Science.gov

Sample records for electric motors final

  1. Phase 1 STTR flywheel motor/alternator for hybrid electric vehicles. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; Kessinger, R.L. Jr.; Robinson, S.T.; Seymour, K.P.; Dockstadter, K.D.

    1997-12-31

    Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have teamed, through a Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE), to develop an advanced, low-cost motor/alternator drive system suitable for Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) applications. During Phase 1, system performance and design requirements were established, design concepts were generated, and preliminary motor/alternator designs were developed and analyzed. ORNL provided mechanical design and finite element collaboration and Lynx Motion Technology, a spin-off from VCS to commercialize their technology, constructed a proof-of-concept axial-gap permanent magnet motor/alternator that employed their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) with a survivable design speed potential of 10,000 rpm. The VCS motor/alternator was successfully tested in ORNL`s Motor Test Tank using an ORNL inverter and ORNL control electronics. It was first operated as an unloaded motor to 6,000 rpm and driven as an unloaded generator to 6,000 rpm. Output from the generator was then connected to a resistance bank, which caused the loaded generator to decelerate to 3,860 rpm where data was collected. After about 4-1/2 minutes, the test was terminated because of an impact noise. Subsequent inspection and operation at low speeds did not reveal the source of the noise. Electrical performance of the motor was excellent, encouraging continued development of this technology. Phase 2 efforts will focus on further design development and optimization, manufacturing development and prototype construction, testing, and evaluation.

  2. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  3. Final Report: MaRSPlus Sensor System Electrical Cable Management and Distributed Motor Control Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The success of JPL's Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer (NGIS) in Earth remote sensing has inspired a follow-on instrument project, the MaRSPlus Sensor System (MSS). One of JPL's responsibilities in the MSS project involves updating the documentation from the previous JPL airborne imagers to provide all the information necessary for an outside customer to operate the instrument independently. As part of this documentation update, I created detailed electrical cabling diagrams to provide JPL technicians with clear and concise build instructions and a database to track the status of cables from order to build to delivery. Simultaneously, a distributed motor control system is being developed for potential use on the proposed 2018 Mars rover mission. This system would significantly reduce the mass necessary for rover motor control, making more mass space available to other important spacecraft systems. The current stage of the project consists of a desktop computer talking to a single "cold box" unit containing the electronics to drive a motor. In order to test the electronics, I developed a graphical user interface (GUI) using MATLAB to allow a user to send simple commands to the cold box and display the responses received in a user-friendly format.

  4. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-05-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horspower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability.

  5. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  6. Electric motor analysis at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.; Morgan, V.A.; Nicholas, J.R. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Initiatives adopted by Dofasco to enhance electric motor reliability and availability include: Enhancement of the electrical repair shop testing and repair capabilities; More stringent standards for motor repair service vendors; Application of predictive technologies to motors in service within manufacturing units; Training of personnel in electrical predictive condition monitoring and analysis methods; and Periodic audit and comparison of central support and operating unit predictive technology application and integration. The basis for the initiative is discussed together with illustrative case histories.

  7. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    SciTech Connect

    Fezzler, Raymond

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  8. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  9. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  10. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  11. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    DOEpatents

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  12. Battery powererd electric motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlbacker, K.

    1984-02-28

    A battery powered vehicle is provided with a vehicle frame and an electric motor whose main shaft is connected to a differential gear by means of a gear train with a variable transmission ratio, the motor shaft and all gear shafts being parallel to the axle of the driving wheels. In order to achieve a compact design and to avoid power-consuming drive elements the electric motor and the variable transmission gear as well as a potential reducing gear mounted between the latter and the differential gear, are positioned on a subframe which is connected to the housing of the driving wheel axle on the one side whereas the other side carrying the electric motor is attached to the vehicle frame by means of a cardanic suspension.

  13. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  14. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B.; Schiferl, R.; Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air

  15. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    PubMed

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  16. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor.

  17. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tamor, M.A.

    1999-07-20

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor. 2 figs.

  18. 27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  19. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  20. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... FR 54114. After determining that energy conservation standards for small electric motors would be... adopting test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of small electric motors. 74 FR 32059. However... Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and...

  1. Analysing Simple Electric Motors in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Jeff; MacIsaac, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena and devices such as motors are typically unfamiliar to both teachers and students. To better visualize and illustrate the abstract concepts (such as magnetic fields) underlying electricity and magnetism, we suggest that students construct and analyse the operation of a simply constructed Johnson electric motor. In this…

  2. 26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. The U-bolt and concrete deadman which anchors the cable of the tramway is to the right. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  4. MotorMaster database of three-phase electric motors

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, B.L.

    1993-12-31

    Selecting the right motor for a new or replacement application used to be a daunting task. Making an intelligent choice involved a search through a stack of motor catalogs for information on efficiency, voltage, speed, horsepower, torque, service factor, power factor, frame type, and cost. The MotorMaster software package, available from the Washington State Energy Office, takes the drudgery out of motor selection by enabling rapid analysis of the most efficient and cost-effective single-speed three-phase induction motors. It has a built-in motor database, easy to use comparison and analysis features, and can calculate utility rebates and simple paybacks. By speeding the selection process and providing comprehensive economic justification for the final equipment choice, software tools like MotorMaster can become an important component of utility DSM programs. And as a bonus, wide use of such software may lead to more systematic and consistent use of energy efficient equipment.

  5. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  6. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Weber, Steven J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Rogers, James Jonathan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  7. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  8. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  9. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.; Sereshteh, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  10. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  11. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  12. Products of motor burnout. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley-Fedder, R.; Goerz, D.; Koester, C.; Wilson, M.

    1996-03-30

    The Montreal Protocol of 1987 effectively banned a long list of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) traditionally used in air conditioning and refrigeration applications. The refrigeration and air conditioning industries have responded by developing and testing new, alternative refrigerants that are less damaging to the atmosphere upon release. Despite a reputation for quality and reliability, air conditioning systems do occasionally fail. One of the more common failure modes in a hermetic system is a motor burnout. Motor burnouts can occur by various mechanisms. One of the most common scenarios is a locked motor rotor, which may result from a damaged bearing. The resulting electrical motor burnout is caused by overheating of the locked rotor and subsequent failure of the insulation. This is primarily a thermal breakdown process.

  13. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  14. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electric Motor Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    This Electric Motor Repair Course is designed to provide the student with practical information for winding, repairing, and troubleshooting alternating current and direct current motors, and controllers. The course is comprised of eight units: (1) Electric Motor Fundamentals, (2) Rewinding, (3) Split-phase Induction Motors, (4) Capacitor Motors,…

  15. Finite element based electric motor design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.

  16. Finite element based electric motor design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.

  17. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test... motor sold by a particular manufacturer or private labeler, which indicates that the electric motor...

  18. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test... motor sold by a particular manufacturer or private labeler, which indicates that the electric motor...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  4. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  5. Electric motors and actuators at cryogenic tempertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugeat, J. P.; Macaigne, J.; Valentian, D.

    A small electric motor and an actuating mechanism for use at temperatures around 4.2 K under ultra high vacuum was tested in order to assess the feasibility of such a driving mechanism working in the coldest part of a spacecraft cryostat. A variable reluctance stepping motor driving a simple screw nut mechanism was used. Dry lubrication was provided by polyimide slide bearings and nut and by composite retainer roller bearings. Motor and mechanism sustained extended tests at liquid helium temperature with continuous operation for 8 hr periods and faultless restart after 16 hr rest periods. Power consumption was reduced to 15 mV leading to low liquid helium comsumption. Post test analysis indicates no change in motor characteristics and no damage to bearings, screw and nut.

  6. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  7. Development of an electrically driven molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colin J; Sykes, E Charles H

    2014-10-01

    For molecules to be used as components in molecular machinery, methods are required that couple individual molecules to external energy sources in order to selectively excite motion in a given direction. While significant progress has been made in the construction of synthetic molecular motors powered by light and by chemical reactions, there are few experimental examples of electrically driven molecular motors. To this end, we pioneered the use of a new, stable and tunable molecular rotor system based on surface-bound thioethers to comprehensively study many aspects of molecular rotation. As biological molecular motors often operate at interfaces, our synthetic system is especially amenable to microscopic interrogation as compared to solution-based systems. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory, we studied the rotation of surface-bound thioethers, which can be induced either thermally or by electrons from the STM tip in a two-terminal setup. Moreover, the temperature and electron flux can be adjusted to allow each rotational event to be monitored at the molecular scale in real time. This work culminated in the first experimental demonstration of a single-molecule electric motor, where the electrically driven rotation of a butyl methyl sulfide molecule adsorbed on a copper surface could be directionally biased. The direction and rate of the rotation are related to the chirality of both the molecule and the STM tip (which serves as the electrode), illustrating the importance of the symmetry of the metal contacts in atomic-scale electrical devices.

  8. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... test procedures under 10 CFR part 431 both for electric motors and small electric motors. 73 FR 78220...-10. 77 FR 26608, 26638 (the ``2012 final test procedure.'') DOE made these updates to ensure... exemptions. See 77 FR 43015 (July 23, 2012). Today's NOPR addresses and solicits comment on test...

  9. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  10. The facilitation of motor actions by acoustic and electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Milford, Magdalene; Carroll, Timothy; Riek, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    The presentation of a loud acoustic stimulus during the preparation of motor actions can both speed movement initiation and increase response vigor. Several recent studies have explored this phenomenon as a means to investigate the mechanisms and neural correlates of movement preparation. Here, we sought to determine the generality of this effect across sensory modalities, and in particular whether unexpected somatosensory stimulation can facilitate movements in a manner similar to loud sounds. We show that electric and acoustic stimuli can be similarly effective in inducing the early release of motor actions, in both reaction time and anticipatory timing tasks. Consistent with recent response activation models of motor preparation, we also demonstrate that increasing the intensity of electric stimuli induces both progressive decreases in reaction time and increases in response vigor. Additionally, we show that the early release of motor actions can be induced by electric stimuli targeting predominantly either muscle afferents or skin afferents. Finally, we show that simultaneous acoustic and electric stimulation leads to earlier releases of anticipatory actions than either unimodal stimulus. These findings may lead to new avenues for experimental and clinical exploitation of the effects of accessory sensory information on movement preparation and initiation. PMID:26338375

  11. IEMDC--IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2004-01-01

    Considerable effort was put forth on the mechanical design of the compressor section of the IEMDC. These efforts focused on the main compressor case design and included an evaluation of the motor-compressor interface. The initial mechanical evaluation of the compressor motor interface indicates that the integration of an electric motor and compressor can be made successfully. All mechanical design efforts resulted in considerable progress being made towards the completion of the mechanical design of the compressor section and towards the design of the IEMDC unit. During the fourth quarter, one of the primary objectives was to select the magnetic bearing supplier and to begin finalizing the design of various motor components. Consequently, the design proposals from the three magnetic bearing suppliers were evaluated and Kingsbury magnetic Bearings (KMB) was selected for the design of the magnetic bearing system. A purchase order was issued to KMB and design kick-off meeting was held at EMD on December 11, 2003 with the KMB/S2M/DR teams, to discuss the project requirements. A joint DR/EMD/Robicon IEMDC Compressor-Motor-VFD Drive technical status update presentation was prepared, and was presented at the GMRC meeting on October 5, 2003 at Salt Lake City, UT. Considerable effort was expended in evaluating the fatigue life of the motor rotor via FEA modeling. The purpose of this analysis was two fold: (1) to establish the motor start-stop cycle life and (2) to evaluate the applicability of lower cost connection ring copper alloys. The FEA modal frequency analysis of relatively softer motor mount concepts instead of the hard mounts was continued. The intent of the design effort is to develop an optimum motor support. The results are not yet conclusive. Therefore further analysis is planned in the next quarter. The EMD design team worked with the KMB design team to develop design concepts for the magnetic bearing housings. Significant progress was made in interfacing the

  12. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  14. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  15. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow

  16. Advanced electric motor technology flux mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Dean, Garvin

    1993-01-01

    Design of electric motors which fulfill the needs of Thrust Vector Control (TVC) actuators used in large rocket propelled launch vehicles is covered. To accomplish this end the methodology of design is laid out in some detail. In addition a point design of a motor to fulfill the requirements of a certain actuator specified by MSFC is accomplished and reported upon. In the course of this design great stress has been placed on ridding the actuator of internally generated heat. To conduct the heat out of the motor use is made of the unique properties of the in house MSFC designed driving electronics. This property is that as along as they are operated in a quasi-linear mode the electronics nullify the effects of armature inductance as far as the phase of the armature current versus the rotor position is concerned. Actually the additional inductance due to the extended end turns in this design is of benefit because in the shorted armature failure mode the armature current in the fault (caused by the rotor flux sweeping past the armature) is diminished at a given rotor speed when compared to a more conventional motor with lower inductance. The magnetic circuit is analyzed using electromagnetic finite element methods.

  17. Making a Simple Self-Starting Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seok-In; Choi, Jung-In; Hong, Seok-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    A simple electric motor has a problem in that the current applied to the motor per se can rarely trigger its rotation. Usually such motors begin to rotate after the rotor is slightly turned by hand (i.e., manual starting). In a "self-starting" motor, the rotor starts to rotate spontaneously as soon as the current is applied. This paper describes…

  18. 40. 1911 ELECTRIC MOTOR INSTALLATION: Photocopy of July 1911 photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. 1911 ELECTRIC MOTOR INSTALLATION: Photocopy of July 1911 photograph showing the installed 600hp General Electric motor at the Washington and Mason Streets powerhouse. View towards the south wall of the first floor. Note the engineer's shack and switchboard behind the motor and its pinion gear. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. Implementing a dynamometer system on electric motors for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, David; Lee, Andrew; Wilkerson, Stephen A.; Al-Shabi, Mohammad; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Electric motors are becoming increasingly popular for the propulsion and control of unmanned systems. In order to optimize power generation and energy use for unmanned systems, it is important to understand the dynamics of electric motors and the corresponding powertrain. This paper provides an early, preliminary study on an electric motor used for unmanned aerial systems (UAS'). An electric motor dynamometer is used for collecting data on the motor, and trends are discussed. Future work will look at implementing mathematical models in an unmanned ground system built for experimentation.

  20. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

  1. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  2. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  3. Low cost, compact, and high efficiency traction motor for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, Mark

    2002-10-07

    A new motor drive, the switched reluctance motor drive, has been developed for hybrid-electric vehicles. The motor drive has been designed, built and tested in the test bed at a near vehicle scale. It has been shown that the switched reluctance motor drive is more suitable for traction application than any other motor drive.

  4. Method and system for early detection of incipient faults in electric motors

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G; Kim, Kyusung

    2003-07-08

    A method and system for early detection of incipient faults in an electric motor are disclosed. First, current and voltage values for one or more phases of the electric motor are measured during motor operations. A set of current predictions is then determined via a neural network-based current predictor based on the measured voltage values and an estimate of motor speed values of the electric motor. Next, a set of residuals is generated by combining the set of current predictions with the measured current values. A set of fault indicators is subsequently computed from the set of residuals and the measured current values. Finally, a determination is made as to whether or not there is an incipient electrical, mechanical, and/or electromechanical fault occurring based on the comparison result of the set of fault indicators and a set of predetermined baseline values.

  5. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    SciTech Connect

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  6. Advanced electric motor technology: Flux mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Brantley, Larry W.; Dean, Garvin

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the assumptions, mathematical models, design methodology, and design points involved with the design of an electromechanical actuator (EMA) suitable for directing the thrust vector of a large MSFC/NASA launch vehicle. Specifically the design of such an actuator for use on the upcoming liquid fueled National Launch System (NLS) is considered culminating in a point design of both the servo system and the electric motor needed. A major thrust of the work is in selecting spur gear and roller screw reduction ratios to achieve simultaneously wide bandwidth, maximum power transfer, and disturbance rejection while meeting specified horsepower requirements at a given stroking speed as well as a specified maximum stall force. An innovative feedback signal is utilized in meeting these diverse objectives.

  7. IEMDC - In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley

    2004-03-31

    This report covers the fifth quarter (01/01/04 to 03/31/04) of the In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC) project. Design efforts on the IEMDC continued with compressor efforts focused on performing aerodynamic analyses. These analyses were conducted using computational fluid dynamics. Compressor efforts also entailed developing mechanical designs of components through the use of solid models and working on project deliverables. Electric motor efforts focused on the design of the magnetic bearing system, motor pressure housing, and the motor-compressor interface. The mechanical evaluation of the main interface from both the perspective of the compressor manufacturer and electric motor manufacturer indicates that an acceptable design has been achieved. All mechanical and aerodynamic design efforts have resulted in considerable progress being made towards the completion of the compressor and electric motor design and towards the successful completion of the IEMDC unit.

  8. 10 CFR 429.41 - Electric motors. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electric motors. 429.41 Section 429.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.41 Electric motors....

  9. 10 CFR 429.41 - Electric motors. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electric motors. 429.41 Section 429.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.41 Electric motors....

  10. 10 CFR 429.41 - Electric motors. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electric motors. 429.41 Section 429.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.41 Electric motors....

  11. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  12. 10 CFR 431.404 - Imported electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Imported electric motors. 431.404 Section 431.404 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.404 Imported electric motors. (a) Under sections 331 and 345 of the...

  13. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exported electric motors. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported electric motors. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act,...

  14. 10 CFR 431.404 - Imported electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported electric motors. 431.404 Section 431.404 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.404 Imported electric motors. (a) Under sections 331 and 345 of the...

  15. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exported electric motors. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported electric motors. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act,...

  16. 10 CFR 431.406 - Subpoena-Electric Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subpoena-Electric Motors. 431.406 Section 431.406 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.406 Subpoena—Electric Motors. Pursuant to sections 329(a) and 345 of...

  17. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exported electric motors. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported electric motors. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act,...

  18. 10 CFR 431.404 - Imported electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Imported electric motors. 431.404 Section 431.404 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.404 Imported electric motors. (a) Under sections 331 and 345 of the...

  19. 10 CFR 431.406 - Subpoena-Electric Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subpoena-Electric Motors. 431.406 Section 431.406 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.406 Subpoena—Electric Motors. Pursuant to sections 329(a) and 345 of...

  20. 10 CFR 431.406 - Subpoena-Electric Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subpoena-Electric Motors. 431.406 Section 431.406 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.406 Subpoena—Electric Motors. Pursuant to sections 329(a) and 345 of...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must...

  4. 27. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. DC GENERATOR, AC MOTOR, OLD DC GENERATOR, OPENING FOR THE BELT TO THE CLUTCH ASSEMBLY FOR THE MILL POWER SYSTEM. THE BOARDS THAT ARE ASKEW WERE PROTECTION AROUND THE DRIVE BELT. THE SMALL MOTOR IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE MOTOR THAT MOST RECENTLY POWERED THE MILL'S BELT DRIVE SYSTEM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  5. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  6. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... motors would require a new test procedure. Interior Permanent Magnet Yes Yes The current standards only... relationship for general purpose motors cannot be directly applied to interior permanent magnet motors. Also... using in its evaluation. 75 FR 59657. DOE must publish a final rule determining whether to amend...

  7. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ..., 1999, DOE published a final rule to implement these requirements. 64 FR 54114. In 2007, section 313 of... changes. 74 FR 12058. On December 22, 2008, DOE proposed to update the test procedures under Title 10 of... electric motors. 73 FR 78220. After considering comments from interested parties, DOE finalized...

  8. 30. DETAIL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM SHOWING THE TELSA CONVERTER TRANSFORMER THAT WAS USED TO CONVERT ELECTRICAL CURRENT TO USEABLE VOLTS AND AMPERAGE FOR GENERAL ELECTRICAL USAGE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  9. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  10. A finite element code for electric motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  11. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  12. 28. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. CLOSE UP VIEW OF THE OLD DC GENERATOR, APPARATUS ON THE FLOOR ARE FOR THE OPERATION OF TH DC GENERATOR. AN AC MOTOR IS IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  13. 21. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, SWITCHING PANEL, ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, SWITCHING PANEL, ELECTRICAL POWER ENTRY. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. GENERAL ELECTRIC SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR, SLIP RING END. NOTE THAT OUTSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ELECTRIC SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR, SLIP RING END. NOTE THAT OUTSIDE FRAME IS ROTATING ARMATURE, AND STATOR IS IN CENTER. ARCH SUPPORTS BRAKE BAND. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. 28. View of operating machinery shoeing electric motor, clutch drive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View of operating machinery shoeing electric motor, clutch drive wheel and hand-painted alignment dial, (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  16. 7. DETAIL OF GATE LIFTING GEARS AND ELECTRIC DRIVE MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF GATE LIFTING GEARS AND ELECTRIC DRIVE MOTOR (LEFT BACKGROUND) FOR NEW YORK CANAL HEADWORKS. VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  17. 1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts and drive shafts. This power system drove the tumblers which cleaned chain in building #7. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  18. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.; DeVoto, D.; Moreno, G.; Rugh, J.; Waye, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  19. High-speed electrical motor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-03

    Under this task, MTI conducted a general review of state-of-the-art high-speed motors. The purpose of this review was to assess the operating parameters, limitations and performance of existing motor designs, and to establish commercial sources for a motor compatible with the requirements of the Brayton-cycle system. After the motor requirements were established, a list of motor types, manufacturers and designs capable of achieving the requisite performance was compiled. This list was based on an in-house evaluation of designs. Following the establishment of these options, a technical evaluation of the designs selected was conducted. In parallel with their evaluations, MTI focused on the establishment of commercial sources.

  20. 64. ELECTRIC MOTOR HAYES STREET POWERHOUSE 1905: Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. ELECTRIC MOTOR - HAYES STREET POWERHOUSE - 1905: Photocopy of April 1905 photograph showing an early electric motor installation used to drive the winding machinery at the Hayes Street powerhouse of the United Railroads of San Francsico. A portion of the steam engine originally used to power the machinery is visible behind the winding sheave in the left background of the photograph. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  2. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... function. II. Further Information DG-1264, was published in the Federal Register on May 02, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC or Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.106, ``Thermal Overload...

  3. Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

  4. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  5. Feasibility study of a superconducting motor for electrical helicopter propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, C. A. B. A. E.; Sanabria-Walter, C.; Polinder, H.

    2014-05-01

    During the past decades, superconducting electrical machines have become more suitable to replace conventional iron based designs, because of their lower weight and higher torque density. These properties make them good candidates for use in More Electric Aircraft (MEA). Especially helicopter propulsion systems could benefit from the increased performance. This paper describes the feasibility study of a superconducting motor to be used for helicopter propulsion as part of a More Electric Aircraft (MEA). For this, the armature, field windings and cryostat are designed, aiming at meeting the difficult specifications. Since superconductors have virtually no electrical resistance when cooled down below a certain critical temperature, they can be used to build high field and low weight coils for electrical machines. Especially the possibility to not use iron can make the superconducting motor lighter with a higher power density compared with conventional Permanent Magnet (PM) motors.

  6. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency nonintrusively

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.

    2011-08-30

    A system and method for nonintrusively determining electric motor efficiency includes a processor programed to, while the motor is in operation, determine a plurality of stator input currents, electrical input data, a rotor speed, a value of stator resistance, and an efficiency of the motor based on the determined rotor speed, the value of stator resistance, the plurality of stator input currents, and the electrical input data. The determination of the rotor speed is based on one of the input power and the plurality of stator input currents. The determination of the value of the stator resistance is based on at least one of a horsepower rating and a combination of the plurality of stator input currents and the electrical input data. The electrical input data includes at least one of an input power and a plurality of stator input voltages.

  7. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  8. Omnidirectional Sensory and Motor Volumes in Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, James B; Nelson, Mark E; Burdick, Joel W; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2007-01-01

    Active sensing organisms, such as bats, dolphins, and weakly electric fish, generate a 3-D space for active sensation by emitting self-generated energy into the environment. For a weakly electric fish, we demonstrate that the electrosensory space for prey detection has an unusual, omnidirectional shape. We compare this sensory volume with the animal's motor volume—the volume swept out by the body over selected time intervals and over the time it takes to come to a stop from typical hunting velocities. We find that the motor volume has a similar omnidirectional shape, which can be attributed to the fish's backward-swimming capabilities and body dynamics. We assessed the electrosensory space for prey detection by analyzing simulated changes in spiking activity of primary electrosensory afferents during empirically measured and synthetic prey capture trials. The animal's motor volume was reconstructed from video recordings of body motion during prey capture behavior. Our results suggest that in weakly electric fish, there is a close connection between the shape of the sensory and motor volumes. We consider three general spatial relationships between 3-D sensory and motor volumes in active and passive-sensing animals, and we examine hypotheses about these relationships in the context of the volumes we quantify for weakly electric fish. We propose that the ratio of the sensory volume to the motor volume provides insight into behavioral control strategies across all animals. PMID:18001151

  9. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  10. Introduction to the Control of Electric Motors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Frederick

    The fundamentals of electric circuits and electric machines are presented in the text, with an emphasis on the practical operation rather than on mathematical analyses of theories involved. The material contained in the text includes the fundamentals of both D.C. and A.C. circuits together with the principles of magnetism and electro-magnetic…

  11. Classification and evaluation of electric motors and pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Section 342(a) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, P.L. 94-163 (EPCA), requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate electric motors and pumps to determine: standard classifications with respect to size, function, type of energy used, method of manufacture, or other factors; and the practicability and effects of requiring all or part of such classes of electric motors and pumps to meet performance standards establishing minimum levels of energy efficiency. This study analyzes two specific conservation strategies for improving the energy efficiency of standardized electric motors and pumps, i.e., labeling rules; and energy efficiency standards. Based on this analysis DOE makes the following recommendations with respect to industrial motors: DOE should monitor industry implementation standardized test procedures. DOE should monitor industry implementation of a more informative labeling program which has been developed on a voluntary basis by industry; legislative authority to establish minimum efficiency standards should not be requested; DOE monitoring of the market penetration for high-efficiency motors should be undertaken; and DOE should continue to assist in development of information designed to accelerate investment in high-efficiency motors. With respect to industrial pumps: DOE should monitor industry implementation of test procedures; DOE should monitor industry implementation of an improved information program on pump efficiency; legislative authority to establish minimum efficiency standards should not be requested; and DOE should assist in development of information materials designed to accelerate investment in pumps that would reduce energy consumption.

  12. Electric Motors for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  13. Electric Motor Considerations for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  14. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, Evan S.; Gebby, Brian P.

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  15. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... methods, marking requirements, and energy efficiency levels for three-phase induction motors, March 2010... Performance of Single-Speed Three-Phase Cage Induction Motors, clauses 5.2, 5.4, 6, and 8, and Tables 1, 2, 3... Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators, approved February 9, 2004: (i) Section...

  16. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2015-10-27

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  17. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2011-06-07

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  18. Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, P.

