Science.gov

Sample records for electric transmission towers

  1. Effects of transmission towers on orchards and vineyards

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    Electric power transmission towers can pose problems for the farm operator in terms of the loss of productive area and interference with the movement of machinery. A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of transmission facilities on orchard and vineyard operations in Ontario, Canada. Economic losses to peach and grape crops were determined. Time loss varied greatly depending on the specific operation and tower location. Economic effects of transmission towers varied widely depending on location and orientation, and whether or not equipment can pass through the base area.

  2. 16. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION TOWERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION TOWERS ON WEST END OF BRADFORD ISLAND; BRADFORD SLOUGH DOWNSTREAM FROM POWERHOUSE #1 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  4. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Hazwani N.; O, Rohayu C.; U, Fathoni; Baharuddin, Inz

    2013-06-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  5. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk Map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Hazwani N.; O, Rohayu C.; U, Fathoni; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; A, Azwin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  6. 8. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ON RIGHT. LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: A STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), METEOROLOGICAL TOWER, PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), AND SLC-3W MST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX BELOW WINDOW - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. Upward streamers produced by a lightning strike to radio transmission towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. Philip; Wetmore, Ralph H.

    1987-01-01

    A lightning strike to the center of three 78-m radio transmission towers produced upward discharges with lengths of 40 and 79 m from each of the neighboring towers. This strike also caused a number of insulators on guy wires that supported the tower to flash over, and the locations of these points and the two-dimensional geometry of the discharge channels are projected onto a vertical plane that is centered on the tower.

  9. 47 CFR 10.340 - Digital television transmission towers retransmission capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital television transmission towers... COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.340 Digital television transmission towers... required to install on, or as part of, any broadcast television digital signal transmitter, equipment...

  10. 29. ELECTRIC UTILITY TOWER LOCATED BETWEEN THE RUINS OF CHIPPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ELECTRIC UTILITY TOWER LOCATED BETWEEN THE RUINS OF CHIPPING YARD AND VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING. THE IMAGE IS FRAMED BY THE REMAINS OF PRESS SHOP No. 1. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Finite Element Analysis of the Maximum Stress at the Joints of the Transmission Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itam, Zarina; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Bamashmos, Khaled H.

    2016-03-01

    Transmission towers are tall structures, usually a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line. Usually, transmission towers are analyzed as frame-truss systems and the members are assumed to be pin-connected without explicitly considering the effects of joints on the tower behavior. In this research, an engineering example of joint will be analyzed with the consideration of the joint detailing to investigate how it will affect the tower analysis. A static analysis using STAAD Pro was conducted to indicate the joint with the maximum stress. This joint will then be explicitly analyzed in ANSYS using the Finite Element Method. Three approaches were used in the software which are the simple plate model, bonded contact with no bolts, and beam element bolts. Results from the joint analysis show that stress values increased with joint details consideration. This proves that joints and connections play an important role in the distribution of stress within the transmission tower.

  12. Electric and magnetic fields near AM broadcast towers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mantiply, E.; Cleveland, R.F.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to obtain actual measurement data in the close-in near field of representative AM broadcast antennas and compare the data to values predicted by a Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC) model. Measurements of electric and magnetic fields were made along several radial directions at distances from 1 to 100m from the transmitting towers of eight AM broadcast stations. These stations operated at various frequencies, electrical heights, and power outputs.

  13. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  14. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  15. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  16. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  17. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  18. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  19. Dynamic Responses and Vibration Control of the Transmission Tower-Line System: A State-of-the-Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  20. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers.

  1. The use of an electrical-fluid dynamic parameter in cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Sirena, J.A.

    1999-11-01

    An Electrical-Fluid Dynamic quality parameter is defined for a mechanical draft type cooling tower. It allows to evaluate the efficiency of the transformation of the electrical power input into kinetic energy of the air flow. It could also be used to calculate the active electrical power of the tower at different working conditions. Results obtained through tests in a small counterflow water cooling tower are shown.

  2. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  3. 47 CFR 10.340 - Digital television transmission towers retransmission capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital television transmission towers retransmission capability. 10.340 Section 10.340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.340 Digital television transmission...

  4. 47 CFR 10.340 - Digital television transmission towers retransmission capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital television transmission towers retransmission capability. 10.340 Section 10.340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.340 Digital television transmission...

  5. 47 CFR 10.340 - Digital television transmission towers retransmission capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital television transmission towers retransmission capability. 10.340 Section 10.340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.340 Digital television transmission...

  6. Effects of elevation change on mental stress in high-voltage transmission tower construction workers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Feng-Wen; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Jen

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage transmission tower construction is a high-risk operation due to the construction site locations, extreme climatic factors, elevated working surfaces, and narrow working space. To comprehensively enhance our understanding of the psychophysiological phenomena of workers in extremely high tower constructions, we carried out a series of field experiments to test and compare three working surface heights in terms of frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measurements. Twelve experienced male workers participated in this experiment. The dependent variables, namely, heart rate (HR), normalized low-frequency power (nLF), normalized high-frequency power (nHF), and LF-to-HF power ratio (LF/HF), were measured with the Polar RS800CX heart rate monitor. The experimental results indicated that the task workload was similar between working surface heights. Tower construction workers perceived an increased level of mental stress as working surface height increased.

  7. Expert system for first order inelastic analysis of transmission towers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Kempner, L. Jr. ); Mueller, W. III )

    1992-01-01

    The concept of an Expert System is not new. It has been around since the days of the early computers when scientists had dreams of robot automation to do everything from washing windows to automobile design. This paper discusses an application of an expert system and addresses software development issues and various levels of expert system development form a structural engineering viewpoint. An expert system designed to aid the structural engineer in first order inelastic analysis of latticed steel transmission powers is presented. The utilization of expert systems with large numerical analysis programs is discussed along with the software development of such a system.

  8. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  9. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  10. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  11. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  12. Results of TLMRC research on x-bracing strength in lattice transmission towers. [Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, D.D. Jr.; Nickerson, R. )

    1993-01-01

    The generally accepted procedures for designing lattice transmission towers in the US are those given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) guide, Guide for Design of Steel Transmission Towers (ASCE Manual 52). When the ASCE Task Committee on updating Manual 52 was active prior to publishing the second edition, a topic of discussion and disagreement was the calculation of the strength of X-bracing members. The primary point of disagreement was the effect of the tension member load on the support offered to the compression member and how this should be accounted for in calculating the capacity of the compression member. To clarify the design of X-bracing, EPRI's Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center (TLMRC) initiated a research program to study the strength of X-bracing, with particular emphasis on the effect of the tension member load on the capacity of the compression member. A two-dimensional test frame was used to test X-braces constructed of equal leg angles, unequal leg angles framed either on the long le or on the short leg.

  13. Nineteenth century Parisian smoke variations inferred from Eiffel Tower atmospheric electrical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Aplin, K. L.

    Atmospheric electrical measurements provide proxy data from which historic smoke pollution levels can be determined. This approach is applied to infer autumnal Parisian smoke levels in the 1890s, based on atmospheric electric potential measurements made at the surface and the summit of the Eiffel Tower (48.7°N, 2.4°E). A theoretical model of the development of the autumn convective boundary layer is used to determine when local pollution effects dominated the Eiffel Tower potential measurements. The diurnal variation of the Eiffel Tower potential showed a single oscillation, but it differs from the standard oceanic air potential gradient (PG) variations during the period 09-17 UT, when the model indicates that the Eiffel Tower summit should be within the boundary layer. Outside these hours, the potential changes closely follow the clean air PG variation: this finding is used to calibrate the Eiffel Tower measurements. The surface smoke pollution concentration found during the morning maximum was 60±30 μg m -3, substantially lower than the values previously inferred for Kew in 1863. A vertical smoke profile was also derived using a combination of the atmospheric electrical data and boundary layer meteorology theory. Midday smoke concentration decreased with height from 60 μg m -3 at the surface to 15 μg m -3 at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The 19th century PG measurements in both polluted and clean Parisian air present a unique resource for European air pollution and atmospheric composition studies, and early evidence of the global atmospheric electrical circuit.

  14. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  15. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  16. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  17. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  18. Discontinuities detection using transmission electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Boyle, Alistair; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of nuclear waste storage, low permeability clays are investigated as potential geological barrier. Discontinuities in such formations might facilitate the radionuclide transport to the environment. The underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) presents the opportunity to perform in-situ experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods to detect and characterize the presence of discontinuities in the sub-surface. In this work, we apply transmission electrical resistivity tomography to image the medium surrounding a regional fault. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault. The objective of a such geometry is to acquire data in transmission across the massif in addition to classical protocol such as Schlumberger or dipole-dipole in order to better cover the sounded medium. 3D models considering the gallery geometry, the topography and the injection of current in transmission through the massif were developed for the analysis of such particular data sets. For the reconstruction of the medium electrical resistivity, the parametrization of the inverse problem was adapted to the geometry of the experience in a scope to reduce the inversion under-determination. The resulting image obtained with classical protocols and transmission current injection is compared to an image obtained using only classical protocols to better highlight the interest of a transmission experiment in terms of resolution and penetration depth. The addition of protocols in transmission allows a better coverage of the sounded medium so the resulting image presents a better resolution at higher depths than the image resulting from a single profile of electrodes. The proposed configuration of electrical resistivity measurements in transmission is then promising for hydrogeophysical studies, in particular for

  19. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  20. Overhead electric power transmission line jumpering system for bundles of five or more subconductors

    DOEpatents

    Winkelman, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Jumpering of electric power transmission lines at a dead end tower. Two transmission line conductor bundles each contain five or more spaced apart subconductors (5) arranged in the shape of a cylinder having a circular cross section. The ends of each bundle of subconductors are attached with insulators to a dead end tower (1). Jumpering allows the electric current to flow between the two bundles of subconductors using jumper buses, internal jumper conductors, and external jumper conductors. One or more current collecting jumper buses (37) are located inside each bundle of subconductors with each jumper bus being attached to the end of a subconductor. Small-diameter internal jumper conductors (33) are located in the inherently electrically shielded area inside each bundle of subconductors with each subconductor (except ones having an attached jumper bus) having one internal jumper conductor connected between that subconductor's end and a jumper bus. Large-diameter external jumper conductors (9) are located outside each bundle of subconductors with one or more external jumper conductors being connected between the jumper buses in one bundle of subconductors and the jumper buses in the other bundle.

