth estimates are approximately -1% per year, suggesting a reversal of the positive estimates that have generally been reported in previous periods. We implement flexible semi-parametric variants to assess the robustness of these conclusions and discuss the use of such statistical analyses for calibrating productivity and relative efficiencies within a price-cap framework. In chapter 3, I turn to the historically important problem of vertical contractual relations. While the existing literature has established that resale price maintenance is sufficient to coordinate the distribution network of a manufacturer, this chapter asks whether such vertical restraints are necessary. Specifically, I study

  11. Three Essays in Energy Economics and Industrial Organization, with Applications to Electricity and Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Electricity industries are experiencing upward cost pressures in many parts of the world. Chapter 1 of this thesis studies the production technology of electricity distributors. Although production and cost functions are mathematical duals, practitioners typically estimate only one or the other. This chapter proposes an approach for joint estimation of production and costs. Combining such quantity and price data has the effect of adding statistical information without introducing additional parameters into the model. We define a GMM estimator that produces internally consistent parameter estimates for both the production function and the cost function. We consider a multi-output framework, and show how to account for the presence of certain types of simultaneity and measurement error. The methodology is applied to data on 73 Ontario distributors for the period 2002-2012. As expected, the joint model results in a substantial improvement in the precision of parameter estimates. Chapter 2 focuses on productivity trends in electricity distribution. We apply two methodologies for estimating productivity growth . an index based approach, and an econometric cost based approach . to our data on the 73 Ontario distributors for the period 2002 to 2012. The resulting productivity growth estimates are approximately 1% per year, suggesting a reversal of the positive estimates that have generally been reported in previous periods. We implement flexible semi-parametric variants to assess the robustness of these conclusions and discuss the use of such statistical analyses for calibrating productivity and relative efficiencies within a price-cap framework. In chapter 3, I turn to the historically important problem of vertical contractual relations. While the existing literature has established that resale price maintenance is sufficient to coordinate the distribution network of a manufacturer, this chapter asks whether such vertical restraints are necessary. Specifically, I study

  12. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  13. R & D increases electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, S.S.

    1995-10-01

    As the electric utility industry moves increasingly toward open competition, sharing of information among utilities will become more restrictive. Today, the spirit of cooperation seens to be faltering, due to each companies` concerns about revealing potentially sensitive information which could be exploited by a utility`s competitors. This situation raises a serious question regarding the future of cooperative R&D. One area of R&D that will benefit all electric energy providers is that which will create new or larger markets for electricity. An R&D consortia can also help to satisfy some rather generic needs of its competitive members. Members of competitive industries have quickly and economically developed market-building technologies through their support of R&D consortium. It is very likely that as the electric utility industry undergoes restructuring, collaborative R&D will continue to produce mutually beneficial technologies. The realities of competition will require the electric R&D consortia to adjust the processes used to plan and manage R&D projects.

  14. Ozone nonattainment: Implications for NO[sub x] and VOC compliance by the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fernau, M.E.; South, D.W.; Guziel, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that regions not in ozone attainment and designated as severe'' take actions to achievement by 2007. In a several-phase study for the US Department of Energy, ANL is investigating the impact and implications of the Title I requirements in the Chicago Metropolitan Area. As part of tie study we examined the potential additional compliance requirements that might be imposed on the electric power industry, after satisfying O[sub 2]and NO[sub x] requirements specified in Title IV, to achieve attainment in Chicago. Alternative scenarios were examined to show the incremental emission reductions and air quality effects of each action. The Urban Airshed Model (UAM) selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for ozone compliance modeling, was used to assess the effects on air quality. Preliminary results show that, for the episode modeled, compliance with Title TV regulations for utility NO[sub x] emissions did not have much effect on air quality. Consequently, if utilities are the targeted emissions source, it is possible that additional regulations beyond Title IV may be imposed. However, complete removal of utility emissions did not lead to attainment and only improved air quality by 20--25% of the improvement from removing all emissions, pointing out the importance of non-utility sources to the ozone problem in the region. Non-utility sources will be investigated further in another phase of this work.

  15. Ozone nonattainment: Implications for NO{sub x} and VOC compliance by the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fernau, M.E.; South, D.W.; Guziel, K.A.

    1993-03-01

    Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that regions not in ozone attainment and designated as ``severe`` take actions to achievement by 2007. In a several-phase study for the US Department of Energy, ANL is investigating the impact and implications of the Title I requirements in the Chicago Metropolitan Area. As part of tie study we examined the potential additional compliance requirements that might be imposed on the electric power industry, after satisfying O{sub 2}and NO{sub x} requirements specified in Title IV, to achieve attainment in Chicago. Alternative scenarios were examined to show the incremental emission reductions and air quality effects of each action. The Urban Airshed Model (UAM) selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for ozone compliance modeling, was used to assess the effects on air quality. Preliminary results show that, for the episode modeled, compliance with Title TV regulations for utility NO{sub x} emissions did not have much effect on air quality. Consequently, if utilities are the targeted emissions source, it is possible that additional regulations beyond Title IV may be imposed. However, complete removal of utility emissions did not lead to attainment and only improved air quality by 20--25% of the improvement from removing all emissions, pointing out the importance of non-utility sources to the ozone problem in the region. Non-utility sources will be investigated further in another phase of this work.

  16. Maximum demand charge rates for commercial and industrial electricity tariffs in the United States

    DOE Data Explorer

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter

    2017-09-20

    NREL has assembled a list of U.S. retail electricity tariffs and their associated demand charge rates for the Commercial and Industrial sectors. The data was obtained from the Utility Rate Database. Keep the following information in mind when interpreting the data: (1) These data were interpreted and transcribed manually from utility tariff sheets, which are often complex. It is a certainty that these data contain errors, and therefore should only be used as a reference. Actual utility tariff sheets should be consulted if an action requires this type of data. (2) These data only contains tariffs that were entered into the Utility Rate Database. Since not all tariffs are designed in a format that can be entered into the Database, this list is incomplete - it does not contain all tariffs in the United States. (3) These data may have changed since this list was developed (4) Many of the underlying tariffs have additional restrictions or requirements that are not represented here. For example, they may only be available to the agricultural sector or closed to new customers. (5) If there are multiple demand charge elements in a given tariff, the maximum demand charge is the sum of each of the elements at any point in time. Where tiers were present, the highest rate tier was assumed. The value is a maximum for the year, and may be significantly different from demand charge rates at other times in the year. Utility Rate Database: https://openei.org/wiki/Utility_Rate_Database

  17. Deregulating the electric utility industry: financial dislocations and implicit regulatory rents

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    A framework was developed that lends itself to both order-of-magnitude estimates of the aggregate impact of deregulation and an approach to structuring the debate about the equity of the financial dislocations that deregulation will create. This approach involves calculating what one can term implicit regulatory rents. Implicit regulatory rents are the present value of regulatory policies that cause derivations from outcomes consistent with long-run competitive equilibrium. Using this approach, it was found that up to $196 billion dollars in present value might be transferred from customers to existing utilities through the loss of implicit regulatory rents. This figure is not, however, appropriate for use as a substitute for the financial dislocations referred to above. It permits two important observations: (1) deregulation of the electric utility industry does have the potential to create huge financial gains and losses; and (2) any deregulation proposal must be concerned with the details of the prior regulatory regime since some very large sums of money, such as deferred taxes and outstanding long-term bonds, may mean very different things depending upon how the regulatory process defined them. A financial simulation model is used to illustrate how implicit regulatory rents can be calculated at the level of an individual firm. 51 references.

  18. Testing various food-industry wastes for electricity production in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Cercado-Quezada, Bibiana; Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain

    2010-04-01

    Three food-industry wastes: fermented apple juice (FAJ), wine lees and yogurt waste (YW) were evaluated in combination with two sources of inoculum, anaerobic sludge and garden compost, to produce electricity in microbial fuel cells. Preliminary potentiostatic studies suggested that YW was the best candidate, able to provide up to 250 mA/m(2) at poised potential +0.3V/SCE. Experiments conducted with two-chamber MFCs confirmed that wine lees were definitely not suitable. FAJ was not able to start an MFC by means of its endogenous microflora, while YW was. Both FAJ and YW were suitable fuels when anaerobic sludge or compost leachate was used as inoculum source. Sludge-MFCs had better performance using YW (54 mW/m(2) at 232 mA/m(2)). In contrast, compost-leachate MFCs showed higher power density with FAJ (78 mW/m(2) at 209 mA/m(2)) than with YW (37 mW/m(2) at 144 mA/m(2)) but YW gave more stable production. Under optimized operating conditions, compost-leachate MFCs fueled with YW gave up to 92 mW/m(2) at 404 mA/m(2) and 44 mW/m(2) in stable conditions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    This dissertation provides a new method of measuring efforts by manufacturing industries to reduce their emissions by curtailing electricity consumption. Employing comprehensive firm-level data from the National Manufacture Annual Surveys of South Korea and Thailand, I construct the measure from estimates of revenue functions by industry. The data consists of firms from more than 20 industries in each year from 1982 to 2005 for Korea and from 2001 to 2008 for Thailand. With a total of more than two million observations, I estimate revenue functions for each industry and year. Here, I use three inputs: number of employees(L), fixed asset stock(K), and electricity consumption(E) and two types of functional forms to represent each industry's revenue function. Second, under market competitive condition, I find that profit maximizing firms deviated their level of electricity usage in production from the profit-maximizing level during the time period for both countries, and I develop a theoretical framework to explain this behavior. Then, I tested the theory using my empirical models. Results support the notion of a hidden environmental value expressed by firms in the form of voluntary deviations from profit-maximizing levels of input demand. The measure used is the gap between the marginal revenue product of electricity and its price. This gap should increase with income, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve literature. My current model provides considerable support for this proposition. Estimates indicate, in most industries, a negative relationship between per-capita income and emissions. In the final section of the dissertation, I consider the equitable distribution of emissions reduction burden under an international agreement such as the reduction effort, Kyoto Protocol. Both developed and developing countries have to cut their emissions to a specific reduction percentage target. Domestically, I present two extreme scenarios. In the first scenario