    1980-01-01

    An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

  19. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  20. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  1. Nano-Magnets and Additive Manufacturing for Electric Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    High power density is required for application of electric motors in hybrid electric propulsion. Potential path to achieve high power density in electric motors include advanced materials, lightweight thermal management, lightweight structural concepts, high power density power electronics, and advanced manufacturing. This presentation will focus on two key technologies for achieving high power density, advanced magnets and additive manufacturing. The maximum energy product in current magnets is reaching their theoretical limits as a result of material and process improvements. Future improvements in the maximum energy product for magnets can be achieved through development of nanocomposite magnets combining the hard magnetic phase and soft magnetic phase at the nanoscale level. The presentation will provide an overview of the current state of development for nanocomposite magnets and the future path for doubling the maximum energy product. The other part of the presentation will focus on the role of additive manufacturing in fabrication of high power density electric motors. The presentation will highlight the potential opportunities for applying additive manufacturing to fabricate electric motors.

  2. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  3. Amorphous and Nanocomposite Materials for Energy-Efficient Electric Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveyra, Josefina M.; Xu, Patricia; Keylin, Vladimir; DeGeorge, Vincent; Leary, Alex; McHenry, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore amorphous soft-magnetic alloys as candidates for electric motor applications. The Co-rich system combines the benefits of low hysteretic and eddy-current losses while exhibiting negligible magnetostriction and robust mechanical properties. The amorphous precursors can be devitrified to form nanocomposite magnets. The superior characteristics of these materials offer the advantages of ease of handling in the manufacturing processing and low iron losses during motor operation. Co-rich amorphous ribbons were laser-cut to build a stator for a small demonstrator permanent-magnet machine. The motor was tested up to ~30,000 rpm. Finite-element analyses proved that the iron losses of the Co-rich amorphous stator were ~80% smaller than for a Si steel stator in the same motor, at 18,000 rpm (equivalent to an electric frequency of 2.1 kHz). These low-loss soft magnets have great potential for application in highly efficient high-speed electric machines, leading to size reduction as well as reduction or replacement of rare earths in permanent-magnet motors. More studies evaluating further processing techniques for amorphous and nanocomposite materials are needed.

  4. Distributed monitoring system for electric-motor-driven compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    Personnel in the Instrumentation and Controls Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in association with the United States Enrichment corporation (USEC), the Navy, and various Department of Energy sponsors, have been involved in the development and application of motor-current signature analysis (CSA) for several years. In that time CSA has proven to not only be useful for manually applied periodic monitoring of electrically driven equipment but it has also been demonstrated to be well suited for dedicated monitoring systems in industrial settings. Recent work has resulted in the development and installation of a system that can monitor up to 640 motor and compressor stages for various aerodynamic conditions in the gas compressors and electrical problems in the drive motors. This report describes a demonstration of that technology installed on 80 stages at each of the two USEC uranium enrichment plants.

  5. 31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF OTIS PASSENGER ELEVATOR ADDED IN 1921, BASEMENT. The original equipment, shown here, operated on direct current from the Massachusetts Avenue trolley line, abandoned in 1961. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Center background shows two fortyhorsepower directcurrent electric motors installed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center background shows two forty-horsepower direct-current electric motors installed in 1904 to provide power to two drive shafts for first floor machine shops. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  7. 10 CFR 431.407 - Confidentiality-Electric Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND... of 10 CFR 1004.11, any manufacturer or private labeler of electric motors submitting information or... accordance with the procedures established at 10 CFR 1004.11, the Department shall make its own...

  8. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 431.383 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN... that the electric motor may not be in compliance with the applicable energy efficiency standard, or... efficiency standard, shall be based on the testing conducted in accordance with the statistical...

  9. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 431.383 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN... that the electric motor may not be in compliance with the applicable energy efficiency standard, or... efficiency standard, shall be based on the testing conducted in accordance with the statistical...

  10. 10 CFR 431.407 - Confidentiality-Electric Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND... of 10 CFR 1004.11, any manufacturer or private labeler of electric motors submitting information or... accordance with the procedures established at 10 CFR 1004.11, the Department shall make its own...

  11. 10 CFR 431.407 - Confidentiality-Electric Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND... of 10 CFR 1004.11, any manufacturer or private labeler of electric motors submitting information or... accordance with the procedures established at 10 CFR 1004.11, the Department shall make its own...

  12. High-Temperature Switched-Reluctance Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald; Brown, Gerald; Morrison, Carlos; Provenza, Andy; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An eight-pole radial magnetic bearing has been modified into a switched-reluctance electric motor capable of operating at a speed as high as 8,000 rpm at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor (see figure) is an experimental prototype of starter-motor/generator units that have been proposed to be incorporated into advanced gas turbine engines and that could operate without need for lubrication or active cooling. The unique features of this motor are its electromagnet coils and, to some extent, its control software. Heretofore, there has been no commercial-off-the-shelf wire capable of satisfying all of the requirements for fabrication of electromagnet coils capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,000 F (=540 C). The issues addressed in the development of these electromagnet coils included thermal expansion, oxidation, pliability to small bend radii, micro-fretting, dielectric breakdown, tensile strength, potting compound, thermal conduction, and packing factor. For a test, the motor was supported, along with a rotor of 18 lb (.8-kg) mass, 3-in. (.7.6-cm) diameter, 21-in. (.53-cm) length, on bearings packed with high-temperature grease. The motor was located at the mid span of the rotor and wrapped with heaters. The motor stator was instrumented with thermocouples. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the motor had undergone 14 thermal cycles between room temperature and 1,000 F (.540 C) and had accumulated operating time >27.5 hours at 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor-controller hardware includes a personal computer equipped with analog-to-digital input and digital-to-analog output cards. The controller software is a C-language code that implements a switched-reluctance motor-control principle: that is, it causes the coils to be energized in a sequence timed to generate a rotating magnetic flux that creates a torque on a scalloped rotor. The controller can operate in an open- or closed-loop mode. In addition, the software has

  13. Closing of venus flytrap by electrical stimulation of motor cells.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Adesina, Tejumade; Jovanov, Emil

    2007-05-01

    Electrical signaling and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since XIX century, but the exact mechanism of Venus flytrap closure is still unknown. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap leaf by activating motor cells without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation of motor cells is 0.3 s, the same as mechanically induced closing. The mean electrical charge required for the closure of the Venus flytrap leaf is 13.6 microC. Ion channel blockers such as Ba(2+), TEACl as well as uncouplers such as FCCP, 2,4-dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol dramatically decrease the speed of the trap closing. Using an ultra-fast data acquisition system with measurements in real time, we found that the action potential in the Venus flytrap has a duration time of about 1.5 ms. Our results demonstrate that electrical stimulation can be used to study mechanisms of fast activity in motor cells of the plant kingdom.

  14. A dual-channel flux-switching permanent magnet motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Wu, Zhongze; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Baoan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    The flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motor is a relatively novel brushless machine having both magnets and concentrated windings in the stator, which exhibits inherently sinusoidal PM flux-linkage, back-EMF waveforms, and high torque capability. However, in the application of hybrid electric vehicles, it is essential to prevent magnets and armature windings moving in radial direction due to the possible vibration during operation, and to ensure fault-tolerant capability. Hence, in this paper based on an original FSPM motor, a dual-channel FSPM (DC-FSPM) motor with modified structure to fix both armature windings and magnets and improved reliability is proposed for a practical 10 kW integral starter/generator (ISG) in hybrid electric vehicles. The influences of different solutions and the end-effect on the static characteristics, are evaluated based on the 2D and 3D finite element analysis, respectively. Finally, both the predicted and experimental results, compared with a prototype DC-FSPM motor and an interior PM motor used in Honda Civic, confirm that the more sinusoidal back-EMF waveform and lower torque ripple can be achieved in the DC-FSPM motor, whereas the torque is smaller under the same coil current.

  15. Experimental demonstration of a single-molecule electric motor.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Heather L; Murphy, Colin J; Jewell, April D; Baber, Ashleigh E; Iski, Erin V; Khodaverdian, Harout Y; McGuire, Allister F; Klebanov, Nikolai; Sykes, E Charles H

    2011-10-01

    For molecules to be used as components in molecular machines, methods that couple individual molecules to external energy sources and that selectively excite motion in a given direction are required. Significant progress has been made in the construction of molecular motors powered by light and by chemical reactions, but electrically driven motors have not yet been built, despite several theoretical proposals for such motors. Here we report that a butyl methyl sulphide molecule adsorbed on a copper surface can be operated as a single-molecule electric motor. Electrons from a scanning tunnelling microscope are used to drive the directional motion of the molecule in a two-terminal setup. Moreover, the temperature and electron flux can be adjusted to allow each rotational event to be monitored at the molecular scale in real time. The direction and rate of the rotation are related to the chiralities of both the molecule and the tip of the microscope (which serves as the electrode), illustrating the importance of the symmetry of the metal contacts in atomic-scale electrical devices. PMID:21892165

  16. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  17. IEMDC -IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2004-01-01

    Dresser-Rand completed the preliminary aerodynamic flowpath of the volute and inlet design for the compressor section. This has resulted in considerable progress being made on the development of the compressor section and ultimately towards the successful integration of the IEMDC System design. Significant effort was put forth in the design of aerodynamic components which resulted in a design that meets the limits of aerodynamically induced radial forces previously established. Substantial effort has begun on the mechanical design of the compressor pressure containing case and other internal components. These efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. All efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design. During the third quarter reporting period, the focus was to further refine the motor design and to ensure that the IEMDC rotor system supported on magnetic bearing is in compliance with the critical speed and vibration requirements of the API standards 617 and 541. Consequently specification to design magnetic bearings was developed and an RFQ to three magnetic bearing suppliers was issued. Considerable work was also performed to complete preliminary reports on some of the deliverable tasks under phase 1.0. These include specification for the VFD, RFQ for the magnetic bearings, and preliminary write-up for motor instrumentation and control schematic. In order to estimate motor efficiency at various operating points, plots of calculated motor losses, and motor cooling gas flow rates were also prepared. Preliminary evaluations of motor support concepts were performed via FEA to determine modal frequencies. Presentation was made at DOE Morgantown on August 12, 2003 to provide project status update. Preparations for the IEMDC motor-compressor presentation, at the GMRC conference in Salt Lake City to be held on October 5, 2003, were also

  18. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates....

  20. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  2. Electrical Experiments. VT-214-12-1. Part I. Electric Motor Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed for high school electronics students, this first document in a series of six electrical learning activity packages focuses on electric motor control. An introductory section gives the objective for the activities, an introduction, and an outline of the content. The remainder of the activity book is comprised of information sheets and job…

  3. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  4. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-08-14

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.

  5. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the tradeoffs between the electric motor and the transmission in electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levi, E.

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency, weight, and cost of various propulsion system for 4-passenger electric vehicles are compared. These systems comprise the electric motor and the required speed reducing transmission to obtain the appropriate speed at the wheel. Three types of motors, dc synchronous, and squirrel-cage were considered at 6000 ycm and 24 000 rpm for a peak power of 40 kW. Two types of gearing selected were a single speed differential and a differential with a differential with a 4-speed gearbox. Only components that were readily realizable within present state-of-the-art were considered.

  7. Fuzzy logic controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Report for October 1996-April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses a precision laboratory test facility that has been assempbled to test the performance of two fuzzy-logic based controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Commercial induction motors up to 10 hp (7.46 kWe) in motors and equipped with adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) were used to test the motor optimizers.

  8. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.; Casada, D.A.

    1996-11-26

    A new instrument is described for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician. 4 figs.

  9. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A new instrument for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician.

  10. 46 CFR 108.187 - Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... spaces. 108.187 Section 108.187 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A... Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces. Ventilation for brush type electric motors in... the motors may cause unsafe conditions. Accommodation Spaces...

  11. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... electric motor energy conservation standards. 74 FR 61410. Shortly after, DOE also published on its Web... recently adopted for small electric motors, 74 FR 32059 (July 7, 2009), appear at Title 10, Code of Federal...-run (CSCR) motors. 71 FR 38799, 38800-01 (July 10, 2006). In June 2006, DOE issued a report in...

  12. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  13. [Percutaneous electric and magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in man. Physiological aspects and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Maertens de Noordhout, A; Rothwell, J C; Day, B L; Thompson, P D; Delwaide, P J; Marsden, C D

    1989-01-01

    well correlated with clinical weakness, but the correlations seems to be better with hyperreflexia and the presence of brisk finger flexor jerks. The same abnormalities are observed in cervical spondylosis, although to a lesser extent. In motor neurone disease, the responses have a moderately increased latency and their size and duration are markedly reduced. Patients with acute hemispheric stroke usually show absent responses on the contralateral side. Finally, electric cortical stimulation can be very useful in monitoring the functional integrity of descending motor tracts during surgical operations performed on the spinal cord. PMID:2646678

  14. Cortical electrical stimulation in humans. The negative motor areas.

    PubMed

    Lüders, H O; Dinner, D S; Morris, H H; Wyllie, E; Comair, Y G

    1995-01-01

    Summarizing, we have presented evidence in humans for two "negative motor areas" which we had speculated play a significant role in the planning of voluntary motor movements. A review of the more recent experimental literature shows that histological, physiological, and electrical stimulation studies in animals reveal the existence of two frontal regions that from the experimental data also seem to play an essential role in the preparation (as opposed to execution) of voluntary movements. Current available evidence suggests that these two areas (areas F5 and F6 of Rizzolatti et al.) correspond to the negative motor areas we have described in human studies. Also of interest is that Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere overlaps the corresponding negative motor area. This observation suggests that Broca's area has evolved from area F5 of monkeys specializing in the planning of fine movements necessary for speech production. We feel that current evidence suggests the existence of three mechanisms by which cortical stimulation (by electrical stimulation or by epileptic activation) can generate negative motor phenomena: 1. The "silent period," which is consistently contralateral, has a somatotopic distribution, and tends to affect predominantly muscles involved in fine movements. It is of relatively short duration and seems to be generated by the activation of cortical areas in the primary sensorimotor region. The H-reflex is not inhibited during the silent period, suggesting that the silent period is generated by a decrease in the excitatory input through direct corticospinal neurons on the spinal alpha motoneurons. It is possible that in normal individuals this system is used for fine tuning of fine distal movements. The negative myoclonus seen in some patients with focal cortical epilepsy is probably generated by this mechanism. The primary and supplementary "negative motor areas" described in this chapter. This effect also has a somatotopic distribution but can

  15. LOOKING DOWN ON GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR. LARGE HANDWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING DOWN ON GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR. LARGE HANDWHEEL IN FOREGROUND USED TO TIGHTEN BRAKE BAND AROUND ARMATURE TO STOP BALL MILL AND MOTOR ROTATION. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled airc raft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft#s propulsive fan s. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 ?F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy to use on an aircraft. We need to develop high-power, lig htweight electric motors (high-powerdensity motors).

  17. Condition monitoring of gearboxes using synchronously averaged electric motor signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottewill, J. R.; Orkisz, M.

    2013-07-01

    Due to their prevalence in rotating machinery, the condition monitoring of gearboxes is extremely important in the minimization of potentially dangerous and expensive failures. Traditionally, gearbox condition monitoring has been conducted using measurements obtained from casing-mounted vibration transducers such as accelerometers. A well-established technique for analyzing such signals is the synchronous signal average, where vibration signals are synchronized to a measured angular position and then averaged from rotation to rotation. Driven, in part, by improvements in control methodologies based upon methods of estimating rotor speed and torque, induction machines are used increasingly in industry to drive rotating machinery. As a result, attempts have been made to diagnose defects using measured terminal currents and voltages. In this paper, the application of the synchronous signal averaging methodology to electric drive signals, by synchronizing stator current signals with a shaft position estimated from current and voltage measurements is proposed. Initially, a test-rig is introduced based on an induction motor driving a two-stage reduction gearbox which is loaded by a DC motor. It is shown that a defect seeded into the gearbox may be located using signals acquired from casing-mounted accelerometers and shaft mounted encoders. Using simple models of an induction motor and a gearbox, it is shown that it should be possible to observe gearbox defects in the measured stator current signal. A robust method of extracting the average speed of a machine from the current frequency spectrum, based on the location of sidebands of the power supply frequency due to rotor eccentricity, is presented. The synchronous signal averaging method is applied to the resulting estimations of rotor position and torsional vibration. Experimental results show that the method is extremely adept at locating gear tooth defects. Further results, considering different loads and different

  18. Helios Prototype on lakebed during ground check of electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at Dryden in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. Helios is one of several remotely-piloted aircraft-also known as uninhabited aerial vehicles or UAV's-being developed as technology demonstrators by several small airframe manufacturers under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, Calif., the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days, both on electrical power derived from non-polluting solar energy. During later flights, AeroVironment's flight test team will evaluate new motor-control software which may allow the pitch of the aircraft-the nose-up or nose-down attitude in relation to the horizon-to be controlled entirely by the motors. If successful, productions versions of the Helios could eliminate the elevators on the wing's trailing edge now used for pitch control, saving weight and increasing the area of the wing available for installation of solar cells.

  19. IEMDC-IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2003-06-01

    During this reporting period, significant progress has been made towards the development of the IEMDC System design. Considerable effort was put forth by Curtiss-Wright EMD in the resolution of the technical issue of aerodynamically induced radial forces. This has provided a design basis with which to establish the radial magnetic bearing load capacity and the rotordynamic design. Dresser-Rand has made considerable progress on the flowpath design for the compressor section particularly on the volute and inlet aerodynamic design. All efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. These efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design.

  20. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    DOEpatents

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  1. Method and system for operating an electric motor

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Hiti, Silva; Perisic, Milun

    2013-01-22

    Methods and systems for operating an electric motor having a plurality of windings with an inverter having a plurality of switches coupled to a voltage source are provided. A first plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The first plurality of switching vectors includes a first ratio of first magnitude switching vectors to second magnitude switching vectors. A direct current (DC) current associated with the voltage source is monitored during the applying of the first plurality of switching vectors to the plurality of switches. A second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors is selected based on the monitoring of the DC current associated with the voltage source. A second plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The second plurality of switching vectors includes the second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors.

  2. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  3. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors..., promulgating energy conservation standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy and... correct the energy efficiency levels that DOE promulgated for NEMA Design B general purpose...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The first... performance of the n1 units in the first sample as follows: ER83AD04.005 where Xi is the measured...

  5. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  6. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  7. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  8. Comparison of the cutting efficiencies of electric motor and air turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, S L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a larger comprehensive performance evaluation to determine whether electric motor handpieces are a suitable substitute for air turbine handpieces in a portable field dental treatment and operating system, the cutting efficiencies of electric motor and air turbine handpieces were compared. A device was made that applies an identical cutting force to a glass ceramic material for each handpiece tested. The laboratory results show that with equal amounts of applied force, the electric motor handpiece cuts a glass ceramic material significantly more efficiently (volume of material removed per second) than does the air turbine. In clinical trials, after minimal experience utilizing the electric motor, the majority of dentists felt that the electric motor cut tooth and amalgam more efficiently than did the air turbine. PMID:12004701

  9. Consumer preferences for electric vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W.L.; Calfee, J.E.; Bruck, H.W.

    1986-06-01

    A small-sample survey of consumer preferences for a second car - featuring both conventional and electric vehicle choices - indicates a proelectric bias. The potential of electric cars in the utility market largely depends on dramatic improvements in battery technology and the right mix of electricity and gasoline prices.

  10. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  11. Development of a dynamometer for an integrated-starter-generator (ISG) motor used in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-zhou; Zhang, Cheng-ning; Song, Qiang; Zhang, Chun-xiang

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) which combined the electric motor with auxiliary power unit in a car driven is introduced. Characteristic of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle are different from the other vehicle, in the structure of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle, Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) electrical system can achieve high efficient performance of driving and generating electricity simultaneously. These systems adopt the sum torque through engine and generator, the motor connected transmission through engine. According to the requirements of different conditions, the torque of motor and transmission are compound in various forms to achieve optimal driving efficiency.This study developed a dynamometer to measure the relationship between locked torques with temperature rises of an Integrated Starter Generator motor used in electrical vehicles. The dynamometer adopted an AC motor to obtain the relationship between drive and load functions, which developed in this study can perform real-time measurements and storage of measured data obtained from the dynamometer. Experiments for measuring temperature rise of ISG motor were performed at three different conditions, namely 56 Nm locked rotor torques and 18.8A locked rotor current; 57.1Nm constant torque at 1050rpm; constant power with 14.3Nm and 4050rpm, respectively. Based on the theory of temperature rise, the temperature rises of motor are 14K, 33.1K, and 16.01K for the tested cases respectively. Measured results show that the performance of motor system is satisfied with the design.

  12. Electric Motors Everywhere: Most Forms of Energy Go through Some Conversion Process to Do Useful Work for Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses electric motors and the many ways in which they are used. Selecting the most appropriate miniature DC electric motor wisely will contribute toward success and satisfaction in designing and building motorized projects and activities. Typical parts suppliers stock a variety of miniature DC motors and provide sufficient…

  13. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin

    2015-06-09

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, work is being performed to measure motor material thermal properties and thermal contact resistances. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets is also being measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings.

  14. Implementation of a Non-Metallic Barrier in an Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    M?Sadoques, George; Carra, Michael; Beringer, Woody

    2012-01-01

    Electric motors that run in pure oxygen must be sealed, or "canned," for safety reasons to prevent the oxygen from entering into the electrical portion of the motor. The current canning process involves designing a metallic barrier around the rotor to provide the separation. This metallic barrier reduces the motor efficiency as speed is increased. In higher-speed electric motors, efficiency is greatly improved if a very thin, nonmetallic barrier can be utilized. The barrier thickness needs to be approximately 0.025-in. (.0.6-mm) thick and can be made of a brittle material such as glass. The motors, however, designed for space applications are typically subject to high-vibration environments. A fragile, non-metallic barrier can be utilized in a motor assembly if held in place by a set of standard rubber O-ring seals. The O-rings provide the necessary sealing to keep oxygen away from the electrical portion of the motor and also isolate the fragile barrier from the harsh motor vibration environment. The compliance of the rubber O-rings gently constrains the fragile barrier and isolates it from the harsh external motor environment. The use of a non-metallic barrier greatly improves motor performance, especially at higher speeds, while isolating the electronics from the working fluid with an inert liner.

  15. System and method for motor speed estimation of an electric motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Yan, Ting; Luebke, Charles John; Sharma, Santosh Kumar

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for a motor management system includes a computer readable storage medium and a processing unit. The processing unit configured to determine a voltage value of a voltage input to an alternating current (AC) motor, determine a frequency value of at least one of a voltage input and a current input to the AC motor, determine a load value from the AC motor, and access a set of motor nameplate data, where the set of motor nameplate data includes a rated power, a rated speed, a rated frequency, and a rated voltage of the AC motor. The processing unit is also configured to estimate a motor speed based on the voltage value, the frequency value, the load value, and the set of nameplate data and also store the motor speed on the computer readable storage medium.

  16. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  17. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  18. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  19. The electrical and motor actions of gastrointestinal hormones on the duodenum in man

    PubMed Central

    Waterfall, W. E.; Duthie, H. L.; Brown, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The electrical and motor activity was recorded from the duodenum in 16 conscious human subjects in resting conditions. The main electrical wave form variously known as the pace-setter potential or slow wave was constantly present and periodically accompanied by a second electrical trace consisting of rapid bursts of fast waves or action potentials which were related to motor waves. Secretin and the synthetic analogue of gastrin, pentagastrin, were given in separate tests and their complementary actions on myoelectrical activity are reported. In general, secretin (in six subjects) depressed and pentagastrin (in eight subjects) enhanced motor activity and bursts of action potentials. PMID:4752032

  20. Performance Evaluation of the New High-Efficiency Motor for an Electrical Bicycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kousaka, Takuji; Hasimoto, Naohide; Abe, Minoru

    Over the past years, a great deal of studies have been devoted to electrical bicycle, electrical vehicle, and so on. In previous work, we studied a new d-c compound motor which is suitable for the electronic bicycle on the level ground. In contrast to this, this paper considers the performance evaluation of the new high-efficiency motor for an electrical bicycle in detail. We try to show the experimental results of several driving condition. This directly leads us to the conclusion that a new d-c compound motor is higher efficiency than conventional one.

  1. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft s propulsive fans. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy for aircraft propulsion. We need to develop high-power, lightweight electric motors (highpower- density motors). One approach is to increase the conductivity of the wires by cooling them with liquid hydrogen (LH2). This would allow superconducting rotors with an ironless core. In addition, the motor could use very pure aluminum or copper, substances that have low resistances at cryogenic temperatures. A preliminary design of a 450-hp LH2-cooled electric motor was completed and is being manufactured by a contractor. This motor will be tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center and will be used to test different superconducting materials such as magnesium diboride (MgB2). The motor will be able to operate at speeds of up to 6000 rpm.

  2. Remarks on the New High-Efficiency Motor for an Electrical Bicycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kousaka, Takuji; Hasimoto, Naohide; Abe, Minoru

    There have been numerous theoretical and experimental investigations of the electrical bicycle, electrical vehicle, and so on. In this paper, we consider the new d-c compound motor for the electrical bicycle. This improvement maybe take positive advantage of compound moter in the electrical bicycle. As an illustrative example, we show the experimental results on the level ground. The experiments show that the proposed method is more higher efficiency for the electrical bicycle than conventional method.

  3. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Charles E.

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  4. Maximum-efficiency dc-motor project for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, S.; Wellborn, J.

    1982-12-01

    Innovations to the operation of the typical direct current motor were made and included: an electronic circuit to generate a low level voltage circulation, an interface circuit capable of an 800% voltage amplification and aa 3000% current amplification, and a specially modified motor containing three additional brushes. The efficiency of the motor is maximized by an electronic circuit that artifically rotates the magnetic field around the armature at low RPM so that the motor is running at near peak efficiency virtually all the time.

  5. Demand for electric automobiles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of this report is to specify and estimate models suitable for predicting the demand for electric automobiles, taking into account their key limitations relative to conventional alternatives: limited range, lengthy refueling, lower performance, higher initial price, and greater relative cost for providing additional load-carrying capacity or amenities such as air conditioning. Possible advantages of electric vehicles relative to conventional vehicles, notably lower operating costs, are also considered. Interest centers on the possibility of a mass market for electric vehicles, not identification of specialized markets. Only the private market for electric cars is considered, not commercial or industrial users, and it is assumed multi-car households are the most likely purchasers. Logit models of multi-vehicle households' choices of their smallest cars are estimated on two bodies of data: a panel study conducted by Arthur D. Little (ADL) in the spring of 1978, specifically to test consumers' reactions to hypothetical configurations for electric vehicles; and a sample of multi-vehicle households gathered in Baltimore in the spring of 1977. The ADL panel data allows estimation of consumers' valuations of novel characteristics of electric vehicles, notably limited range coupled with lengthy refueling time. The actual market data from Baltimore serves largely as a check on the validity of estimates obtained from the ADL panel. A generalization of the usual multinomial logit model, called the ordered logit model, is derived in this study from basic economic and statistical principles, and is applied to the ranked choices of the ADL panel; the ordered logit model is compared to the conjoint model employed earlier by ALD.