  1. Electric Transmission One Year after the Energy Bill

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Ed

    2006-08-15

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 embodies numerous provisions that will increase investment in the electric transmission grid. Many actions have occurred in the first year of implementation that should strengthen the transmission system in the United States. (author)

  2. Statistical Design of Electric Power Transmission Networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guvenis, Albert

    This thesis presents a statistical planning method for expanding electric power transmission networks in the presence of load/generation and network uncertainties. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to obtain a set of alternative network expansion plans which have optimum reliability and expansion cost. Present methods optimize the existing network based on a deterministic performance index. Therefore, they are limited to a nominal design and cannot minimize the loss of load probability due to random fluctuations in the power system parameters. This thesis addresses this problem of designing a power transmission network that minimizes the loss-of-load probability (or equivalently maximizes the reliability) under random load/generation and network fluctuations. Two probabilistic indices, reliability and adequacy, are defined in order to quantify the transmission network performance under uncertainties. Reliability is defined as the probability of supplying the random substation load demands under random circuit outages, whereas adequacy is the same index computed under the non-outage condition. The effectiveness of the proposed statistical planning method is its ability to optimize these two indices by using efficient gradient methods. The approach taken is to first optimize the adequacy using a set-imbedding technique. Then the adequate network obtained in the first design stage is reoptimized with respect to reliability using a modified Parametric Sampling technique. The reliability optimization method developed in this thesis optimizes the discrete reliability of the network by successively optimizing approximate continuous functions. It is shown that the solution of the continuous optimization problems converge to the solution of the discrete reliability optimization problem. Two objectives, reliability and expansion cost, are optimized simultaneously. By weighting these objectives differently a set of alternative expansion plans are obtained, which

  3. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

  4. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  5. Trends In U.S. Electric Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the changes that are occurring in the industry to implement the goals of improved reliability and reduced congestion costs. As the electric industry works to become a more efficient market, transmission stands as a key link between the competitive generation and the regulated distribution sectors. In this role as a key link, transmission is a major focus of government efforts to improve reliability and reduce congestion costs. The scope of the report is to analyze the dominant reliability, investment, siting, and competition/open access trends that are occurring in the domestic electric transmission industry. Topics covered include: the impact of the 2003 Northeast blackout on reliability rules; the move from voluntary to mandatory reliability standards; the advent of real-time transmission system monitoring; ISO/RTO efforts to improve system reliability; the drivers of government intervention in transmission investment; the move towards incentive-based rates for transmission investment; legislative and regulatory efforts to spur transmission investment to support renewable energy resources; the emergence of merchant transmission; the need for federal backstop authority on regional transmission projects; the designation of national interest electric transmission corridors; FERC Orders on siting transmission; the need for changes in open access and competition regulations; FERC efforts to increase open access and competition; legislative efforts to increase competition; and, current competitive issues in the industry.

  6. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  7. Transmission Pricing Issues for Electricity Generation From Renewable Resources

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses how the resolution of transmission pricing issues which have arisen under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) open access environment may affect the prospects for renewable-based electricity.

  8. 78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission Operators AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce to share non- public, operational information with... facilities used for the transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce to share non-...

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  10. Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: regulatory mechanisms and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Pereda, Alberto E.; Curti, Sebastian; Hoge, Gregory; Cachope, Roger; Flores, Carmen E.; Rash, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The term synapse applies to cellular specializations that articulate the processing of information within neural circuits by providing a mechanism for the transfer of information between two different neurons. There are two main modalities of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. While most efforts have been dedicated to the understanding of the properties and modifiability of chemical transmission, less is still known regarding the plastic properties of electrical synapses, whose structural correlate is the gap junction. A wealth of data indicates that, rather than passive intercellular channels, electrical synapses are more dynamic and modifiable than was generally perceived. This article will discuss the factors determining the strength of electrical transmission and review current evidence demonstrating its dynamic properties. Like their chemical counterparts, electrical synapses can also be plastic and modifiable. PMID:22659675

  11. Visibility and Visual Characteristics of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System Power Tower Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robert; Abplanalp, Jennifer M.

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to document the visibility and visual characteristics of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), a utility-scale solar power tower facility located on land administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management in southern California. Study activities consisted of field observations of the ISEGS facility and comparison of the observations made in the field with the visual contrast assessments and visual simulations in the ISEGS Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) and supporting documents created prior to ISEGS construction. Field observations of ISEGS were made from 19 locations within 35 mi (56 km) of the facility in the course of one week in September 2014. The study results established that reflected sunlight from the receivers was the primary source of visual contrast from the operating ISEGS facility. The ISEGS facility was found to be a major source of visual contrast for all observations up to 20 mi (32 km), and was easily visible at 35 mi. Glare from individual heliostats was frequently visible, and often brighter than the reflected light from the receivers. Heliostat glare caused discomfort for one or more viewers at distances up to 20 mi. The ISEGS power blocks were brightly lit at night, and were conspicuous at the observation distance of approximately 6 mi (10 km). The facility is substantially brighter and is seen more clearly in the field than in photographs of the facility or in the prepared simulations, which were based on photographs. The simulations of the ISEGS facility in the Final EIS, which were evaluated as part of this study, sometimes lacked spatial accuracy and realism. The evaluated simulations generally under-represented the actual visual contrast from the project, and some of the contrast ratings in the Final EIS predicted substantially lower levels of visual contrast than were actually observed for the operating facility.

  12. Flex-gear electrical power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an alternative way of transferring electricity across a continuously rotating joint, with little wear and the potential for low electrical noise. The problems with wires, slip rings, electromagnetic couplings, and recently invented roll-rings are discussed. Flex-gears, an improvement of roll-rings, are described. An entire class of flexgear devices is developed. Finally, the preferred flex-gear device is optimized for maximum electrical contact and analyzed for average mechanical power loss and maximum stress. For a device diameter of six inches, the preferred device is predicted to have a total electrical contact area of 0.066 square inches. In the preferred device, a small amount of internal sliding produces a 0.003 inch-pound torque that resists the motion of the device.

  13. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  14. The year in review: Electric transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    This writing and the comments contained herein support the conclusion that mandating a solution to transmission woes is not the proper choice. Even if it were the right choice, it would not be the way to go. FERC exists in a sophisticated energy world and must comprehend that without the help of the energy industry it is doomed to fail. Technology changes, economies change, and even the FERC itself changes, and will again. This is all part of the energy journey. RTOs, pools, ISOs, RTOs, and, yes, Transcos are a part of the evolution of energy regulation and perhaps deregulation to some degree.

  15. Hemichannel composition and electrical synaptic transmission: molecular diversity and its implications for electrical rectification.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Prado, Nicolás; Huetteroth, Wolf; Pereda, Alberto E

    2014-01-01

    Unapposed hemichannels (HCs) formed by hexamers of gap junction proteins are now known to be involved in various cellular processes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the other hand, less is known regarding how differences in the molecular composition of HCs impact electrical synaptic transmission between neurons when they form intercellular heterotypic gap junctions (GJs). Here we review data indicating that molecular differences between apposed HCs at electrical synapses are generally associated with rectification of electrical transmission. Furthermore, this association has been observed at both innexin and connexin (Cx) based electrical synapses. We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying electrical rectification, as well as the potential contribution of intracellular soluble factors to this phenomenon. We conclude that asymmetries in molecular composition and sensitivity to cellular factors of each contributing hemichannel can profoundly influence the transmission of electrical signals, endowing electrical synapses with more complex functional properties.

  16. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W.; Sanstad, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  17. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  18. Transmission Lines: An Overview of Electrical Properties and Environmental Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Biological Studies Task Team.

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview is provided of environmental and biological effects of high-voltage power transmission lines. Paragraph length descriptions of electric fields, induced voltage and currents, biological effects, magnetic fields, corona, radio and television interference, and ozone are given. 13 figs.

  19. Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission

    DOEpatents

    Tankersley, Jerome B.; Boothe, Richard W.; Konrad, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox.

  20. Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission

    DOEpatents

    Tankersley, J.B.; Boothe, R.W.; Konrad, C.E.

    1995-04-04

    An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox. 6 figures.

  1. Identification and definition of unbundled electric generation and transmission services

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Vancoevering, J.

    1995-03-01

    State and federal regulators, private and public utilities, large and small customers, power brokers and marketers, and others are engaged in major debates about the future structure of the electric industry. Although the outcomes are far from certain, it seems clear that customers will have much greater choices about the electric services they purchase and from whom they buy these services. This report examines the ``ancillary`` services that are today buried within the typical vertically integrated utility. These ancillary services support and make possible the provision of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. These ancillary services include: Management of generating units; reserve generating capacity to follow variations in customer loads, to provide capacity and energy when generating units or transmission lines suddenly fall, to maintain electric-system stability, and to provide local-area security; transmission-system monitoring and control; replacement of real power and energy losses; reactive-power management and voltage regulation; transmission reserves; repair and maintenance of the transmission network; metering, billing, and communications; and assurance of appropriate levels of power quality. Our focus in this report, the first output from a larger Oak Ridge National Laboratory project, is on identification and definition of these services. Later work in this project will examine more closely the costs and pricing options for each service.

  2. Engineering the electrical characteristics of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, F.; Bonache, J.; Gil, M.; Sisó, G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper is focused on the control of the electrical characteristics of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines, that is, transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The key parameters of metamaterial transmission lines for microwave and millimetre wave circuit design are the characteristic impedance and the phase constant (rather than the effective magnetic permeability or dielectric permittivity). Thanks to the presence of reactive elements loading the host line, metamaterial transmission lines exhibit a major design flexibility that can be useful for circuit design purposes. Specifically, we can tailor the dispersion diagram and the characteristic impedance to some extent. By virtue of this, it is possible the design of microwave and millimetre wave components with superior performance in terms of bandwidth, or the design of multi-band components, both of interest in modern wireless communication systems. Thanks to the small electrical size of the unit cell of such lines, the resulting metamaterial-based components are also very small and fully compatible with planar technology (that is, no lumped elements are used). Different examples are provided to illustrate the possibilities of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines. This includes hybrid couplers, power dividers and phase shifters, among others. The paper includes also the theoretical foundations of the approach.