  20. Relative efficiency benefits of wholesale and retail competition in electricity: An analysis and a research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D R; Palmer, K L

    1996-03-01

    A central issue in the debate over restructuring the electric power industry is the extent to which the market should be open to competition. One aspect of this debate is whether competition ought to be restricted to the whole sale power market or be extended to final retail consumers. This report begins to explore the potential differences in economic efficiency between wholesale and retail competition in the electric power industry. The two market-structure scenarios are defined and the factors responsible for differences in efficiency are described. The report also contains an assessment of the relative importance of the factors and recommendations for pursuing further research.

  1. It`s a war out there: A gas man questions electric efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, M.E.

    1996-12-01

    This article will examine how demand-side management (DSM) and integrated resource planning (IRP) have failed through anticompetitive abuse of avoided costs mechanisms that funded energy efficiency rebates and marketing campaigns. It will also analyze relationships between DSM and IRP avoided costs and stranded investments associated with the present restructuring of the electric utility industry through the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC`s) mega-NOPR and subsequent Order 888.

  2. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  3. Integrated DEA Models and Grey System Theory to Evaluate Past-to-Future Performance: A Case of Indian Electricity Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better “past-present-future” insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry. PMID:25821854

  4. Integrated DEA models and grey system theory to evaluate past-to-future performance: a case of Indian electricity industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Nguyen, Nhu-Ty; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better "past-present-future" insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry.

  5. Field Independence-Dependence and Verbal Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie P.; Frank, Bernard M.

    1985-01-01

    Using 80 female undergraduate students, this study investigated the hypothesis that field-independent individuals are more efficient in verbal restructuring tasks than field-dependent individuals. Results of an analysis did not support the hypothesis. (Author/LMO)

  6. Restructuring the Educational System in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Dibya Deo; Mohsin, Mohammad

    1975-01-01

    The five year nationwide plan for restructuring the educational system in Nepal is described. Emphasis is placed on an egalitarian harmonization of multilingual traditions into a single nationhood. (DE)

  7. Restructuring Graduate Engineering Education: The M.Eng. Program at Cornell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, K. Bingham; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the restructuring of the graduate program to accommodate emerging fields in engineering. Notes half of the graduate degrees Cornell grants each year are M.Eng. degrees. Offers 12 specialties: aerospace, agriculture, chemical, civil, electrical, mechanical and nuclear engineering; computer science, engineering physics; geological…

  8. Restructuring Graduate Engineering Education: The M.Eng. Program at Cornell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, K. Bingham; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the restructuring of the graduate program to accommodate emerging fields in engineering. Notes half of the graduate degrees Cornell grants each year are M.Eng. degrees. Offers 12 specialties: aerospace, agriculture, chemical, civil, electrical, mechanical and nuclear engineering; computer science, engineering physics; geological…

  9. Rhodium-catalyzed restructuring of carbon frameworks.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Metal-catalyzed reactions involving an elementary step which cleaves a carbon-carbon bond provide unique organic transformations. Restructuring reactions recently developed in our laboratory, through which the carbon framework of a starting substance is restructured into a totally different carbon framework, are discussed, with the possibility of applying such methods to the synthesis of natural products. © 2010 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  11. Automatic Restructuring of Linked Data Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Spek, Harmen L. A.; Holm, C. W. Mattias; Wijshoff, Harry A. G.

    The memory subsystem is one of the major performance bottlenecks in modern computer systems. While much effort is spent on the optimization of codes which access data regularly, not all codes will do so. Programs using pointer linked data structures are notorious for producing such so called irregular memory access patterns. In this paper, we present a compilation and run-time framework that enables fully automatic restructuring of pointer-linked data structures for type-unsafe languages, such as C. The restructuring framework is based on run-time restructuring using run-time trace information. The compiler transformation chain first identifies disjoint data structures that are stored in type-homogeneous memory pools. Access to these pools is traced and from these run-time traces, a permutation vector is derived. The memory pool is restructured at run-time using this permutation, after which all pointers (both stack and heap) that refer to the restructured pool must be updated. While the run-time tracing incurs a considerable overhead, we show that restructuring pointer-linked data structures can yield substantial speedups and that in general, the incurred overhead is compensated for by the performance improvements.

  12. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level I (18 Week).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in grades 7 and 8, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for twelve units of instruction: (1) orientation; (2) understanding electricity; (3) safety; (4) methods to generate electricity; (5) wiring tools and wire; (6) soldering; (7) magnetism and electromagnetism; (8) circuits, symbols,…

  13. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level I (9 Week).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in grades 7 and 8, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for ten units of instruction (nine-week class): (1) orientation; (2) understanding electricity; (3) safety; (4) methods to generate electricity; (5) wiring tools and wire; (6) soldering; (7) magnetism and electromagnetism; (8)…

  14. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150...

  15. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level I (9 Week).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in grades 7 and 8, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for ten units of instruction (nine-week class): (1) orientation; (2) understanding electricity; (3) safety; (4) methods to generate electricity; (5) wiring tools and wire; (6) soldering; (7) magnetism and electromagnetism; (8)…

  16. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in the tenth grade, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for sixteen units of instruction: (1) orientation, (2) introduction to electricity/electronics, (3) electricity/electronics safety, (4) fundamental skills, (5) direct current circuits, (6) graphical illustrations, (7) circuit…

  17. The Agrofuels Transition: Restructuring Places and Spaces in the Global Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt-Giminez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent critiques of agrofuels, the industry is booming, signaling transformations in the world's food and fuels systems. International financial institutions, biotechnology firms, governments, and agribusiness are restructuring control over land, genetic resources, economic space, and market power. These moves prefer transnational capital…

  18. Restructuring Vocational Education and Training Provision in Australia: Exploring the Impact on Teachers' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forward, Pat

    2007-01-01

    The vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia has undergone a prolonged period of substantial and significant restructuring. Reforms have been driven by a pressure to increase market forces within the system, and to gear "outputs" ever more closely to economic considerations and the needs of industry. This paper…

  19. The Agrofuels Transition: Restructuring Places and Spaces in the Global Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt-Giminez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent critiques of agrofuels, the industry is booming, signaling transformations in the world's food and fuels systems. International financial institutions, biotechnology firms, governments, and agribusiness are restructuring control over land, genetic resources, economic space, and market power. These moves prefer transnational capital…

  20. Ultra-Efficient and Power Dense Electric Motors for U. S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Melfi, Michael J.; Schiferl, Richard F.; Umans, Stephen D.

    2013-03-12

    The primary purpose of this project was to combine the ease-of-installation and ease-of-use attributes of industrial induction motors with the low-loss and small size and weight advantages of PM motors to create an ultra-efficient, high power density industrial motor that can be started across-the-line or operated from a standard, Volts/Hertz drive without the need for a rotor position feedback device. PM motor products that are currently available are largely variable speed motors that require a special adjustable speed drive with rotor position feedback. The reduced size and weight helps to offset the magnet cost in order make these motors commercially viable. The scope of this project covers horsepower ratings from 20 ? 500. Prototypes were built and tested at ratings ranging from 30 to 250 HP. Since fans, pumps and compressors make up a large portion of industrial motor applications, the motor characteristics are tailored to those applications. Also, since there is extensive use of adjustable frequency inverters in these applications, there is the opportunity to design for an optimal pole number and operate at other than 60 Hz frequency when inverters are utilized. Designs with four and eight pole configurations were prototyped as part of this work. Four pole motors are the most commonly used configuration in induction motors today. The results of the prototype design, fabrication, and testing were quite successful. The 50 HP rating met all of the design goals including efficiency and power density. Tested values of motor losses at 50 HP were 30% lower than energy efficient induction motors and the motor weight is 35% lower than the energy efficient induction motor of the same rating. Further, when tested at the 30 HP rating that is normally built in this 286T frame size, the efficiency far exceeds the project design goals with 30 HP efficiency levels indicating a 55% reduction in loss compared to energy efficient motors with a motor weight that is a few

  1. Potential for cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.; Gurfield, R. M.; Moretti, V. C.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    Information collected during an industrial survey of 12 selected plants was organized into four categories: technical, economic, environmental, and institutional. The technical aspects of industrial cogeneration are examined on a site-specific basis. The site-specific economics, environmental constraints, and institutional barriers that impact industrial cogeneration will be further investigated.