  6. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  7. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. MOTOR BADGE PLATE READS 263 AMP, 400 VOLT, FRAME 6274-D #4940649, 250 HORSEPOWER, TYPE TSR, 3 PHASE, 60 CYCLE, SPEED 300 RPM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. 10 CFR 431.381 - Purpose and scope for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose and scope for electric motors. 431.381 Section 431.381 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... motors. This subpart describes violations of EPCA's energy conservation requirements, specific...

  9. 10 CFR 431.381 - Purpose and scope for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose and scope for electric motors. 431.381 Section 431.381 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... motors. This subpart describes violations of EPCA's energy conservation requirements, specific...

  10. 10 CFR 431.381 - Purpose and scope for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose and scope for electric motors. 431.381 Section 431.381 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... motors. This subpart describes violations of EPCA's energy conservation requirements, specific...

  11. Statistical modeling of electrical components: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    A method of forecasting production yields based on SPICE (University of California at Berkeley) circuit simulation and Monte Carlo techniques was evaluated. This method involved calculating functionally accurate component models using statistical techniques and using these component models in a SPICE electrical circuit simulation program. The results of the simulation program allow production yields to be calculated using standard statistical techniques.

  12. The right {mu}P simplifies using induction motors to propel electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.; Berringer, K.

    1994-03-31

    In electric vehicles (EVs), AC induction motors can provide variable speed at low cost. The most common method for controlling induction motors uses a 3-phase AC voltage-source inverter with sine-wave PWM (pulse width modulation). Because the motor`s speed and acceleration depend on amplitude as well as frequency, the inverter must produce sine waves of variable voltage and frequency. The authors describe how a single microcontroller can provide such control functions while generating PWM waveforms in which the modulation is sinusoidal.

  13. Rebuilding motor function of the spinal cord based on functional electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-yan; Du, Wei; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Rebuilding the damaged motor function caused by spinal cord injury is one of the most serious challenges in clinical neuroscience. The function of the neural pathway under the damaged sites can be rebuilt using functional electrical stimulation technology. In this study, the locations of motor function sites in the lumbosacral spinal cord were determined with functional electrical stimulation technology. A three-dimensional map of the lumbosacral spinal cord comprising the relationship between the motor function sites and the corresponding muscle was drawn. Based on the individual experimental parameters and normalized coordinates of the motor function sites, the motor function sites that control a certain muscle were calculated. Phasing pulse sequences were delivered to the determined motor function sites in the spinal cord and hip extension, hip flexion, ankle plantarflexion, and ankle dorsiflexion movements were successfully achieved. The results show that the map of the spinal cord motor function sites was valid. This map can provide guidance for the selection of electrical stimulation sites during the rebuilding of motor function after spinal cord injury.

  14. Rebuilding motor function of the spinal cord based on functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Yan; Du, Wei; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rebuilding the damaged motor function caused by spinal cord injury is one of the most serious challenges in clinical neuroscience. The function of the neural pathway under the damaged sites can be rebuilt using functional electrical stimulation technology. In this study, the locations of motor function sites in the lumbosacral spinal cord were determined with functional electrical stimulation technology. A three-dimensional map of the lumbosacral spinal cord comprising the relationship between the motor function sites and the corresponding muscle was drawn. Based on the individual experimental parameters and normalized coordinates of the motor function sites, the motor function sites that control a certain muscle were calculated. Phasing pulse sequences were delivered to the determined motor function sites in the spinal cord and hip extension, hip flexion, ankle plantarflexion, and ankle dorsiflexion movements were successfully achieved. The results show that the map of the spinal cord motor function sites was valid. This map can provide guidance for the selection of electrical stimulation sites during the rebuilding of motor function after spinal cord injury. PMID:27651782

  15. Rebuilding motor function of the spinal cord based on functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Yan; Du, Wei; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rebuilding the damaged motor function caused by spinal cord injury is one of the most serious challenges in clinical neuroscience. The function of the neural pathway under the damaged sites can be rebuilt using functional electrical stimulation technology. In this study, the locations of motor function sites in the lumbosacral spinal cord were determined with functional electrical stimulation technology. A three-dimensional map of the lumbosacral spinal cord comprising the relationship between the motor function sites and the corresponding muscle was drawn. Based on the individual experimental parameters and normalized coordinates of the motor function sites, the motor function sites that control a certain muscle were calculated. Phasing pulse sequences were delivered to the determined motor function sites in the spinal cord and hip extension, hip flexion, ankle plantarflexion, and ankle dorsiflexion movements were successfully achieved. The results show that the map of the spinal cord motor function sites was valid. This map can provide guidance for the selection of electrical stimulation sites during the rebuilding of motor function after spinal cord injury.

  16. Rebuilding motor function of the spinal cord based on functional electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-yan; Du, Wei; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Rebuilding the damaged motor function caused by spinal cord injury is one of the most serious challenges in clinical neuroscience. The function of the neural pathway under the damaged sites can be rebuilt using functional electrical stimulation technology. In this study, the locations of motor function sites in the lumbosacral spinal cord were determined with functional electrical stimulation technology. A three-dimensional map of the lumbosacral spinal cord comprising the relationship between the motor function sites and the corresponding muscle was drawn. Based on the individual experimental parameters and normalized coordinates of the motor function sites, the motor function sites that control a certain muscle were calculated. Phasing pulse sequences were delivered to the determined motor function sites in the spinal cord and hip extension, hip flexion, ankle plantarflexion, and ankle dorsiflexion movements were successfully achieved. The results show that the map of the spinal cord motor function sites was valid. This map can provide guidance for the selection of electrical stimulation sites during the rebuilding of motor function after spinal cord injury. PMID:27651782

  17. An electric motor with magnetic bearings: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Because same magnetic flux is used to control rotor as to drive it, size, weight, and power required are minimized. Constant total current keeps motor torque invarient, and absence of mechanical bearings eliminates wear and reduces frictional power loss.

  18. Aging of electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    R; Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    Motor degradation due to aging and service wear decreases reliability and increases the potential for failure during nuclear plant accident and post accident conditions. The impact of motor failures on plant safety is an important concern among the nuclear utilities and the government agency regulating this industry. Economic impacts, relating to plant availability and safety, as well as corrective maintenance, have prompted utilities to improve their maintenance programs to mitigate such aging effects. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  19. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  20. Electric Field Model of Transcranial Electric Stimulation in Nonhuman Primates: Correspondence to Individual Motor Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Laine, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a pipeline for realistic head models of nonhuman primates (NHPs) for simulations of noninvasive brain stimulation, and use these models together with empirical threshold measurements to demonstrate that the models capture individual anatomical variability. Methods Based on structural MRI data, we created models of the electric field (E-field) induced by right unilateral (RUL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in four rhesus macaques. Individual motor threshold (MT) was measured with transcranial electric stimulation (TES) administered through the RUL electrodes in the same subjects. Results The interindividual anatomical differences resulted in 57% variation in median E-field strength in the brain at fixed stimulus current amplitude. Individualization of the stimulus current by MT reduced the E-field variation in the target motor area by 27%. There was significant correlation between the measured MT and the ratio of simulated electrode current and E-field strength (r2 = 0.95, p = 0.026). Exploratory analysis revealed significant correlations of this ratio with anatomical parameters including of the superior electrode-to-cortex distance, vertex-to-cortex distance, and brain volume (r2 > 0.96, p < 0.02). The neural activation threshold was estimated to be 0.45 ± 0.07 V/cm for 0.2 ms stimulus pulse width. Conclusion These results suggest that our individual-specific NHP E-field models appropriately capture individual anatomical variability relevant to the dosing of TES/ECT. These findings are exploratory due to the small number of subjects. Significance This work can contribute insight in NHP studies of ECT and other brain stimulation interventions, help link the results to clinical studies, and ultimately lead to more rational brain stimulation dosing paradigms. PMID:25910001

  1. String and Sticky Tape Experiments: Simple Self-Lubricated Electric Motor for Elementary Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entrikin, Jerry; Griffiths, David

    1983-01-01

    The main problem in constructing functioning electric motors from simple parts is the mounting of the axle (which is too flimsy to maintain good electrical contacts or too tight, imposing excessive friction at the supports). This problem is solved by using a pencil sharpened at both ends as the axle. (JN)

  2. 10 CFR 431.445 - Determination of small electric motor efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Test Procedures § 431.445 Determination of small... the mechanical and electrical characteristics of that basic model, and (ii) Based on engineering or... Department of Energy records showing the method or methods used; the mathematical model, the engineering...

  3. 10 CFR 431.445 - Determination of small electric motor efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Test Procedures § 431.445 Determination of small... the mechanical and electrical characteristics of that basic model, and (ii) Based on engineering or... Department of Energy records showing the method or methods used; the mathematical model, the engineering...

  4. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 2269, 1-17-2012) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of...

  5. 10 CFR 431.445 - Determination of small electric motor efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 431.445 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN... electric motor efficiency. (a) Scope. When a party determines the energy efficiency of a small electric... determine its energy efficiency must be carried out in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section....

  6. 10 CFR 431.403 - Maintenance of records for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance of records for electric motors. 431.403 Section 431.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.403 Maintenance of records for electric...

  7. 10 CFR 431.403 - Maintenance of records for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance of records for electric motors. 431.403 Section 431.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.403 Maintenance of records for electric...

  8. 10 CFR 431.403 - Maintenance of records for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance of records for electric motors. 431.403 Section 431.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.403 Maintenance of records for electric...

  9. 10 CFR 431.445 - Determination of small electric motor efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 431.445 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN... electric motor efficiency. (a) Scope. When a party determines the energy efficiency of a small electric... prior 12-month period before the effective date of the energy efficiency standard, whichever is...

  10. A Cryogenic High-Power-Density Bearingless Motor for Future Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a high-power-density switched-reluctance cryogenic motor for all-electric and pollution-free flight. However, cryogenic operation at higher rotational speeds markedly shortens the life of mechanical rolling element bearings. Thus, to demonstrate the practical feasibility of using this motor for future flights, a non-contact rotor-bearing system is a crucial technology to circumvent poor bearing life that ordinarily accompanies cryogenic operation. In this paper, a bearingless motor control technology for a 12-8 (12 poles in the stator and 8 poles in the rotor) switched-reluctance motor operating in liquid nitrogen (boiling point, 77 K (-196 C or -321 F)) was presented. We pushed previous disciplinary limits of electromagnetic controller technique by extending the state-of-the-art bearingless motor operating at liquid nitrogen for high-specific-power applications. The motor was levitated even in its nonlinear region of magnetic saturation, which is believed to be a world first for the motor type. Also we used only motoring coils to generate motoring torque and levitation force, which is an important feature for developing a high specific power motor.

  11. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  12. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  13. The 4 phase VSR motor: The ideal prime mover for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Holling, G.H.; Yeck, M.M.

    1994-12-31

    4 phase variable switched reluctance motors are gaining acceptance in many applications due to their fault tolerant characteristics. A 4 phase variable switched reluctance motor (VSR) is modelled and its performance is predicted for several operating points for an electric vehicle application. The 4 phase VSR offers fault tolerance, high performance, and an excellent torque to weight ratio. The actual system performance was measured both on a teststand and on an actual vehicle. While the system described is used in a production electric motorscooter, the technology is equally applicable for high efficiency electric cars and buses. 4 refs.

  14. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  15. Electric-car range extension through hybrid modification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    A gasohol powered generator set has been installed on a 1210 pound electrically powered Citicar. A power supply has been designed to convert the alternating current of the generator to run the car at a level of 36 vdc maximum. This is less than the 48 vdc used by the Citicar battery pack but which greatly exceeds the ratings on the 3.5 hp General Electric motor. Tests were done to see the minimum stepping voltage to give smooth acceleration and this was found to be 18 vdc. Tests with the generator-power supply set showed a level path consumption of 35 to 40 mpg. Switching between the generator and battery supplies is accomplished manually. The conclusion is that hybridization can be accomplished fairly reasonably but much needs to be done on the development of the electric car itself and particularly battery systems.

  16. Analysis of production line motor failure. CRADA final report for CRADA number Y-1293-0215

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, J.; Talbott, C.

    1995-02-10

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was approached by a Food Products Manufacturer (FPM) to investigate the rapid failure of motors in a manufacturing facility. It was reported that some motors or their bearings were being replaced after as little as four months of service. The deciding symptom for replacement was always high motor vibration. To protect against unscheduled downtime in the middle of a process run, the FPM`s maintenance team removes a motor from service when its vibration level reaches a conservative threshold of approximately 0.4 inches per second. In their experience, motors left in service after reaching this vibration threshold can fail at any time within the time span of the next process run causing significant losses of raw material and production capacity. A peculiar finding of vibration level trend analysis was that at least one motor exhibited cyclic variations with 24-hour periodicity. The vibration level reached a maximum at about 4:00 a.m., ramped down during the day, and then rose again during the night. Another peculiarity was that most of the vibration energy in the affected motors was at the 120 Hz frequency. Since this is twice the 60 Hz line frequency the FPM suspected the vibration was electrically induced. The electric loads at the FPMs plant remain constant during the five days of a continuous production run. Thus, the periodicity of the vibration observed, with its daily peaking at about four am, suggested the possibility of being driven by changes in the electrical power grid external to the plant.

  17. An Impulse Electric Motor for Driving Recording Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F

    1923-01-01

    The chief purpose in undertaking the development of this synchronous motor was the creation of a very small, compact power source, capable of driving the film drums of the recording aircraft instruments designed by the staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  18. Ultra-Efficient and Power Dense Electric Motors for U. S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Melfi, Michael J.; Schiferl, Richard F.; Umans, Stephen D.

    2013-03-12

    percentage points lower than the energy efficient motor. This 30 HP rating full load efficiency corresponds to a 46% reduction in loss compared to a 30 HP NEMA Premium? efficient motor. The cost goals were to provide a two year or shorter efficiency-based payback of a price premium associated with the magnet cost in these motors. That goal is based on 24/7 operation with a cost of electricity of 10 cents per kW-hr. Similarly, the 250 HP prototype efficiency testing was quite successful. In this case, the efficiency was maximized with a slightly less aggressive reduction in active material. The measured full load efficiency of 97.6% represents in excess of a 50% loss reduction compared to the equivalent NEMA Premium Efficiency induction motor. The active material weight reduction was a respectable 14.5% figure. This larger rating demonstrated both the scalability of this technology and also the ability to flexibly trade off power density and efficiency. In terms of starting performance, the 30 ? 50 HP prototypes were very extensively tested. The demonstrated capability included the ability to successfully start a load with an inertia of 25 times the motor?s own inertia while accelerating against a load torque following a fan profile at the motor?s full nameplate power rating. This capability will provide very wide applicability of this motor technology. The 250 HP prototype was also tested for starting characteristics, though without a coupled inertia and load torque. As a result it was not definitively proven that the same 25 times the motor?s own inertia could be started and synchronized successfully at 250 HP. Finite element modeling implies that this load could be successfully started, but it has not yet been confirmed by a test.

  19. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  20. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1]. PMID:27408926

  1. Advanced fault diagnosis for the mass production of small-power electric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filbert, Dieter

    1993-09-01

    High quality is a principal goal in the mass production of electric niotors (i.e. d.c. motors for cars and universal motors for house hold appliances).The processing of vibration and acoustical signals are widely used in quality assurance in the mass production but the coupling of the sensors to the motor as well as noise produced in the environment make it still difficult to get reproducible diagnostic results. High quality in production can be achieved by the powerful modern diagnostic methods which became possible because of the progress in microelectronics (microprocessors and signal processors). This progress made mathematical methods and signal processing applicable. Therefore this paper deals with diagnostic methods that use the measured signals of voltage, current and speed only but achieve a good testing. It gives an overview of new methods for the feature extraction and fault detection on small power electric motors.

  2. Efficient motor saves power costs by trading electricity for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Casinghead gas provides inexpensive energy to drive the PowerPac pumpjack motor at a lower cost than an electric power plant. The PowerPAc is a 454-cubic-inch General Motors V-8 modified to run on natural gas. The engine will push 500 to 600 pound/feet of torque at low revolutions per minute. Engine efficiency, air emissions, and cost are discussed.

  3. Peptide assembly-driven metal-organic framework (MOF) motors for micro electric generators.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-14

    Peptide-metal-organic framework (Pep-MOF) motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface tension gradients created via peptide self-assembly around frameworks, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnets fast enough to generate an electric power of 0.1 μW. A new rigid Pep-MOF motor can be recycled by refilling the peptide fuel into the nanopores of the MOF.

  4. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  5. FY2011 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2012-01-31

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  6. FY2012 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow's automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  7. Enhancement of magnetic flux distribution in a DC superconducting electric motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, N. A.; Ewe, L. S.; Chin, K. M.

    2013-06-01

    Most motor designs require an air gap between the rotor and stator to enable the armature to rotate freely. The interaction of magnetic flux from rotor and stator within the air gap will provide the thrust for rotational motion. Thus, the understanding of magnetic flux in the vicinity of the air gap is very important to mathematically calculate the magnetic flux generated in the area. In this work, a finite element analysis was employed to study the behavior of the magnetic flux in view of designing a synchronous DC superconducting electric motor. The analysis provides an ideal magnetic flux distribution within the components of the motor. From the flux plot analysis, it indicates that flux losses are mainly in the forms of leakage and fringe effect. The analysis also shows that the flux density is high at the area around the air gap and the rotor. The high flux density will provide a high force area that enables the rotor to rotate. In contrast, the other parts of the motor body do not show high flux density indicating low distribution of flux. Consequently, a bench top model of a DC superconducting motor was developed where by motor with a 2-pole type winding was chosen. Each field coil was designed with a racetrack-shaped double pancake wound using DI-BSCCO Bi-2223 superconducting tapes. The performance and energy efficiency of the superconducting motor was superior when compared to the conventional motor with similar capacity.

  8. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  9. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-05-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  10. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 DC shunt motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Both straight and chopped dc motor performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller is presented in tabular and graphical formats. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are also shown. The maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight dc mode. Chopper efficiency can be assumed to be 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight mode.

  11. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 DC shunt motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-10-01

    Both straight and chopped dc motor performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller is presented in tabular and graphical formats. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are also shown. The maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight dc mode. Chopper efficiency can be assumed to be 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight mode.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... motors for which energy conservation standards are currently provided at 10 CFR 431.25 must be made in... motors for which energy conservation standards are provided at 10 CFR 431.25, after January 13, 2014...

  13. Cooling of high power generators and motors for electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, J. L.

    1984-03-01

    This study reviews the history and development of marine electric propulsion drives, the types of electric propulsion, and the inherent losses which occur within the synchronous ac machines typically used for high-power propulsion systems. A thorough review of the literature pertaining to heat transfer in electrical machinery is made. In particular, the use of liquid cooling in various flow configurations, including buoyancy-driven thermosyphons and two-phase thermosyphons is analyzed. Forced-liquid cooling is feasible, but the required rotating seals are a problem in reliability. Closed-loop thermosyphon cooling appears feasible at high rotational speeds, although a secondary heat exchange through the shaft is required. Closed, two-phase thermosyphons and heat pipes are also feasible, but require forced-air circulation for heat rejection to the ambient. Since all of these concepts deserve additional attention, areas for further research and development are recommended.

  14. Rolling Stability Control Utilizing Rollover Index for In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Hori, Yoichi

    In this paper, a novel integrated stability program (ISP) based on robust rolling stability control (RSC) for in-wheel electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and accurate, (2) motor torque can be estimated precisely, (3) a motor can be attached to each wheel, and (4) a motor can output negative torque as a brake actuator. These advantages enable a high-performance three-dimensional vehicle motion control with a distributed in-wheel-motor system. Rolling stability is important for all classes of light-vehicles, especially, for EVs that have narrow tread and high center of gravity. In this study, RSC is designed using two-degree-of-freedom control (2-DOF), which achieves tracking capability to reference value and disturbance suppression. However, as the drivability of the vehicle will be changed significantly if only RSC is applied, vehicle rolling motion should be controlled depending on the rolling state. Therefore, variable weight-ISP and variable reference-ISP are proposed using rolling state information. For detecting rolling state, rollover index (RI) is introduced. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by the simulation and the experimental results.

  15. Electrical Motor Current Signal Analysis using a Dynamic Time Warping Method for Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, D.; Alibarbar, A.; Zhou, X.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of phase current signals to identify and quantify common faults from an electrical motor based on dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. In condition monitoring, measurements are often taken when the motor undertakes varying loads and speeds. The signals acquired in these conditions show similar profiles but have phase shifts, which do not line up in the time-axis for adequate comparison to discriminate the small changes in machine health conditions. In this study, DTW algorithms are exploited to align the signals to an ideal current signal constructed based on average operating conditions. In this way, comparisons between the signals can be made directly in the time domain to obtain residual signals. These residual signals are then based on to extract features for detecting and diagnosing the faults of the motor and components operating under different loads and speeds. This study provides a novel approach to the analysis of electrical current signal for diagnosis of motor faults. Experimental data sets of electrical motor current signals have been studied using DTW algorithms. Results show that DTW based residual signals highlights more the modulations due to the compressor process. And hence can obtain better fault detection and diagnosis results.

  16. Industrial Electricity: Motors. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide provides competency-based instructional materials for training in the field of industrial electricity. Materials are not geared to a specific grade level and may be used with secondary and postsecondary students as well as part- and full-time adult students. The guide includes three sections and ten instructional units. Each…

  17. 10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and water heating... regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and water heating products. This section concerns State regulations providing for any...

  18. 10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and water heating... regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and water heating products. This section concerns State regulations providing for any...

  19. Exploring the Basic Principles of Electric Motors and Generators with a Low-Cost Sophomore-Level Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, T. F.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular needs, an electric motor and generator laboratory experience was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum and in that it focuses on modeling electric motors, predicting their performance, and measuring efficiency of energy conversion. While…

  20. Motor stator using corner scraps for additional electrical components

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Su, Gui-Jia; Adams, Donald J.; Nagashima, James M.; Stancu, Constantin; Carlson, Douglas S.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2004-03-16

    A method for making a motor and auxiliary devices with a unified stator body comprises providing a piece of material (10) having an area larger than a cross section of the stator (11), removing material from the piece of material (10) to form a pattern for a cross section of a core (11) for the stator, and removing material from the piece of material (10) outside the cross section of the core of the stator (11) to allow positioning of cores (22, 23, 24) for supporting windings (25, 26, 27) of least one additional electromagnetic device, such as a transformer (62) in a dc-to-dc converter (61, 62) that provides a low. voltage dc output. An article of manufacture made according to the invention is also disclosed and apparatus made with the method and article of manufacture are also disclosed.

  1. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be made; proceed to Step 7. Step 7. Determine the recommended sample size (n) as follows: ER83AD04... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The first sample size (n1) must be five or more units. Step 2. Compute the mean (X 1 of the measured...

  3. Electric Motors. An Instructional Unit for High School Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Delmer; Carpenter, Bruce

    Designed as a 3-week course of study in the agricultural mechanics curriculum to be taught at the junior or senior high school level, this unit on electric motors is divided into 11 major performance objectives. Each objective is subdivided into the areas of content, suggested teaching and learning activities, resources, and evaluation. Topics for…

  4. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of...

  5. 77 FR 43015 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... energy savings (NES) and the net present value (NPV) of total customer costs and savings expected to... and describes the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP is the number of years needed to recover the... Conservation Standards Rulemaking Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors'' (75...

  6. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING END. NOTE BOLTS AND SPRINGS OF BRAKE BAND, HEAVY-WIRE ARMATURE WINDINGS, AND TIGHTLY WOUND STATOR (FIELD) COILS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors Pt. 431, Subpt. U... Step 1. The first sample size (n1) must be five or more units. Step 2. Compute the mean (X 1 of the... standard error (SE(X 1)) of the mean full-load efficiency of the first sample as follows: ER83AD04.007...

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... and if the mean energy efficiency of the first sample (X 1) is equal to or greater than the...

  10. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... and if the mean energy efficiency of the first sample (X 1) is equal to or greater than the...

  12. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  13. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  14. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  15. Electrical vestibular stimuli to enhance vestibulo-motor output and improve subject comfort.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Geers, Anoek M; Vlaar, Martijn P; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vestibular stimulation is often used to assess vestibulo-motor and postural responses in both clinical and research settings. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is a recently established technique with many advantages over its square-wave counterpart; however, the evoked muscle responses remain relatively small. Although the vestibular-evoked responses can be enhanced by increasing the stimulus amplitude, subjects often perceive these higher intensity electrical stimuli as noxious or painful. Here, we developed multisine vestibular stimulation (MVS) signals that include precise frequency contributions to increase signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of stimulus-evoked muscle and motor responses. Subjects were exposed to three different MVS stimuli to establish that: 1) MVS signals evoke equivalent vestibulo-motor responses compared to SVS while improving subject comfort and reducing experimentation time, 2) stimulus-evoked vestibulo-motor responses are reliably estimated as a linear system and 3) specific components of the cumulant density time domain vestibulo-motor responses can be targeted by controlling the frequency content of the input stimulus. Our results revealed that in comparison to SVS, MVS signals increased the SNR 3-6 times, reduced the minimum experimentation time by 85% and improved subjective measures of comfort by 20-80%. Vestibulo-motor responses measured using both EMG and force were not substantially affected by nonlinear distortions. In addition, by limiting the contribution of high frequencies within the MVS input stimulus, the magnitude of the medium latency time domain motor output response was increased by 58%. These results demonstrate that MVS stimuli can be designed to target and enhance vestibulo-motor output responses while simultaneously improving subject comfort, which should prove beneficial for both research and clinical applications. PMID:24392130

  16. Electrical vestibular stimuli to enhance vestibulo-motor output and improve subject comfort.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Geers, Anoek M; Vlaar, Martijn P; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vestibular stimulation is often used to assess vestibulo-motor and postural responses in both clinical and research settings. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is a recently established technique with many advantages over its square-wave counterpart; however, the evoked muscle responses remain relatively small. Although the vestibular-evoked responses can be enhanced by increasing the stimulus amplitude, subjects often perceive these higher intensity electrical stimuli as noxious or painful. Here, we developed multisine vestibular stimulation (MVS) signals that include precise frequency contributions to increase signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of stimulus-evoked muscle and motor responses. Subjects were exposed to three different MVS stimuli to establish that: 1) MVS signals evoke equivalent vestibulo-motor responses compared to SVS while improving subject comfort and reducing experimentation time, 2) stimulus-evoked vestibulo-motor responses are reliably estimated as a linear system and 3) specific components of the cumulant density time domain vestibulo-motor responses can be targeted by controlling the frequency content of the input stimulus. Our results revealed that in comparison to SVS, MVS signals increased the SNR 3-6 times, reduced the minimum experimentation time by 85% and improved subjective measures of comfort by 20-80%. Vestibulo-motor responses measured using both EMG and force were not substantially affected by nonlinear distortions. In addition, by limiting the contribution of high frequencies within the MVS input stimulus, the magnitude of the medium latency time domain motor output response was increased by 58%. These results demonstrate that MVS stimuli can be designed to target and enhance vestibulo-motor output responses while simultaneously improving subject comfort, which should prove beneficial for both research and clinical applications.