  3. Vulnerability of electricity transmission infrastructure to natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda

    2016-04-01

    Electricity transmission system is a very complex system, which consists of several elements, such as overhead lines, substations and transformers, covers wide areas, is interconnected with several networks with numerous inter-dependencies. This highly integrated system is exposed to several hazards, leading to interruption of power supply. Natural hazards, such as an increased frequency of extreme weather events, including storms, icing, wet snow deposits, lighting, floods, avalanches, rock falls and landslides or changing air temperature have effects on transmission and lead to destruction of this infrastructure, which is also critical for society as it guarantees functioning of vital for society services. The reliability of critical electricity transmission infrastructure depends on its ability to ensure normal operation, to limit number of incidents and to avoid major incidents and to limit consequences of major incidents. The concept of reliability is closely connected with the concept of resilience, which is understood, in general, as the ability of a system to react and recover from anticipated disturbances and events. In regards to electricity transmission resilience is the ability of the power system to adapt, self-organize and recover or achieve the level even higher than those before the shock. This paper reviews three major natural hazards disasters, which resulted in significant blackouts in Europe. The first one is the 2003 blackout in Italy, which was caused by flash-over from trees. The second one is the 2003 blackout in Sweden, which was caused by rainstorms. The third one is the 2005 blackout in Germany, which was caused by wet snow. The inter-comparative analysis of these events allowed us to develop recommendations on electricity transmission network resilience.

  4. CNQX and AMPA inhibit electrical synaptic transmission: a potential interaction between electrical and glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical synapses play an important role in signaling between neurons and the synaptic connections between many neurons possess both electrical and chemical components. Although modulation of electrical synapses is frequently observed, the cellular processes that mediate such changes have not been studied as thoroughly as plasticity in chemical synapses. In the leech (Hirudo sp), the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited transmission at the rectifying electrical synapse of a mixed glutamatergic/electrical synaptic connection. This CNQX-mediated inhibition of the electrical synapse was blocked by concanavalin A (Con A) and dynamin inhibitory peptide (DIP), both of which are known to inhibit endocytosis of neurotransmitter receptors. CNQX-mediated inhibition was also blocked by pep2-SVKI (SVKI), a synthetic peptide that prevents internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor. AMPA itself also inhibited electrical synaptic transmission and this AMPA-mediated inhibition was partially blocked by Con A, DIP and SVKI. Low frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) in both the electrical and chemical components of these synapses and this LTD was blocked by SVKI. GYKI 52466, a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, did not affect the electrical EPSP, although it did block the chemical component of these synapses. CNQX did not affect non-rectifying electrical synapses in two different pairs of neurons. These results suggest an interaction between AMPA-type glutamate receptors and the gap junction proteins that mediate electrical synaptic transmission. This putative interaction between glutamate receptors and gap junction proteins represents a novel mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic transmission. PMID:18601913

  5. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  6. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, H.; Dowis, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    The original study of transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC), which was completed in September 1975, was updated in June 1978. The present 1983 revision takes cognizance of recent changes in the electric power situation of the PNW with respect to: (1) forecasts of load growth, (2) the feasibility of early use of 1100 kV transmission, and (3) the narrowing opportunities for siting nuclear plants in the region. The purpose of this update is to explore and describe additions to the existing transmission system that would be necessary to accommodate three levels of generation at HNEC. Comparisons with a PNW system having new thermal generating capacity distributed throughout the marketing region are not made as was done in earlier versions.

  7. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  8. 77 FR 68117 - Electric Transmission Texas, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electric Transmission Texas, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2), Electric Transmission Texas... Act (FPA) jurisdiction over (1) the transmission lines that ETT, an electric utility in the...

  9. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, M.; Nauman Nasir, M.

    2013-06-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 - 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  10. Ant Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlot, Nathan; Shinotsuka, Sho; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Ants walk via adhesive drops of fluid extruded by their feet. They also use these drops as mortar to build structures such as rafts, bridges and towers, each composed of thousands of ants linked together. We investigate experimentally the construction of triangular ant towers braced by hydrophobic walls. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between tower height and contact angle hysteresis of the wall. We rationalize tower height according to ant adhesion, and tower shape according to the constraints on a column of constant strength.

  11. 77 FR 65545 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric Coordinating Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric Coordinating Council and North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice that... petition requesting resolution of the conflict between Western Electric Coordinating Council and...

  12. (Hydroelectric project in Costa Rican rural electric generation and transmission)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-11-28

    On November 6, 1989, I left for San Jose, Costa Rica. My visit was set to accomplish two activities. The first activity was a follow-on mission to gather additional information on a newly identified small hydroelectric project, in support of a rural electric generation and transmission cooperative performed for the Renewable Energy Applications and Training project. Data on stream flows, soils, geologic, and topographic information was gathered for Rio San Lorenzo, near Quesada. A reconnaissance level survey was performed for Rio Naranjillo, a river near San Marcos. The second part of the visit was dedicated to interaction with ICE, the electric utility, discussing plans to establish a comprehensive efficiency program in Costa Rica. I returned to Oak Ridge on November 16, 1989.

  13. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  14. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  15. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  16. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  17. Windmill tower

    SciTech Connect

    Schachle, C.; Schachle, E.C.; Schachle, J.R.; Schachle, P.J.

    1982-04-06

    A windmill tower supports a propeller and a platform that in turn supports a propeller feather control system and a generator system. The entire tower rotates at its base under changes in wind direction so the rotating propeller is constantly maintained upwind of the tower. The tower is a rigid structure that withstands cyclic thrust and torque loading sufficiently to reduce resonant vibrations of the tower as the propeller rotates under the influence of the wind. The resonant frequency of the tower can be higher than the passing frequency of the rotating propeller blades. The tower includes a pair of generally upright fore legs that converge upwardly toward a first apex on the propeller axis of rotation near the front of the platform immediately behind the propeller hub. A diagonal bracing strut extends downwardly from the first apex away from the plane of the fore legs and toward the rear of the tower. The bottoms of the fore legs and the diagonal bracing strut are rigidly interconnected by base plane truss members. A pair of upwardly converging aft legs extend diagonally upwardly from the bottoms of the fore legs toward a second apex aft of the first apex at the rear of the platform. At regular vertical intervals, stiffening trusses add rigidity to the main upright members of the tower structure. The natural frequency of the tower is raised by the fore legs and the diagonal bracing strut being interconnected in a rigid base plane truss. The diagonal bracing strut resists thrust loading on the tower, and the fore legs and aft legs resist torsional forces produced at the top of the tower.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the tradeoffs between the electric motor and the transmission in electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levi, E.

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency, weight, and cost of various propulsion system for 4-passenger electric vehicles are compared. These systems comprise the electric motor and the required speed reducing transmission to obtain the appropriate speed at the wheel. Three types of motors, dc synchronous, and squirrel-cage were considered at 6000 ycm and 24 000 rpm for a peak power of 40 kW. Two types of gearing selected were a single speed differential and a differential with a differential with a 4-speed gearbox. Only components that were readily realizable within present state-of-the-art were considered.

  19. Unbundling generation and transmission services for competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) defined such services as those `necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.` The nationwide cost of ancillary services is about $12 billion a year, roughly 10% of the cost of the energy commodity. More important than the cost, however, is the necessity of these services for bulk-power reliability and for the support of commercial transactions. FERC`s landmark Order 888 included a pro forma tariff with provision for six key ancillary services. The Interconnected Operations Services Working Group identified another six services that it felt were essential to the operation of bulk-power systems. Several groups throughput the United States have created or are forming independent system operators, which will be responsible for reliability and commerce. To date, the electricity industry (including traditional vertically integrated utilities, distribution utilities, power markets and brokers, customers, and state and federal regulators) has paid insufficient attention to these services. Although the industry had made substantial progress in identifying and defining the key services, much remains to be doe to specify methods to measure the production, delivery, and consumption of these services; to identify the costs and cost-allocation factors for these services; and to develop market and operating rules for their provision and pricing. Developing metrics, determining costs, and setting pricing rules are important because most of these ancillary services are produced by the same pieces of equipment that

  20. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  1. Electronic control system for control of electronic electric shift apparatus for manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tury, E.L.; Thoe, G.A.

    1989-04-18

    An electrical control apparatus is described for control of a manual transmission apparatus in a motor vehicle having a plurality of transmission states selected by the position of a shift select lever, the electrical control apparatus comprising: a first electric motor; means drive by the first electric motor and operative in response to energization of the first electric motor to move the shift select lever laterally between left, center, and right locations; a second electric motor; means driven by the second electric motor and operative in response to energization of the second electric motor to move the shift select lever longitudinally between forward, neutral, and rearward locations; operator input means operative to generate a desired transmission sate signal corresponding to manual operator input; a first transmission state sensing means for indicating the left, center, or right location of the shift select lever; a second transmission state sensing means for indicating the forward, neutral or rearward location of the shift select lever; and a logic control unit connected to the operator input means and the first and second transmission state sensing means for generation of a sequence of motor drive signals corresponding to the sequence of motions required for movement of the shift select lever from the present transmission state to the desired transmission state when the desired transmission state differs from the present transmission state, the motor drive signals including a clockwise motor drive signal, a counter-clockwise motor drive signal, a shift up motor drive signal and a shift down motor drive signal.

  2. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric... Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company (collectively, NEL Parties) filed a petition...

  3. 76 FR 75875 - Plan for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission Congestion Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... electric transmission congestion pursuant to section 216(a)(1) of the Federal Power Act (76 FR 70122). This.... Hoffman, Assistant Secretary, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. BILLING CODE...

  4. 76 FR 37809 - The Connecticut Transmission Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative; Notice of Request for Waiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Connecticut Transmission Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative; Notice... Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative filed a petition requesting full waiver or exemption from...

  5. 5. View of south tower, facing northnortheast from south bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of south tower, facing north-northeast from south bank of the Columbia River. Center tower and north tower in background, lower right. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  6. Collapsible Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA needed a means of orbiting a large radio telescope antenna. Astro Research Corporation developed a new structure that was strong, lightweight, folded into a small storage space, and could be erected by rotation. Later they adapted it to commercial use. Today the "Astromast" tower consists of tubular aluminum alloy and stainless steel members that deploy into small three-sided bays, each made rigid by six diagonal cables. All joints are flexible to permit folding and unfolding. Tower packs into container 5% of its height, can be erected without tools and is reusable. Tower has won "Design of the Year" award from Machine Design. Variations include portable emergency bridges and commercial scaffolding.