  2. Financial methods in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijie

    The restructuring of electric power industry has become a global trend. As reforms to the electricity supply industry spread rapidly across countries and states, many political and economical issues arise as a result of people debating over which approach to adopt in restructuring the vertically integrated electricity industry. This dissertation addresses issues of transmission pricing, electricity spot price modeling, as well as risk management and asset valuation in a competitive electricity industry. A major concern in the restructuring of the electricity industries is the design of a transmission pricing scheme that will ensure open-access to the transmission networks. I propose a priority-pricing scheme for zonal access to the electric power grid that is uniform across all buses in each zone. The Independent System Operator (ISO) charges bulk power traders a per unit ex ante transmission access fee based on the expected option value of the generated power with respect to the random zonal spot prices. The zonal access fee depends on the injection zone and a self-selected strike price determining the scheduling priority of the transaction. Inter zonal transactions are charged (or credited) with an additional ex post congestion fee that equals the zonal spot price difference. The unit access fee entitles a bulk power trader to either physical injection of one unit of energy or a compensation payment that equals to the difference between the realized zonal spot price and the selected strike price. The ISO manages congestion so as to minimize net compensation payments and thus, curtailment probabilities corresponding to a particular strike price may vary by bus. The rest of the dissertation deals with the issues of modeling electricity spot prices, pricing electricity financial instruments and the corresponding risk management applications. Modeling the spot prices of electricity is important for the market participants who need to understand the risk factors in

  3. An analysis of fatal and non-fatal injuries and injury severity factors among electric power industry workers.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, Tiffani A; Leonhard, Megan J; Watson, Heather N; Mezei, Gabor; Vergara, Ximena P; Krishen, Lovely

    2016-11-01

    The electric power industry represents a unique subset of the U.S. workforce. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between occupational category, nature of injury, and injury severity among electric power industry workers. The Occupational Health and Safety Database (1995-2013) was used to calculate injury rates, assess patterns of injury severity, and identify at-risk occupations in this population. Over the surveillance period, a total of 63,193 injuries were reported. Overall, and severe injury rates were 3.20 and 0.52 per 100 employee-years, respectively. The fatal injury rate was 3.29 per 100,000 employee-years. Line workers experienced the highest risk for fatal injuries and second highest for non-fatal severe injuries, following meter readers. The most severe non-fatal injuries were hernia and rupture; multiple injuries; and CTD/RSI. Fatal injuries were most commonly associated with vehicle collisions and contact with electric current. Industry specific surveillance and interventions tailored to high-risk occupations are needed to further reduce severe injuries in this population. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:948-958, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (qe) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring qe of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence qe of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of qe and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  5. Restructuring Schools; Reform: For Everyone?; Restructuring Teaching; Tower of Babel or Shared Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteth, Diane G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four brief articles examine the implications of restructuring, a central element in the school reform movement, for special education. Major areas of focus include curriculum, organization, and school governance, academic standards, discipline, accountability, restructuring the teaching profession, and the relationship between special and regular…

  6. School Restructuring: A Special Report of the NASSP Commission on Restructuring. Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.; And Others

    This guidebook is designed to serve as a resource and road map for restructuring schools, focusing on the development of a systematic process to implement and manage change. Chapter 1 defines restructuring as the reform of school-organizational relationships and processes to increase student learning and performance, with a focus on the following…

  7. Ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs in a restructuredelectri city industry: Issues and options for regulators andlegislators

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Goldman, Charles; Nadel, Stephen

    1998-05-01

    Electric industry restructuring requires state regulators and legislators to re-examine the purposes served by and the continuing need for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs, as well as the mechanisms to collect funds for these programs and the institutions appropriate to administer them. This paper offers background to these issues and a series of recommendations based on analysis of recent state experiences. Our recommendations are summarized.

  8. National policy dialogue on state and federal regulation of the electricity industry - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a dialogue on State and Federal Regulation of the Electricity Industry. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning and provide an overview of a diverse group`s deliberations on regulatory jurisdictional conflicts. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is a staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. The participants in the Keystone Dialogue believed that all affected interests could benefit from, if nothing else, a summary of their discussions of state/federal issues. The electric utility industry is one of the last remaining, heavily regulated industries in the United States. Rate and corporate regulation is split between state and federal governments and there is distinct regulatory authority at each level. For example, retail rate regulation occurs at the state level, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is responsible for wholesale rate regulation under the Federal Power Act, and the Securities and Exchange Commission oversees registered utility holding companies as defined under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. This jurisdictional split between state and federal regulation has evolved over many years through legislation and litigation on such matters. The creation of this allocation of regulatory responsibility was initiated in 1935 with the passage of the Public Utility Holding Company Act and the Federal Power Act when the economic and technological changes that are now occurring in the industry simply could not have been envisioned.

  9. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  10. Restructuring of RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    George Mesina; Joshua Hykes

    2005-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D source code is unstructured with many interwoven logic flow paths. By restructuring the code, it becomes easier to read and understand, which reduces the time and money required for code development, debugging, and maintenance. A structured program is comprised of blocks of code with one entry and exit point and downward logic flow. IF tests and DO loops inherently create structured code, while GOTO statements are the main cause of unstructured code. FOR_STRUCT is a commercial software package that converts unstructured FORTRAN into structured programming; it was used to restructure individual subroutines. Primarily it transforms GOTO statements, ARITHMETIC IF statements, and COMPUTED GOTO statements into IF-ELSEIF-ELSE tests and DO loops. The complexity of RELAP5-3D complicated the task. First, FOR_STRUCT cannot completely restructure all the complex coding contained in RELAP5-3D. An iterative approach of multiple FOR_STRUCT applications gave some additional improvements. Second, FOR_STRUCT cannot restructure FORTRAN 90 coding, and RELAP5-3D is partially written in FORTRAN 90. Unix scripts for pre-processing subroutines into coding that FOR_STRUCT could handle and post-processing it back into FORTRAN 90 were written. Finally, FOR_STRUCT does not have the ability to restructure the RELAP5-3D code which contains pre-compiler directives. Variations of a file were processed with different pre-compiler options switched on or off, ensuring that every block of code was restructured. Then the variations were recombined to create a completely restructured source file. Unix scripts were written to perform these tasks, as well as to make some minor formatting improvements. In total, 447 files comprising some 180,000 lines of FORTRAN code were restructured. These showed significant reduction in the number of logic jumps contained as measured by reduction in the number of GOTO statements and line labels. The average number of GOTO statements per subroutine

  11. Solar-electric power: The U.S. photovoltaic industry roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-01-01

    To meet this challenge, we — the U.S.-based PV industry — have developed this roadmap as a guide for building our domestic industry, ensuring U.S. technology ownership, and implementing a sound commercialization strategy that will yield significant benefits at minimal cost. Putting the roadmap into action will call for reasonable and consistent co-investment by our industry and government in research and technology development.

  12. Restructuring of the CSD: Phases 1 and 2. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-30

    The report examines the restructuring of the CSD. Volume 2 provides an assessment of: The nature of the worldwide railway supply industry; What goods and services CSD needs to procure from the international supply industry; and The leading firms that might best satisfy CSDs requirements. The United States Trade and Development Program (USTDP) expressed specific interest in identifying CSD needs that could be met by a U.S. manufacturing or service firm that could then export product or skills to the CSFR.

  13. Transformation of the Argentine wholesale electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, L.M. )

    1994-06-01

    The electricity industry in Argentina has undertaken a very deep restructuring in recent years, from a 100% state-owned, integrated activity to a true market of electricity, in which more than seventy free private agents (generators, transmission companies, distribution companies, and big customers) operate in a framework of rules completely different from those in force at the beginning of the transformation. Today, almost 3 years later, an observer can notice a number of changes already in place. As a consequence, there is an increased interest from companies and government as well, in old and new issues such as electrical markets integration, or global business. The purpose of this presentation is to examine this emergent market, its rules, and its players, and to assess which of the patterns associated with the integration of business, markets, and culture are for the benefit of final users.

  14. Industrial Arts 7-9. Power/Energy: Electricity/Electronics, Power Mechanics, Power/Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide for industrial arts grades 7-9 provides teachers with a curriculum for the subject cluster of power/energy. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, discusses how the content of the program is related to the developmental stages of the adolescent, describes the structure of the industrial arts program, and lists program goals and…

  15. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper.

  16. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  17. Review of the effects of the Clean Water Act on cooling-system selection by the steam-electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; McCown, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    A review of surveys of the steam-electric industry in general and the nuclear industry in particular has shown a significant trend away from open-cycle cooling and toward closed-cycle cooling that is at least in part a consequence of the Clean Water Act and subsequent EPA guidelines and standards. Among older plants, which are not significantly affected by the Clean Water Act, nearly 85% use some form of open-cycle cooling. However, among plants that are under construction or planned, only 10 to 15% plan to use open-cycle cooling. Most of this trend is apparently due to anticipation of restrictions on open-cycle cooling rather than to direct action by the EPA prohibiting open-cycle cooling at specific sites, because requests for permission to operate open-cycle cooling systems have been denied for less than 1% of all existing and new capacity. A review was made of the potential environmental effects, water consumption rates, capital and generating costs, and energy usage associated with open-cycle and closed-cycle cooling systems. No evidence was found that clearly supports a general preference for any type of cooling system over another. However, on a case-by-cae basis, site-specific conditions may indicate a preferred cooling technology. It is concluded that the opportunity for the use of all available cooling options should be retained and that an effort should be made to assure the steam-electric industry that the options are indeed available.