  17. Enamel Insulated Copper Wire in Electric Motors: Sliding Behavior and Possible Damage Mechanisms During Die Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiri, Albion

    This study investigates the sliding friction and the forming behaviour of enamel insulated copper wire during the die-forming process. It also aims to determine potential damage mechanisms to the wire during bending process for electric motor coils. In this investigation a wire-bending machine was designed and built in order to simulate the wire forming process in a laboratory scale. Bending angle of the wire and the bending radii were used to control the strain on the wire surface. The effect of speed on COF was investigated for different speeds of of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20mm/s. A positive correlation was observed between the COF and the testing speed. Additionally, the effect of strain on COF was studied for 2% and 23% to determine its influence on the COF. A general trend was observed of decreased COF with increased strain in wires. Finally, the ability of the enamel coating to resist external damage and wire strain was investigated by tensile testing of pre-scratched magnet wire. The results showed that wire enamel can withstand significant surface damage prior to breach and failure. The insulating polymer coating failed under the scratch tests at 20N load using a Rockwell indenter and at 5N load using a 90° conical steel indenter. Additional tests, such as tensile testing, scratch testing and reciprocating friction testing, were used to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of the enamel insulated copper wire.

  18. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  19. Study and review of permanent magnets for electric vehicle propulsion motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strnat, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of permanent magnets (PM) was performed in support of the DOE/NASA electric and hybrid vehicle program. PM requirements for electric propulsion motors are analyzed, design principles and relevant properties of magnets are discussed. Available PM types are reviewed. For the needed high-grade magnets, design data, commercial varieties and sources are tabulated, based on a survey of vendors. Economic factors such as raw material availability, production capability and cost are analyzed, especially for cobalt and the rare earths. Extruded Mn-Al-C magnets from Japan were experimentally characterized. Dynamic magnetic data for the range -50 deg to +150 deg C and some mechanical properties are reported. The state of development of the important PM material families is reviewed. Feasible improvements or new developments of magnets for electric vehicle motors are identified.

  20. Speed Sensorless Induction Motor Drives for Electrical Actuators: Schemes, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1997-01-01

    For a decade, induction motor drive-based electrical actuators have been under investigation as potential replacement for the conventional hydraulic and pneumatic actuators in aircraft. Advantages of electric actuator include lower weight and size, reduced maintenance and operating costs, improved safety due to the elimination of hazardous fluids and high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, and increased efficiency. Recently, the emphasis of research on induction motor drives has been on sensorless vector control which eliminates flux and speed sensors mounted on the motor. Also, the development of effective speed and flux estimators has allowed good rotor flux-oriented (RFO) performance at all speeds except those close to zero. Sensorless control has improved the motor performance, compared to the Volts/Hertz (or constant flux) controls. This report evaluates documented schemes for speed sensorless drives, and discusses the trends and tradeoffs involved in selecting a particular scheme. These schemes combine the attributes of the direct and indirect field-oriented control (FOC) or use model adaptive reference systems (MRAS) with a speed-dependent current model for flux estimation which tracks the voltage model-based flux estimator. Many factors are important in comparing the effectiveness of a speed sensorless scheme. Among them are the wide speed range capability, motor parameter insensitivity and noise reduction. Although a number of schemes have been proposed for solving the speed estimation, zero-speed FOC with robustness against parameter variations still remains an area of research for speed sensorless control.

  1. Electromagnetic interference in electrical systems of motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziubiński, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic ignition system affects the electronic equipment of the vehicle by electric and magnetic fields. The measurement of radio electromagnetic interference originating from the ignition system affecting the audiovisual test bench was carried out with a variable speed of the ignition system. The paper presents measurements of radio electromagnetic interference in automobiles. In order to determine the level of electromagnetic interference, the audiovisual test bench was equipped with a set of meters for power consumption and assessment of the level of electromagnetic interference. Measurements of the electromagnetic interference level within the audiovisual system were performed on an experimental test bench consisting of the ignition system, starting system and charging system with an alternator and regulator.

  2. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  3. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field).

  4. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field).

  5. Time-dependent changes in motor cortical excitability by electrical stimulation combined with voluntary drive.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Saito, Kei; Higashi, Toshio

    2014-04-16

    Prolonged changes in primary motor cortex excitability in response to combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and voluntary contraction with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation and recorded by mechanomyography. Participants included 22 healthy individuals. NMES was applied to the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) by voluntary ECR contraction with 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of wrist extension. MEPs were recorded from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and ECR at rest with NMES, at 20% MVC with NMES (combined), and at 20% MVC alone. Significant conditional effects were revealed in ECR and FCR. In the combined condition, MEPs showed gradual enhancement, and those in FCR were more inhibited than those in the control condition. Voluntary contraction with NMES increased primary motor cortex excitability in the agonist muscle, whereas the antagonist muscle might affect reciprocal modulation in the combined condition. PMID:24356108

  6. Cost comparison of small gas turbines versus electric motors in a variable load industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, T. M.; Salama, S. Y.

    1984-07-01

    Equipment such as pumps and blowers can save a substantial amount of energy when operated at part-loads with a variable speed drive in comparison to the conventional technology of using a constant speed drive and a throttle valve. Gas turbines and electrical motors, with and without variable frequency speed controller, for one such industrial application are compared. The application characteristics are developed after reviewing the published population data for motors and gas turbines. Two types of gas turbines, simple cycle and regenerative cycle, and three types of motors, standard, high efficiency, and high efficiency with variable frequency speed controller, are considered. The total life-cycle costs of these five prime movers are compared for three scenarios with varying extent of part-load operations.

  7. Synergistic plasticity of intrinsic conductance and electrical coupling restores synchrony in an intact motor network.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brian J; Samarth, Pranit; Ransdell, Joseph L; Nair, Satish S; Schulz, David J

    2016-01-01

    Motor neurons of the crustacean cardiac ganglion generate virtually identical, synchronized output despite the fact that each neuron uses distinct conductance magnitudes. As a result of this variability, manipulations that target ionic conductances have distinct effects on neurons within the same ganglion, disrupting synchronized motor neuron output that is necessary for proper cardiac function. We hypothesized that robustness in network output is accomplished via plasticity that counters such destabilizing influences. By blocking high-threshold K(+) conductances in motor neurons within the ongoing cardiac network, we discovered that compensation both resynchronized the network and helped restore excitability. Using model findings to guide experimentation, we determined that compensatory increases of both GA and electrical coupling restored function in the network. This is one of the first direct demonstrations of the physiological regulation of coupling conductance in a compensatory context, and of synergistic plasticity across cell- and network-level mechanisms in the restoration of output. PMID:27552052

  8. TMI-2 instrumentation and electrical program final evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, C.W.; Huzdovich, J.W.; Roby, A.R.; Test, L.D.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the authors collective opinions on the value to the nuclear industry of the various investigations performed at TMI-2 by the Instrumentation and Electrical Program. The authors demonstrate that more attention must be given to the prevention of moisture intrusion during design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a nuclear power plant. They also point out that, while basic engineering designs of instruments are more than adequate, the applications engineering and specifications could be improved. Finally, they show that advanced testing technology, exemplified by the Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostics (ECCAD) System, may be very useful as a diagnostic tool when used as part of the testing or maintenance program in a nuclear power plant.

  9. Electric Industry Restructuring in Five States: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J. M.

    1996-10-31

    The electric industry in the United States is undergoing fundamental changes; it is transitioning from regulated monopolies to competitive markets offering customer choice. In this process, the states have been in the forefront of considering the changes in the industry structure and regulation. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) spearheaded a project on electric restructuring in the United States. This is the final report prepared under the project. The purpose of the report is to describe and compare the overall restructuring processes that took place in five states through June 30, 1996. The five states are California, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin. These are the first major states to consider restructuring or retail wheeling.

  10. Motor Skill Acquisition and Retention after Somatosensory Electrical Stimulation in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, Menno P.; Zijdewind, Inge; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) can increase motor performance, presumably through a modulation of neuronal excitability. Because the effects of SES can outlast the period of stimulation, we examined the possibility that SES can also enhance the retention of motor performance, motor memory consolidation, after 24 h (Day 2) and 7 days (Day 7), that such effects would be scaled by SES duration, and that such effects were mediated by changes in aspects of corticospinal excitability, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Healthy young adults (n = 40) received either 20 (SES-20), 40 (SES-40), or 60 min (SES-60) of real SES, or sham SES (SES-0). The results showed SES-20 increased visuomotor performance on Day 2 (15%) and Day 7 (17%) and SES-60 increased visuomotor performance on Day 7 (11%; all p < 0.05) compared with SES-0. Specific responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) increased immediately after SES (p < 0.05) but not on Days 2 and 7. In addition, changes in behavioral and neurophysiological parameters did not correlate, suggesting that paths and structures other than the ones TMS can assay must be (also) involved in the increases in visuomotor performance after SES. As examined in the present study, low-intensity peripheral electrical nerve stimulation did not have acute effects on healthy adults' visuomotor performance but SES had delayed effects in the form of enhanced motor memory consolidation that were not scaled by the duration of SES. PMID:27014043

  11. FY2013 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2014-02-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) technology area within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  12. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  13. Motor units in incomplete spinal cord injury: electrical activity, contractile properties and the effects of biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Stein, R B; Brucker, B S; Ayyar, D R

    1990-10-01

    The electrical and contractile properties of hand muscles in a selected population of quadriplegic subjects were studied intensively before and after EMG biofeedback. Spontaneously active motor units and units that could only be slowly and weakly activated were observed in these subjects, in addition to units that were voluntarily activated normally. This suggests a considerable overlap of surviving motor neurons to a single muscle that are below, near or above the level of a lesion. Despite the common occurrence of polyphasic potentials and other signs of neuromuscular reinnervation, the average twitch tension of single motor units in hand muscles of quadriplegic subjects was not significantly different from that in control subjects. Nor did it increase after biofeedback training that typically increased the peak surface EMG by a factor of 2-5 times. The percentage of spontaneously active units was also constant. The surface EMG may be increased during biofeedback by using higher firing rates in motor units that can already be activated, rather than by recruiting previously unavailable motor units. PMID:2266370

  14. Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy "NANOMET®" cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, N.; Tanimoto, K.; Makino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently updated nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu alloys "NANOMET®" exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs > 1.8 T), low coercivity (Hc < 10 A/m) and low core loss (W1.7/50 ˜ 0.4 W/kg) even in a ribbon form with a thickness of up to 40 μm. By utilize excellent magnetic softness, several products such as motors or transformers for electrical appliances are now under developing by industry-academia collaboration. In particular, it is found that a brushless DC motor using NANOMET® core exhibited remarkable improvement in energy consumption. The prototype motor with an outer core diameter of 70 mm and a core thickness of 50 mm was constructed using laminated nano-crystallized NANOMET® ribbons. Core-loss for the constructed motor was improved from 1.4 W to 0.4 W only by replacing the non-oriented Si-steel core with NANOMET® one. The overall motor efficiency is evaluated to be 3% improvement. In this work, the relation between processing and resulting magnetic properties will be presented. In addition, feasibility for commercialization will also be discussed.

  15. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-12-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  16. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  17. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) subprogram within the Vehicle Technologies Program provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE) and electric motor technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  18. Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study Task 6 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Tobin

    2009-07-01

    This Final Report is covers the completion of the Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study. The objective of this project was to research, engineer, and demonstrate high-power laboratory testing protocols to accurately reproduce the conditions on the electric power grid representing both normal load switching and abnormalities such as short-circuit fault protection. Test circuits, equipment, and techniques were developed and proven at reduced power levels to determine the feasibility of building a large-scale high-power testing laboratory capable of testing equipment and systems at simulated high-power conditions of the U.S. power grid at distribution levels up through 38 kiloVolts (kV) and transmission levels up through 230 kV. The project delivered demonstrated testing techniques, high-voltage test equipment for load testing and synthetic short-circuit testing, and recommended designs for future implementation of a high-power testing laboratory to test equipment and systems, enabling increased reliability of the electric transmission and distribution grid.

  19. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  20. Influence of motor imagination on cortical activation during functional electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare; Osuagwu, Bethel A.; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor imagination (MI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) can activate the sensory-motor cortex through efferent and afferent pathways respectively. Motor imagination can be used as a control strategy to activate FES through a brain–computer interface as the part of a rehabilitation therapy. It is believed that precise timing between the onset of MI and FES is important for strengthening the cortico-spinal pathways but it is not known whether prolonged MI during FES influences cortical response. Methods Electroencephalogram was measured in ten able-bodied participants using MI strategy to control FES through a BCI system. Event related synchronisation/desynchronisation (ERS/ERD) over the sensory-motor cortex was analysed and compared in three paradigms: MI before FES, MI before and during FES and FES alone activated automatically. Results MI practiced both before and during FES produced strongest ERD. When MI only preceded FES it resulted in a weaker beta ERD during FES than when FES was activated automatically. Following termination of FES, beta ERD returns to the baseline level within 0.5 s while alpha ERD took longer than 1 s. Conclusions When MI and FES are combined for rehabilitation purposes it is recommended that MI is practiced throughout FES activation period. Significance The study is relevant for neurorehabilitation of movement. PMID:25454278

  1. RBFN Based Efficiency Optimization Method of Induction Motor Utilized in Electrically Driven Marine Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supari; Syafaruddin; Negara, I. Made Yulistya; Ashari, Mochamad; Hiyama, Takashi

    Thruster controllers of electric propulsion system with fixed pitch propellers are conventionally aimed to control only the shaft speed without utilizing the capabilities of the controllers to apply any other control strategies. In fact, the dynamic operating conditions lead to the fluctuation of motor load. For this reason, utilizing conventional controllers is hard enough due to the critical constraints and limitation of the ship power source. The paper presents study and analysis of efficiency optimization strategy in thruster shaft speed controllers driven by induction motor. The control strategy based on intelligent method called radial basis function neural network (RBFN) is implemented. A set of training data derived from a loss model controller of the induction motor working under indirect field-oriented-control (IFOC) drives is used for training process of RBFN. The loss model controller utilizes schematically the flux generating current as controlling variable. Estimation of the flux generating current through the RBFN process shows significant improvement in motor efficiency especially for low speed and ship transit system.

  2. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  3. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

  4. The linear electric motor: Instability at 1,000 g`s

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.

    1997-03-01

    When fluid of high density is supported against gravity by a less dense liquid, the system is unstable, and microscopic perturbations grow at the interface between the fluids. This phenomenon, called the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, also occurs when a bottle of oil-and-vinegar salad dressing is turned upside down. The instability causes spikes of the dense fluid to penetrate the light fluid, while bubbles of the lighter fluid rise into the dense fluid. The same phenomenon occurs when a light fluid is used to accelerate a dense fluid, causing the two fluids to mix at a very high rate. For example, during the implosion of an ICF capsule, this instability can cause enough mixing to contaminate, cool, and degrade the yield of the thermonuclear fuel. The LEM is an excellent tool for studying this instability, but what is it? Think of a miniature high-speed electric train (the container) hurtling down a track (the electrodes) while diagnostic equipment (optical and laser) photographs it. The LEM, consists of four linear electrodes, or rails, that carry an electrical current to a pair of sliding armatures on the container. A magnetic field is produced that works in concert with the rail-armature current to accelerate the container--just as in an electric motor, but in a linear fashion rather than in rotation. The magnetic field is augmented with elongated coils just as in a conventional electric motor. This configuration also helps hold the armatures against the electrodes to prevent arcing. The electrical energy (0.6 megajoules) is provided by 16 capacitor banks that can be triggered independently to produce different acceleration profiles (i.e., how the acceleration varies with time).

  5. Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

    1999-12-10

    On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

  6. Automatic start control for a three-phase electric motor using infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echenique Lima, Mario; Ramírez Arenas, Francisco; Rodríguez Pedroza, Griselda

    2006-02-01

    We introduce equipment for the automatic activation of a three-phase electric motor (1Hp, 3A, 240V AC) using 2 infrared sensors monitored by a Microchip microcontroller PIC16F62x@4Mhz for the control of a filling system. This project was carried out to Fabrica de Chocolates y Dulces Costanzo, where the automatization of cacao grain supply was required for a machine in charge of cleaning the cacao from its rind. This process demanded the monitoring of the filling level to avoid the spill of toasted cacao.

  7. Driving modes for designing the cornering response of fully electric vehicles with multiple motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Leonardo; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Fully electric vehicles with multiple drivetrains allow a significant variation of the steady-state and transient cornering responses through the individual control of the electric motor drives. As a consequence, alternative driving modes can be created that provide the driver the option to select the preferred dynamic vehicle behavior. This article presents a torque-vectoring control structure based on the combination of feedforward and feedback contributions for the continuous control of vehicle yaw rate. The controller is specifically developed to be easily implementable on real-world vehicles. A novel model-based procedure for the definition of the control objectives is described in detail, together with the automated tuning process of the algorithm. The implemented control functions are demonstrated with experimental vehicle tests. The results show the possibilities of torque-vectoring control in designing the vehicle understeer characteristic.

  8. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  9. Vibration effect and control of In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor for electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Yinong; Huang, Jingying; Zhang, Nong

    2015-03-01

    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) processes favorable driving capacity and great application potential in In-Wheel Motor (IWM) Electric Vehicle (EV). However vibration and noise problems are always the disadvantages of SRM. This paper investigates the vibration and noise issues and corresponding control methodology for the IWM application of SRM. By utilizing the analytical Fourier fitting method, a convenience method for modeling In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor (IW SRM) is proposed and the characteristics of the unbalanced residual lateral force related to vibration excitation are analyzed. Then the dynamic negative effect of IW SRM on vehicle is analyzed with a quarter driving and vibration vehicle model. It is found that the vertical shock occurs under the vehicle starting condition and high frequency force excitation exists under the constant speed condition. To address these issues, corresponding control methods are proposed, modified and compared. The proposed combined vibration feedback control of current chopping with PWM can effectively reduce the SRM residual force and ensure the required vehicle speed, though some slight low frequency forces are induced.

  10. Synergistic plasticity of intrinsic conductance and electrical coupling restores synchrony in an intact motor network

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Brian J; Samarth, Pranit; Ransdell, Joseph L; Nair, Satish S; Schulz, David J

    2016-01-01

    Motor neurons of the crustacean cardiac ganglion generate virtually identical, synchronized output despite the fact that each neuron uses distinct conductance magnitudes. As a result of this variability, manipulations that target ionic conductances have distinct effects on neurons within the same ganglion, disrupting synchronized motor neuron output that is necessary for proper cardiac function. We hypothesized that robustness in network output is accomplished via plasticity that counters such destabilizing influences. By blocking high-threshold K+ conductances in motor neurons within the ongoing cardiac network, we discovered that compensation both resynchronized the network and helped restore excitability. Using model findings to guide experimentation, we determined that compensatory increases of both GA and electrical coupling restored function in the network. This is one of the first direct demonstrations of the physiological regulation of coupling conductance in a compensatory context, and of synergistic plasticity across cell- and network-level mechanisms in the restoration of output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16879.001 PMID:27552052

  11. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  12. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  13. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  14. Supplemental final environmental impact statement for advanced solid rocket motor testing at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Since the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision on the FEIS describing the potential impacts to human health and the environment associated with the program, three factors have caused NASA to initiate additional studies regarding these issues. These factors are: (1) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to use the same comprehensive procedures to identify and delineate wetlands; (2) EPA has given NASA further guidance on how best to simulate the exhaust plume from the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) testing through computer modeling, enabling more realistic analysis of emission impacts; and (3) public concerns have been raised concerning short and long term impacts on human health and the environment from ASRM testing.

  15. Development of an Electric Motor Powered Low Cost Coconut Deshelling Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Imdadul Hoque; Prasanna Kumar, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    An electric motor powered coconut deshelling machine was developed in line with the commercially available unit, but with slight modifications. The machine worked on the principle that the coconut shell can be caused to fail in shear and compressive forces. It consisted of a toothed wheel, a deshelling rod, an electric motor, and a compound chain drive. A bevelled 16 teeth sprocket with 18 mm pitch was used as the toothed wheel. Mild steel round bar of 18 mm diameter was used as the deshelling rod. The sharp edge tip of the deshelling rod was inserted below the shell to apply shear force on the shell, and the fruit was tilted toward the rotary toothed wheel to apply the compressive force on the shell. The speed of rotation of the toothed wheel was set at 34 ± 2 rpm. The output capacity of the machine was found to be 24 coconuts/h with 95 % of the total time effectively used for deshelling. The labour requirement was found to be 43 man-h/1000 nuts. About 13 % of the kernels got scraped and about 7 % got sliced during the operation. The developed coconut deshelling machine was recommended for the minimum annual use of 200 h or deshelling of 4700 coconuts per year. The cost of operation for 200 h of annual use was found to be about ` 47/h. The developed machine was found to be simple, easy to operate, energy efficient, safe and reduce drudgery involved in deshelling by conventional methods.

  16. The effect of Functional Electric Stimulation in stroke patients' motor control - a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripas, Denise; Rogers Venditi Beas, Allan; Fioramonte, Caroline; Gonsales de Castro, Pedro Claudio; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo; Cecília dos Santos Moreira, Maria

    2011-12-01

    Functional Electric Stimulation (FES) has been studied as a therapeutic resource to reduce spasticity in hemiplegic patients, however there are no studies about the effects of FES in motor control of these patients during functional tasks like balance maintenance. Muscular activation of gastrocnemius medialis and semitendinosus was investigated in both limbs of a hemiparetic patient during self-disturbed quiet stance before and after FES on tibialis anterior, by surface electromyography. The instant of maximum activation peak of GM and ST were calculated immediately after a motor self-disturbance, in order to observe muscular synergy between these two muscles, and possible balance strategies used (ankle or hip strategy). At the preserved limb there occurred distal-proximal synergy (GM followed by ST), expected for small perturbations; however, at spastic limb there was inversion of this synergy (proximal-distal) after FES. It is possible that intervention of electricity had inhibited synergical pathways due to antidromic effect, making it difficult to use ankle strategy in the spastic limb.

  17. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  18. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve enhances cognitive and motor recovery following moderate fluid percussion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Modglin, Arlene A; Roosevelt, Rodney W; Neese, Steven L; Jensen, Robert A; Browning, Ronald A; Clough, Richard W

    2005-12-01

    Intermittent, chronically delivered electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) is an FDA-approved procedure for the treatment of refractory complex/partial epilepsy in humans. Stimulation of the vagus has also been shown to enhance memory storage processes in laboratory rats and human subjects. Recent evidence suggests that some of these effects of VNS may be due to the activation of neurons in the nucleus locus coeruleus resulting in the release of norepinephrine (NE) throughout the neuraxis. Because antagonism of NE systems has been shown to delay recovery of function following brain damage, it is possible that enhanced release of NE in the CNS may facilitate recovery of function. To evaluate this hypothesis the lateral fluid percussion injury (LFP) model of traumatic brain injury was used and a variety of motor and cognitive behavioral tests were employed to assess recovery in pre-trained stimulated, control, and sham-injured laboratory rats. Two hours following moderate LFP, vagus nerve stimulation (30.0-sec trains of 0.5 mA, 20.0 Hz, biphasic pulses) was initiated. Stimulation continued in each animal's home cage at 30-min intervals for a period of 14 days, with the exception of brief periods when the animals were disconnected for behavioral assessments. Motor behaviors were evaluated every other day following LFP and tests included beam walk, locomotor placing, and skilled forelimb reaching. In each measure an enhanced rate of recovery and /or level of final performance was observed in the VNS-LFP animals compared to nonstimulated LFP controls. Behavior in the Morris water maze was assessed on days 11-14 following injury. Stimulated LFP animals showed significantly shorter latencies to find the hidden platform than did controls. Despite these behavioral effects, neurohistological examination did not reveal significant differences in lesion extent, density of fluorojade positive neurons, reactive astrocytes or numbers of spared neurons in the CA3 subarea

  19. Electrical Properties of Ferroelectric Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate as an Energy Transducer for Application to Electrostatic-Optical Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, Masaaki; Morikawa, Yasushi; Nakada, Takeshi

    2002-11-01

    An electrostatic-optical motor has been proposed as a new application device using lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) as an energy transducer from optical energy to electrical energy. Photovoltaic electrical power output of the PLZT is transformed into electrostatic force for actuation of the rotation of the optical motor. Electrical conductivity including dark conductivity and photovoltaic conductivity plays an essential role in mechanisms of the photovoltaic effect. An electrical property of photovoltaic PLZT is examined quantitatively. Uniform illumination is realized with the homogeneous irradiation lens. As a result, it becomes possible to realize uniform illumination one order stronger than previously reported. We confirm that there is a linear relationship between electrical conductivity and light intensity in this experiment.

  20. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  1. Effects of oculo-motor exercise, functional electrical stimulation and proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulation on visual perception of spatial neglect patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun; Oh, Dae-Sik; Moon, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of oculo-motor exercise, functional electrical stimulation (FES), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the visual perception of spatial neglect patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 3 groups: an oculo-motor exercise (OME) group, a FES with oculo-motor exercise (FOME) group, and a PNF with oculo-motor exercise (POME) group. The line bisection test (LBT), motor free visual test (MVPT), and Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) were used to measure visual perception. These were performed 5 times per week for 6 weeks. [Results] The OME group and POME group showed significant improvements according to the LBT and MVPT results, but the FOME group showed no significant improvement. According to the CBS, all 3 groups showed significant improvements. The OME and POME groups showed improvement over the FOME group in the LBT and MVPT. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups according to the CBS. [Conclusion] These results indicate that oculo-motor exercise and PNF with oculo-motor exercise had more positive effects than FES with oculo-motor exercise on the visual perception of spatial neglect patients. PMID:27190436

  2. Effects of oculo-motor exercise, functional electrical stimulation and proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulation on visual perception of spatial neglect patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Eun; Oh, Dae-Sik; Moon, Sang-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of oculo-motor exercise, functional electrical stimulation (FES), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the visual perception of spatial neglect patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 3 groups: an oculo-motor exercise (OME) group, a FES with oculo-motor exercise (FOME) group, and a PNF with oculo-motor exercise (POME) group. The line bisection test (LBT), motor free visual test (MVPT), and Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) were used to measure visual perception. These were performed 5 times per week for 6 weeks. [Results] The OME group and POME group showed significant improvements according to the LBT and MVPT results, but the FOME group showed no significant improvement. According to the CBS, all 3 groups showed significant improvements. The OME and POME groups showed improvement over the FOME group in the LBT and MVPT. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups according to the CBS. [Conclusion] These results indicate that oculo-motor exercise and PNF with oculo-motor exercise had more positive effects than FES with oculo-motor exercise on the visual perception of spatial neglect patients.