  7. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    , it has been demonstrated in this project that wireless monitoring units can effectively deliver real-time transmission line power flow information for less than $500 per monitor. The data delivered by such a monitor has during the course of the project been integrated with a national grid situational awareness visualization platform developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Novel vibration energy scavenging methods based on piezoelectric cantilevers were also developed as a proposed method to power such monitors, with a goal of further cost reduction and large-scale deployment. Scavenging methods developed during the project resulted in 50% greater power output than conventional cantilever-based vibrational energy scavenging devices typically used to power smart sensor nodes. Lastly, enhanced and new methods for electromagnetic field sensing using multi-axis magnetometers and infrared reflectometry were investigated for potential monitoring applications in situations with a high density of power lines or high levels of background 60 Hz noise in order to isolate power lines of interest from other power lines in close proximity. The goal of this project was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of using small form factor, highly optimized, low cost, low power, non-contact, wireless electric transmission line monitors for delivery of real-time, independent power line monitoring for the US power grid. The project was divided into three main types of activity as follows; (1) Research into expanding the range of applications for non-contact power line monitoring to enable large scale low cost sensor network deployments (Tasks 1, 2); (2) Optimization of individual sensor hardware components to reduce size, cost and power consumption and testing in a pilot field study (Tasks 3,5); and (3) Demonstration of the feasibility of using the data from the network of power line monitors via a range of custom developed alerting and data visualization applications to deliver

  8. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  9. Solar thermal power towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

  10. Discussions on a long gap discharge to an EHV transmission tower by a rocket triggered lightning experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Koichi; Wada, Atsushi; Horii, Kenji

    1991-01-01

    The triggered lightning experiments using a rocket have been carried out on a winter mountain in Japan since 1986. For the four years from 1986 to 1989, 39 rockets were launched and 19 of them triggered lightning strikes. The emphasis here is on the methodology for triggering lightning to the transmission system. Completed experiments are discussed. The failure of lightning protection and the striking distance are noted.

  11. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Safety. Module SH-40. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on electrical power transmission and distribution safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module focuses on some of the general safety rules, techniques, and procedures that are essential in establishing a safe environment for the electrical power transmission worker. Following the introduction,…

  12. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working

  13. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  14. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  15. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  16. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  17. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  18. Enhanced transmission of transverse electric waves through subwavelength slits in a thin metallic film.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu Qian; Jin, Yi

    2009-09-01

    By adding an array of metallic cut wires, the transmission of transverse electric (TE) waves (the electric field is parallel to the slits) through subwavelength slits in a thin metallic film is significantly enhanced. An 800-fold enhanced transmission is obtained compared to the case without the cut wires. It is demonstrated that a TE incident wave is highly confined by the cut wires, due to the excitation of the electric dipolelike resonance, and then effectively squeezed into and through the subwavelength slits.

  19. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  20. Station-keeping of a high-altitude balloon with electric propulsion and wireless power transmission: A concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wynsberghe, Erinn; Turak, Ayse

    2016-11-01

    A stable, ultra long-duration high-altitude balloon (HAB) platform which can maintain stationary position would represent a new paradigm for telecommunications and high-altitude observation and transmission services, with greatly reduced cost and complexity compared to existing technologies including satellites, telecom towers, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This contribution proposes a lightweight superpressure balloon platform for deployment to an altitude of 25 km. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters are presented to maintain position by overcoming stratospheric winds. Critical to maintaining position is a continual supply of electrical power to operate the on-board propulsion system. One viable solution is to deliver power wirelessly to a high-altitude craft from a ground-based transmitter. Microwave energy, not heavily attenuated by the atmosphere, can be provided remotely from a ground-based generator (magnetron, klystron, etc.) and steered electrically with an antenna array (phased array) at a designated frequency (such as 2.45 or 5.8 GHz). A rectifying antenna ("rectenna") on the bottom of the balloon converts waves into direct current for on-board use. Preliminary mission architecture, energy requirements, and safety concerns for a proposed system are presented along with recommended future work.

  1. 75 FR 41895 - Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co., Including On-Site Leased From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co..., 2010, applicable to workers of Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co..., location of Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co. The amended notice applicable...

  2. Rapunzel's Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depp, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature often inspires the author's lessons, and reading to her primary students motivates their participation. In this article, the author presents and describes her lesson which is based on the book "Falling for Rapunzel" by Leah Wilcox. Students created a fairy tale tower in this lesson, which took place over three class periods.…

  3. Earthquake resistant construction of electric transmission and telecommunication facilities serving the Federal government report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, F.Y.

    1990-02-01

    The vulnerability of electrical transmission and telecommunication facilities to damage in past earthquakes, as well as available standards and technologies to protect these facilities against earthquake damage are reviewed. An overview is presented of measures taken by various Federal agencies to protect electrical transmission and telecommunication facilities against earthquake hazards. It is concluded that while most new facilities which are owned and operated by Federal agencies are presently designed to provide some, though not necessarily adequate, earthquake resistance, there generally is no effort to retrofit existing facilities. No evidence was found of requirements to protect electrical transmission and communication facilities which have major contractual obligations to serve the Federal Government and only limited seismic design requirements are stipulated for electrical transmission systems constructed with Federal funding.

  4. Light transmissive electrically conductive oxide electrode formed in the presence of a stabilizing gas

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Nang T.; Gilbert, James R.

    1992-08-04

    A light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide is doped with a stabilizing gas such as H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. The oxide is formed by sputtering a light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide precursor onto a substrate at a temperature from 20.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. Sputtering occurs in a gaseous mixture including a sputtering gas and the stabilizing gas.

  5. Electrical performance of a Portable Protective Gap (PPG) in a compact 550-kV tower. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gela, G.; Lux, A.E.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the results of a research project by Western Area Power Administration (Western) on the application of a Portable Protective Gap (PPG) to live working, on Western`s upgraded compact 550 kV tower type 51S. The objective of the project was to provide experimental evidence that confirms the needed coordination of the PPG sparkover characteristics with those of the 51S tower during live working conditions. These conditions include the presence of damaged porcelain cap-and-pin insulators, the worker, and live working tools and equipment in normal work positions. The tested PPG is a portable rod-rod 1.04 m (41 inches) gap, which would be installed on the tower adjacent to the worksite. The purpose of the PPG is to protect the worker by providing positive control of the transient overvoltage (TOV) at the worksite. That is, the PPG must operate (spark over) at a TOV level which is lower then the level that would cause a disruptive discharge (sparkover or flashover) at the worksite. The worksite disruptive discharge level. or conversely the worksite withstand level is dependent on a large number of factors, including presence and location of the worker, presence and location of live working tools and equipment, and number and location of damaged porcelain (cap-and-pin) insulators at the worksite. The PPG must not spark over at the system`s normal AC operating, voltage, i.e. its AC withstand level must be higher than AC stresses expected at the worksite.

  6. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  9. 78 FR 70163 - Communication of Operational Information between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission Operators, 78 FR 44900 (July.../fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012-16997.pdf ); Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets...) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-13/pdf/2012-30063.pdf ); Coordination between Natural Gas...

  10. Nonlinear waves propagating in the electrical transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W.-S.

    2004-04-01

    A coupled Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived for a nonlinear transmission line in which the nonlinear capacitance C is of a general form C = C0(1 + k1V + k2V2 + ...). For a solitary-wave solution of the ZK equation, there is an instability region which is given numerically in this paper. It is in agreement with the analytical results for special cases.

  11. How dangerous are mobile phones, transmission masts, and electricity pylons?

    PubMed

    Wood, A W

    2006-04-01

    Electrical power and mobile communications deliver enormous benefit to society, but there are concerns whether the electric and magnetic field (EMF) emissions associated with the delivery of this benefit are linked to cancer or other health hazards. This article reviews the strength of the available epidemiological and laboratory evidence and notes that this falls short of what is normally required to establish a causal link. However, because of scientific uncertainty a cautious approach is often advocated, but here, too, there may be a tendency to judge these risks more harshly than those in other areas with similar strength of evidence. PMID:16551794

  12. How dangerous are mobile phones, transmission masts, and electricity pylons?

    PubMed

    Wood, A W

    2006-04-01

    Electrical power and mobile communications deliver enormous benefit to society, but there are concerns whether the electric and magnetic field (EMF) emissions associated with the delivery of this benefit are linked to cancer or other health hazards. This article reviews the strength of the available epidemiological and laboratory evidence and notes that this falls short of what is normally required to establish a causal link. However, because of scientific uncertainty a cautious approach is often advocated, but here, too, there may be a tendency to judge these risks more harshly than those in other areas with similar strength of evidence.

  13. Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

  14. Millikelvin thermal and electrical performance of lossy transmission line filters

    SciTech Connect

    Slichter, Daniel; Naaman, Ofer; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2009-03-11

    We report on the scattering parameters and Johnson noise emission of low-pass stripline filters employing a magnetically loaded silicone dielectric down to 25 mK. The transmission characteristic of a device with f-3dB=1.3 GHz remains essentially unchanged upon cooling. Another device with f-edB=0.4 GHz, measured in its stopband, exhibits a steady state noise power emission consistent with a temperature difference of a few mK relative to a well-anchored cryogenic microwave attenuator at temperatures down to 25 mK, thus presenting a matched thermal load.

  15. Comparison of electrically driven lasers for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G.; Conway, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    High-power lasers in space could provide power for a variety of future missions such as spacecraft electric power requirements and laser propulsion. This study investigates four electrically pumped laser systems, all scaled to 1-MW laser output, that could provide power to spacecraft. The four laser systems are krypton fluoride, copper vapor, laser diode array, and carbon dioxide. Each system was powered by a large solar photovoltaic array which, in turn, provided power for the appropriate laser power conditioning subsystem. Each system was block-diagrammed, and the power and efficiency were found for each subsystem block component. The copper vapor system had the lowest system efficiency (6 percent). The CO2 laser was found to be the most readily scalable but has the disadvantage of long laser wavelength.

  16. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  17. The electric field change caused by a ground flash with multiple channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, Minoru; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Arima, Izumi; Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro; Takeuti, Tosio

    1991-01-01

    The electric field and the magnetic flux changes caused by a ground flash with multiple channels are measured near the electric power transmission lines during winter thunderstorms. Triggered lightning strokes and the following associated strokes to the transmission line towers produce characteristic waveforms of the field changes. A few examples of the waveforms and a brief discussion are given.