  18. Telecoms: Restructuring and the Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doohan, John

    1993-01-01

    Provides case studies and data from the major telecommunications service providers in most of the industrialized countries. Discusses reasons for the persistence of monopolies and the difficulty of affecting organizational change. Looks at privatization, challenges facing the workforce, and new job opportunities that would result. (JOW)

  19. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  20. Long-range PV R&D and the electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Terry M.

    1997-04-01

    In the short term, photovoltaics will probably continue to enjoy great success in niche markets and non-utility businesses, but see relatively little use within utilities. Deregulation is driving major restructuring of the electric-utility sector, causing great uncertainty among its planners and executives, and leading them to favor cost-cutting over other corporate strategies. However, the competitive motives at the root of that restructuring will ultimately induce resourceful utility executives to seek novel non-commodity energy-service businesses to sustain their companies' success in the deregulated industry of the future. In that industry, technology innovation will play a very important role. Specifically, photovoltaics will be highly valued in light of its unsurpassed modularity, extreme siting ease, very low operation and maintenance costs, and public popularity. The eventual leaders in wielding that powerful technology likely will be among those who recognize those assets earliest and strive to bring its promises to reality through innovative applications.

  1. Electricity Customers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  2. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  3. Fossil energy R and D for a competitive power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the vision for Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) advanced power generation program. It covers the following four topics: the status of the electric industry as it deregulates, particularly those aspects of deregulation that impact advanced power generation technologies; a snapshot of the environmental trends that influence the program; how research, and development, and demonstration (RD&D) program is being restructured in response to these trends; and the status of METC`s merger with its sister center, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center.

  4. Restructuring State Education Agencies: Learning from State Leaders. SERVE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linda J.

    Findings of a study that describes restructuring efforts undertaken by state education agencies (SEAs) are presented in this paper. Data were collected through telephone interviews with SEA officials in 24 states that were actively engaged in restructuring and analysis of SEA documents. Factors that contributed to restructuring included the place…

  5. What Restructuring Is: In Search of a Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Glen; Crandall, David P.

    Educational restructuring, an emerging concept without a single definition or a definitive model, supports the notion of multiple alternatives. Typical school improvement and excellence initiatives do not, by themselves, constitute restructuring. Restructuring means that schools should be organized according to children's learning needs. To…

  6. Restructuring Military Education and Training. Lessons from RAND Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, John D.; Steinberg, Paul S.

    This report examines research on initiatives intended to restructure military training with a focus on specialized skill training in military schools. Chapter 1 addresses the status of restructuring initiatives. Chapter 2 focuses on a methodology to examine the effects of restructuring and consolidation. It discusses in detail the elements…

  7. From Reform to Restructuring: New Opportunities for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, William L.; Hobbs, Daryl

    1990-01-01

    Examines history and nature of U.S. educational reforms and restructuring. Discusses implications for rural schools of restructuring, changing educational policy, and funding policies. Suggests restructuring can imply values of local control, community involvement, limited bureaucracy, and educational innovation toward raising school…

  8. Reforming and Restructuring Education. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This booklet contains four selected conference papers on educational reform and restructuring. In "Can Rational Organization Models Really Reform Anything? A Case Study of Reform in Chicago," Fenwick English describes reform efforts in the Chicago Public Schools and examines the political, social, organizational, and bureaucratic factors that have…

  9. Dynamic Restructuring Of Problems In Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.

    1992-01-01

    "Dynamic tradeoff evaluation" (DTE) denotes proposed method and procedure for restructuring problem-solving strategies in artificial intelligence to satisfy need for timely responses to changing conditions. Detects situations in which optimal problem-solving strategies cannot be pursued because of real-time constraints, and effects tradeoffs among nonoptimal strategies in such way to minimize adverse effects upon performance of system.

  10. Economic Competition, Restructuring and Worker Dislocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blalock, Ann Bonar, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    In this issue various concepts of economic change are examined. Part I looks at economic change as a context for focusing on workforce issues. Parts II and III discuss what is being done to address this contemporary problem. This issue contains the following papers: "Presidential Perspectives on Economic Change and Restructuring: An…

  11. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  12. Education Districts: A Concept for Restructuring Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Daryl; Schladweiler, Kathryn

    In rural Minnesota many school districts are limited in their efforts to restructure by low enrollment, rural geographic location, meager tax base, narrow staff experience, extensive job responsibilities for staff, restricted staff development opportunities, and lack of direction in curriculum coordination. Because of actual or perceived…

  13. An expert system for restructurable control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

  14. Notification: Workforce Restructuring Under VERA–VSIP

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0049, October 8, 2014. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin preliminary research on efforts to restructure the EPA workforce in fiscal year 2014.

  15. Redesigning Schools: Architecture and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Bruce, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    School architecture should be redesigned to match the vision for overall school restructuring. After explaining the need for improving educational facilities, this document describes the role of environmental variables in motivating and assessing improved student performance. The relationships between the environment and social attitudes and…

  16. Restructure Staff Development for Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach based on the work of W. Edwards Deming to system wide, high impact staff development. Deming has pointed out the significance of structure in systems. By restructuring the process of staff development we can bring about cost effective improvement of the whole system. We can improve student achievement while…

  17. 34 CFR 200.43 - Restructuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... principal) who are relevant to the school's failure to make AYP. (iii) Enter into a contract with an entity... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.43 Restructuring. (a) Definition. “Restructuring” means a major reorganization of a school's governance arrangement by an LEA...

  18. TQM and School Restructuring: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quong, Terry; Walker, Allan

    1996-01-01

    Describes briefly how the junior section of one Hong Kong school handled major problems by adopting a total-quality-management approach to change and restructuring. Describes the school's problems, discusses TQM generally in educational settings, describes the new "homestead" implementation, and comments on teachers' and students'…

  19. Feature Issue on Inclusion and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercook, Terri; York-Barr, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    This feature issue on inclusion and school restructuring for students with and without disabilities contains the following articles: (1) "The 7 Habits for Educators" (Terri Vandercook); (2) "The Evolution of Inclusive Education" (Jennifer York-Barr and Terri Vandercook); (3) "Creating Inclusive Schools: What Does the…

  20. Redefining the Principalship in Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Principals in restructuring schools are working in an increasingly turbulent policy environment that adds expectations but deletes little from their traditional roles. Two tasks form the basis of newly defined power relationships--delegating responsibilities and developing collaborative decision-making processes. Leading from the center means…

  1. Spain: Restructuring, Reform and Research Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio

    1984-01-01

    Scientific and technological research in Spain has been hindered more by lack of organization than by lack of funds. The 1983 Universty Reform Act to restructure the curriculum and improve research quality represents a major step in bringing Spanish research up to the levels of other modern university systems and to promote economic development.…

  2. Restructuring with the middle-management advantage.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, S Noorein; Osland, Asbjorn; Wells, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The strategic roles enabling conditions and intermediate outcomes of middle managers during a period of organizational restructuring were examined, with focus on developing an understanding of how senior management can best enable middle managers to achieve radical change. The case method was used, and data were collected from interviews with both middle and senior managers. Results revealed considerable differences between executives and middle managers with regard to middle management's strategic roles, enabling conditions and outcomes. Findings suggest that the 2 groups have different perceptions on how best to support middle management in strategic roles, especially during a crisis. Senior managers felt that middle managers required much explanation and guidance concerning the restructuring effort, viewing middle managers as primarily implementers. Middle managers viewed themselves in a more active role as providers of information necessary in guiding the restructuring decisions. In the area of intermediate outcomes, senior managers emphasized gaining consensus from middle managers to support implementation, but middle managers valued the outcome of securing agency over their own work to act in the best interests of the organization. Thus, middle managers can add value during a time of restructuring by matching strategic roles, enabling conditions and intermediate outcomes with the requirements of the strategic change.

  3. Restructuring Schools by Applying Deming's Management Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Charles A., III

    1991-01-01

    Four school districts adopted a school restructuring project using Deming's business management method. Deming offered alternative views of organizations based on psychology, systems, perceptual framework, and causes of variance. He listed 14 points for quality improvement. Evaluation indicated that key staff members willingly engaged in…

  4. Dynamic Restructuring Of Problems In Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.

    1992-01-01

    "Dynamic tradeoff evaluation" (DTE) denotes proposed method and procedure for restructuring problem-solving strategies in artificial intelligence to satisfy need for timely responses to changing conditions. Detects situations in which optimal problem-solving strategies cannot be pursued because of real-time constraints, and effects tradeoffs among nonoptimal strategies in such way to minimize adverse effects upon performance of system.