  3. Motor torque compensation of an induction electric motor by adjusting a slip command during periods of supposed change in motor temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kelledes, William L.; St. John, Don K.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention maintains constant torque in an inverter driven AC induction motor during variations in rotor temperature. It is known that the torque output of a given AC induction motor is dependent upon rotor temperature. At rotor temperatures higher than the nominal operating condition the rotor impedance increases, reducing the rotor current and motor torque. In a similar fashion, the rotor impedance is reduced resulting in increased rotor current and motor torque when the rotor temperature is lower than the nominal operating condition. The present invention monitors the bus current from the DC supply to the inverter and adjusts the slip frequency of the inverter drive to maintain a constant motor torque. This adjustment is based upon whether predetermined conditions implying increased rotor temperature or decreased rotor temperature exist for longer that a predetermined interval of time.

  4. Nonsinusoidal electrical measurement accuracy in adjustable-speed motors and drives

    SciTech Connect

    Domijan, A.; Czarkowski, D.; Johnson, J.H.

    1998-11-01

    Accurate measurements of voltage, current, and power under nonsinusoidal conditions are essential for determining the efficiency of a drive system and performing separation of losses between an adjustable-speed drive (ASD) and an electric motor. That information is invaluable for equipment designers, manufacturers, and users. Three modern power meters and analyzers were tested to determine their accuracy with various nonsinusoidal waveforms applied. The meters were subjected to waveforms that are characteristic to the three most common fractional and integral horsepower ASD technologies, namely, pulsewidth modulation induction, brushless dc, and switched-reluctance drives. The tests were performed under field conditions and in a computer-controlled laboratory environment. The obtained results show that some meters are able to measure accurately electric power at the input to ASD`s. However, the output power of ASD`s for brushless dc and switched-reluctance technology was not measured with acceptable accuracy by any of the tested meters. Possible reasons of meters inaccuracies and suggestions for performance improvement are presented. Conclusions on the present state of ASD electric power measurements and recommendations for further research are given.

  5. Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doernbach, Jay

    1990-01-01

    The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

  6. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  7. Market opportunities in electric residential cooking. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bassill, S.

    1996-03-01

    At present, gas ovens and ranges are garnering an increasing share of the electric cooking market. This report evaluates the marketplace and explains the technological and educational reasons that an increasing number of consumers, dealers, builders, contractors, and original equipment manufacturers are opting for gas appliances. The report then identifies opportunities for the electric utility industry to regain residential electric cooking market shares by promoting the development and benefits of new electrotechnologies.

  8. The $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished as part of Northrop Grumman's TRP $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 program. Northrop Grumman has strived to achieve technology advances and development considered as high priority to the success of future electric vehicles. Northrop Grumman has achieved the intent of the program by taking several steps toward reducing the cost of the electric vehicle powertrain, demonstrating technologies in the form of hardware and introducing enhancements into production that are consistent with the needs of the market.

  9. Therapeutic effects of functional electrical stimulation on motor cortex in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, R; Mahadevappa, M; Lenka, P K; Biswas, A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal recorded during ankle dorsal and plantar flexion in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy (CP) after Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscles. The intervention group had 10 children with spastic diaplegic/hemiplegic CP within the age group of 5 to 14 years of age who received both FES for 30 minutes and the conventional physiotherapy for 30 minutes a day, while the control group had 5 children who received only conventional physiotherapy for 60(30 + 30) minutes a day only. Both group were treated for 5 days a week, up to 12 weeks. The EEG data were analyzed for Peak Alpha Frequency (PAF), sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), mu wave suppression and power spectral density (PSD) of all the bands. The results showed a decrease in SMR and mu wave suppression in the intervention group as compared to the control group, indicating a positive/greater improvement in performance of motor activities. Therefore, from this study we could conclude that FES combined with conventional physiotherapy improves the motor activity in children with spastic CP.

  10. Therapeutic effects of functional electrical stimulation on motor cortex in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, R; Mahadevappa, M; Lenka, P K; Biswas, A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal recorded during ankle dorsal and plantar flexion in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy (CP) after Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscles. The intervention group had 10 children with spastic diaplegic/hemiplegic CP within the age group of 5 to 14 years of age who received both FES for 30 minutes and the conventional physiotherapy for 30 minutes a day, while the control group had 5 children who received only conventional physiotherapy for 60(30 + 30) minutes a day only. Both group were treated for 5 days a week, up to 12 weeks. The EEG data were analyzed for Peak Alpha Frequency (PAF), sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), mu wave suppression and power spectral density (PSD) of all the bands. The results showed a decrease in SMR and mu wave suppression in the intervention group as compared to the control group, indicating a positive/greater improvement in performance of motor activities. Therefore, from this study we could conclude that FES combined with conventional physiotherapy improves the motor activity in children with spastic CP. PMID:26737030

  11. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  12. Minimum-time manoeuvring in electric vehicles with four wheel-individual-motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Tanelli, Mara; Esteves Araújo, Rui; Savaresi, Sergio M.

    2014-06-01

    The coordinated control of vehicle actuators is gaining more and more importance as new platforms are becoming available, with chassis endowed with many different actuators that may help controlling the vehicle motion. Furthermore, wheel individual motors allow using a single system to apply both positive and negative torques at the wheels, which can be actuated independently one from the other. In electric vehicles (EVs), moreover, such a freedom in the actuation mechanisms opens the way to the combined optimisation of performance and energy consumption issues. In this paper, the problem of minimum-time manoeuvring in EVs is addressed, and the proposed strategy is compared against a benchmark, a-causal optimal solution showing that only a negligible loss of performance is experienced.

  13. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christine K; Nelson, Gary; Than, Lara; Zijdewind, Inge

    2002-06-01

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce increments in the compound electromyogram (EMG) and force. Each increment corresponded to the activation of another unit. The evoked unit EMG and force was obtained by digital subtraction. The thenar muscles had between 15 and 83 units (26 +/- 19) that produced 114.3 +/- 127.1 mN force (n = 290). In six subjects, a significant positive correlation was found between activation order and unit force indicating that weaker units were excited before stronger units. These data are contrary to the notion that a reversal of unit activation order occurs during evoked versus voluntary contractions. PMID:12115967

  14. The effect of repetitive electrical stimulation on the motor evoked hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Khaslavskaia, Svetlana; Klucharev, Vasily; Chen, Andrew C N; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of short-term repetitive electrical stimulation (rES training session) on the motor-evoked hemodynamic responses. The fMRI echo-planar images (EPI) were recorded before and after the rES training. The right median nerve (MN) was stimulated during rES. The rES training resulted in a significant increase in activity in a number of supraspinal regions, including sensorimotor and associative cortical areas. On the subcortical level, the effect was also found in the cerebellum, the midbrain, and the thalamus. Possible mechanisms of the neuronal plastic changes observed after rES, and memory processes involved in learning are discussed.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of the rotary motor F(0) under external electric fields across the membrane.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Shan; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2010-03-17

    The membrane-bound component F(0), which is a major component of the F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase, works as a rotary motor and plays a central role in driving the F(1) component to transform chemiosmotic energy into ATP synthesis. We conducted molecular dynamics simulations of b(2)-free F(0) in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer for tens of nanoseconds with two different protonation states of the cAsp-61 residue at the interface of the a-c complex in the absence of electric fields and under electric fields of +/-0.03 V/nm across the membrane. To our surprise, we observed that the upper half of the N-terminal helix of the c(1) subunit rotated about its axis clockwise by 30 degrees . An energetic analysis revealed that the electrostatic repulsion between this N-terminal helix and subunit c(12) was a major contributor to the observed rotation. A correlation map analysis indicated that the correlated motions of residues in the interface of the a-c complex were significantly reduced by external electric fields. The deuterium order parameter (S(CD)) profile calculated by averaging all the lipids in the F(0)-bound bilayer was not very different from that of the pure bilayer system, in agreement with recent (2)H solid-state NMR experiments. However, by delineating the lipid properties according to their vicinity to F(0), we found that the S(CD) profiles of different lipid shells were prominently different. Lipids close to F(0) formed a more ordered structure. Similarly, the lateral diffusion of lipids on the membrane surface also followed a shell-dependent behavior. The lipids in the proximity of F(0) exhibited very significantly reduced diffusional motion. The numerical value of S(CD) was anticorrelated with that of the diffusion coefficient, i.e., the more ordered lipid structures led to slower lipid diffusion. Our findings will help elucidate the dynamics of F(0) depending on the protonation state and electric field, and may also shed some light on the

  16. Road load simulator tests of the Gould Phase I functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  17. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  18. Short report: effect of two prokinetic drugs on the electrical and motor activity of the small bowel in dogs.

    PubMed

    Defilippi, C; Gomez, E

    1993-06-01

    The effects of trimebutine and domperidone, on the electrical and motor activity of the upper small bowel in dogs, were studied simultaneously by means of a suction electrode and a manometric catheter. Trimebutine, given during phases I and II of the migratory motor complex, was followed by a period of regular spike potentials and contractions; the increased motor activity was significantly greater when the drug was given during phase II. Domperidone, when injected in phase I, was followed by an irregular pattern of spike potentials and contractions of low amplitude. By contrast, activity was not augmented when the drug was given during phase II. We conclude that the effects of drugs, such as trimebutine and domperidone, on the canine small bowel are influenced by the phase of the migratory motor complex. PMID:8364138

  19. Electric commercial cooking appliance development needs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.R.; Shukla, K.C.

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to identify electric commercial cooking appliance development needs, to investigate technologies that can be used to increase the market penetration of electric cooking equipment, and to present conceptual designs of some advanced electric cooking appliances. Results of the study will assist the electric utility industry in formulating development programs for advanced electric cooking equipment. Data on shipments, inventory, and energy consumption for six major gas and electric appliance categories--ranges, ovens, broilers, fryers, griddles, and steam equipment--were obtained to determine trends in the appliance market. A survey of end users and equipment manufacturers was performed to identify factors that affect the energy choice for commercial cooking equipment and to determine the market needs of advanced electric equipment. Development goals for three focus appliances--rangetops, ovens, and broilers--were established based on the survey and upon examination of factors affecting the purchase decision of buyers. In general, the recommended enhancements include higher efficiency, faster response, higher cooking speed, higher production rate, improved uniformity, improved reliability and durability, and reduced equipment and operating costs. Evaluation of various electrotechnologies to meet these goals and some examples of conceptual designs are presented.

  20. Final report on electric vehicle activities, September 1991--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    The data and information collected for the Public Service Electric and Gas Company`s (PSE&G) electric vehicle demonstration program were intended to support and enhance DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program. The DOE Site Operator Program is focused on the life cycle and reliability of Electric Vehicles (EVs). Of particular interest are vehicles currently available with features that are likely to be put into production or demonstrate new technology. PSE&G acquired eight GMC Electric G-Vans in 1991, and three TEVans in 1993, and conducted a program plan to test and assess the overall performance of these electric vehicles. To accomplish the objectives of DOE`s Site Operator`s test program, a manual data collection system was implemented. The manual data collection system has provided energy use and mileage data. From September 1991 to October 1994 PSE&G logged 69,368 miles on eleven test vehicles. PSE&G also demonstrated the EVs to diverse groups and associations at fifty seven various events. Included in the report are lessons learned concerning maintenance, operation, public reactions, and driver`s acceptance of the electric vehicles.

  1. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the median nerve facilitates low motor cortex excitability in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Yang, Hsiao-Chu; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Huang, Ying-Zu; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2015-02-01

    The neuromodulation of motor excitability has been shown to improve functional movement in people with central nervous system damage. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of peripheral neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in motor excitability and its effects in people with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). This single-blind case-control study was conducted on young control (n=9), age-matched control (n=9), and SCA participants (n=9; 7 SCAIII and 2 sporadic). All participants received an accumulated 30 min of NMES (25 Hz, 800 ms on/800 ms off) of the median nerve. The central motor excitability, measured by motor evoked potential (MEP) and silent period, and the peripheral motor excitability, measured by the H-reflex and M-wave, were recorded in flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle before, during, and after the NMES was applied. The results showed that NMES significantly enhanced the MEP in all 3 groups. The silent period, H-reflex and maximum M-wave were not changed by NMES. We conclude that NMES enhances low motor excitability in patients with SCA and that the mechanism of the neuromodulation was supra-segmental. These findings are potentially relevant to the utilization of NMES for preparation of motor excitability. The protocol was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02103075).

  2. AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR IN THE 8X6 FOOT SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL - ELECTRIC MOTORS OF 87,000 HORSEPOWER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR IN THE 8X6 FOOT SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL - ELECTRIC MOTORS OF 87,000 HORSEPOWER DRIVE THIS HUGE COMPRESSOR TO PRODUCE 1300 MILE PER HOUR AIRSPEEDS - THE 2 HALVES OF THE 18 FOOT DIAMETER CASING ARE SHOWN OPENED TO EXPOSE THE 7 ROW

  3. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... certification and compliance testing unless and until this appendix and 10 CFR Part 431 are amended to... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full...

  4. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  8. Effects of Electrical Stimulation, Exercise Training and Motor Skills Training on Strength of Children with Meningomyelocele: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagenais, Liese M.; Lahay, Erin R.; Stueck, Kailey A.; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant…

  9. 10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and water heating products. 431.408 Section 431.408 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL...

  10. 10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and water heating products. 431.408 Section 431.408 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL...

  11. Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  13. Electric and magnetic fields near AM broadcast towers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mantiply, E.; Cleveland, R.F.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to obtain actual measurement data in the close-in near field of representative AM broadcast antennas and compare the data to values predicted by a Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC) model. Measurements of electric and magnetic fields were made along several radial directions at distances from 1 to 100m from the transmitting towers of eight AM broadcast stations. These stations operated at various frequencies, electrical heights, and power outputs.

  14. Evaluation of biomass systems for electricity generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Ball, D.A.; Anson, D.

    1982-02-01

    State-of-the-art information and evaluation of alternative biomass systems for generation of electricity are provided. The biomass systems consist of silvicultural or agricultural resources, processing and conversion technology to make biomass-derived fuels, and electricity-generating technology. The systems are delineated in energy network charts and are evaluated in matrices that display biomass-system alternatives and multiple technical, economic, and environmental-impact criteria.

  15. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  16. Study of the feasibility and desirability of using motor fuel dyes and markers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-27

    This study includes a review of experience with the use of dyes and markers, an assessment of the benefits and costs associated with implementing a nationwide standard of motor fuel dyes and markers, and an evaluation of alternative means to achieve similar benefits in consumer fraud prevention and motor fuel tax enforcement.

  17. Method for assessing in-service motor efficiency and in-service motor/load efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for assessing the efficiency of an in-service motor. The operating characteristics of the in-service motor are remotely measured. The operating characteristics are then applied to an equivalent circuit for electrical motors. Finally the equivalent circuit is evaluated to determine the performance characteristics of said in-service motor. Based upon the evaluation an individual is able to determine the rotor speed, power output, efficiency, and toque of the in-service motor. Additionally, an individual is able to confirm the calculations by comparing measured values with values obtained as a result of the motor equivalent circuit evaluation.

  18. Transistors for Electric Motor Drives: High-Performance GaN HEMT Modules for Agile Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing transistors with gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors that could be used to make cost-effective, high-performance power converters for a variety of applications, including electric motor drives which transmit power to a motor. A transistor acts like a switch, controlling the electrical energy that flows around an electrical circuit. Most transistors today use low-cost silicon semiconductors to conduct electrical energy, but silicon transistors don’t operate efficiently at high speeds and voltage levels. Transphorm is using GaN as a semiconductor material in its transistors because GaN performs better at higher voltages and frequencies, and it is more energy efficient than straight silicon. However, Transphorm is using inexpensive silicon as a base to help keep costs low. The company is also packaging its transistors with other electrical components that can operate quickly and efficiently at high power levels—increasing the overall efficiency of both the transistor and the entire motor drive.

  19. HEMP interaction with an electric power distribution circuit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.; Jaszewski, G.M.

    1985-08-01

    A high altitude nuclear burst, detonated at a height of 50 km or more, causes two types of electromagnetic pulses, high altitude EMP (HEMP) and magnetohydrodynamic EMP, which will interact with electric power systems. Previous work indicated that millions of miles of electric distribution systems in the United States may be especially vulnerable to HEMP incident simultaneously throughout large portions of the United States. Purpose of this work was to perform an initial assessment of HEMP induced surges on a simplified electric distribution system. This report presents the assumptions, methodology, and resulting induced transient voltages and currents at various points in the distribution circuit in the microsecond timeframe, considering the impacts of HEMP incident simultaneously throughout the distribution system for a range of parametric conditions. Results of this work suggest that EMP could induce voltage transients that far exceed the basic insulation level (BIL) of distribution systems and that a more detailed analysis is warranted.

  20. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  1. Electric vehicle/photovoltaic test and evaluation program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The University of South Florida (USF) in collaboration with Florida utilities and other organizations have executed a research and development program for the test and evaluation of Electric Vehicles. Its activity as one of 13 US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric Vehicle Test Site Operators was funded by DOE and the Florida Energy Office (FEO). The purpose of this program was to determine the efficiency of electric vehicles under commuter and fleet conditions in Florida. An additional feature of this program was the development of a utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) system for charging electric vehicles with solar energy. USF developed an effective and economical automated on board Mobile Data Acquisition System (MDAS) that records vehicle operating data with minimum operator interface. Computer programs were written by the USF team to achieve processing and analysis of the vehicles` MDAS data, again minimizing human involvement, human effort and human error. A large number of passenger cars, vans and pickup trucks were studied. Procedures for monitoring them were developed to a point where the equipment is commercially available and its operation has become routine. The nations first PV solar powered electric vehicle charging station and test facility was designed, developed and put into operation under this program. The charging station is capable of direct DC-DC (PV to battery) or AC-DC (power grid to battery) charging and it routes unused PV power to the University`s power grid for other use. The DC-DC charging system is more efficient, more dependable and safer than DC-AC-DC and traditional methods of DC-DC charging. A fortuitous correlation was observed between battery charging demand and solar power availability in commuter application of electric vehicles.

  2. A continuous electric kiln for rapid sintering: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, D.A.; Tanagho, N.F.

    1987-09-01

    Alumina-based spark plug insulators have traditionally been sintered in continuous gas-fired car tunnel kilns with cycle times of thirty to forty hours. Automation of the handling has been difficult, and large amounts of kiln furniture are required to hold the ware as it passes through the kiln. This report describes an electric alternative that drastically shortens the firing cycle while maintaining desired ceramic properties. A fast-fire, electrically-heated, continuous kiln design is proposed which minimizes kiln furniture and promotes automated handling of the insulators.

  3. Analysis of electrical and magnetic bio-signals associated with motor performance and fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bing

    This dissertation reports findings centered principally on comprehensive research related to human bio-signals (EEG, MEG, EMG and fMRI) acquired during repetitive maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) that induced severe fatigue. Fatigue is a common experience that reduces productivity and quality of life and increases chances of injury. Although abundant information has been gained in the last several decades regarding muscular and spinal-level mechanisms of muscle fatigue, very little is known about how cortical centers control and respond to fatigue. The main purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue effects on the central nervous system by analyzing the bio-signals collected in the designed experiments. Healthy human subjects were asked to perform a series of repetitive handgrip MVCs with their dominant hand until exhaustion. Handgrip forces, electrical activity (EMG) from primary and non-primary muscles, and EEG, MEG, or fMRI signals from different locations of the brain were recorded simultaneously. The time series data were segmented into several physiologically meaningful epochs (time phases), from rest to preparation to movement execution/sustaining. A series of studies, including motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) analysis, power spectrum analysis, time-frequency (spectrogram) analysis of EEG, EEG source localization and nonlinear analysis (fractal dimension and largest Lyapunov exponent), and fMRI analysis, was applied to the data. We hypothesized that the fatigue effects would act differently on brain signals of different phases. The MRCP results showed that the negative potential (NP) related to motor task preparation only had minimal changes with fatigue. The power of all EEG frequencies did not alter significantly during the preparation phase but decreased significantly during the sustained phase of the contraction. The fractal dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent decreased significantly during the sustained phase as fatigue

  4. Cross Academic Credit. Electricity/Electronics & Science. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich Free Academy, CT.

    This curriculum guide for an electricity/electronics course was developed for high schools in Connecticut to demonstrate that technical courses can be used as part of the science requirement for an integrated academic and vocational curriculum. The guide provides a course description, course goals, recommended text and additional materials, 33…

  5. Teaching Slow Readers Using the Electric Typewriter. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Katherin E.

    The hypothesis that first and second graders can improve reading skills by learning to type on electric typewriters was tested in this study. Other purposes of the research were to develop linguistic comprehension in Standard English, to produce introductory reading materials which promote phonic understanding as they fix typing-key strokes, and…

  6. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  7. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume IV - pictures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours.

  8. Modulation of motor unit activity in biceps brachii by neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the contralateral arm

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Diba; Almuklass, Awad; Matkowski, Boris; Gould, Jeffrey R.; Enoka, Roger M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) current intensity and pulse width applied to the right elbow flexors on the discharge characteristics of motor units in the left biceps brachii. Three NMES current intensities were applied for 5 s with either narrow (0.2 ms) or wide (1 ms) stimulus pulses: one at 80% of motor threshold and two that evoked contractions at either ∼10% or ∼20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. The discharge times of 28 low-threshold (0.4–21.6% MVC force) and 16 high-threshold (31.7–56.3% MVC force) motor units in the short head of biceps brachii were determined before, during, and after NMES. NMES elicited two main effects: one involved transient deflections in the left-arm force at the onset and offset of NMES and the other consisted of nonuniform modulation of motor unit activity. The force deflections, which were influenced by NMES current intensity and pulse width, were observed only when low-threshold motor units were tracked. NMES did not significantly influence the discharge characteristics of tracked single-threshold motor units. However, a qualitative analysis indicated that there was an increase in the number of unique waveforms detected during and after NMES. The findings indicate that activity of motor units in the left elbow flexors can be modulated by NMES current and pulse width applied to right elbow flexors, but the effects are not distributed uniformly to the involved motor units. PMID:25930023

  9. Alpha, beta and gamma motoneurons: functional diversity in the motor system's final pathway.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Marin; Zytnicki, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Since their discovery in the late 19th century our conception of motoneurons has steadily evolved. Motoneurons share the same general function: they drive the contraction of muscle fibers and are the final common pathway, i.e., the seat of convergence of all the central and peripheral pathways involved in motricity. However, motoneurons innervate different types of muscular targets. Ordinary muscle fibers are subdivided into three main subtypes according to their structural and mechanical properties. Intrafusal muscle fibers located within spindles can elicit either a dynamic, or a static, action on the spindle sensory endings. No less than seven categories of motoneurons have thereby been identified on the basis of their innervation pattern. This functional diversity has hinted at a similar diversity in the inputs each motoneuron receives, as well as in the electrical, or cellular, properties of the motoneurons that match the properties of their muscle targets. The notion of the diverse properties of motoneurons has been well established by the work of many prominent neuroscientists. But in today's scientific literature, it tends to fade and motoneurons are often thought of as a homogenous group, which develop from a given population of precursor cells, and which express a common set of molecules. We first present here the historical milestones that led to the recognition of the functional diversity of motoneurons. We then review how the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are precisely tuned in each category of motoneurons in order to produce an output that is adapted to the contractile properties of their specific targets.

  10. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  11. Trouble shooting guide for low-voltage ASD/motor systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    Though manufactured and marketed as a commodity with widespread industry acceptance, ASDs do not always prove as reliable for particular applications as buyers and sellers might first believe. Considered separately, both ASDs and motors are inherently reliable. Problems typically occur, however, when the two are integrated into an application-specific system. Many of these system problems, in turn, are initially due to specifying and purchasing practices, and then to improper installation and implementation. ASD/low-voltage motor systems are used extensively by manufacturing and many other industries for a variety of reasons, including flexibility in manufacturing, energy conservation, and improved process control. There can be, however, reliability problems with ASD/motor systems. This report discusses ASD/motor system-related issues and provides guidance in identifying and solving the root causes of problems.

  12. Electric fields of motor and frontal tDCS in a standard brain space: A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mikkonen, Marko; Koyama, Soichiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-08-15

    The electric field produced in the brain is the main physical agent of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Inter-subject variations in the electric fields may help to explain the variability in the effects of tDCS. Here, we use multiple-subject analysis to study the strength and variability of the group-level electric fields in the standard brain space. Personalized anatomically-accurate models of 62 subjects were constructed from T1- and T2-weighted MRI. The finite-element method was used to computationally estimate the individual electric fields, which were registered to the standard space using surface based registration. Motor cortical and frontal tDCS were modelled for 16 electrode montages. For each electrode montage, the group-level electric fields had a consistent strength and direction in several brain regions, which could also be located at some distance from the electrodes. In other regions, the electric fields were more variable, and thus more likely to produce variable effects in each individual. Both the anode and cathode locations affected the group-level electric fields, both directly under the electrodes and elsewhere. For motor cortical tDCS, the electric fields could be controlled at the group level by moving the electrodes. However, for frontal tDCS, the group-level electric fields were more variable, and the electrode locations had only minor effects on the group average fields. Our results reveal the electric fields and their variability at the group level in the standard brain space, providing insights into the mechanisms of tDCS for plasticity induction. The data are useful for planning, analysing and interpreting tDCS studies. PMID:27188218

  13. A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-11

    This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

  14. A hybrid electrical/chemical circuit in the spinal cord generates a transient embryonic motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Knogler, Laura D; Ryan, Joel; Saint-Amant, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-07-16

    Spontaneous network activity is a highly stereotyped early feature of developing circuits throughout the nervous system, including in the spinal cord. Spinal locomotor circuits produce a series of behaviors during development before locomotion that reflect the continual integration of spinal neurons into a functional network, but how the circuitry is reconfigured is not understood. The first behavior of the zebrafish embryo (spontaneous coiling) is mediated by an electrical circuit that subsequently generates mature locomotion (swimming) as chemical neurotransmission develops. We describe here a new spontaneous behavior, double coiling, that consists of two alternating contractions of the tail in rapid succession. Double coiling was glutamate-dependent and required descending hindbrain excitation, similar to but preceding swimming, making it a discrete intermediary developmental behavior. At the cellular level, motoneurons had a distinctive glutamate-dependent activity pattern that correlated with double coiling. Two glutamatergic interneurons, CoPAs and CiDs, had different activity profiles during this novel behavior. CoPA neurons failed to show changes in activity patterns during the period in which double coiling appears, whereas CiD neurons developed a glutamate-dependent activity pattern that correlated with double coiling and they innervated motoneurons at that time. Additionally, double coils were modified after pharmacological reduction of glycinergic neurotransmission such that embryos produced three or more rapidly alternating coils. We propose that double coiling behavior represents an important transition of the motor network from an electrically coupled spinal cord circuit that produces simple periodic coils to a spinal network driven by descending chemical neurotransmission, which generates more complex behaviors.