  18. Opioids potentiate electrical transmission at mixed synapses on the Mauthner cell

    PubMed Central

    Cachope, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Opioid receptors were shown to modulate a variety of cellular processes in the vertebrate central nervous system, including synaptic transmission. While the effects of opioid receptors on chemically mediated transmission have been extensively investigated, little is known of their actions on gap junction-mediated electrical synapses. Here we report that pharmacological activation of mu-opioid receptors led to a long-term enhancement of electrical (and glutamatergic) transmission at identifiable mixed synapses on the goldfish Mauthner cells. The effect also required activation of both dopamine D1/5 receptors and postsynaptic cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, suggesting that opioid-evoked actions are mediated indirectly via the release of dopamine from varicosities known to be located in the vicinity of the synaptic contacts. Moreover, inhibitory inputs situated in the immediate vicinity of these excitatory synapses on the lateral dendrite of the Mauthner cell were not affected by activation of mu-opioid receptors, indicating that their actions are restricted to electrical and glutamatergic transmissions co-existing at mixed contacts. Thus, as their chemical counterparts, electrical synapses can be a target for the modulatory actions of the opioid system. Because gap junctions at these mixed synapses are formed by fish homologs of the neuronal connexin 36, which is widespread in mammalian brain, it is likely that this regulatory property applies to electrical synapses elsewhere as well. PMID:26019311

  19. Theoretical analysis of AC electric field transmission into biological tissue through frozen saline for electroporation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunyan; Rubinsky, Boris

    2014-12-01

    An analytical model was used to explore the feasibility of sinusoidal electric field transmission across a frozen saline layer into biological tissue. The study is relevant to electroporation and permeabilization of the cell membrane by electric fields. The concept was analyzed for frequencies in the range of conventional electroporation frequencies and electric field intensity. Theoretical analysis for a variety of tissues show that the transmission of electroporation type electric fields through a layer of frozen saline into tissue is feasible and the behavior of this composite system depends on tissue type, frozen domain temperature, and frequency. Freezing could become a valuable method for adherence of electroporation electrodes to moving tissue surfaces, such as the heart in the treatment of atrial fibrillation or blood vessels for the treatment of restenosis.

  20. The design of an electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.; Hoff, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    An electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission has been developed for the Department of Energy's FutureCar Challenge. This project which is jointly sponsored by the DOE and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) seeks to modify a production mid-size car to reach 80 mpg, yet still maintain the safety and consumer acceptability of the original vehicle. To meet this challenge, a 1996 Ford Taurus has been modified into a parallel drive, hybrid electric vehicle. The propulsion system of this vehicle is based on a DC electric motor, which is coupled via a belt drive, in parallel, with a 1.9 liter turbo-charged, direct injection diesel engine. Both propulsion units are then coupled to the transmission. The OEM automatic transmission has been replaced with a five-speed, manual transmission, which was adapted from an earlier model year production Taurus SHO vehicle. This transmission is both lighter and more mechanically efficient than the automatic transmission. In order to provide the automatic transmission shifting capabilities expected by the consumer for a vehicle of this size, an electro-hydraulic control unit was designed and built. This unit automatically engages the clutch and shifts gears as required during vehicle operation. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC), which utilizes throttle and vehicle speed input signals. Additionally, the driver may select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector. This paper discusses the final design of this system and provides an evaluation of its performance.

  1. Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

  2. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. 29.21-8 Section 29.21-8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT Rights-of-Way General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric...

  3. Transmission cost minimization strategies for wind-electric generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.

    1997-12-31

    Integrating wind-electric generation facilities into existing power systems presents opportunities not encountered in conventional energy projects. Minimizing outlet cost requires probabilistic value-based analyses appropriately reflecting the wind facility`s operational characteristics. The wind resource`s intermittent nature permits relaxation of deterministic criteria addressing outlet configuration and capacity required relative to facility rating. Equivalent capacity ratings of wind generation facilities being a fraction of installed nameplate rating, outlet design studies contingency analyses can concentrate on this fractional value. Further, given its non-dispatchable, low capacity factor nature, a lower level of redundancy in outlet facilities is appropriate considering the trifling contribution to output unreliability. Further cost reduction opportunities arise from {open_quotes}wind speed/generator power output{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}wind speed/overhead conductor rating{close_quotes} functions` correlation. Proper analysis permits the correlation`s exploitation to safely increase line ratings. Lastly, poor correlation between output and utility load may permit use of smaller conductors, whose higher (mostly off-peak) losses are economically justifiable.

  4. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  5. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  6. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Appendix E, Transmission Reinforcement Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this appendix to the draft environmental impact statement (EIS) report is to provide an update of the latest study work done on transmission system options for the Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Also included in the attachments to the EIS are 2 reports analyzing the voltage stability of the Puget Sound transmission system and a review by Power Technologies, Inc. of the BPA voltage stability analysis and reactive options. Five transmission line options and several reactive options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAFRP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. Plans were designed to provide at least 500 MVAR reactive margin.

  7. Improving Electricity Resource-Planning Processes by Consideringthe Strategic Benefits of Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Budhraja, Vikram; Mobasheri, Fred; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph

    2009-03-02

    Current methods of evaluating the economic impacts of new electricity transmission projects fail to capture the many strategic benefits of these projects, such as those resulting from their long life, dynamic changes to the system, access to diverse fuels, and advancement of public policy goals to integrate renewable-energy resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Opportunities for Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K.; Onar, Omer C.; Kirkham, Harold; Fisher, Emily; Burkes, Klaehn; Starke, Michael R.; Mohammed, Olama; Weeks, George

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, more than 172 quads of electricity have been transmitted on the US transmission and distribution (T&D) grid. Given this significant amount of energy flow, establishing and maintaining an efficient T&D grid is paramount. As shown in the figure below, the total percentage of overall losses in the US electric grid is approximately 6% (5.12% in 2012) (30% lower than the world average since 2000). While these efficiency losses appear to be relatively small from a percentage perspective, the total estimated electricity loss during this time is 10.8 quads.

  9. Flexible gas insulated transmission line having regions of reduced electric field

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.; Meyer, Jeffry R.

    1983-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having radially flexible field control means for reducing the electric field along the periphery of the inner conductor at predetermined locations wherein the support insulators are located. The radially flexible field control means of the invention includes several structural variations of the inner conductor, wherein careful controlling of the length to depth of surface depressions produces regions of reduced electric field. Several embodiments of the invention dispose a flexible connector at the predetermined location along the inner conductor where the surface depressions that control the reduced electric field are located.

  10. Wireless monitoring of structural components of wind turbines including tower and foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wondra, B.; Botz, M.; Grosse, C. U.

    2016-09-01

    Only few large wind turbines contain an extensive structural health monitoring (SHM) system. Such SHM systems could provide deeper insight into the real load history of a wind turbine along its standard lifetime of 20 years and support a justified extension of operation beyond the original intended period. This paper presents a new concept of a wireless SHM system based on acceleration measurement sensor nodes to permanently record acceleration of the tower structure at different heights. Exploitation of acceleration data and its referring position on the turbine tower enables calculation of vibration frequencies, their amplitudes and subsequently eigenmodes. Tower heights of 100 m and more are within the transmission range of wireless nodes, enabling a complete surveillance of the tower in three dimensions without the need for long cabling or electric signal amplification. Mounting of the sensor nodes on the tower is not limited to a few positions by the presence of an electric cable anymore. Still a comparison between data recorded by wireless sensors and data recorded by high-resolution wire-based sensors shows that the present resolution of the wireless sensors has to be improved to record accelerations more accurately and thus analyze vibration frequencies more precisely.

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Hein, Jeff; Schneider, Thomas; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  13. Efficient design of multituned transmission line NMR probes: the electrical engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Frydel, J A; Krzystyniak, M; Pienkowski, D; Pietrzak, M; de Sousa Amadeu, N; Ratajczyk, T; Idzik, K; Gutmann, T; Tietze, D; Voigt, S; Fenn, A; Limbach, H H; Buntkowsky, G

    2011-01-01

    Transmission line-based multi-channel solid state NMR probes have many advantages regarding the cost of construction, number of RF-channels, and achievable RF-power levels. Nevertheless, these probes are only rarely employed in solid state-NMR-labs, mainly owing to the difficult experimental determination of the necessary RF-parameters. Here, the efficient design of multi-channel solid state MAS-NMR probes employing transmission line theory and modern techniques of electrical engineering is presented. As technical realization a five-channel ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C, (2)H and (15)N) probe for operation at 7 Tesla is described. This very cost efficient design goal is a multi port single coil transmission line probe based on the design developed by Schaefer and McKay. The electrical performance of the probe is determined by measuring of Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) in particular input/output ports. These parameters are compared to the calculated parameters of the design employing the S-matrix formalism. It is shown that the S-matrix formalism provides an excellent tool for examination of transmission line probes and thus the tool for a rational design of these probes. On the other hand, the resulting design provides excellent electrical performance. From a point of view of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), calibration spectra of particular ports (channels) are of great importance. The estimation of the π/2 pulses length for all five NMR channels is presented.

  14. Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing Section & Elevation, South Tower Section & Elevation, and North Tower Sections & Elevation - Cape Arago Light Station Footbridge, Gregory Point, Charleston, Coos County, OR

  15. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father

  16. Electrical signal transmission in a bone cell network: the influence of a discrete gap junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, D.; Weinbaum, S.; Cowin, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    A refined electrical cable model is formulated to investigate the role of a discrete gap junction in the intracellular transmission of electrical signals in an electrically coupled system of osteocytes and osteoblasts in an osteon. The model also examines the influence of the ratio q between the membrane's electrical time constant and the characteristic time of pore fluid pressure, the circular, cylindrical geometry of the osteon, and key simplifying assumptions in our earlier continuous cable model (see Zhang, D., S. C. Cowin, and S. Weinbaum. Electrical signal transmission and gap junction regulation in a bone cell network: A cable model for an osteon. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 25:379-396, 1997). Using this refined model, it is shown that (1) the intracellular potential amplitude at the osteoblastic end of the osteonal cable retains the character of a combination of a low-pass and a high-pass filter as the corner frequency varies in the physiological range; (2) the presence of a discrete gap junction near a resting osteoblast can lead to significant modulation of the intracellular potential and current in the osteoblast for measured values of the gap junction coupling strength; and (3) the circular, cylindrical geometry of the osteon is well simulated by the beam analogy used in Zhang et al.

  17. Overlap amplitude and localization properties in aperiodic diluted and non-diluted direct electric transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, E.; Castro, C. E.; Cortés-Cortés, F.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we study the relationship existing between the localization properties of the diluted and non-diluted direct electrical transmission lines with the overlap amplitude Cijω = 2 | Iiω Ijω | , where Ijω is the amplitude of the electric current function at jth cell of the transmission line for the state with frequency ω. We distribute two values of inductances LA and LB, according to the generalized aperiodic Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. We find that the behavior of Ci,jω is directly related to the localization properties of the aperiodic sequences measured by the ξ normalized participation number, the Rq Rényi entropies and the μq moments. In addition, we generalize the scaling relationship for the overlap amplitude Ci,jω, i.e., <(Ci,jω) 2 q > =(2/N) 2 q.