  5. Restructuring Schools: Capturing and Assessing the Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    In the early 1980s, a series of research studies reported that American schools had failed to produce literate and numerate graduates. This shortcoming was linked to the nation's declining economic position in the world marketplace, which led to a widespread, intensive school-restructuring movement. Drawing on multiple perspectives, the purpose of…

  6. Lexical Restructuring in the Absence of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Fernandes, Sandra; Querido, Luis; Morais, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Vocabulary growth was suggested to prompt the implementation of increasingly finer-grained lexical representations of spoken words in children (e.g., [Metsala, J. L., & Walley, A. C. (1998). "Spoken vocabulary growth and the segmental restructuring of lexical representations: precursors to phonemic awareness and early reading…

  7. Modeling electricity pricing in a deregulated generation industry: The potential for oligopoly pricing in a poolco

    SciTech Connect

    Rudkevich, A.; Duckworth, M.; Rosen, R. )

    1998-01-01

    The authors calculate the electricity prices that would result from a pure poolco market with identical profit-maximizing generating firms. They advance theoretical concepts developed by Klemperer and Meyer (1989) and Green and Newbery (1992), and propose a new formula for the instantaneous market clearing price when generating firms adopt bidding strategies given by the Nash Equilibrium. Applying his formula to empirical electricity supply and demand data, the authors find that even in markets with a relatively high number of firms, the price of electricity is significantly higher than the short-run marginal cost of generation. They express the average annual price mark-up with a Price-Cost Margin Index, and show how it varies with market concentration, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI). They conclude that the federal Energy Regulatory Commission's use of the HHI in its merger guidelines could prove inadequate in addressing market power concerns in deregulated poolco markets.

  8. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Anaerobic microbial fuel cell treating combined industrial wastewater: Correlation of electricity generation with pollutants.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Umara; Jin, Wang; Pervez, Arshid; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Tariq, Madiha; Shaheen, Shahida; Iqbal, Akhtar; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that not only generates energy but treats wastewater as well. A dual chamber MFC was operated under laboratory conditions. Wastewater samples from vegetable oil industries, metal works, glass and marble industries, chemical industries and combined industrial effluents were collected and each was treated for 98h in MFC. The treatment efficiency for COD in MFC was in range of 85-90% at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 96h and had significant impact on wastewater treatment as well. The maximum voltage of 890mV was generated when vegetable oil industries discharge was treated with columbic efficiency of 5184.7C. The minimum voltage was produced by Glass House wastewater which was 520mV. There was positive significant co-relation between COD concentration and generated voltage. Further research should be focused on the organic contents of wastewater and various ionic species affecting voltage generation in MFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  11. Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Electric power distribution equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Sihombing, P.

    1991-08-20

    The market survey covers the electric power distribution equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  12. Assessment of reforms in the electricity supply industry: A review of some recent empirical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peerbocus, Nash

    2007-03-15

    An empirical review suggests that progress has been made in bringing competition into the inherently complex and challenging electricity market, generating substantial efficiency gains. But the large disconnect between the wholesale and retail markets indicates that much effort is needed to allow consumers to optimally reap those gains. (author)

  13. Electric Motor Systems Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 3006.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The graduate of the Electric Motor Systems Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) understand the principles of sound and safe trade practices; (2) interpret drawings, plans, and be able to layout and develop projects according to specifications; (3) use the tools of the trade in a safe and proper…

  14. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS, UNIT 9B, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF STATIC CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS. EACH OF THE 12 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY…

  15. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS. UNIT 9 B, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING STATIC CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER OPERATION. EACH OF THE 12 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS CONTAINS THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  16. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  17. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  18. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  19. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  20. National Apprenticeship and Training Standards for the Sign, Pictorial Display, Electric Sign and Process Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee for the Sign, Pictorial Display, Electric Sign, and Process Industry, Washington, DC.

    Revised national standards for sign, pictorial display, electric sign, and process apprenticeships were developed to provide guidelines to local employers and labor groups to be used in setting up and operating uniform and effective apprenticeship programs. The apprenticeship term is 10,000 hours or 5 years of on-the-job training subdivided into…

  1. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS. UNIT 9 B, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING STATIC CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER OPERATION. EACH OF THE 12 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS CONTAINS THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  2. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS, UNIT 9B, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF STATIC CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS. EACH OF THE 12 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY…

  3. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  4. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  5. Process-based modelling of regional water demand for electricity, industry and municipal sectors in Integrated Assessment Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, David L.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kram, Tom; De Vries, Bert J. M.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are a prime tool for studying global scale interactions between the human and natural earth systems. Our research contributes to this field by modelling water, food and energy demand as outcomes of more physical processes and by adding links between them. As part of this ambition, we here describe a model for water demand in the electricity generation, industrial and municipal sectors, going beyond previous modelling efforts. For instance, by coupling water demand to energy inputs, the model directly couples water efficiency to fuel efficiency of power plants. We present electricity, industry and municipal water demand models and develop water demand projections for the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for climate research. Our regional-level demand models contribute to understanding the extent of crossing planetary boundaries and the scope for solutions such as virtual water trade or efficiency improvements. We also discuss how we plan to link demand and supply models, and how the usefulness for policy makers can be increased.

  6. The Local Structure of Globalization. The Network Dynamics of Foreign Direct Investments in the International Electricity Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Johan; Lomi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of the network of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the international electricity industry during the period 1994-2003. We assume that the ties in the network of investment relations between countries are created and deleted in continuous time, according to a conditional Gibbs distribution. This assumption allows us to take simultaneously into account the aggregate predictions of the well-established gravity model of international trade as well as local dependencies between network ties connecting the countries in our sample. According to the modified version of the gravity model that we specify, the probability of observing an investment tie between two countries depends on the mass of the economies involved, their physical distance, and the tendency of the network to self-organize into local configurations of network ties. While the limiting distribution of the data generating process is an exponential random graph model, we do not assume the system to be in equilibrium. We find evidence of the effects of the standard gravity model of international trade on evolution of the global FDI network. However, we also provide evidence of significant dyadic and extra-dyadic dependencies between investment ties that are typically ignored in available research. We show that local dependencies between national electricity industries are sufficient for explaining global properties of the network of foreign direct investments. We also show, however, that network dependencies vary significantly over time giving rise to a time-heterogeneous localized process of network evolution.

  7. Competition policy and the transition to a low-carbon, efficient electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Diana L.; Kwoka, John E. Jr.

    2010-08-15

    U.S. industries are facing intense pressures to become more energy efficient. Two concerns are driving this transition. One is the need to lower the carbon footprints of energy-intensive sectors. A second concern is the need to achieve energy security by reducing this country's reliance on foreign sources of energy supplies. (author)

  8. Integrating the Power Industry into the Larger Economy via Electricity-Backed Asset Securitization

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, John N.; Chen, Hanjie

    2005-07-01

    Bringing a concept that is familiar from the mortgage industry into the power sector could do much to lower utilities' cost of capital while integrating them more fully into the broader capital markets. But getting there will require significant regulatory, legal, financial and engineering innovation.

  9. Clean Restructuring: Design Elements for Low-Carbon Wholesale Markets and Beyond. A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Monisha; Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Mora, Hector Alejandro Beltran; Moller Porst, Kim; Hasselager, Anders; Friis-Jensen, Sandra; Vingaard, Mette; Wigand, Fabian; Tiedemann, Silvana; Bird, Lori; Zinaman, Owen; Logan, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Countries around the world are in various stages of reforming and restructuring their power systems to better meet development needs and decarbonization commitments. Changes in technology, business models, societal needs, and environmental goals are increasing pressure on countries to consider improvements to their power systems. This report addresses key issues associated with clean restructuring--the transition from traditional, vertically integrated utilities to competitive wholesale markets that rely increasingly on variable renewable electricity sources, demand response, and other clean energy options. The report also includes case studies from Mexico, Denmark, and Germany to provide real-world examples of clean restructuring from different perspectives.

  10. Restructuring hospital-physician relationships for future success.

    PubMed

    Howard, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Integrating physicians into the Healthfirst administration through employment sowed seeds of mutual understanding among these two groups that would benefit the system immeasurably over the next several years. The immediate future, however, saw only cultural upheaval between our hospitals and newly employed physicians, hospitals and nonemployed physicians, employed and nonemployed physicians, as well as specialists and primary care providers. Traditional physician-relationship-building efforts became difficult, if not impossible, to maintain. Essentially, administration was forced to scrap ten years of physician-development plans in order to reconfigure a relations effort that would maintain hospital support from all sides while restructuring the employed medical group. This article describes the evolution of Healthfirst's approach to maintaining effective physician relationships within our healthcare system and its affiliated entities over the past decade. Specifically, the article details the manner in which our system has evolved physician-relations activity to maintain an effective strategy during times of significant change in the healthcare industry.

  11. Competition and deregulation in the electric industry. A study of organizational change: The New York State Public Service Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Deborah J. Cordaro

    2000-11-01

    Public organizations are formed in response to societal needs. They collect taxes, educate children, enforce laws and provide protection to the environment, the nation and consumers. One such organization is the New York State Public Service Commission. In 1907, legislation was passed to form the New York State Public Service Commission the first regulatory body of its kind in the United States. Its mission was to provide safe, reliable and reasonably priced electricity. Subsequently, this became the model that was implemented in every state in the nation. The past decade heralds an era of competition and a lessening of regulatory control. The telephone, natural gas and airline industries are in various stages of deregulation, and the electric industry is beginning down this path as well. In an environment such as this, are regulatory organizations necessary, and if they are, how can they organize to meet the new societal requirements? The case of the New York State Public Service Commission at this point in time offers a real time study of a regulatory body immersed in an environment that is calling for competition and an end to big government. Utilizing case studies of industries that have deregulated, or are in the process of deregulating, indicates a future societal need for regulations. This result does not lead to a conclusion that organizational change is unnecessary. This Dissertation will lay out the current organizational structure of the Public Service Commission, give an overview of the environmental signals, describe the mission/core values, and illustrate general political and employee factors that are indigenous to public service. Utilizing both classic and current organizational theory, an evaluation will be made of the Commission's need for change, their ability to change, and obstacles they may encounter.