  15. Mathematical model of the electric arc furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Szekely, J.

    1982-07-01

    Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking is responsible for some 25% of the steel produced in the US and this proportion is likely to grow in the future. This operation consumes some 1.4 x 10/sup 10/ kWh annually at an overall process efficiency of about 60 to 75%. The purpose of this program has been to develop a mathematical model representing the energy transfer in electric arc furnaces with the objective of defining means for the optimization of the system, such that the energy consumption is reduced. Through the statement of the appropriate transport equations, subject to certain simplifying assumptions, a mathematical model has been developed to represent heat and fluid flow phenomena in the arc, the interaction of the arc with the bath, and bath circulation in electric arc furnaces. While there is a paucity of reliable information for the critical testing of the model as a description of industrial scale arc furnaces, there is enough data on plasmas, arcs and some industrial units to prove that the basic premises of the modelling effort are sound; indeed the predictions based on the model were found to be consistent with industrial scale measurements.

  16. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors in electric vehicles caused by unbalanced magnetic pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.

  17. Structural Analysis of the Support System for a Large Compressor Driven by a Synchronous Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    For economic reasons, the steam drive for a large compressor was replaced by a large synchronous electric motor. Due to the resulting large increase in mass and because the unit was mounted on a steel frame approximately 18 feet above ground level, it was deemed necessary to determine if a steady state or transient vibration problem existed. There was a definite possibility that a resonant or near resonant condition could be encountered. The ensuing analysis, which led to some structural changes as the analysis proceeded, did not reveal any major steady state vibration problems. However, the analysis did indicate that the system would go through several natural frequencies of the support structure during start-up and shutdown. This led to the development of special start-up and shutdown procedures to minimize the possibility of exciting any of the major structural modes. A coast-down could result in significant support structure and/or equipment damage, especially under certain circumstances. In any event, dynamic field tests verified the major analytical results. The unit has now been operating for over three years without any major vibration problems.

  18. Electric and magnetic fields and tumor progression. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keng, P.C.; Grota, L.J.; Michaelson, S.; Lu, S.T.

    1994-12-01

    This laboratory study has rigorously investigated two previously reported biological effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. The first effect involves nighttime suppression of melatonin synthesis in the pineal glands of rats exposed to high electric fields. The second concerns the increase in colony forming ability of human colon cancer cells exposed to 1.4-G magnetic fields. Neither effect was detected in the present study. A series of published laboratory studies on rats reported that 60-Hz electric fields at various field levels up to 130 kV/m suppress the nighttime synthesis of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland. Since melatonin is known to modulate the immune system and may inhibit cancer cell activity, changes in physiological levels of melatonin may have significant health consequences. In the repeat experiments, field exposure did not alter nighttime levels of melatonin or enzyme activities in the pineal gland. A small but statistically significant reduction of about 20% in serum melatonin was seen in exposed animals. Pineal melatonin was also unaffected by the presence of red light as a cofactor with field exposure or by time-shifting the daily field exposure period. Another study reported that 60-Hz magnetic fields can affect the colony forming ability of human cancer cells after exposure in a culture medium. In the repeat experiments, field exposure did not alter the colony forming ability of human Colo 205 cells in two different cell concentrations at plating or in two different incubation conditions. Field exposure also did not affect cell cycling in any of the four cell lines tested.

  19. FY2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and representatives of the electric utility and petroleum industries. Known as U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability), it represents DOE’s commitment to developing public–private partnerships to fund high-risk–high-reward research into advanced automotive technologies. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the partnership known as FreedomCAR (derived from “Freedom” and “Cooperative Automotive Research”) that ran from 2002 through 2010 and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  20. Nitrogen control in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Scheid, C.; Geiger, G.; Czarnik, C.; Teall, D.

    1992-12-01

    Electric arc furnace produced steels are usually characterized by relatively high nitrogen content. This restricts their use in applications requiring controlled nitrogen content, such as deep drawing quality products. This report presents the results of an EPRI Center for Materials Production and steel industry study of methods for controlling or reducing the nitrogen content of EAF steels. The study involved a series of trials performed by North Star Steel at its Michigan Division plant. A major conclusion of the study is that nitrogen content can be reduced through an increase in carbon monoxide evolution sustained by oxygen injection and carbon additions.

  1. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit availability

  2. Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-28

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch period failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.

  3. 77 FR 56241 - Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive 1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) ``retire'' the final design approval (FDA) for the Advanced Passive 1000 (AP1000) design upon the completion of rulemaking for the amendment to the...

  4. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  5. The monitoring of transient regimes on machine tools based on speed, acceleration and active electric power absorbed by motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodinca, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intend to propose some new results related with computer aided monitoring of transient regimes on machine-tools based on the evolution of active electrical power absorbed by the electric motor used to drive the main kinematic chains and the evolution of rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft. The active power is calculated in numerical format using the evolution of instantaneous voltage and current delivered by electrical power system to the electric motor. The rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft are calculated based on the signal delivered by a sensor. Three real-time analogic signals are acquired with a very simple computer assisted setup which contains a voltage transformer, a current transformer, an AC generator as rotational speed sensor, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. The data processing and analysis was done using Matlab software. Some different transient regimes were investigated; several important conclusions related with the advantages of this monitoring technique were formulated. Many others features of the experimental setup are also available: to supervise the mechanical loading of machine-tools during cutting processes or for diagnosis of machine-tools condition by active electrical power signal analysis in frequency domain.

  6. Electric utility survey of residential ventilation issues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moraski, D.P.; Smit, K.L.; Tidball, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    Many utilities are promoting tightly-sealed homes to improve energy efficiency, and it is important to understand the implications of a well-sealed structure on indoor air quality (IAQ). With Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) support, Energy International conducted a nationwide survey of electric utilities to determine utility understanding of IAQ and ventilation issues. A total of 35 utilities were contacted for this survey. Utilities known to be active in the ventilation area were specifically targeted. The remaining utilities were chosen to gain a balanced geographical and size representation. A survey form was completed for each utility, providing a consistent platform for the survey. The results of the survey indicate a mixed awareness and interest in ventilation issues. Of the 35 utilities contacted, 10 were concerned with IAQ issues and were taking steps to alleviate potential problems through ventilation. Eight of the utilities believed that IAQ issues may be important in the future but have not yet implemented ventilation requirements or recommendations. The remaining 17 utilities did not express a significant concern with IAQ and did not foresee future problems. The utilities surveyed had only moderate concern with detailed ventilation issues such as infiltration measurements, spot vs. Whole house ventilation, source control vs. dilution, and control strategies. The most important utility concerns appear to be questions about the basic need for IAQ controls, and the cost-benefit analysis of energy efficient homes that require additional ventilation equipment. The utilities contacted that are concerned with IAQ generally have several mechanical ventilation system options to meet recommendations.

  7. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1993-05-01

    This volume contains the abstract, scope, discussion of results, charts of motor material compatibility, test procedures, material identifications, and 84 pages of data summary tables. Compatibility test results for 11 pure refrigerants and 17 refrigerant-lubricant combinations with 24 motor materials are included. The greatest effect on the motor materials was caused by adsorption followed by desorption of refrigerants at higher temperatures. High internal pressure of the adsorbed refrigerants and their tendency to evolve from the materials resulted in blisters, cracks, internal bubbles in the varnish, and delamination or bubbles in the sheet insulations. The second effect was extraction or dissolution of materials that lead to embrittlement of some sheet insulations. HCFC-22 and HCFC- 22/mineral oil had the most deleterious effects; the materials are expected to be reliable when used with most of the new refrigerants and lubricants. Tables.

  8. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  9. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  10. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  11. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, P. F.; Bryan, J. R.

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques, yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. We describe the design, development, testing, and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k x 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76 percent to below 5 percent for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5 percent if only the upper 90 percent of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50 percent. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards.

  12. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  13. Electrical stimulation of motor cortex in the uninjured hemisphere after chronic unilateral injury promotes recovery of skilled locomotion through ipsilateral control.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Jason B; Kimura, Hiroki; Martin, John H

    2014-01-01

    Partial injury to the corticospinal tract (CST) causes sprouting of intact axons at their targets, and this sprouting correlates with functional improvement. Electrical stimulation of motor cortex augments sprouting of intact CST axons and promotes functional recovery when applied soon after injury. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation of motor cortex in the intact hemisphere after chronic lesion of the CST in the other hemisphere would restore function through ipsilateral control. To test motor skill, rats were trained and tested to walk on a horizontal ladder with irregularly spaced rungs. Eight weeks after injury, produced by pyramidal tract transection, half of the rats received forelimb motor cortex stimulation of the intact hemisphere. Rats with injury and stimulation had significantly improved forelimb control compared with rats with injury alone and achieved a level of proficiency similar to uninjured rats. To test whether recovery of forelimb function was attributable to ipsilateral control, we selectively inactivated the stimulated motor cortex using the GABA agonist muscimol. The dose of muscimol we used produces strong contralateral but no ipsilateral impairments in naive rats. In rats with injury and stimulation, but not those with injury alone, inactivation caused worsening of forelimb function; the initial deficit was reinstated. These results demonstrate that electrical stimulation can promote recovery of motor function when applied late after injury and that motor control can be exerted from the ipsilateral motor cortex. These results suggest that the uninjured motor cortex could be targeted for brain stimulation in people with large unilateral CST lesions. PMID:24403146

  14. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets

  15. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the

  16. Communications and control for electric power systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, H.

    1998-04-01

    This report is a summary of some of the work done on the Communications and Control project, with particular emphasis on the achievements during the years 1986--1996. During those years, the project moved away from concern with dispersed storage and generation and its impact on power system operation (the team was responsible for studies in this area, and for making a power system simulator that included DSG), and became involved in more concrete work aimed at applying high-tech solutions to problems of power system communications and control. This report covers work done at JPL on the following topics: (1) the measurement of electric and magnetic fields, both ac and dc; (2) the use of optical power to supply low-power electronics; (3) the design of a fault-tolerant communication system designed for distribution automation; and (4) a digital phase locked loop that allows the use of low-power transmitting electronics to recreate a good-quality signal at the receiver. In a report of this kind, only the results and highlights of the work are described.

  17. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this ``soluble`` zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  18. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    .... (For 2009 theft data calculations, see 76 FR 65610, October 24, 2011). As in all previous reports... theft rate for MYs 1990/1991. (See 59 FR 12400, March 16, 1994). Of the three vehicle lines with a theft... preliminary theft rates for CY 2010 passenger motor vehicles in the Federal Register (77 FR 38025). The...

  19. 76 FR 2598 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... rates. (For 2007 theft data calculations, see 75 FR 47720, August 9, 2010). As in all previous reports... per thousand vehicles, the established median theft rate for MYs 1990/1991. (See 59 FR 12400, March 16... preliminary theft rates for CY 2008 passenger motor vehicles in the Federal Register (75 FR 5073). The...

  20. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours. The original refrigerants and the Alternatives tested for retrofit were as follows: Most motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) were compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant. This was attributed to solution of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) found in Mylar and Melinex sheet and sleeving insulations was initially observed, but subsequent tests under dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was caused by moisture present during the exposure. Compatibility tests of elastomers with R-245ca, retrofitted from R-11 and R-123, showed that the nitrile was compatible with both R-11 and R-245ca, but not with R-123. The neoprene was unsatisfactory because of shrinkage in the R-245ca.

  1. Fabrication, assembly, bench and drilling tests of two prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bookwalter, R.; Duettra, P.D.; Johnson, P.; Lyons, W.C.; Miska, S.

    1987-04-01

    The first and second prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors have been fabricated, assembled and tested. All bench tests showed that the motor will produce horsepower and bit speeds approximating the predicted values. Specifically, the downhole pneumatic turbine motor produced approximately 50 horsepower at 100 rpm, while being supplied with about 3600 SCFM of compressed air. The first prototype was used in a drilling test from a depth of 389 feet to a depth of 789 feet in the Kirtland formation. This first prototype motor drilled at a rate exceeding 180 ft/hr, utilizing only 3000 SCFM of compressed air. High temperature tests (at approximately 460/sup 0/F) were carried out on the thrust assembly and the gearboxes for the two prototypes. These components operated successfully at these temperatures. Although the bench and drilling tests were successful, the tests revealed design changes that should be made before drilling tests are carried out in geothermal boreholes at the Geysers area, near Santa Rosa, California.

  2. HEMP-induced transients in electric power substations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, C.M.; Thomas, D.E.; Salas, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear detonation in or above the earth`s atmosphere produces an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A large portion of the EMP electromagnetic energy is within the RF spectrum. A detonation at high altitudes above 40 km produces an EMP called high-altitude EMP (HEMP). HEMP is a steep-front short duration transient with a rise time on the order of a few nanoseconds which decays to near zero in less than a microsecond. A single high-altitude burst can subject much of the continental United States to intense HEMP electric fields on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter. The intense transient HEMP will induce fast transients in high-voltage transmission lines and bus structures, instrumentation cables, and control wires in power transmission and distribution (T & D) substations. A system of traveling wave coupling models for a 500 kV substation, including models for the high voltage primary bus, components (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, power transformers, and current and voltage instrument transformers), low voltage control wiring circuits, and a number of conducted and radiated interference coupling modes, had been developed earlier by EPRI. These EPRI served as the baseline for the present HEMP coupling investigations. The HEMP effects on protective relays were assessed for a nominal HEMP environment using several new field coupling models merged with the switching transient data. It is found that a representative solid state relay is unlikely to be damaged or to misoperate by the nominal HEMP threat with a peak field strength of 50 kV/m. However, it is possible for both DC control wires to flash over to ground simultaneously, causing fuses to blow and placing the relay in an inoperative state.

  3. COMPASS Final Report: Enceladus Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) internal Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage design are documented in this report (Figure 1.1). The SEP Stage was designed to deliver a science probe to Saturn (the probe design was performed separately by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC)). The SEP Stage delivers the 2444 kg probe on a Saturn trajectory with a hyperbolic arrival velocity of 5.4 km/s. The design carried 30 percent mass, 10 percent power, and 6 percent propellant margins. The SEP Stage relies on the probe for substantial guidance, navigation and control (GN&C), command and data handling (C&DH), and Communications functions. The stage is configured to carry the probe and to minimize the packaging interference between the probe and the stage. The propulsion system consisted of a 1+1 (one active, one spare) configuration of gimbaled 7 kW NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion thrusters with a throughput of 309 kg Xe propellant. Two 9350 W GaAs triple junction (at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU), includes 10 percent margin) ultra-flex solar arrays provided power to the stage, with Li-ion batteries for launch and contingency operations power. The base structure was an Al-Li hexagonal skin-stringer frame built to withstand launch loads. A passive thermal control system consisted of heat pipes to north and south radiator panels, multilayer insulation (MLI) and heaters for the Xe tank. All systems except tanks and solar arrays were designed to be single fault tolerant.

  4. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  5. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  6. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  7. Novel polymer composite having diamond particles and boron nitride platelets for thermal management of electric vehicle motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Anri; Shoji, Atsushi; Yonemori, Kei; Seo, Nobuhide

    2016-02-01

    Thermal conductivities of silicone matrix polymers including fillers of diamond particles and/or hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) platelets were systematically investigated in an attempt to find a thermal interface material (TIM) having high isotropic thermal conductivity and high electrical insulating ability to enable efficient heat dissipation from the motor coil ends of electric vehicles. The TIM with mixed fillers of diamond particles and h-BN platelets had a maximum thermal conductivity of 6.1 W m-1 K-1 that was almost isotropic. This is the highest value among the thermal conductivities of TIMs with silicone matrix polymer reported to date. The mechanism behind the thermal conductivity of the TIMs was also examined from the viewpoint of the change in the number of thermally conductive networks and/or a decrease in the thermal resistivity of junctions of neighboring diamond particles through the incorporation of h-BN platelets. The TIMs developed in this study will make it possible to manage the heat of electric motors and will help to popularize electric vehicles.

  8. Motor disturbances and thalamic electrical power of frequency bands' improve by grape seed extract in animal model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Eidypour, Zainab; Motamedi, Freshteh; keramati, keivan; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies showed that grape seed extract (GSE) is an excellent natural substance with potent antioxidant effect and free radical scavenger. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of GSE on motor dysfunctions and thalamic local Electroencephalography (EEG) frequency bands' powers in rats with Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: In this study 8 µg 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) dissolved in 2 µl normal saline containing 0.01% ascorbic acid was infused into right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to make an animal model of PD. Rats with PD received four weeks GSE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) after apomorphine-induced rotation test. Spontaneous motor tests and also thalamic ventroanterior nucleus (AV) local EEG recording were done in freely moving rats in all groups. Results: Chronic treatment of PD rats with GSE could influence potentially frequency bands' powers of thalamic VA and improve post-lesion motor dysfunctions significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GSE modulates the CNS function and has beneficial effects on the direct and indirect striato-thalamo-cortical pathways in PD. GSE acts as a new and potent natural free radical scavenger which removes oxidants produced by neurotoxin 6-OHDA in brain. Therefore, it reinforces electrical power of remained thalamic VA neurons and thereby improves post-lesion motor disorders. PMID:25050252

  9. A novel functional electrical stimulation-control system for restoring motor function of post-stroke hemiplegic patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zonghao; Wang, Zhigong; Lv, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yuxuan; Wang, Haipeng; Zong, Sihao

    2014-01-01

    Hemiparesis is one of the most common consequences of stroke. Advanced rehabilitation techniques are essential for restoring motor function in hemiplegic patients. Functional electrical stimulation applied to the affected limb based on myoelectric signal from the unaffected limb is a promising therapy for hemiplegia. In this study, we developed a prototype system for evaluating this novel functional electrical stimulation-control strategy. Based on surface electromyography and a vector machine model, a self-administered, multi-movement, force-modulation functional electrical stimulation-prototype system for hemiplegia was implemented. This paper discusses the hardware design, the algorithm of the system, and key points of the self-oscillation-prone system. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the prototype system for further clinical trials, which is being conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed rehabilitation technique. PMID:25657728

  10. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  11. Design and analysis of new fault-tolerant permanent magnet motors for four-wheel-driving electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guohai; Gong, Wensheng; Chen, Qian; Jian, Linni; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Wenxiang

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a novel in-wheel permanent-magnet (PM) motor for four-wheel-driving electrical vehicles is proposed. It adopts an outer-rotor topology, which can help generate a large drive torque, in order to achieve prominent dynamic performance of the vehicle. Moreover, by adopting single-layer concentrated-windings, fault-tolerant teeth, and the optimal combination of slot and pole numbers, the proposed motor inherently offers negligible electromagnetic coupling between different phase windings, hence, it possesses a fault-tolerant characteristic. Meanwhile, the phase back electromotive force waveforms can be designed to be sinusoidal by employing PMs with a trapezoidal shape, eccentric armature teeth, and unequal tooth widths. The electromagnetic performance is comprehensively investigated and the optimal design is conducted by using the finite-element method.

  12. ac powertrain for an electric vehicle. Phase 2 and Phase 3 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes work relating to Phases 2 and 3 development and testing of an ac powertrain for a 25 hp four-passenger electric vehicle. The system, which consists of a two-speed automatic mechanical transaxle, 18.6 kW ac induction traction motor, 33.6 kW inverter and overall logic controller, was installed and evaluated in a converted Mercury Lynx rolling test bed vehicle. An on-board charger and an auxiliary dc-to-dc converter were integrated into the inverter/controller package.

  13. Molecular genetics of myosin motors in Arabidopsis. Final report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, J.

    1997-02-01

    The normal growth and development of plant cells depends on the precise organization and distribution of the cellular contents. The basic goal of this investigation was to define a group of the molecules that are involved in organizing and transporting plant cell components. Based largely on studies of animal and fungal cells, one of the molecules thought to be involved in intracellular trafficking in plants is the actin-based motor protein myosin. Therefore, the major aim of this study was to isolate and analyze plant genes encoding myosin proteins. The plant of choice for these experiments was Arabidopsis thaliana, which offers numerous advantages for molecular genetics research.

  14. Analysis of FERC's Final EIS for Electricity Open Access & Recovery of Stranded Costs

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) prepared by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for its electricity transmission system open access prepared in April 1996 and uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to analyze the open access rule (Orders 888 and 889).

  15. 77 FR 73039 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Vantage Electric Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Electric Vehicles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of Vantage Vehicle... the United States is the country of origin of the Vantage Vehicle EVX1000 and EVR1000 models...

  16. 75 FR 9202 - Pacific Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...), Commission staff has prepared a Final Environmental Assessment (FEA) regarding Pacific Gas & Electric Company... Valley Dam is located on North Fork Willow Creek, in the San Joaquin River Basin. The FEA analyzes the... recommends further measures to minimize any environmental effects. The FEA concludes that the...

  17. 76 FR 55111 - United States v. General Electric Co., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... synchronous motors. Lastly, the Final Judgment permits GE to retain Converteam's SAP business management... requires that GE grant access and use rights to the SAP business management server and provide transition... the SAP business management server. The divestiture provisions of the proposed Final Judgment...

  18. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia.

  19. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. PMID:26231574

  20. Solid-state speed controllers for single-phase capacitor motors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, M.M.; Heber, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the design of an electronic speed controller for agricultural ventilation fans. The controller was developed and tested with three commercially available and widely used fan systems. Linearized temperature versus airflow rate characteristics were obtained. The controller circuitry uses an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) chip. The input to the EPROM is an analog representation of temperature converted to digital form. The digital contents then are converted to an analog signal that triggers a triac and consequently controls the voltage input to the fan motor. A linearized control characteristic, i.e., temperature versus airflow rate, can be obtained by storing appropriate voltage values in the EPROM. These values correspond linearly to the desired fan speeds.

  1. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  2. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  3. Implementation of a Non-Metallic Barrier in an Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    M'Sadoques, George A. (Inventor); Carra, Michael R. (Inventor); Beringer, Durwood M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A motor for use in a volatile environment includes a rotor exposed to the volatile environment, electronics for rotating the rotor, an impervious ceramic barrier separating the electronics and the rotor, and a flexible seal for preventing the volatile environment from contacting the electronics and for minimizing vibratory and twisting loads upon the barrier to minimize damage to the barrier.

  4. Using electrical and optical tweezers to facilitate studies of molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Mark E; Sun, Yujie; Bau, Haim H; Goldman, Yale E

    2009-06-28

    Dielectrophoresis was used to stretch and suspend actin filaments across a trench etched between two electrodes patterned on a glass slide. Optical tweezers were used to bring a motor protein-coated bead into close proximity to a pre-selected, suspended actin filament, facilitating the attachment of the myosin-coated bead to the filament. The clearance beneath the filament allowed the bead to move freely along and around its filamentous track, unhindered by solid surfaces. Using defocused images, the three-dimensional position of the bead was tracked as a function of time to obtain its trajectory. Experiments were carried out with myosin V and myosin X. Both motor proteins followed left-handed helical paths with the myosin X motor exhibiting a shorter pitch than the myosin V. The combined use of electrostatic and optical tweezers facilitates the preparation of motility assays with suspended tracks. Variants of this technique will enable higher complexity experiments in vitro to better understand the behavior of motors in cells. PMID:19506758

  5. Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach To Auxiliary Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Kessinger; Kanchan Angal; Steve Brewer; Steve Kraihanzel; Lenny Schrank; Jason Wolf

    2003-07-15

    The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

  6. Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

    2003-09-26

    The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

  7. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... CONTACT: James Raba, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On March 9, 2010, the DOE's Office of Energy......

  8. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  9. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Test Procedure 1. Test Condition 2. Vehicle Condition 3. Test Procedure a. Start-up b. Stationary But... interested parties. The VSP committee's primary goal is to develop a test procedure to measure the minimum sound output of a motor vehicle. In September 2011, the SAE published the test procedure, Measurement...

  10. Electrical Motor Current Signal Analysis using a Modulation Signal Bispectrum for the Fault Diagnosis of a Gearbox Downstream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haram, M.; Wang, T.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    Motor current signal analysis has been an effective way for many years of monitoring electrical machines themselves. However, little work has been carried out in using this technique for monitoring their downstream equipment because of difficulties in extracting small fault components in the measured current signals. This paper investigates the characteristics of electrical current signals for monitoring the faults from a downstream gearbox using a modulation signal bispectrum (MSB), including phase effects in extracting small modulating components in a noisy measurement. An analytical study is firstly performed to understand amplitude, frequency and phase characteristics of current signals due to faults. It then explores the performance of MSB analysis in detecting weak modulating components in current signals. Experimental study based on a 10kw two stage gearbox, driven by a three phase induction motor, shows that MSB peaks at different rotational frequencies can be based to quantify the severity of gear tooth breakage and the degrees of shaft misalignment. In addition, the type and location of a fault can be recognized based on the frequency at which the change of MSB peak is the highest among different frequencies.

  11. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  12. 75 FR 47720 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...: This final notice revises the Federal Register notice published on March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11005) which... calculations, see 73 FR 60633, October 14, 2008). As in all previous reports, NHTSA's data were based on... thousand vehicles, the established median theft rate for MYs 1990/1991. (See 59 FR 12400, March 16,...

  13. 75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Measurements for Electrical Isolation 2. Voltage Level 3. Energy Limit (0.2 Joules) B. Other Issues Relating to...: Electrolyte Spillage and Electrical Shock Protection, is to reduce deaths and ] injuries during a crash which.... 305, mostly in line with the revised SAE J1766.\\1\\ The highlights of the NPRM were: \\1\\ 72 FR...

  14. Metamodels for New Designs of Outer-Rotor Brushless Synchronous Electric Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.