  18. Enhanced transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of structured subwavelength apertures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanshui; Peng, Liang; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2010-03-15

    Transmission through sub-wavelength apertures in perfect metals is expected to be strongly suppressed. However, by structural engineering of the apertures, we numerically demonstrate that the transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures in a thin metallic film can be significantly enhanced. Based on equivalent circuit theory analysis, periodic arrays of square structured subwavelength apertures are obtained with a 1900-fold transmission enhancement factor when the side length a of the apertures is 10 times smaller than the wavelength (a/lambda =0.1). By examining the induced surface currents and investigating the influence of the lattice constant and the incident angle to the resonant frequency, we show that the enhancement is due to the excitation of the strong localized resonant modes of the structured apertures.

  19. Sculpting nanoelectrodes with a transmission electron beam for electrical and geometrical characterization of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zandbergen, Henny W; van Duuren, Robert J H A; Alkemade, Paul F A; Lientschnig, Günther; Vasquez, Oscar; Dekker, Cees; Tichelaar, Frans D

    2005-03-01

    A method to produce metal electrodes with a gap of a few nanometers with a highly focused electron beam in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. With this method the electrical and geometrical characterization of the same particle is possible. The I-V characteristics of a gold particle trapped between such electrodes showed the expected single-electron tunneling behavior, with a Coulomb gap corresponding to the geometry of the particle as observed with high-resolution TEM.

  20. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  1. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Dale, Steinar J.; Bolin, Philip C.

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections.

  2. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, A.H.; Dale, S.J.; Bolin, P.C.

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections. 10 figs.

  3. Distributed feedback lasing from electrically tunable dye-doped polymer-liquid crystal transmission gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhno, O. V.; Gritsai, Y.; Stumpe, J.

    2014-11-01

    In the present work we report low-threshold distributed feedback (DFB) lasing from electrically tunable holographic polymer-liquid crystal transmission gratings of POLIPHEM type doped with pyrromethene 567. Due to their uniform droplet-free micro-morphology, the POLIPHEM gratings possess high diffraction efficiency and excellent optical quality. Second-order lasing with a threshold of ~0.8 µJ/pulse and a bandwidth of ~1 nm was achieved under the excitation of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The laser emission wavelength was tuned from 572-625 nm by varying the grating period. Application of an electric field switches off or tunes the lasing intensity. An electrically-induced blue-shift of the output laser emission was observed.

  4. 30-MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric-transmission stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.D.; Rogers, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration operates the electric power transmission system that connects the Pacific Northwest and southern California. The HVAC interties develop 0.35 Hz oscillations when the lines are heavily loaded. A 30 MJ (8.4 kWh) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit with a 10 MW converter can provide system damping for the oscillation. The unit is scheduled for installation in 1982 and operation in 1982-83. Status of the project is described. The conductor has been fully tested electrically and mechanically and the 5 kA superconducting cable has been produced. The 30 MJ superconducting coil is essentially complete. All major components of the electrical and cryogenic systems except the nonconducting dewar have been completed. The refrigerator and converter are undergoing tests. The system is to be located at the BPA Tacoma Substation and operated by microwave link from Portland, OR.

  5. Cartographic Analysis of Antennas and Towers: A Novel Approach to Improving the Implementation and Data Transmission of mHealth Tools on Mobile Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Bakken, Suzanne; Schnall, Rebecca; Balán, Iván; Frasca, Timothy; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Most mHealth tools such as short message service (SMS), mobile apps, wireless pill counters, and ingestible wireless monitors use mobile antennas to communicate. Limited signal availability, often due to poor antenna infrastructure, negatively impacts the implementation of mHealth tools and remote data collection. Assessing the antenna infrastructure prior to starting a study can help mitigate this problem. Currently, there are no studies that detail whether and how the antenna infrastructure of a study site or area is assessed. Objective To address this literature gap, we analyze and discuss the use of a cartographic analysis of antennas and towers (CAAT) for mobile communications for geographically assessing mobile antenna and tower infrastructure and identifying signal availability for mobile devices prior to the implementation of an SMS-based mHealth pilot study. Methods An alpha test of the SMS system was performed using 11 site staff. A CAAT for the study area’s mobile network was performed after the alpha test and pre-implementation of the pilot study. The pilot study used a convenience sample of 11 high-risk men who have sex with men who were given human immunodeficiency virus test kits for testing nonmonogamous sexual partners before intercourse. Product use and sexual behavior were tracked through SMS. Message frequency analyses were performed on the SMS text messages, and SMS sent/received frequencies of 11 staff and 11 pilot study participants were compared. Results The CAAT helped us to successfully identify strengths and weaknesses in mobile service capacity within a 3-mile radius from the epicenters of four New York City boroughs. During the alpha test, before CAAT, 1176/1202 (97.84%) text messages were sent to staff, of which 26/1176 (2.21%) failed. After the CAAT, 2934 messages were sent to pilot study participants and none failed. Conclusions The CAAT effectively illustrated the research area’s mobile infrastructure and signal

  6. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  7. Mitigating the Detrimental Impacts of Solar PV Penetration on Electric Power Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Nitin

    At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO 2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.

  8. One-dimensional pressure transfer models for acoustic-electric transmission channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, K. R.; Lawry, T. J.; Scarton, H. A.; Saulnier, G. J.

    2015-09-01

    A method for modeling piezoelectric-based ultrasonic acoustic-electric power and data transmission channels is presented. These channels employ piezoelectric disk transducers to convey signals across a series of physical layers using ultrasonic waves. This model decomposes the mechanical pathway of the signal into individual ultrasonic propagation layers which are generally independent of the layer's adjacent domains. Each layer is represented by a two-by-two traveling pressure wave transfer matrix which relates the forward and reverse pressure waves on one side of the layer to the pressure waves on the opposite face, where each face is assumed to be in contact with a domain of arbitrary reference acoustic impedance. A rigorous implementation of ultrasonic beam spreading is introduced and implemented within applicable domains. Compatible pressure-wave models for piezoelectric transducers are given, which relate the electric voltage and current interface of the transducer to the pressure waves on one mechanical interface while also allowing for passive acoustic loading of the secondary mechanical interface. It is also shown that the piezoelectric model's electrical interface is compatible with transmission line parameters (ABCD-parameters), allowing for connection of electronic components and networks. The model is shown to be capable of reproducing the behavior of realistic physical channels.

  9. Ultrafast electrical signals: Transmission of broadband guiding structures and transport in the resonant tunneling diode

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    This study documents the experimental study of the transmission of picosecond electrical signals as they propagate along planar guiding structures and as they are switched by double-barrier heterostructure diodes. Applying advances in the field of ultrafast optics to revolutionary techniques in the generation and measurement of short electrical transients, a large contribution has been made to the growing field of ultrafast electronics. The progress of this discipline, which is essential to the future progress of the communications and computer fields, has to be furthered by the investigation of sources of high-speed digital signals and the means of transmitting these signals. An algorithm has been developed and used to model the propagation of picosecond and subpicosecond electrical signals on normal and superconducting planar transmission lines. The effects of the modal dispersion of planar lines, the complex surface conductivity of superconductors, and the dipolar relaxation of substrates are demonstrated. Additionally, an investigation into the switching speed of the double-barrier quantum-well resonant-tunneling diode produced the first observation of picosecond bistable operation in this device.

  10. Potential benefits of long-distance electricity transmission in China for air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, W.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Yuan, J.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    China is expanding west-to-east long-distance electricity transmission capacity with the aim of reducing eastern coal power production and resulting air pollution. In addition to coal power, this new grid capacity can be used to transport renewable-generated electricity with resulting climate co-benefits. Here we use an integrated assessment to evaluate the air quality and climate benefits of twelve proposed transmission lines in China, and compare two energy-by-wire strategies that transmit 1) only coal power (Coal-by-wire, CbW) or 2) combined renewable plus coal power (Renewable and coal-by-wire, (RE+C)bW), with 3) the current practice of transporting coal by rail for conversion to electricity near eastern demand centers (Coal-by-rail, CbR). Based on a regional atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-Chem, electricity transmission through the proposed lines leads to 2-3 μg/m3 (2-7%) reduction in the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the eastern provinces relative to 2010 levels, roughly ~1 μg/m3 greater than the reduction achieved in CbR where dirty coal units are locally replaced with efficient ones. Although the eastern air quality improvement is similar irrespective of the fuel source to power the lines, adding coal generation results in up to 3% increase in annual mean PM2.5 levels in some exporting provinces, whereas such increase is not observed when most added capacity is renewable-based. Counting both the economic value of reduced carbon emissions and the health-related air quality benefits can significantly improve the cost-effectiveness of transmitting both renewable and coal power. Comparing (RE+C)bW with the two coal-based options, we find not only 20% larger reduction in air-pollution-related deaths, but also three times greater reduction in CO2 emissions. Our study hence demonstrates the significance of coordinating renewable energy planning with transmission planning to simultaneously tackle air pollution and climate

  11. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  12. Electrical resistivity imaging in transmission between surface and underground tunnel for fault characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, N.; Boyle, A.; Grychtol, B.; Cabrera, J.; Marteau, J.; Adler, A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrical resistivity images supply information on sub-surface structures and are classically performed to characterize faults geometry. Here we use the presence of a tunnel intersecting a regional fault to inject electrical currents between surface and the tunnel to improve the image resolution at depth. We apply an original methodology for defining the inversion parametrization based on pilot points to better deal with the heterogeneous sounding of the medium. An increased region of high spatial resolution is shown by analysis of point spread functions as well as inversion of synthetics. Such evaluations highlight the advantages of using transmission measurements by transferring a few electrodes from the main profile to increase the sounding depth. Based on the resulting image we propose a revised structure for the medium surrounding the Cernon fault supported by geological observations and muon flux measurements.

  13. Using ozone to treat cooling tower water

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, L.

    1995-07-01

    Ozone is a controversial but promising alternative to chemicals for treating water in cooling towers. A powerful disinfectant, ozone can prevent biofouling of heat exchange surfaces, and may mitigate scale and corrosion. Ozone treatment of cooling towers can cut costs for energy, water, sewage, and regulatory compliance. Ozone treatment is an electrotechnology, but ozone equipment represents only a small electric load. Although ozone has provided excellent results in some cooling tower applications, its effectiveness has not been proven conclusively. Less than 1,000 cooling towers use ozone water treatment in the United States. Acceptance of this technology is increasing, however, as indicated by its use by such large firms as IBM, AT and T, DuPont, and Xerox, and by its adoption by some chemical water treatment suppliers. The energy efficiency implications of ozone treatment are being researched. Southern California Edison found that in some systems, ozone treatment improved chiller efficiency up to 20 percent due to cleaner heat exchange surfaces.