  12. Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public well-being and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

  13. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  14. Composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks containing walnuts as affected by cooking method.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Librelotto, J; Cofrades, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2007-11-01

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of various cooking methods - conventional oven, microwave oven, electric grill and pan-frying on the composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks formulated as low fat (L, 2.0% fat), medium fat (M, 13.0% fat) and 20% added walnut (W, 12.6% fat). Composition, retention coefficients for different compounds, cooking loss (CL) and texture were affected by both formulation and cooking. There was considerable retention of moisture, fat and minerals (as ash) in W samples after cooking. CL was highest (P<0.05) in M sample and lowest (P<0.05) in W samples. Microwaved restructured steaks had higher (P<0.05) kramer shear force (KSF) and bind strength (BS), while pan-fried and conventionally oven-cooked steaks had lower (P<0.05) KSF. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content was low in all restructured steaks but was affected by both cooking and formulation. Although cooking can change the proximal composition of steaks, lipid retention (>90%) was greatest in the case of the W sample, thus assuring that the ultimate objective of these restructured meats, namely to provide a source of walnut and walnut fat, would be successful.

  15. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

  16. Assessment of arid lands plants as future energy crops for the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.E.; Brooks, W.H.

    1981-12-01

    This technical report has been prepared to assess and estimate the prospects of utilizing selected native arid lands plant species (terpene- and nonterpene-containing species) as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and to familiarize nonspecialists with some major problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies. The assessment includes descriptions of the processing and production technologies associated with the various plant species as well as recommendations for research procedures and development programs specific to arid lands. Suggestions about the agronomic and economic parameters of growing these plants as energy-source crops are also included.

  17. [Health surveillance in a steel making industry with electric arc furnace: 15 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Corti, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of health surveillance carried out in an electric steel mill for 15 years. We have analyzed the trend of audiometry, spirometry and main indicators of exposure to chemical risk: serum lead, urinary OH-pyrene, erythrocyte ZPP, and the results of risk assessment of stress work related. The analyses of the trend of audiometry, spirometry and biological monitoring shows an important improving in the working environment due to the progressive automation of production steps in the course of several years, consistent and correct use of DPI, information and training.

  18. ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical standard) band flex fuel sensor using electrical metamaterial device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Nadkarni, Vihang; Kale, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    A stand-alone device working on the electrical metamaterial concept, operating at 2.47 GHz (ISM band), using merely 10 μL sample is proposed to detect petrol/ethanol ratio in given hybrid fuel. Systematic shifts in the transmission frequency as well as magnitude are observed, up to a maximum of 160 MHz and 12 dBm with the hybrid fuels. The sensing was fast with an instantaneous recovery, promising an accurate and sensitive device of detection of flex fuel.

  19. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Kast, James; Marcinkoski, Jason; Vijayagopal, Ram; Duran, Adam

    2016-06-22

    Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles. [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representative sample of MD and HD diesel trucks into Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCETs), while ensuring the same truck performance, in terms of range, payload, acceleration, speed, gradeability and fuel economy.

  20. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  1. Gravity flow operated small electricity generator retrofit kit to flour mill industry.

    PubMed

    Shekara, Prithivi; Kumar V, Pavan; Hosamane, Gangadharappa Gundabhakthara

    2013-10-01

    Flour milling is a grinding process to produce flour from wheat through comprehensive stages of grinding and separation. The primary energy is required to provide power used in grinding of wheat. In wheat milling, tempering is the process of adding water to wheat before milling to toughen the bran and mellow the endosperm. Gravity flow of the wheat is utilized to rotate the dampener wheel with cups to add water. Low cost gravity flow operated small electricity generator retrofit kit for dampener was designed and developed to justify low cost energy production without expensive solutions. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there was significant difference in mean values for voltage, rpm and flow rate at the 95% probability level. The resulted maximum mechanical power and measured electrical power were 5.1 W and 4.9 W respectively at wheat flow rate of 1.6 Kg/s and dampener wheel rotational velocity of 4.4 rad/s.

  2. Empirical analysis of physical excess generating capacity in the US investor-owned electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study addresses three fundamental questions. (1) Do regulators impose penalties upon utilities with excess capacity (2) Is excess capacity persistent in nature (3) What factors are important determinants of excess capacity The ordinary least-squares results indicate that there is an inverse relationship between excess capacity and profits. Regulators, in an attempt to minimize the escalating costs of producing electricity, impose penalties upon utilities with excess capacity. Spearman rank correlation coefficients are used to test for the persistence of excess capacity over the period 1979 to 1986. Results indicate that for most electric utilities excess capacity is not a persistent problem. Regulatory and/or market forces insure that high levels of excess capacity are a short-term, not a long-term phenomenon. Use of a uniform rule of thumb, to measure excess capacity, is often faulted because such thresholds fail to consider technical differences that exist between utilities. Uniform reserve-margin thresholds can be used to measure excess capacity. However, results indicate that customer preferences for an increased or decreased level of reliability are significant determinants of excess capacity.

  3. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  4. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, T.

    2001-10-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of $27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33): Steel, Aluminum, and Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation.

  5. Restructuring Schools on a Service-Industry Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Proposes reform in education from an "assembly line" to a "provider-client" approach. Swanton High School (Ohio), winner of GTE's Pioneering Partners program, which used Learning Management Systems to track student progress and testing, satellite courses, videodiscs, Hypercard, QuickTime video, and Internet connections, is…

  6. Restructuring Schools on a Service-Industry Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Proposes reform in education from an "assembly line" to a "provider-client" approach. Swanton High School (Ohio), winner of GTE's Pioneering Partners program, which used Learning Management Systems to track student progress and testing, satellite courses, videodiscs, Hypercard, QuickTime video, and Internet connections, is…

  7. The Transatlantic Defense Industrial Base: Restructuring Scenarios and Their Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    electronics powerhouse. Four months later, this combined entity merged with Dasa to form European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS). Construcciones ...app12A2004. pdf . Table 5. International Arms Sales: Top Ten Suppliers of Major Conventional Weapons (1999-2003). production and procurement from EU...projects.sipri.se/milex/aprod/nationaldata/france. pdf , http://projects.sipri.se/milex/aprod/nationaldata/usa.pdf. 23. Jolyon Howorth and John T. S

  8. Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

  9. Unintended environmental consequences and co-benefits of economic restructuring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Suh, Sangwon; Tan, Raymond R

    2013-11-19

    Current economic restructuring policies have ignored unintended environmental consequences and cobenefits, the understanding of which can provide foundations for effective policy decisions for green economy transformation. Using the input-output life cycle assessment model and taking China as an example, we find that household consumption, fixed capital formation, and export are main drivers to China's environmental impacts. At the product scale, major contributors to environmental impacts vary across different types of impacts. Stimulating the development of seven strategic emerging industries will cause unintended consequences, such as increasing nonferrous metal ore usage, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Limiting the surplus outputs in the construction materials industry and metallurgy industry may only help mitigate some of the environmental impacts caused by China's regulated pollutants, with little effect on reducing other impacts, such as marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, and particulate matter formation. However, it will bring cobenefits by simultaneously reducing mineral ore usage, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainable materials management and integrated policy modeling are possible ways for policy-making to avoid unintended consequences and effectively utilize cobenefits.

  10. [Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss in workers exposed to industrial noise of the turbogenerated electric plant of a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Montiel-López, María; Corzo-Alvarez, Gilbert; Chacín-Almarza, Betulio; Rojas-González, Liliana; Quevedo, Ana; Rendiles, Hernando

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss in the electric plant workers of a petrochemical industry of the west of Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included sonometry tests, carried out according to the established methodology by COVENIN rules, and the occupational medical evaluation and liminal tonal audiometrics test in 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) was quantified in different workplaces. It was found out that most of the workers are exposed to high noise levels [>85 dB(A)] and during more time than the recommended. All workers use hearing protectors appropriately. The hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, there were not noise-induced hearing losses. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometrics test was diminished, but inside the normal threshold values. We diagnosed 12 cases of conductive hearing loss, all grade I; there were not sensorial or mixed hearing losses. There was not a relationship between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. It is suggested the design and implantation of a program of auditory conservation to protect the health and security of the workers and to conduct a longitudinal study considering the findings of the present study as it basis.