    2014-04-01

    The authors consider the possibilities to synthesise metamodels for the analysis and optimisation of brushless synchronous motors. The metamodels are presented for new designs of the outer-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and the outer-rotor reluctance motor. The metamodels are synthesised based on the results obtained by the numerical calculations of magnetic field taking into account magnetic saturation. Analysis of the results for the motor magnetic field and tests of the metamodels at the selected and intermediate points shows that these can be synthesised with acceptable accuracy using numerical calculations instead of expensive real experiments. Rakstā ir apskatītas metamodeļu iegūšanas iespējas to izmantošanai bezkontaktu sinhrono dzinēju analīzē un optimizācijā. Ir iegūti metamodeļi sinhronam dzinējam ar pastāvīgajiem magnētiem un reaktīvam dzinējam ar ārējo rotoru. Sintezēto metamodeļu iegūšanai izmantoti elektrisko dzinēju magnētiskā lauka skaitlisko aprēķinu rezultāti, ievērojot magnētiskās ķēdes piesātinājumu. Metamodeļu pārbaude aprēķinu un starppunktos parādīja, ka to iegūšanai dārgo reālo eksperimentu vietā var izmantot magnētiskā lauka aprēķinu rezultātus.

  15. Permanent magnet materials: An assessment of the state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P.

    1994-07-01

    Permanent magnets underlie many of the technologies that are central to modern industrial societies, including electric motors. Given that electric motors consume approximately 62% of the total electricity generated in the United States each year, they are considered one of the most promising applications of high-efficiency permanent magnet materials. In particular, a new class of permanent magnets composed of rare-earth (RE) and transition-metal (TM) elements is expected to have a major impact on electric motor efficiency and the electric power industry. EPRI has conducted a thorough review of the literature on permanent magnet materials to summarize their status and potential, with a focus on applications to electric motors technologies. This report summarizes and discusses issues that are key to the successful application of new permanent magnetic materials in electric motors, including design innovations in large electric motors and the economical and political limitations on raw materials. Finally, areas of future research are outlined.

  16. TMS-EEG: A window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Aron T; Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Hoy, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) provides a method of directly probing both local and widespread changes in brain neurophysiology, through the recording of TMS-evoked potentials and cortical oscillations. In this review we explore TMS-EEG as a tool for examining the impact of tES on cortical function and argue that multimodal approaches which combine tES with TMS-EEG could lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which underlie tES-induced cognitive modulation.

  17. An electric contact method to measure contact state between stator and rotor in a traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianjun; Zhou, Tieying

    2003-09-01

    Performances of ultrasonic motor (USM) depend considerably on contact state between stator and rotor. To measure the contact state in a traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM), a special test method is necessary. This paper develops a new method named electric contact method to measure contact state of stator and rotor in traveling wave type USM. The effects of pre-load and exciting voltage (amplitude) of stator on contact state between stator and rotor are studied with this method. By a simulating tester of friction properties of TWUSM, the variations of stalling torque and no-load speed against the pre-load and the exciting voltage have been measured. The relative contact length that describes the contact characteristic of stator and rotor is proposed. The relation between the properties of TWUSM and the contact state of stator and rotor are presented. Additionally, according to a theoretical contact model of stator and rotor in TWUSM, the contact lengths at given conditions are calculated and compared with the experimental results.

  18. A numerical method to enhance the performance of a cam-type electric motor-driven left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Ming; Lu, Cunyue; Xu, Liang; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Meng, Fan

    2013-10-01

    Pulsatile left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) driven by electric motors have been widely accepted as a treatment of heart failure. Performance enhancement with computer assistance for this kind of LVAD has seldom been reported. In this article, a numerical method is proposed to assist the design of a cam-type pump. The method requires an integrated model of an LVAD system, consisting of a motor, a transmission mechanism, and a cardiovascular circulation. Performance indices, that is, outlet pressure, outlet flow, and pump efficiency, were used to select the best cam profile from six candidates. A prototype pump connected to a mock circulatory loop (MCL) was used to calibrate the friction coefficient of the cam groove and preliminarily evaluate modeling accuracy. In vitro experiments show that the mean outlet pressure and flow can be predicted with high accuracy by the model, and gross geometries of the measurements can also be reproduced. Simulation results demonstrate that as the total peripheral resistance (TPR) is fixed at 1.1 mm Hg.s/mL, the two-cycle 2/3-rise profile is the best. Compared with other profiles, the maximum increases of pressure and flow indices are 75 and 76%, respectively, and the maximum efficiency increase is over 51%. For different TPRs (0.5∼1.5 mm Hg.s/mL) and operation intervals (0.1∼0.4 s) in counterpulsation, the conclusion is also acceptable.

  19. Electrostatic generator/motor having rotors of varying thickness and a central stator electrically connected together into two groups

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2010-11-16

    A sub-module consists of a set of two outer sets of stationary fan-blade-shaped sectors. These outer sectors include conductive material and are maintained at ground potential in several examples. Located midway between them is a set of stationary sector plates with each plate being electrically insulated from the others. An example provides that the inner sector plates are connected together alternately, forming two groups of parallel-connected condensers that are then separately connected, through high charging circuit resistances, to a source of DC potential with respect to ground, with an additional connecting lead being provided for each group to connect their output as an AC output to a load. These same leads can he used, when connected to a driver circuit, to produce motor action.

  20. Testing of the permanent magnet material Mn-Al-C for potential use in propulsion motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelnour, Z. A.; Mildrum, H. F.; Strnat, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of Mn-Al-C permanent magnets is reviewed. The general properties of the material are discussed and put into perspective relative to alnicos and ferrites. The commercial material now available is described by the manufacturer's data. The traction motor designer's demands of a permanent magnet for potential use in electric vehicle drives are reviewed. From this, a list of the needed specific information is extracted. A plan for experimental work is made which would generate this information, or verify data supplied by the producer. The results of these measurements are presented in the form of tables and graphs. The tests determined magnetic design data and some mechanical strength properties. Easy axis hysteresis and demagnetization curves, recoil loops and other minor loop fields were measured over a temperature range from -50 C to +150 C. Hysteresis loops were also measured for three orthogonal directions (the easy and 2 hard axes of magnetization).

  1. Testing of the permanent magnet material Mn-Al-C for potential use in propulsion motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelnour, Z.; Mildrun, H.; Strant, K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of Mn-Al-C permanent magnets is reviewed. The general properties of the material are discussed and put into perspective relative to alnicos and ferrites. The traction motor designer's demands of a permanent magnet for potential use in electric vehicle drives are reviewed. Tests determined magnetic design data and mechanical strength properties. Easy axis hysteresis and demagnetization curves, recoil loops and other minor loop fields were measured over a temperature range from -50 to 150 C. Hysteresis loops were also measured for three orthogonal directions (the one easy and two hard axes of magnetization). Extruded rods of three different diameters were tested. The nonuniformity of properties over the cross section of the 31 mm diameter rod was studied. Mechanical compressive and bending strength at room temperature was determined on individual samples from the 31 mm rod.

  2. Developing Basic Motor Skills in Infants and Children with Severe Handicaps: An Experimental Analysis with Implications for Education and Treatment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rues, Jane; And Others

    This final report details the outcomes of a 3-year project involving children with severe disabilities (ages birth-6) designed to: (1) determine the effectiveness of specific therapeutic intervention techniques on the development of basic motor skills in young children with severe and multiple disabilities; (2) explore the relationship between…

  3. The LIM-homeodomain protein islet dictates motor neuron electrical properties by regulating K(+) channel expression.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Verena; Southall, Tony D; Brand, Andrea H; Baines, Richard A

    2012-08-23

    Neuron electrical properties are critical to function and generally subtype specific, as are patterns of axonal and dendritic projections. Specification of motoneuron morphology and axon pathfinding has been studied extensively, implicating the combinatorial action of Lim-homeodomain transcription factors. However, the specification of electrical properties is not understood. Here, we address the key issues of whether the same transcription factors that specify morphology also determine subtype specific electrical properties. We show that Drosophila motoneuron subtypes express different K(+) currents and that these are regulated by the conserved Lim-homeodomain transcription factor Islet. Specifically, Islet is sufficient to repress a Shaker-mediated A-type K(+) current, most likely due to a direct transcriptional effect. A reduction in Shaker increases the frequency of action potential firing. Our results demonstrate the deterministic role of Islet on the excitability patterns characteristic of motoneuron subtypes. PMID:22920257

  4. Hybrid-Electric Transit Buses: NYCT (New York City Transit) Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses: Final Results (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-07-01

    Final results of the New York City Transit Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Study. Hybrid buses had lower emissions, higher fuel economy, and higher operating costs compared with diesel buses. New York City Transit (NYCT), part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in New York, began operating the first of 10 heavy-duty diesel hybrid-electric transit bus prototypes (Model VI) from Orion Bus Industries in 1998. All 10 buses were in revenue service by mid-2000. The hybrid buses are intended to provide NYCT with increased fuel economy and lower levels of harmful exhaust emissions, compared with NYCT's diesel transit buses. Between 1999 and 2001 (over various predefined fuel and maintenance evaluation periods), these first 10 hybrid buses were part of a data collection and analysis project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The operating costs, efficiency, emissions, and overall performance of these low-floor hybrid buses were compared against those of 14 conventional high-floor diesel transit buses (7 each from NovaBUS Corporation and Orion) operated by NYCT in similar service. Results indicate that the hybrid buses operate with greater fuel efficiency and much lower emissions, compared with the diesel buses. Maintenance costs for the prototype hybrid buses were significantly higher than those of the diesel buses during this evaluation. However, these costs are expected to decline for the next-generation Orion VII buses, currently being procured by NYCT, as repair technicians become more familiar with the advanced hybrid propulsion systems.

  5. 76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., the use of alternative gas to crash test hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, and a proposed low-energy... documents on electrical safety for a forthcoming global technical regulation (GTR) on hydrogen fuel cell... of alternative gas for testing hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. III. Summary of Revisions to the June...

  6. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... full load efficiency Polyphase Open motors (number of poles) 6 4 2 0.25/0.18 67.5 69.5 65.6 0.33/0.25 71.4 73.4 69.5 0.5/0.37 75.3 78.2 73.4 0.75/0.55 81.7 81.1 76.8 1/0.75 82.5 83.5 77.0 1.5/1.1 83.8 86... (number of poles) 6 4 2 0.25/0.18 62.2 68.5 66.6 0.33/0.25 66.6 72.4 70.5 0.5/0.37 76.2 76.2 72.4......

  7. [Electricity: Safety and Vocabulary, Wiring, and Motors.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [V-A-1 through V-A-5].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use in vocational agricultural classes, this student manual deals with the use of electricity. The first section gives vocabulary words and safety instruction. Other sections contain information on wiring and motors. A quiz on the materials covered concludes the booklet. (PLB)

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Policy Statement for Electric Motors Covered Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... typically been designed in conjunction with and supplied to a specific customer to fulfill certain... standards for electric motors with 19 specific horsepower ratings, ranging from one through 200 horsepower... “definite purpose motors” that were not covered by EPCA. Despite their specific uses, however, these...

  9. Design study and performance analysis of 12S-14P field excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Khan, Faisal; Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new structure of 12slot-14pole field excitation flux switching motor (FEFSM) as an alternative candidate of non-Permanent Magnet (PM) machine for HEV drives. Design study, performance analysis and optimization of field excitation flux switching machine with non-rare-earth magnet for hybrid electric vehicle drive applications is done. The stator of projected machine consists of iron core made of electromagnetic steels, armature coils and field excitation coils as the only field mmf source. The rotor is consisted of only stack of iron and hence, it is reliable and appropriate for high speed operation. The design target is a machine with the maximum torque, power and power density, more than 210Nm, 123kW and 3.5kW/kg, respectively, which competes with interior permanent magnet synchronous machine used in existing hybrid electric vehicle. Some design feasibility studies on FEFSM based on 2D-FEA and deterministic optimization method will be applied to design the proposed machine.

  10. Finite Element Modelling of the Femur Bone of a Subject Suffering from Motor Neuron Lesion Subjected to Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gislason, Magnus K; Ingvarsson, Páll; Gargiulo, Paolo; Yngvason, Stefán; Guðmundsdóttir, Vilborg; Knútsdóttir, Sigrún; Helgason, Þórður

    2014-09-23

    Bone loss and a decrease in bone mineral density is frequently seen in patients with motor neuron lesion due to lack of mechanical stimulation. This causes weakening of the bones and a greater risk of fracture. By using functional electrical stimulation it is possible to activate muscles in the body to produce the necessary muscle force to stimulate muscle growth and potentially decrease the rate of bone loss. A longitudinal study was carried out on a single patient undergoing electrical stimulation over a 6 year period. The patient underwent a CT scan each year and a full three dimensional finite element model for each year was created using Mimics (Materialise) and Abaqus (Simulia) to calculate the risk of fracture under physiologically relevant loading conditions. Using empirical formulas connecting the bone mineral density to the stiffness and ultimate tensile stress of the bone, each element was assigned a unique material property, based on its density. The risk of fracture was estimated by calculating the ratio between the predicted stress and the ultimate tensile stress, should it exceed unity, failure was assumed. The results showed that the number of elements that were predicted to be at risk of failure varied between years. PMID:26913140

  11. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M.

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  12. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., final rule (71 FR 28168) that responded to NTEA's petition for reconsideration of the February 14, 2005... of purported deficiencies in IVDs generally (71 FR at 28177). To assess the validity of NTEA's... document comprises the agency's second of two responses to petitions for reconsideration of a September...

  13. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  14. Control of Spacecraft Formations Around the Libration Points Using Electric Motors with One Bit of Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpelloni, Edoardo; Maggiore, Manfredi; Damaren, Christopher J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates a formation control problem for two space vehicles in the vicinity of the L 2 libration point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system. The objective is to accurately regulate the relative position vector between the vehicles to a desired configuration, under tight tolerances. It is shown that the formation control problem is solvable using six constant thrust electric actuators requiring only one bit of resolution, and bounded switching frequency. The proposed control law is hybrid, and it coordinates the sequence of on-off switches of the thrusters so as to achieve the control objective and, at the same time, avoid high-frequency switching.

  15. Diagnostic yield of the analysis of the pattern of electrical activity of muscle and of individual motor unit potentials in neurogenic involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; Scheel, U; Buchthal, F

    1977-01-01

    The pattern of electrical activity and the properties of individual motor unit potentials were analysed in the flexor muscles of the forearm of 15 patients with motor neurone disease and 15 patients with a lesion of the brachial plexus. The best diagnostic yield from the pattern of electrical activity was obtained when the force was 30% of maximum: The number of spikes (turns/15 s) was diminished in 70% of the patients; none showed the increase in turns characteristic of myopathy. The decrease in the number of turns was often associated with an increased incidence of long time intervals between turns and with an increased amplitude between turns. The mean duration of individual motor unit potentials was prolonged in 78% of the patients; none showed the decrease in mean duration characteristic of myopathy. Prolongation of the mean duration of motor unit potentials produced by cooling of normal muscle, led to a decrease in the number of turns. This suggested that the diminished number of turns in neurogenic involvement was due mainly to the prolonged duration of motor unit potentials. PMID:903769

  16. Motor effects of radio electric asymmetric conveyer in Alzheimer's disease: results from a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Olazarán, Javier; González, Belén; Osa-Ruiz, Emma; Felipe-Ruiz, Silvia; Boyano, Inmaculada; Fontani, Vania; Castagna, Alessandro; Mendoza, Carolina; Zea, María Ascensión; Frades, Belén; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial to investigate the feasibility, safety, and motor effects of brain stimulation with radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technique in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuropostural optimization (NPO) and sham protocol were administered to 60 patients from the nursing home and day care units of the Alzheimer Center Reina Sofía Foundation. The mean age was 84.1 (SD 7.9) years and 86.7% of the subjects were female. Motor measures were collected at baseline (T1), immediately (T2), seven (T3), and 11 days (T4) after treatment and, following cross-over, immediately (T5), seven (T6), and 11 (T7) days after treatment. Close safety surveillance was conducted from seven days before T1 to the end of the study (T7), with total study duration of 35 days. Wilcoxon test was utilized in the efficacy analysis, considering T1 and T5 as independent baseline assessments and using a threshold of p < 0.05 (corrected) for statistical significance. The NPO protocol was easily administered and well accepted by the participants. Axial movements improved at T3 and T4 after NPO and at T2 after sham NPO, but no significant effects were observed in axial movements in the second phase of the trial. The effects of NPO in gait performance were not consistent. There were six falls between T2 and T7, but only two of them occurred in patients who had received NPO. In light of safety and feasibility of REAC, a trial with the more intense neuropsycho-physical optimization protocol is warranted.

  17. Induction of Long-term Depression-like Plasticity by Pairings of Motor Imagination and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jochumsen, Mads; Signal, Nada; Nedergaard, Rasmus W.; Taylor, Denise; Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran K.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity are models of synaptic plasticity which have been associated with memory and learning. The induction of LTD and LTP-like plasticity, using different stimulation protocols, has been proposed as a means of addressing abnormalities in cortical excitability associated with conditions such as focal hand dystonia and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the excitability of the cortical projections to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle could be decreased when dorsiflexion of the ankle joint was imagined and paired with peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) of the nerve supplying the antagonist soleus muscle. The effect of stimulus timing was evaluated by comparing paired stimulation timed to reach the cortex before, at and after the onset of imagined movement. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in six experimental sessions held on non-consecutive days. The timing of stimulation delivery was determined offline based on the contingent negative variation (CNV) of electroencephalography brain data obtained during imagined dorsiflexion. Afferent stimulation was provided via a single pulse ES to the peripheral nerve paired, based on the CNV, with motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion. A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in the excitability of the cortical projection of TA was observed when the afferent volley from the ES of the tibial nerve (TN) reached the cortex at the onset of motor imagination based on the CNV. When TN stimulation was delivered before (P = 0.62), or after (P = 0.23) imagined movement onset there was no significant effect. Nor was a significant effect found when ES of the TN was applied independent of imagined movement (P = 0.45). Therefore, the excitability of the cortical projection to a muscle can be inhibited when ES of the nerve supplying the antagonist muscle is precisely paired with the onset of imagined movement. PMID:26648859

  18. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  19. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  20. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar... Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this.... ADDRESSES: Copies of the Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA Plan Amendment have been sent...

  1. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Invertor Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motors - Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.W.; Downing, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.D; Bremmer, R.; Shoemaker, J.M.; Seksarian, A.K.; Poore, B.; Lutz, J.

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under

  2. Long-lasting modulation of human motor cortex following prolonged transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of forearm muscles: evidence of reciprocal inhibition and facilitation.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Zarattini, Stefano; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Romito, Silvia; Farina, Simona; Moretto, Giuseppe; Smania, Nicola; Fiaschi, Antonio; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2005-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that motor cortex excitability can be modulated by manipulation of afferent inputs, like peripheral electrical stimulation. Most studies in humans mainly dealt with the effects of prolonged low-frequency peripheral nerve stimulation on motor cortical excitability, despite its being known from animal studies that high-frequency stimulation can also result in changes of the cortical excitability. To investigate the possible effects of high-frequency peripheral stimulation on motor cortical excitability we recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the left motor cortex from the right flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in normal subjects, before and after transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of 30 min duration applied over the FCR. The amplitude of MEPs from the FRC was significantly reduced from 10 to 35 min after TENS while the amplitude of MEPs from ECR was increased. No effects were observed in the FDI muscle. Indices of peripheral nerve (M-wave) and spinal cord excitability (H waves) did not change throughout the experiment. Electrical stimulation of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve has no significant effect on motor cortex excitability. These findings suggest that TENS of forearm muscles can induce transient reciprocal inhibitory and facilitatory changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability of forearm flexor and extensor muscles lasting several minutes. These changes probably may occur at cortical site and seem to be mainly dependent on stimulation of muscle afferents. These findings might eventually lead to practical applications in rehabilitation, especially in those syndromes in which the excitatory and inhibitory balance between agonist and antagonist is severely impaired, such as spasticity and dystonia.

  3. Using a model to assess the role of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory input and intrasegmental electrical coupling in the intersegmental and side-to-side coordination of motor neurons by the leech heartbeat central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    García, Paul S; Wright, Terrence M; Cunningham, Ian R; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2008-09-01

    Previously we presented a quantitative description of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory synaptic input from the heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG) to segmental motor neurons that drive heartbeat in the medicinal leech and the resultant coordination of CPG interneurons and motor neurons. To begin elucidating the mechanisms of coordination, we explore intersegmental and side-to-side coordination in an ensemble model of all heart motor neurons and their known synaptic inputs and electrical coupling. Model motor neuron intrinsic properties were kept simple, enabling us to determine the extent to which input and electrical coupling acting together can account for observed coordination in the living system in the absence of a substantive contribution from the motor neurons themselves. The living system produces an asymmetric motor pattern: motor neurons on one side fire nearly in synchrony (synchronous), whereas on the other they fire in a rear-to-front progression (peristaltic). The model reproduces the general trends of intersegmental and side-to-side phase relations among motor neurons, but the match with the living system is not quantitatively accurate. Thus realistic (experimentally determined) inputs do not produce similarly realistic output in our model, suggesting that motor neuron intrinsic properties may contribute to their coordination. By varying parameters that determine electrical coupling, conduction delays, intraburst synaptic plasticity, and motor neuron excitability, we show that the most important determinant of intersegmental and side-to-side phase relations in the model was the spatiotemporal pattern of synaptic inputs, although phasing was influenced significantly by electrical coupling. PMID:18579654

  4. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  5. A Study on the Effect of Electrical Stimulation as a User Stimuli for Motor Imagery Classification in Brain-Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Clerc, Maureen; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) provides a neuroprosthetic interface to non-recovered muscle groups by stimulating the affected region of the human body. FES in combination with Brain-machine interfacing (BMI) has a wide scope in rehabilitation because this system directly links the cerebral motor intention of the users with its corresponding peripheral muscle activations. In this paper, we examine the effect of FES on the electroencephalography (EEG) during motor imagery (left- and right-hand movement) training of the users. Results suggest a significant improvement in the classification accuracy when the subject was induced with FES stimuli as compared to the standard visual one. PMID:27478573

  6. Evaluation of Motor Neuron Excitability by CMAP Scanning with Electric Modulated Current.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Tiago; Candeias, Rui; Nunes, Neuza; Gamboa, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) scan is a noninvasive promissory technique for neurodegenerative pathologies diagnosis. In this work new CMAP scan protocols were implemented to study the influence of electrical pulse waveform on peripheral nerve excitability. Methods. A total of 13 healthy subjects were tested. Stimulation was performed with an increasing intensities range from 4 to 30 mA. The procedure was repeated 4 times per subject, using a different single pulse stimulation waveform: monophasic square and triangular and quadratic and biphasic square. Results. Different waveforms elicit different intensity-response amplitude curves. The square pulse needs less current to generate the same response amplitude regarding the other waves and this effect is gradually decreasing for the triangular, quadratic, and biphasic pulse, respectively. Conclusion. The stimulation waveform has a direct influence on the stimulus-response slope and consequently on the motoneurons excitability. This can be a new prognostic parameter for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26413499

  7. Evaluation of Motor Neuron Excitability by CMAP Scanning with Electric Modulated Current

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Tiago; Candeias, Rui; Nunes, Neuza; Gamboa, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) scan is a noninvasive promissory technique for neurodegenerative pathologies diagnosis. In this work new CMAP scan protocols were implemented to study the influence of electrical pulse waveform on peripheral nerve excitability. Methods. A total of 13 healthy subjects were tested. Stimulation was performed with an increasing intensities range from 4 to 30 mA. The procedure was repeated 4 times per subject, using a different single pulse stimulation waveform: monophasic square and triangular and quadratic and biphasic square. Results. Different waveforms elicit different intensity-response amplitude curves. The square pulse needs less current to generate the same response amplitude regarding the other waves and this effect is gradually decreasing for the triangular, quadratic, and biphasic pulse, respectively. Conclusion. The stimulation waveform has a direct influence on the stimulus-response slope and consequently on the motoneurons excitability. This can be a new prognostic parameter for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26413499

  8. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume III - data tables, low pressure refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours.

  9. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume II - data tables, high pressure refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours.

  10. Improved transistor-controlled and commutated brushless DC motors for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Miller, R. H.; Nehl, T. W.; Nyamusa, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The development, design, construction, and testing processes of two electronically (transistor) controlled and commutated permanent magnet brushless dc machine systems, for propulsion of electric vehicles are detailed. One machine system was designed and constructed using samarium cobalt for permanent magnets, which supply the rotor (field) excitation. Meanwhile, the other machine system was designed and constructed with strontium ferrite permanent magnets as the source of rotor (field) excitation. These machine systems were designed for continuous rated power output of 15 hp (11.2 kw), and a peak one minute rated power output of 35 hp (26.1 kw). Both power ratings are for a rated voltage of 115 volts dc, assuming a voltage drop in the source (battery) of about 5 volts. That is, an internal source voltage of 120 volts dc. Machine-power conditioner system computer-aided simulations were used extensively in the design process. These simulations relied heavily on the magnetic field analysis in these machines using the method of finite elements, as well as methods of modeling of the machine power conditioner system dynamic interaction. These simulation processes are detailed. Testing revealed that typical machine system efficiencies at 15 hp (11.2 kw) were about 88% and 84% for the samarium cobalt and strontium ferrite based machine systems, respectively. Both systems met the peak one minute rating of 35 hp.

  11. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  12. A threshold decrease for electrically stimulated motor responses of isolated aging outer hair cells from the pigmented guinea pig.