  14. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  15. Design and control of a novel two-speed Uninterrupted Mechanical Transmission for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shengnan; Song, Jian; Song, Haijun; Tai, Yuzhuo; Li, Fei; Sinh Nguyen, Truong

    2016-06-01

    Conventional all-electric vehicles (EV) adopt single-speed transmission due to its low cost and simple construction. However, with the adoption of this type of driveline system, development of EV technology leads to the growing performance requirements of drive motor. Introducing a multi-speed or two-speed transmission to EV offers the possibility of efficiency improvement of the whole powertrain. This paper presents an innovative two-speed Uninterrupted Mechanical Transmission (UMT), which consists of an epicyclic gearing system, a centrifugal clutch and a brake band, allowing the seamless shifting between two gears. Besides, driver's intention is recognized by the control system which is based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), utilizing the signals of vehicle velocity and accelerator pedal position. The novel UMT shows better dynamic and comfort performance in compare with the optimized AMT with the same gear ratios. Comparison between the control strategy with recognition of driver intention and the conventional two-parameter gear shifting strategy is presented. And the simulation and analysis of the middle layer of optimal gearshift control algorithm is detailed. The results indicate that the UMT adopting FLC and optimal control method provides a significant improvement of energy efficiency, dynamic performance and shifting comfort for EV.

  16. Electrical properties of purinergic transmission in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michelle; Mitsui, Retsu; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic smooth muscle develops spontaneous myogenic tone which is modulated by autonomic neuromuscular transmission. This study aimed to investigate the role of purinergic transmission in regulating electrical activity of prostate smooth muscle and whether its contribution may be altered with age. Intracellular recordings were simultaneously made with isometric tension recordings in smooth muscle preparations of the guinea-pig prostate. Immunostaining for P2X1 receptors on whole mount preparations was also performed. In prostate preparations which generated spontaneous slow waves, electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) which were abolished by guanethidine (10 μM), α-β-methylene ATP (10 μM) or pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS, 10 μM) but not phentolamine (1 μM). Consistently, immunostaining revealed the expression of P2X1 receptors on prostatic smooth muscle. EJPs themselves did not cause contractions, but EJPs could sum to trigger a slow wave and associated contraction. Yohimbine (1 μM) and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 10 μM) but not propranolol (1 μM) potentiated EJPs. Although properties of EJPs were not different between young and aging guinea-pig prostates, ectoATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 (100 μM) augmented EJP amplitudes by 64.2 ± 29.6% in aging animals, compared to 22.1 ± 19.9% in young animals. These results suggest that ATP released from sympathetic nerves acts on P2X1 purinoceptors located on prostate smooth muscle to evoke EJPs, while pre-junctional α2-adrenergic and adenosine A2 receptors may play a role in preventing excessive transmitter release. Age-related up-regulation of enzymatic ATP breakdown may be a compensatory mechanism for the enhanced purinergic transmission which would cause hypercontractility arising from increased ATP release in older animals.

  17. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  18. Supplying Reliable Electricity and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Wind is the world's fastest growing electric energy source. Because it is intermittent, though, wind is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid is a simple and effective way of reducing deliverable wind power swings caused by wind intermittency. As more farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does the probability that all sites experience the same wind regime at the same time. Consequently, the array behaves more and more similarly to a single farm with steady wind speed and thus steady deliverable wind power. In this study, benefits of interconnecting wind farms were evaluated for 19 sites, located in the Midwestern United States, with annual average wind speeds at 80 m above ground, the hub height of modern wind turbines, greater than 6.9 m/s (class 3 or greater). It was found that an average of 33% and a maximum of 47% of yearly-averaged wind power from interconnected farms can be used as reliable, baseload electric power. Equally significant, interconnecting multiple wind farms to a common point, then connecting that point to a far-away city can allow the long-distance portion of transmission capacity to be reduced, for example, by 20% with only a 1.6% loss of energy. Although most parameters, such as intermittency, improved less than linearly as the number of interconnected sites increased, no saturation of the benefits was found. Thus, the benefits of interconnection continue to increase with more and more interconnected sites.

  19. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  1. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-01-01

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  2. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-01-01

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions. PMID:25658390

  3. 7. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST PHOTO TOWER. CLOSED WINDOW ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST PHOTO TOWER. CLOSED WINDOW ON WEST SIDE; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ON EAST SIDE OF PHOTO TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  5. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  6. Confusion at the Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  7. Leaning Tower of PESA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2009-01-01

    There is a certain similarity between the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA) and the leaning tower of Pisa. Both have a certain presence on the landscape: the tower has a commanding appearance on the Italian countryside while PESA has left its mark on the academic fabric of Australasia. Both are much loved: Pisa by visiting…

  8. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  9. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  10. 1KW Power Transmission Using Wireless Acoustic-Electric Feed-Through (WAEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Biederman, W.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of space applications require the delivery of power into sealed structures. Since the structural integrity can be degraded by holes for cabling we present an alternative method of delivering power and information using stress waves to the internal space of a sealed structure. One particular application of this technology is in sample return missions where it is critical to preserve the sample integrity and to prevent earth contamination. Therefore, the container has to be hermetically sealed and the integrity of the seal must be monitored in order to insure to a high degree of reliability the integrity of the sample return vessel. In this study we investigated the use of piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices to transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall by using elastic or acoustic waves. The technology is applicable to a range of space and terrestrial applications where power is required by electronic equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc., where holes in the wall are prohibitive or may result in significant structural performance degradation or unnecessarily complex designs. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feed-through devices were analyzed by finite element models and an equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the power transfer characteristics to different electric loads. Based on the results of the analysis a prototype device was designed, fabricated and a demonstration of the transmission of electric power up to 1.068-kW was successfully conducted. Efficiencies in the 80-90% range were also demonstrated and methods to increase the efficiency further are currently being considered.

  11. Wet cells and dry cells: In situ transmission electron microscopy of electrically-driven, dynamical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Edward Robert, IV

    Recent developments in nanofabrication techniques allow thin, wet systems to be imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution in the electron microscope. Coupling this ability with simultaneous, measured, electrical control, we cycle processes in liquid systems representing different electrochemical battery components. Dynamic processes imaged with these techniques, which represent a new state-of-the-art, include nanobubble collapse, dendrite growth, ion diffusion, and graphite intercalation. We also develop a sensitive system for measuring electron beam induced currents (EBIC) in the transmission electron microscope and apply it to graphene-MoS2 heterostructures. This new hybrid material has strong light-matter interactions, and the EBIC measurements map the minority carrier diffusion length, which we observe to decrease with increasing radiation damage. These results have direct implications for the function and service lifetime of solar cells based on molybdenum disulfide.

  12. Engineering analysis of electrical effects for the COTP 500KV transmission line and EBMUD aqueduct corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, O.C.; Bell, G.K.; Ma, J.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to determine AC electrical interference effects arising in the East Bay Municipal Utility District`s (EBMUD) Mokelumne Aqueducts due to their proximity to the Olinda-Tracy 500 kilovolt (kV) transmission line operated by the Western Area Power Administration (WESTERN). A six-wire gradient control wire mitigation system selected by EBMUD was modeled and evaluated. The study shows that the mitigation system performs satisfactorily under all conditions examined. During steady state conditions, touch voltages are maintained below 15 volts throughout the entire length of the three aqueducts. During fault conditions, touch voltages are maintained below 263 volts, the design limit calculated according to ANSI/IEEE Standard 80. The currents flowing through the isolator/surge protectors do not exceed the ratings of these devices, during steady state and fault conditions.

  13. Planar micro-nano-coils for electrically driving liquid crystal microlenses based on wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the planar micro-nano-coils (PMNCs) with diverse planar spiral structures are designed for electrically driving and controlling liquid crystal microlenses (LCMs) based on wireless power transmission approaches. The PMNCs with different basic shapes are fabricated, including typical micro-triangle, micro-square, micro-pentagon, micro-hexagon, and micro-circle. According to the designed microstructures, using loop iterative approximation means based on Greenhouse algorithm, the inductance values of the microcoils can be calculated through combining self-inductance with mutual-inductance. In experiments, both the wet and dry etching technologies are adapted to obtain the desired PMNCs over aluminum-coated glass substrates. The etching technologies utilized by us are implemented on initial glass substrates spread by photoresist mask, which has been processed by common ultraviolet lithography. And the wet and dry etching technologies are different in the way of eroding aluminum film. Usually, the wet etching is a kind of the chemical reaction of alkali element in the developing liquid used, but the dry etching is a type of physical etching process such as the ion beam etching so as to fabricate microstructures with smaller size than that of wet etching. After the fabrication of the PMNCs, the electrical testing circuit for the inductance of the PMNCs is built to obtain their actual inductance values. By comparing inductances with theoretical prediction, the improved PMNCs are proposed for driving and controlling LCMs, which demonstrates enhanced light transmission efficiency of the PMNCs, and makes it more efficient to adjust LCMs developed by us.

  14. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Mukaide, T; Nakaguchi, T; Sievers, A J

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice.

  15. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Mukaide, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Sievers, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice.

  16. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Mukaide, T; Nakaguchi, T; Sievers, A J

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice. PMID:27575139

  17. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  18. View of Nevada rim towers from Arizona side. Left tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada rim towers from Arizona side. Left tower supports Circuit 6, middle tower supports Circuit 5, and right tower supports Circuits 4 and 15, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  19. Deciphering transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by vertical electrical sounding (VES) experiments in Northwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, Golam Shabbir; Keramat, Mumnunul; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2016-03-01

    The vertical electrical soundings (VESs) are carried out in 24 selective locations of Chapai-Nawabganj area of northwest Bangladesh to determine the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Initially, the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are determined from the pumping data of nearby available production wells. Afterwards, the T and K are correlated with geoelectrical resistance and the total resistivity of the aquifer. The present study deciphers the functional analogous relations of the geoelectrical resistance with the transmissivity and the total resistivity with the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer in northwest Bangladesh. It has been shown that the given equations provide reasonable values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity where pumping test information is unavailable. It can be expected that the aquifer properties viz. transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of geologically similar area can be determined with the help of the obtained equations by conducting VES experiments.