  11. The evolution of the U.S. ESCO industry: Is there a Super ESCO in your life?

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Nakagami, Hidetoshi; Murakoshi, Chiharu

    1999-04-01

    As the restructuring of the US utility industry proceeds, Super ESCOs are expected to be key players in providing energy and energy-efficiency services to utility customers, and utility companies are expected to be either competing or partnering with Super ESCOs. Super ESCOs are energy service companies, or ESCOs, that provide traditional energy services and supply gas and/or electricity (and/or other fuels) to customers. Examples would include such companies as Duke Solutions, Edison Source, Enron Energy Services, PG and E Energy Services, and Xenergy. The evolution of the US ESCO industry and, in particular, the relationship between utilities and Super ESCOs, is the focus of this article.

  12. Biological treatment of steroidal drug industrial effluent and electricity generation in the microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ru; Gao, Chongyang; Zhao, Yang-Guo; Wang, Aijie; Lu, Shanshan; Wang, Min; Maqbool, Farhana; Huang, Qing

    2012-11-01

    The single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to treat steroidal drug production wastewater (SPW) and generate electricity simultaneously. The results indicated that the maximum COD removal efficiency reached 82%, total nitrogen and sulfate removal rate approached 62.47% and 26.46%, respectively. The maximum power density and the Coulombic efficiency reached to 22.3Wm(-3) and 30%, respectively. The scanning electron microscope showed that the dominant microbial populations were remarkably different in morphology on the surface of SPW and acetate-fed anodes. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the microbial community structure fed with different concentrations of SPW presented a gradual succession and unique bacterial sequences were detected on the SPW and acetate-fed anodes. This research demonstrates that MFCs fed with SPW achieved a high efficiency of power density and simultaneous nutrient removal, and the dominant microorganisms on the anode were related to the types and the concentrations of substrates.

  13. Models of supply function equilibrium with applications to the electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aromi, J. Daniel

    Electricity market design requires tools that result in a better understanding of incentives of generators and consumers. Chapter 1 and 2 provide tools and applications of these tools to analyze incentive problems in electricity markets. In chapter 1, models of supply function equilibrium (SFE) with asymmetric bidders are studied. I prove the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium in an asymmetric SFE model. In addition, I propose a simple algorithm to calculate numerically the unique equilibrium. As an application, a model of investment decisions is considered that uses the asymmetric SFE as an input. In this model, firms can invest in different technologies, each characterized by distinct variable and fixed costs. In chapter 2, option contracts are introduced to a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. The uniqueness of the equilibrium in the spot market is established. Comparative statics results on the effect of option contracts on the equilibrium price are presented. A multi-stage game where option contracts are traded before the spot market stage is considered. When contracts are optimally procured by a central authority, the selected profile of option contracts is such that the spot market price equals marginal cost for any load level resulting in a significant reduction in cost. If load serving entities (LSEs) are price takers, in equilibrium, there is no trade of option contracts. Even when LSEs have market power, the central authority's solution cannot be implemented in equilibrium. In chapter 3, we consider a game in which a buyer must repeatedly procure an input from a set of firms. In our model, the buyer is able to sign long term contracts that establish the likelihood with which the next period contract is awarded to an entrant or the incumbent. We find that the buyer finds it optimal to favor the incumbent, this generates more intense competition between suppliers. In a two period model we are able to completely characterize the optimal mechanism.

  14. How many years should I be married: Long-term power contracts in the electric utility industry in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy Ferre, Alberto

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation deals with the effects of long-term power contracts in the electric utility in Texas on consumer welfare, investigating economic and legal aspects of price formation. The study focuses on the institutions---vertical integration and contractual arrangements---that govern the transactions between the different links in the electricity provision chain and its effects on retail electricity prices for residential, commercial and industrial customers. The main hypothesis is that long-term power contracts serve as an uncertainty reduction mechanism to the buyer by clearly defining the conditions of the exchange for a significant period of time. In turn, this reduction of uncertainty is compensated by a premium to the seller in the form of higher prices. It is found that long-term wholesale power contracts present varying levels of flexibility in the terms of the exchange that are directly translated into prices and bills, providing support to the main hypothesis. Control variables include the role of new technologies, degree of competition and population demographics. Each control variable has differing impacts of different customer classes, depending on their demand elasticity. The study poses several interesting policy implications. First, the institutions that will govern and supervise the functioning of the market have an important weight in its success. The results indicate that competition cannot be a policy objective in itself There is a balancing act between the additional needs of a functional market in terms of infrastructure, information and coordination, and the inefficiencies that occur for lack of consumer options. Second, all customers are not equal. Some customer classes have fewer alternatives than others do, their consumption patterns differ and their dependence on electricity varies. Therefore, a policy that treats all customer classes the same will produce an inferior outcome. Third, the relevant environment matters. Legislative

  15. HTR-100 industrial nuclear power plant for generation of heat and electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.; Kohl, W.

    1987-11-01

    Based on their proven high-temperature reactor (HTR) with pebble-bed core, Brown, Boveri and Cie/Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau have developed an HTR-100 plant that combines favorable capital costs and high availability. Due to the high HTR-specific standards and passive safety features, this plant is especially well suited for siting near the end user. The safety concept permits further operation of the plant or decay heat removal via the operational heat sinks in the event of maloperation and design basis accidents having a higher probability of occurrence. In the event of hypothetical accidents, the decay heat is removed from the reactor pressure vessel by radiation, conduction, and convection to a concrete cooling system operating in natural convection. As an example of the new HTR-100 plant concept, a twin-block plant design for extraction of industrial steam is presented.

  16. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA.

  17. Toward increased reliability in the electric power industry: direct temperature measurement in transformers using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Greg

    1998-09-01

    Optimal loading, prevention of catastrophic failures and reduced maintenance costs are some of the benefits of accurate determination of hot spot winding temperatures in medium and high power transformers. Temperature estimates obtained using current theoretical models are not always accurate. Traditional technology (IR, thermocouples...) are unsuitable or inadequate for direct measurement. Nortech fiber-optic temperature sensors offer EMI immunity and chemical resistance and are a proven solution to the problem. The Nortech sensor's measurement principle is based on variations in the spectral absorption of a fiber-mounted semiconductor chip and probes are interchangeable with no need for recalibration. Total length of probe + extension can be up to several hundred meters allowing system electronics to be located in the control room or mounted in the transformer instrumentation cabinet. All of the sensor materials withstand temperatures up to 250 degree(s)C and have demonstrated excellent resistance to the harsh transformer environment (hot oil, kerosene). Thorough study of the problem and industry collaboration in testing and installation allows Nortech to identify and meet the need for durable probes, leak-proof feedthroughs, standard computer interfaces and measurement software. Refined probe technology, the method's simplicity and reliable calibration are all assets that should lead to growing acceptance of this type of direct measuring in the electric power industry.

  18. Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

    2004-09-02

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

  19. Particle Size Distributions of Particulate Emissions from the Ferroalloy Industry Evaluated by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI)

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K.; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ≤ 1 μm), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume in two different ferroalloy plants, one producing silicomanganese (SiMn) alloys and one producing ferrosilicon (FeSi) alloys. The impactor classifies the particles according to their aerodynamic diameter and gives real-time particle size distributions (PSD). The PSD based on both number and mass concentrations are shown and compared. Collected particles have also been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. From the ELPI classification, particle size distributions in the range 7 nm – 10 μm have been established for industrial SiMn and FeSi fumes. Due to the extremely low masses of the ultrafine particles, the number and mass concentration PSD are significantly different. The average aerodynamic diameters for the FeSi and the SiMn fume particles were 0.17 and 0.10 μm, respectively. Based on this work, the ELPI is identified as a valuable tool for the evaluation of airborne particulate matter in the indoor air of metallurgical production sites. The method is well suited for real-time assessment of morphology (particle shape), particle size, and particle size distribution of aerosols. PMID:25380385

  20. Particle size distributions of particulate emissions from the ferroalloy industry evaluated by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI).

    PubMed

    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ≤ 1 μm), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume in two different ferroalloy plants, one producing silicomanganese (SiMn) alloys and one producing ferrosilicon (FeSi) alloys. The impactor classifies the particles according to their aerodynamic diameter and gives real-time particle size distributions (PSD). The PSD based on both number and mass concentrations are shown and compared. Collected particles have also been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. From the ELPI classification, particle size distributions in the range 7 nm - 10 μm have been established for industrial SiMn and FeSi fumes. Due to the extremely low masses of the ultrafine particles, the number and mass concentration PSD are significantly different. The average aerodynamic diameters for the FeSi and the SiMn fume particles were 0.17 and 0.10 μm, respectively. Based on this work, the ELPI is identified as a valuable tool for the evaluation of airborne particulate matter in the indoor air of metallurgical production sites. The method is well suited for real-time assessment of morphology (particle shape), particle size, and particle size distribution of aerosols.