    PubMed

    LePage, E L; Reuter, G; Zenner, H P

    1995-01-01

    When outer hair cells are isolated from guinea pig cochleas and are placed in normal Hank's medium, they exhibit aging as a slow tonic reduction in length and increase in diameter. During this time the lateral subsurface cisternae become progressively vesiculated and the optical density of the border seen under phase-contrast microscopy decreases. A study of 65 outer hair cells was carried out using video imaging of this process. The base of each cell bonded to the Petri dish and the motility of the cuticular plate was recorded in two ways. To quantify the slow contraction of each preparation, the dimensions of the cell were measured from video replay. Displacements of the cuticular plate in response to an alternating electric field in line with the cell axis were also monitored using a video tracking technique. The amplitude of a 1 Hz stimulus required to cause a visually detectable motor response above baseline noise decreased as the cell degraded. Typically, fresh cylindrical cells exhibiting high optical contrast showed relatively small movements for field strengths up to 2 kVm-1. However, as the cell depolarized, the rigidity initially decreased and the cell could respond to field strengths down to 0.1 kVm-1 before cell death ultimately occurred. Such a threshold phenomenon in the isolated OHC has not been demonstrated directly until now. This result explains the variability of electromotility in aging in vitro preparations from the cochlea. PMID:7546676

  13. Mirror therapy combined with biofeedback functional electrical stimulation for motor recovery of upper extremities after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy in combination with biofeedback functional electrical stimulation (BF-FES) on motor recovery of the upper extremities after stroke. Twenty-nine patients who suffered a stroke > 6 months prior participated in this study and were randomly allocated to three groups. The BF-FES + mirror therapy and FES + mirror therapy groups practiced training for 5 × 30 min sessions over a 4-week period. The control group received a conventional physical therapy program. The following clinical tools were used to assess motor recovery of the upper extremities: electrical muscle tester, electrogoniometer, dual-inclinometer, electrodynamometer, the Box and Block Test (BBT) and Jabsen Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT), the Functional Independence Measure, the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) assessment. The BF-FES + mirror therapy group showed significant improvement in wrist extension as revealed by the Manual Muscle Test and Range of Motion (p < 0.05). The BF-FES + mirror therapy group showed significant improvement in the BBT, JTHT, and SSQOL compared with the FES + mirror therapy group and control group (p < 0.05). We found that BF-FES + mirror therapy induced motor recovery and improved quality of life. These results suggest that mirror therapy, in combination with BF-FES, is feasible and effective for motor recovery of the upper extremities after stroke.

  14. Physiological observations validate finite element models for estimating subject-specific electric field distributions induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Alexander; Legon, Wynn; Rowlands, Abby; Bickel, Warren K; Paulus, Walter; Tyler, William J

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates subject-specific gyral folding patterns and white matter anisotropy uniquely shape electric fields generated by TMS. Current methods for predicting the brain regions influenced by TMS involve projecting the TMS coil position or center of gravity onto realistic head models derived from structural and functional imaging data. Similarly, spherical models have been used to estimate electric field distributions generated by TMS pulses delivered from a particular coil location and position. In the present paper we inspect differences between electric field computations estimated using the finite element method (FEM) and projection-based approaches described above. We then more specifically examined an approach for estimating cortical excitation volumes based on individualistic FEM simulations of electric fields. We evaluated this approach by performing neurophysiological recordings during MR-navigated motormapping experiments. We recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to single pulse TMS using two different coil orientations (45° and 90° to midline) at 25 different locations (5×5 grid, 1cm spacing) centered on the hotspot of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in left motor cortex. We observed that motor excitability maps varied within and between subjects as a function of TMS coil position and orientation. For each coil position and orientation tested, simulations of the TMS-induced electric field were computed using individualistic FEM models and compared to MEP amplitudes obtained during our motormapping experiments. We found FEM simulations of electric field strength, which take into account subject-specific gyral geometry and tissue conductivity anisotropy, significantly correlated with physiologically observed MEP amplitudes (rmax=0.91, p=1.8×10(-5) rmean=0.81, p=0.01). These observations validate the implementation of individualistic FEM models to account for variations in gyral folding patterns and tissue

  15. Estimation of electrode location in a rat motor cortex by laminar analysis of electrophysiology and intracortical electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdan-Shahmorad, A.; Lehmkuhle, M. J.; Gage, G. J.; Marzullo, T. C.; Parikh, H.; Miriani, R. M.; Kipke, D. R.

    2011-08-01

    While the development of microelectrode arrays has enabled access to disparate regions of a cortex for neurorehabilitation, neuroprosthetic and basic neuroscience research, accurate interpretation of the signals and manipulation of the cortical neurons depend upon the anatomical placement of the electrode arrays in a layered cortex. Toward this end, this report compares two in vivo methods for identifying the placement of electrodes in a linear array spaced 100 µm apart based on in situ laminar analysis of (1) ketamine-xylazine-induced field potential oscillations in a rat motor cortex and (2) an intracortical electrical stimulation-induced movement threshold. The first method is based on finding the polarity reversal in laminar oscillations which is reported to appear at the transition between layers IV and V in laminar 'high voltage spindles' of the rat cortical column. Analysis of histological images in our dataset indicates that polarity reversal is detected 150.1 ± 104.2 µm below the start of layer V. The second method compares the intracortical microstimulation currents that elicit a physical movement for anodic versus cathodic stimulation. It is based on the hypothesis that neural elements perpendicular to the electrode surface are preferentially excited by anodic stimulation while cathodic stimulation excites those with a direction component parallel to its surface. With this method, we expect to see a change in the stimulation currents that elicits a movement at the beginning of layer V when comparing anodic versus cathodic stimulation as the upper cortical layers contain neuronal structures that are primarily parallel to the cortical surface and lower layers contain structures that are primarily perpendicular. Using this method, there was a 78.7 ± 68 µm offset in the estimate of the depth of the start of layer V. The polarity reversal method estimates the beginning of layer V within ±90 µm with 95% confidence and the intracortical stimulation

  16. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  17. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Inverter Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Mermanent Magnet Motors - Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W; Lawler, Jack; Downing, Mark; Stahlhut, Ronnie D; Bremmer, R.; Shoemaker, J. M.; Seksarian, A. K.; Poore, B.; Lutz, Jon F

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): General Motors/Central Foundry Division Site, St. Lawrence County, Massena, NY. (Second remedial action), March 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-31

    The 270-acre General Motors/Central Foundry Division site is an aluminum casting plant in Massena, St. Lawrence County, New York. From 1985 to 1989, General Motors investigations detected contamination in soil, sludge, debris, sediment, ground water and surface water. In 1988, an interim cap was placed over the industrial landfill. A 1990 ROD addressed most affected areas of the site, including the St. Lawrence River System sediments, contaminated ground water, soils on the facility and the St. Regis Mohawk Indian Reservation, and material at four lagoons and the North Disposal Area. The ROD provides the final remedy for the contaminated soil, sludge, debris, and groundwater at the East Disposal Area and the Industrial Lagoon. The primary contaminants of concern are VOCs, including TCE; and other organics, including PCBs, phenols, and PAHs. The selected remedial action for the site are included.

  19. The Assessment of Postural Control, Reflex Integration, and Bilateral Motor Coordination of Young Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.

    A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…

  20. 78 FR 44030 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2014 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... other administrative proceedings before parties may file suit in court. \\1\\ See 61 FR 4729, February 7... Journey. Dodge Magnum (2008). FORD MOTOR CO C-Maxx. Edge.\\1\\ Escape. Explorer. Focus. Fusion. Lincoln Town... applies to (1) all passenger car lines; (2) all multipurpose passenger vehicle (MPV) lines with a...

  1. 75 FR 34946 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... in court. \\1\\ See 61 FR 4729, February 7, 1996. G. Paperwork Reduction Act The Department of... (2008). Ford Motor Co Escape. Explorer.\\1\\ Ford Five-Hundred (2007). Ford Focus. Lincoln Town Car... prevention standard applies to (1) all passenger car lines; (2) all multipurpose passenger vehicle...

  2. A Review of the Labor Market, Manpower Characteristics and Training of Motor Vehicle Repair Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, R. W.; And Others

    To determine whether current automotive mechanic training programs provide adequate exposure to the knowledge and skills needed to properly service and repair motor vehicles, data were gathered on the tasks, service and repair establishments, job market, labor force, and training programs. Primary sources of data are reports prepared by various…

  3. The Effects of a Learning Program in Perceptual-Motor Activity Upon the Visual Perception of Shape. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Ruthan Brinkerhoff

    This study involved fifty-eight 3-year-olds. It sought to determine whether the preschoolers could learn to discriminate visually the critical elements of shape through a program of perceptual-motor training, transfer such knowledge to similar but different shapes, and then resist the process of forgetting the critical elements. The children were…

  4. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  5. Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Validation Data. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jelen, Deborah; Odom, Sara

    2015-04-30

    Electricore, along with partners from Quong & Associates, Inc., Honda R&D Americas (Honda), Nissan Technical Center North America (Nissan), and Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (Toyota), participated in the Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Validation Data program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0005968). The goal of this program was to provide real world data from the operation of past and current FCEVs, in order to measure their performance and improvements over time. The program was successful; 85% of the data fields requested were provided and not restricted due to proprietary reasons. Overall, the team from Electricore provided at least 4.8 GB of data to DOE, which was combined with data from other participants to produce over 33 key data products. These products included vehicle performance and fuel cell stack performance/durability. The data were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NREL NFCTEC) and combined with input from other participants. NREL then produced composite data products (CDP) which anonymized the data in order to maintain confidentiality. The results were compared with past data, which showed a measurable improvement in FCEVs over the past several years. The results were presented by NREL at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar, and 2014 and 2015 (planned) DOE Annual Merit Review. The project was successful. The team provided all of the data agreed upon and met all of its goals. The project finished on time and within budget. In addition, an extra $62,911 of cost sharing was provided by the Electricore team. All participants believed that the method used to collect, combine, anonymize, and present the data was technically and economically effective. This project helped EERE meet its mission of ensuring America’s security and prosperity by

  6. Invited commentary on comparison of robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and motor learning methods for treatment of persistent upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E; Meskers, Carel M

    2015-06-01

    In this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jessica McCabe and colleagues report findings from their methodologically sound, dose-matched clinical trial in 39 patients beyond 6 months poststroke. In this phase II trial, the effects of 60 treatment sessions, each involving 3.5 hours of intensive practice plus either 1.5 hours of functional electrical stimulation (FES) or a shoulder-arm robotic therapy, were compared with 5 hours of intensive daily practice alone. Although no significant between-group differences were found on the primary outcome measure of Arm Motor Ability Test and the secondary outcome measure of Fugl-Meyer Arm motor score, 10% to 15% within-group therapeutic gains were on the Arm Motor Ability Test and Fugl-Meyer Arm. These gains are clinically meaningful for patients with stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive these improvements remain poorly understood. The approximately $1000 cost reduction per patient calculated for the use of motor learning (ML) methods alone or combined with FES, compared with the combination of ML and shoulder-arm robotics, further emphasizes the need for cost considerations when making clinical decisions about selecting the most appropriate therapy for the upper paretic limb in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:25687763

  7. Invited commentary on comparison of robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and motor learning methods for treatment of persistent upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E; Meskers, Carel M

    2015-06-01

    In this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jessica McCabe and colleagues report findings from their methodologically sound, dose-matched clinical trial in 39 patients beyond 6 months poststroke. In this phase II trial, the effects of 60 treatment sessions, each involving 3.5 hours of intensive practice plus either 1.5 hours of functional electrical stimulation (FES) or a shoulder-arm robotic therapy, were compared with 5 hours of intensive daily practice alone. Although no significant between-group differences were found on the primary outcome measure of Arm Motor Ability Test and the secondary outcome measure of Fugl-Meyer Arm motor score, 10% to 15% within-group therapeutic gains were on the Arm Motor Ability Test and Fugl-Meyer Arm. These gains are clinically meaningful for patients with stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive these improvements remain poorly understood. The approximately $1000 cost reduction per patient calculated for the use of motor learning (ML) methods alone or combined with FES, compared with the combination of ML and shoulder-arm robotics, further emphasizes the need for cost considerations when making clinical decisions about selecting the most appropriate therapy for the upper paretic limb in patients with chronic stroke.

  8. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  9. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  10. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, Rossemary V.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Johnson, F. Thomas; Matusz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch.

  11. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-04-26

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.

  12. Technoeconomic assessment of electric steelmaking through the year 2000: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bosley, J.J.; Clark, J.P.; Dancy, T.E.; Fruehan, R.J.; McIntyre, E.H.

    1987-10-01

    The electric steelmaking industry may soon account for 40% of US steel production. This assessment of existing and potential electric arc furnace capacity includes R and D recommendations for minimizing energy consumption and optimizing output. 20 figs., 63 tabs.

  13. Curriculum Revision--Electrical Meterman and Station Wireman Apprentice. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This report describes a project to revise curriculum for the apprenticeship and other training programs preparing students for journeyman status in the electrical meter worker and station wirer trades. Products were a lineworker course information guide and revised copies of the electrical theory course for electrical meter worker and station…

  14. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle site operator program at Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Pacific Gas & Electric Company continues to expand an EV program that addresses the following: vehicle development and demonstration; vehicle technology assessment; infrastructure evaluation; participation in EV organizations; and meetings and events. This report highlights PG & E`s activities in each of these areas.

  15. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen; Gross, Thomas; Lin, Zhenhong; Sullivan, John; Cleary, Timothy; Ward, Jake

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  16. The Effect of an Interphase Interval on Electrically Induced Dorsiflexion Force and Fatigue in Subjects With an Upper Motor Neuron Lesion.

    PubMed

    Becher, Meni; Springer, Shmuel; Braun-Benyamin, Orit; Laufer, Yocheved

    2016-08-01

    The study objective was to investigate the effects of an interphase interval (IPI) interposed between the two phases of a biphasic symmetric pulse, on electrically induced contraction (EIC) forces and fatigue during stimulation of the ankle dorsiflexors in individuals with an upper motor neuron lesion (UMNL). The dorsiflexor muscles of 20 subjects with UMNL routinely using functional electrical stimulation to correct a foot drop during ambulation, were electrically stimulated with biphasic pulses (250 µs phase duration and 35 Hz pulse frequency) using nine IPI durations (ranging from 0 to 400 µs). The induced muscle force and fatigue were measured. A significant positive correlation was found between IPI duration and induced muscle force. Introducing a 250 µs IPI significantly decreased rate of muscle fatigue compared to stimulation with no IPI (P < 0.05). Thus, the introduction of an IPI may reduce the current intensity required to achieve a specific force during functional electrical stimulation in individuals with UMNL. Reduction in muscle fatigue may shorten the conditioning period necessary for first time users of functional electrical stimulation. PMID:27086678

  17. Baseline and verification tests of the electric vehicle associates' current fare station wagon. Final test report, March 27, 1980-November 6, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dowgiallo, E.J. Jr.; Chapman, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The EVA Current Fare Wagon was manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Incorporated (EVA) of Cleveland, Ohio. It is now available from Lectra Motors Corp. of Las Vegas, Nevada. The vehicle was tested under the direction of MERADCOM from 27 March 1980 to 6 November 1981. The tests are part of a Department of Energy project to assess advances in electric vehicle design. This report presents the performance test results on the EVA Current Fare Wagon. The EVA Current Fare Wagon is a 1980 Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle. The propulsion system is made up of a Cableform controller, a series-wound 30-hp Reliance Electric Motor, and 22 6-V lead-acid batteries. The Current Fare Wagon is also equipped with regenerative braking. Further details of the vehicle are given in the Vehicle Summary Data Sheet, Appendix A. The results of this testing are given in Table 1.

  18. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in...

  19. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in...

  20. Control system considerations for an aluminum-air battery powered electric vehicle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L.E.; Hassman, G.V.; Post, S.F.

    1980-05-15

    The study established basic motor-controller requirements and trade-offs between 30-cell and 60-cell aluminum-air battery systems. A sample controller design was evolved and basic characteristics were evaluated. Advantages of a 60-cell battery system over a 30-cell were found in the areas of control system costs, weights, and efficiency.

  1. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Ferguson, A.F.

    1995-04-19

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 1 of the project, Conceptual Design of an accelerated test method and apparatus, was successfully completed in June 1993. The culmination of that effort was the concept of the Simulated Stator Unit (SSU) test. The objective of the Phase 2 limited proof-of-concept demonstration was to: answer specific engineering/design questions; design and construct an analog control sequencer and supporting apparatus; and conduct limited tests to determine the viability of the SSU test concept. This report reviews the SSU test concept, and describes the results through the conclusion of the proof-of-concept prototype tests in March 1995. The technical design issues inherent in transforming any conceptual design to working equipment have been resolved, and two test systems and controllers have been constructed. Pilot tests and three prototype tests have been completed, concluding the current phase of work. One prototype unit was tested without thermal stress loads. Twice daily insulation property measurements (IPMs) on this unit demonstrated that the insulation property measurements themselves did not degrade the SSU.

  2. Fast sensory-motor reactions in echolocating bats to sudden changes during the final buzz and prey intercept.

    PubMed

    Geberl, Cornelia; Brinkløv, Signe; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-03-31

    Echolocation is an active sense enabling bats and toothed whales to orient in darkness through echo returns from their ultrasonic signals. Immediately before prey capture, both bats and whales emit a buzz with such high emission rates (≥ 180 Hz) and overall duration so short that its functional significance remains an enigma. To investigate sensory-motor control during the buzz of the insectivorous bat Myotis daubentonii, we removed prey, suspended in air or on water, before expected capture. The bats responded by shortening their echolocation buzz gradually; the earlier prey was removed down to approximately 100 ms (30 cm) before expected capture, after which the full buzz sequence was emitted both in air and over water. Bats trawling over water also performed the full capture behavior, but in-air capture motions were aborted, even at very late prey removals (<20 ms = 6 cm before expected contact). Thus, neither the buzz nor capture movements are stereotypical, but dynamically adapted based on sensory feedback. The results indicate that echolocation is controlled mainly by acoustic feedback, whereas capture movements are adjusted according to both acoustic and somatosensory feedback, suggesting separate (but coordinated) central motor control of the two behaviors based on multimodal input. Bat echolocation, especially the terminal buzz, provides a unique window to extremely fast decision processes in response to sensory feedback and modulation through attention in a naturally behaving animal. PMID:25775538

  3. Fast sensory–motor reactions in echolocating bats to sudden changes during the final buzz and prey intercept

    PubMed Central

    Geberl, Cornelia; Brinkløv, Signe; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Echolocation is an active sense enabling bats and toothed whales to orient in darkness through echo returns from their ultrasonic signals. Immediately before prey capture, both bats and whales emit a buzz with such high emission rates (≥180 Hz) and overall duration so short that its functional significance remains an enigma. To investigate sensory–motor control during the buzz of the insectivorous bat Myotis daubentonii, we removed prey, suspended in air or on water, before expected capture. The bats responded by shortening their echolocation buzz gradually; the earlier prey was removed down to approximately 100 ms (30 cm) before expected capture, after which the full buzz sequence was emitted both in air and over water. Bats trawling over water also performed the full capture behavior, but in-air capture motions were aborted, even at very late prey removals (<20 ms = 6 cm before expected contact). Thus, neither the buzz nor capture movements are stereotypical, but dynamically adapted based on sensory feedback. The results indicate that echolocation is controlled mainly by acoustic feedback, whereas capture movements are adjusted according to both acoustic and somatosensory feedback, suggesting separate (but coordinated) central motor control of the two behaviors based on multimodal input. Bat echolocation, especially the terminal buzz, provides a unique window to extremely fast decision processes in response to sensory feedback and modulation through attention in a naturally behaving animal. PMID:25775538

  4. Enhanced flame stability and soot radiation using electric fields. Final report, July 1986-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, C.H.; Gill, R.J.; Calcote, H.F.

    1989-06-01

    Enhanced stabilization of methane-air flames was achieved by application of dc electric fields of only a few thousand volts with a minimum electric power dissipation, about 0.01% of the combustion power being controlled. Both the lean-blowoff composition and the maximum blowoff velocity are markedly affected. The mechanism for the phenomenon is discussed in terms of an effect of the electric field on the boundary velocity gradient. The electric field applies an electric force on the chemiions in the flame, producing an electric wind that forces the flame closer to the burner rim both reducing the dead space and decreasing the boundary velocity gradient. The boiling effect on a flat flame due to the application of an electric field, reported previously, is explained by an electron cascade effect in which thermally produced electrons are accelerated by the electric field producing more charged soot particles. In a counterflow flame, periodic waves are produced by the electric field; an explanation has not been developed. The counterflow and flat flame apparatus, including the laser optical system for particle measurements in the flame has been completely redesigned for more rapid and especially more accurate data collection.

  5. Lower motor neuron dysfunction in ALS.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Swash, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In the motor system there is a complex interplay between cortical structures and spinal cord lower motor neurons (LMN). In this system both inhibitory and excitatory neurons have relevant roles. LMN loss is a marker of motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS). Conventional needle electromyography (EMG) does not allow LMN loss to be quantified. Measurement of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude or area, and the neurophysiological index, provide a surrogate estimate of the number of functional motor units. Increased motor neuronal excitability is a neurophysiological marker of ALS in the context of a suspected clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis. In the LMN system, fasciculation potentials (FPs) are the earliest changes observed in affected muscles, a feature of LMN hyperexcitability. Reinnervation is best investigated by needle EMG although other methods can be explored. Moreover needle EMG give information about the temporal profile of the reinnervation process, important ancillary data. Quantitative motor unit potential analysis is a valuable method of evaluating reinnervation. The importance of FPs has been recognized in the Awaji criteria for the electrodiagnosis of ALS, criteria that are a sensitive adjunct to the revised El Escorial criteria. Finally, functionality of LMN's, and perhaps excitability studies in motor nerves, aids understanding of the disease process, allowing measurement of potential treatment effects in clinical trials. Other investigational techniques, such as electrical impedance myography, muscle and nerve ultrasound, and spinal cord imaging methods may prove useful in future. PMID:27117334

  6. 77 FR 2269 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA, Application for Subzone, Tesla Motors, Inc. (Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA, Application for Subzone, Tesla Motors, Inc...-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of San Jose, California, grantee of FTZ 18, requesting...

  7. Electricity & Magnetism. Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Shocked by static? Mixed up about magnets? Curious about currents? Teachers can get past memorizing all those electricity-related formulas, rules, and procedures so they can understand the subject at a level deep enough to teach it with confidence and comfort. Here to help is "Electricity and Magnetism," the fifth title in the award-winning NSTA…

  8. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Key, T.

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  9. Potential of M-Wave Elicited by Double Pulse for Muscle Fatigue Evaluation in Intermittent Muscle Activation by Functional Electrical Stimulation for Motor Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Naoto; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies on application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to motor rehabilitation have been increasing. However, muscle fatigue appears early in the course of repetitive movement production training by FES. Although M-wave variables were suggested to be reliable indices of muscle fatigue in long lasting constant electrical stimulation under the isometric condition, the ability of M-wave needs more studies under intermittent stimulation condition, because the intervals between electrical stimulations help recovery of muscle activation level. In this paper, M-waves elicited by double pulses were examined in muscle fatigue evaluation during repetitive movements considering rehabilitation training with surface electrical stimulation. M-waves were measured under the two conditions of repetitive stimulation: knee extension force production under the isometric condition and the dynamic movement condition by knee joint angle control. Amplitude of M-wave elicited by the 2nd pulse of a double pulse decreased during muscle fatigue in both measurement conditions, while the change in M-waves elicited by single pulses in a stimulation burst was not relevant to muscle fatigue in repeated activation with stimulation interval of 1 s. Fatigue index obtained from M-waves elicited by 2nd pulses was suggested to provide good estimation of muscle fatigue during repetitive movements with FES. PMID:27110556

  10. Field test of electric vehicle battery chargers: Customer and utility acceptance: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Popeck, R.A.; Tolios, K.

    1987-10-01

    A field test was implemented to evaluate the electrical system and customer impacts of recharging up to 10 electric cars. The test was performed in a suburban community during an off-peak electricity demand period. The electrical service in this community is representative of the type of service found throughout the country. The predominant load - electric vehicle battery chargers - contained significant harmonic current distortion. The harmonic distortion was as high as 60%. Voltage distortion was also monitored, and was less than, or equal to 8%. In addition, the power factor of this load was typically less than 80%. Results of a customer response survey indicated that there were no adverse effects on their households' electrical appliances or their personal lifestyles. This report includes a description of the instrumentation suitable for harmonic measurements. Measured harmonic currents and voltages for a single charger and during the field tests are presented. Comparisons are made to existing or proposed harmonic limits for electric systems. 4 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The $2000 electric powertrain TRP Project. Baseline program final report, June 22, 1994--January 21, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The program objective was to develop and test technologies which improve the Northrop Grumman electric powertrain and lead to the volume production of an electric powertrain with the power, smoothness, and cost of an internal combustion engine. Accomplishments for this program are summarized in the following six topic areas and selected figures are shown: (1) The 100 hp powertrain was commercialized; (2) The Chrysler EPIC minivan was commercialized; (3) The 230 hp powertrain was commercialized; (4) The Blue Bird electric school and commercial buses were commercialized; (5) Related developments were initiated for DoD and energy systems applications; and (6) Several key powertrain technologies were researched and advanced.

  12. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. PMID:20541489

  13. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Policy Statement for Electric Motors Covered Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with explosion-proof construction 2 ; (2) is a single speed, induction motor; (3) is rated for... variable speed motors operated on a variable frequency power supply. Similarly, multi speed motors and variable speed motors, such as inverter duty motors, are not covered equipment, based on their...

  15. 77 FR 32903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2013 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Volkswagen Audi A4 Allroad (MPV). Subsequent to publishing the April 12, 2011 final rule (See 76 FR 20251... marking exemption by the agency on January 3, 2007 for the Versa line (See 72 FR 188), but changed its... Order 12866, ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), provides for...

  16. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-05-21

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices are disclosed. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device. 16 figs.

  17. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOEpatents

    Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device.

  18. Automatic control of electric thermal storage (heat) under real-time pricing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.; Bohn, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time pricing (RTP) can be used by electric utilities as a control signal for responsive demand-side management (DSM) programs. Electric thermal storage (ETS) systems in buildings provide the inherent flexibility needed to take advantage of variations in prices. Under RTP, optimal performance for ETS operations is achieved under market conditions where reductions in customers` costs coincide with the lowering of the cost of service for electric utilities. The RTP signal conveys the time-varying actual marginal cost of the electric service to customers. The RTP rate is a combination of various cost components, including marginal generation fuel and maintenance costs, marginal costs of transmission and distribution losses, and marginal quality of supply and transmission costs. This report describes the results of an experiment in automatic control of heat storage systems under RTP during the winter seasons of 1989--90 and 1990--91.

  19. 75 FR 31431 - East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Cooperative); Notice Soliciting Comments and Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Cooperative); Notice Soliciting... the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for...

  20. Surface electrical conductivity of single crystal spinel in cesium vapor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, P.; Ing, J.L.

    1995-04-02

    The operation of a thermionic fuel element (TFE) requires the maintenance of good electrical resistance between the anode and cathode, and between the electrodes and the TFE body. A program of research was established as part of the TOPAZ International Program (TIP) with the purpose of investigating the degradation of TFE electrical insulators. The major emphasis of this research has been on the interactions of oxide ceramics with cesium (Cs) vapor, and the resurfacing decrease of surface resistivity. Previous work has studied the surface electrical conductivity of sapphire exposed to Cs. In this report the authors describe the results of an experimental investigation of the surface electrical conductivity of single crystal magnesium aluminate spinel at temperatures ranging from 573K to 923K, in the presence of cesium vapor at pressures up to 1 Torr. The interest in spinel has arisen in view of its apparent resistance to radiation damage.