  1. Instructional Design Parameters in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kathleen M.

    The Restructuring Education in the Sciences for Industrial Alignment (RESIA) project examined the feasibility of combining college science faculty and industrial experts to produce instructional materials. These materials were intended for on-the-job training and college credit. Through informal contact, professors were identified who were willing…

  2. Instructional Design Parameters in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kathleen M.

    The Restructuring Education in the Sciences for Industrial Alignment (RESIA) project examined the feasibility of combining college science faculty and industrial experts to produce instructional materials. These materials were intended for on-the-job training and college credit. Through informal contact, professors were identified who were willing…

  3. Political economy of partnerships with applications to power pooling in the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Herriott, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The models studied here have one feature in common. Individuals all have a need for a divisible private good and are able to reduce the cost of satisfying their collective need by creating a partnership. Two dimensions differentiate the partnership models studied in the thesis, 1) the type of economic interdependence that leads to the formation of the partnership and 2) the characterization of individuals' demand for the private good. Two forms of economic interdependence are studied. The interdependence arising from a diversity of production technologies among members is shown to give the partnership the structure of a Shapley-Shubik market. The interdependence arising from the subadditivity of a cost function common to all members is shown to give the partnership the structure of a consumers' cooperative. Price-inelastic demands lead to cooperative models with distributive equity concepts. Price-elastic demands lead to noncooperative models with procedural equity concepts. For price-inelastic models a cost allocation rule is derived satisfying the equity concept called subsidy freedom in recent work on natural monopoly theory. Original theorems are proved for a class of models whose economic structure characterizes the interdependence among electric utility companies in power pools.

  4. Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass potential, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little potential for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best potential. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological potential. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  5. Does employee safety influence customer satisfaction? Evidence from the electric utility industry.

    PubMed

    Willis, P Geoffrey; Brown, Karen A; Prussia, Gregory E

    2012-12-01

    Research on workplace safety has not examined implications for business performance outcomes such as customer satisfaction. In a U.S. electric utility company, we surveyed 821 employees in 20 work groups, and also had access to archival safety data and the results of a customer satisfaction survey (n=341). In geographically-based work units where there were more employee injuries (based on archival records), customers were less satisfied with the service they received. Safety climate, mediated by safety citizenship behaviors (SCBs), added to the predictive power of the group-level model, but these two constructs exerted their influence independently from actual injuries. In combination, two safety-related predictor paths (injuries and climate/SCB) explained 53% of the variance in customer satisfaction. Results offer preliminary evidence that workplace safety influences customer satisfaction, suggesting that there are likely spillover effects between the safety environment and the service environment. Additional research will be needed to assess the specific mechanisms that convert employee injuries into palpable results for customers. Better safety climate and reductions in employee injuries have the potential to offer payoffs in terms of what customers experience. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Jumbo battery-powered cargo transporter begins work at flying tigers: latest in growing line of heavy-duty electric vehicles for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    A first-of-its-kind lead battery-powered cargo transporter has been placed in service by Flying Tigers Line, Inc., temporarily for test in Chicago. The jumbo electric transporter, being used by Flying Tigers to more economically and efficiently load and unload its planes is described. The recent introducing of this 31,000-lb. gross weight (including batteries) tractor-flatbed roller combination electric vehicle is the latest in a growing number of heavy-duty electrics coming into wide-spread use in the airline, ocean shipping, mining, agricultural, manufacturing, and other industries.

  7. Switch floor plants for restructurable VLSI/WSI

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    An electrically programmable switch has become a promising interconection technique for Restructurable VLSI/WSI systems because of its desirable properties, such as field reprogrammability, conventional fabrication technology and ease of changing the target architecture. However, the electrically programmable switch presents several problems to be solved, including long intermodule communication delay due to switches; the intermodule communication delay degrades VLSI/WSI system performance, particularly when it is a dominant factor in determining system speed. In this research, switch floor planning strategies (called switch floor plans) are proposed. The goal of those switch floor plans is to reduce the average intermodule communication delay and the total number of switches in the system. An ICT (Initial Configuration of Target architecture) design concept and the heterogeneous switch blocks over the target/host architecture are used to achieve such a goal. The ICT design is compared to other conventional-yield-enhancement methods by a combinatorial analysis. The proposed switch floor plans are evaluated by a computer simulation. Results show the desirability of the ICT design and the heterogeneous switches in the RVLSI/WSI system design.

  8. Leveraging domain information to restructure biological prediction.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaofei; Fu, Gang; Zhao, Zhengdong; Liu, Sheng; Patel, Ronak Y; Liu, Haining; Daga, Pankaj R; Doerksen, Robert J; Dang, Xin; Chen, Yixin; Wilkins, Dawn

    2011-10-18

    It is commonly believed that including domain knowledge in a prediction model is desirable. However, representing and incorporating domain information in the learning process is, in general, a challenging problem. In this research, we consider domain information encoded by discrete or categorical attributes. A discrete or categorical attribute provides a natural partition of the problem domain, and hence divides the original problem into several non-overlapping sub-problems. In this sense, the domain information is useful if the partition simplifies the learning task. The goal of this research is to develop an algorithm to identify discrete or categorical attributes that maximally simplify the learning task. We consider restructuring a supervised learning problem via a partition of the problem space using a discrete or categorical attribute. A naive approach exhaustively searches all the possible restructured problems. It is computationally prohibitive when the number of discrete or categorical attributes is large. We propose a metric to rank attributes according to their potential to reduce the uncertainty of a classification task. It is quantified as a conditional entropy achieved using a set of optimal classifiers, each of which is built for a sub-problem defined by the attribute under consideration. To avoid high computational cost, we approximate the solution by the expected minimum conditional entropy with respect to random projections. This approach is tested on three artificial data sets, three cheminformatics data sets, and two leukemia gene expression data sets. Empirical results demonstrate that our method is capable of selecting a proper discrete or categorical attribute to simplify the problem, i.e., the performance of the classifier built for the restructured problem always beats that of the original problem. The proposed conditional entropy based metric is effective in identifying good partitions of a classification problem, hence enhancing the

  9. Hospital reorganization and restructuring achieved through merger.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Losasso, Anthony; Arnould, Richard; Shalowitz, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    This article examines hospital reorganization and restructuring activities following merger for two study periods: 1983-1988 and 1989-1996. In both periods, hospitals rated strengthening hospital financial position as the most important reason for merger. There were also similarities in reorganizing actions, especially reductions in service duplication, consolidation of departments and programs, reductions in medical and support FTEs, and reductions in administrative staffing. Hospital mergers during 1989-1996, however, focused increasingly on reducing nursing FTEs and less on converting acquired hospitals to new service lines.

  10. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

  11. Green electricity: Tracking systems for environmental disclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Biewald, B.E.; Ramey, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    For the first time, electricity consumers in the US are beginning to choose their generation providers. One of the opportunities created by the introduction of retail choice in electricity is the chance for customers to influence the mix of generating resources through their purchasing decisions. Some environmentally aware consumers will want {open_quotes}clean,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}green,{close_quotes} or renewable power. While some suppliers will attempt to differentiate themselves according to their environmental performance, such claims for green electricity can be particularly difficult to verify given the complexity of the interconnected electric system. Because electricity is delivered over an integrated transmission grid and kilowatt-hours at the point of retail sale are indistinguishable from each other; disclosure requires tracking protocols to attribute generation at power plants to sales at the customers` meters. Fortunately, it is possible to implement a workable disclosure system. Some states have already included disclosure requirements in their electric industry restructuring orders and legislation. In this paper, a set of design criteria for an environmental disclosure system are presented along with two methods for disclosure: the company approach and the product approach. In addition, the authors discuss of power pools, data availability issues, and propose a company-based disclosure system using a {open_quotes}wholesale sales first{close_quotes} approach to transaction accounting.

  12. Predictors of Protean Career and the Moderating Role of Career Strategies among Professionals in Malaysian Electrical and Electronics (E & E) Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Siew Chin; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of individually related variables and the moderating role of career strategies on protean career among professionals in Malaysian Electrical & Electronics (E & E) industry. Design/methodology/approach: Research data were gathered from a sample of 306 of professional employees in…

  13. Predictors of Protean Career and the Moderating Role of Career Strategies among Professionals in Malaysian Electrical and Electronics (E & E) Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Siew Chin; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of individually related variables and the moderating role of career strategies on protean career among professionals in Malaysian Electrical & Electronics (E & E) industry. Design/methodology/approach: Research data were gathered from a sample of 306 of professional employees in…

  14. Industrial Arts Education Competency Catalogs for Basic Technical Drawing, Engineering Drawing, Architectural Drawing, Electricity and Electronics, Energy and Power, Graphic Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA. Dept. of Industrial Arts Education.

    Six competency catalogs of tasks for industrial arts programs are presented. These include catalogs in Architectural Drawing, Basic Technical Drawing, Electricity and Electronics, Energy and Power, Engineering Drawing, and Graphic Communications. The purpose of each catalog is to establish a basis for program content selection and criterion levels…

  15. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  16. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  17. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  18. A Beginning Look at the What and How of Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Glen; Crandall, David P.

    A second wave of educational reform is closely scrutinizing fundamental issues (structure, organization, management, curriculum, and instruction) and calling for at least partial restructuring of the public school system. After presenting a scenario of an ideally restructured elementary school, this paper explores the…

  19. Gaining Number Sense through a Restructured Hundreds Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes use of a restructured hundreds chart that involves a right-to-left sequence of numbers (similar to the direction of computations) and inclusion of zero. Specific instructional activities using the restructured chart are suggested for teaching such skills as counting, number identification, numerical relationships, place…

  20. Technology and Restructuring--Part II: New Organizational Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Doris

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for new organizational designs in schools that are restructuring with emphasis on the role technology can play. Topics discussed include improving communication; redundancy skills that educators need; learning to learn; using technology to support variety and diversity; barriers to using technology in restructuring schools; and…