  20. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3 - 100 km Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Theory and computations are provided for building inflatable space towers up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism, scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth's surface, weather and upper atmosphere, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. The towers can be built using present technology. The towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the Earth's surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanisms in case of damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  1. Tower Camera Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Moudry, D

    2005-01-01

    The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN,EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-21 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. 24. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 OF THE LEVERS THAT MANIPULATE THE COAL BUCKETS, LOOKING OVER THE BOOM - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  5. 39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) (NOTE: COAL CARS No. 9 & 5 IN BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  6. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. PMID:23937212

  7. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    /south bearing. Using technical and economic data reflecting today's real costs for solar generation technology, storage and electric transmission in combination with this model, we determined the minimum cost combination of these solutions to transform the variable output from solar plants into 3 distinct output profiles: A constant output equivalent to a baseload power plant, a well-defined seasonally-variable output with no weather-induced variability and a variable output but one that is 100% predictable on a multi-day ahead basis. In order to do this, over 14,000 model runs were performed by varying the desired output profile, the amount of energy curtailment, the penetration of solar energy and the geographic region across the continental United States. Despite the cost of supplementary electric transmission, geographic interconnection has the potential to reduce the levelized cost of electricity when meeting any of the studied output profiles by over 65% compared to when only storage is used. Energy curtailment, despite the cost of underutilizing solar energy capacity, has the potential to reduce the total cost of electricity when meeting any of the studied output profiles by over 75% compared to when only storage is used. The three variability mitigation strategies are thankfully not mutually exclusive. When combined at their ideal levels, each of the regions studied saw a reduction in cost of electricity of over 80% compared to when only energy storage is used to meet a specified output profile. When including current costs for solar generation, transmission and energy storage, an optimum configuration can conservatively provide guaranteed baseload power generation with solar across the entire continental United States (equivalent to a nuclear power plant with no down time) for less than 0.19 per kilowatt-hour. If solar is preferentially clustered in the southwest instead of evenly spread throughout the United States, and we adopt future expected costs for solar

  8. Aquarius: Tower Rollback

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile service tower at NASA's Launch Complex-2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California is being moved away from the ULA Delta II rocket with the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft atop, in preparati...

  9. 5. SWITCH TOWER AND JUNCTION OF S.A.R. #1 & S.A.R. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SWITCH TOWER AND JUNCTION OF S.A.R. #1 & S.A.R. #2 TRANSMISSION LINES, MARCH 7, 1916. SCE drawing no. 4932. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Transmission Lines, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  11. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-08

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  12. Individual welfare maximization in electricity markets including consumer and full transmission system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, James Daniel

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents a new algorithm that allows a market participant to maximize its individual welfare in the electricity spot market. The use of such an algorithm in determining market equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, is also demonstrated. The start of the algorithm is a spot market model that uses the optimal power flow (OPF), with a full representation of the transmission system. The OPF is also extended to model consumer behavior, and a thorough mathematical justification for the inclusion of the consumer model in the OPF is presented. The algorithm utilizes price and dispatch sensitivities, available from the Hessian matrix of the OPF, to help determine an optimal change in an individual's bid. The algorithm is shown to be successful in determining local welfare maxima, and the prospects for scaling the algorithm up to realistically sized systems are very good. Assuming a market in which all participants maximize their individual welfare, economic equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, are investigated. This is done by iteratively solving the individual welfare maximization algorithm for each participant until a point is reached where all individuals stop modifying their bids. It is shown that these Nash equilibria can be located in this manner. However, it is also demonstrated that equilibria do not always exist, and are not always unique when they do exist. It is also shown that individual welfare is a highly nonconcave function resulting in many local maxima. As a result, a more global optimization technique, using a genetic algorithm (GA), is investigated. The genetic algorithm is successfully demonstrated on several systems. It is also shown that a GA can be developed using special niche methods, which allow a GA to converge to several local optima at once. Finally, the last chapter of this dissertation covers the development of a new computer visualization routine for power system analysis: contouring. The contouring algorithm is

  13. Specific features of attenuated light transmission by liquid-crystal twist cells in constant and alternating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konshina, E. A.; Amosova, L. P.

    2012-07-01

    Optical transmission characteristics of dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal (NLC) twist cells with different alignment layers (rubbed polyimide and obliquely deposited cerium dioxide) have been studied in constant and alternating electric fields. It has been established that a change in the optical (twist effect) threshold and dynamic range of attenuated transmission depend both on the boundary conditions (that influence the screening of applied voltage) and on the parameters of the applied electric field. The maximum dynamic range (49.5 dB) has been obtained in the cell with a CeO2 alignment layer controlled by a constant potential. In the case of an alternating electric field, the dynamic range decreases because of reduced effective voltage.

  14. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology.

  15. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  16. 76 FR 70122 - Plan for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission Congestion Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... regional reliability councils, regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and independent system operators... transmission organizations (RTOs), independent system operators (ISOs), and other stakeholders to describe... System Operators, utilities, and other stakeholders. IV. Comments in Response to This Notice All...

  17. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS THREE,FOUR, FIVE AND SIX IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  20. 26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, RIGHT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING AERIAL WIRE DESIGN WITH VERTICAL 'TOP HAT' WIRES IN CENTER. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  2. THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a water tank on the second floor that gravity fed water to the Kineth house and farm buildings. The one-story addition to the west of the tower provided workshop space. The hog shed is seen on the left of the image and the concrete foundation of the upright silo is in the foreground on the right. - Kineth Farm, Tower House, 19162 State Route 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. Imaging of built-in electric field at a p-n junction by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Naoya; Findlay, Scott D.; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Takao; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kohno, Yuji; Otomo, Shinya; Minato, Ryuichiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Precise measurement and characterization of electrostatic potential structures and the concomitant electric fields at nanodimensions are essential to understand and control the properties of modern materials and devices. However, directly observing and measuring such local electric field information is still a major challenge in microscopy. Here, differential phase contrast imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy with segmented type detector is used to image a p-n junction in a GaAs compound semiconductor. Differential phase contrast imaging is able to both clearly visualize and quantify the projected, built-in electric field in the p-n junction. The technique is further shown capable of sensitively detecting the electric field variations due to dopant concentration steps within both p-type and n-type regions. Through live differential phase contrast imaging, this technique can potentially be used to image the electromagnetic field structure of new materials and devices even under working conditions.

  4. Imaging of built-in electric field at a p-n junction by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Naoya; Findlay, Scott D; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Takao; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kohno, Yuji; Otomo, Shinya; Minato, Ryuichiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2015-06-12

    Precise measurement and characterization of electrostatic potential structures and the concomitant electric fields at nanodimensions are essential to understand and control the properties of modern materials and devices. However, directly observing and measuring such local electric field information is still a major challenge in microscopy. Here, differential phase contrast imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy with segmented type detector is used to image a p-n junction in a GaAs compound semiconductor. Differential phase contrast imaging is able to both clearly visualize and quantify the projected, built-in electric field in the p-n junction. The technique is further shown capable of sensitively detecting the electric field variations due to dopant concentration steps within both p-type and n-type regions. Through live differential phase contrast imaging, this technique can potentially be used to image the electromagnetic field structure of new materials and devices even under working conditions.

  5. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. The TALE Tower Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  7. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology. PMID:19352413

  8. Evaporation Tower With Prill Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Tower more efficient than conventional evaporation equipment. Liquids such as milk and fruit juice concentrated by passing them through tiny nozzle to form droplets, then allowing droplets to fall through evacuated tower with cooled walls.

  9. Research recommendations for ac interfacing between electric utility transmission and distribution systems and wind, photovoltaics, and OTEC energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longrigg, P.; Buell, E. H.

    1985-03-01

    Work that deals semiquantitatively with many integration problems that may have to be solved as wind, photovoltaic, and ocean energy systems are tied into electrical transmission utility grids is documented. The problems that will arise as these distributed storage and generation (DSG) energy systems are integrated into the electric utility grids are not yet fully known, and their extent may depend on the level of penetration of the DSGs into the grid network. Aspects of DSG integration covered are fuse and relay coordination, harmonics, communications, control protocols, safety, and artificial intelligence (computer driven controls). An appendix on the effects of electromagnetic pulse is also included.

  10. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. |

    1995-02-01

    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  11. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-04-01

    The California Energy Commission directed the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions to analyze possible future scenarios for the California electricity system and assess transmission research and development (R&D) needs, with special emphasis on prioritizing public-interest R&D needs, using criteria developed by the Energy Commission. The scenarios analyzed in this report are not predictions, nor do they express policy preferences of the project participants or the Energy Commission. The public-interest R&D needs that are identified as a result of the analysis are one input that will be considered by the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research staff in preparing a transmission R&D plan.

  12. Ivory Basements and Ivory Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    The metaphors of the ivory tower and ivory basement are used in this chapter to reflect how many women understand and experience the academy. The ivory tower signifies a place that is protected, a place of privilege and authority and a place removed from the outside world (and consequently the rigours of the market place). The ivory tower, by…

  13. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix E: Transmission Reinforcement Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Five transmission line options and several reactive (voltage support) options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAERP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. These options were derived from earlier study work that was summarized in Puget Sound Reinforcement Transmission Options'' and New Cross Mountain Transmission Line Alternative: The Crosstie'', which are attached. The initial Transmission Options study report recognized the value to system performance of adding an entirely new circuit rather than rebuilding an existing one. However, siting realities require that rebuild options be considered. Typically, the most attractive rebuild options would be the lowest capacity (lowest voltage) circuits. But because of corridor location, length and terminal proximity, the rebuild options listed below appear to be the most promising. Schematic diagrams and QV Curves of each option are also attached. It should be noted that Snoqualmie and Echo Lake refer to the same station east of Puget Sound and Naneum and Kittitas refer to the same station in the Ellensburg area. 100 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Windmill tower shadow eliminator

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.J.

    1984-04-17

    In a wind driven propeller system an airfoil support for the shaft of a propeller having an even number of blades extends above and below the shaft a distance at least equal to the blade length and pivots with the propeller into the wind for substantially eliminating tower shadow effects on the propeller.

  15. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  16. The Ivory Tower Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantler, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The corollary of the concept of the "ivory tower", as reflected in the writings of Plato and Newman amongst others, was, paradoxically, the vital importance of the university for wider society. Nevertheless from the mid-twentieth century, the esteem in which a "liberal" university education was held was diminished by rising…

  17. The Towers of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an investigation carried out with a group of able mathematics students who were studying at a level 1 year in advance of their peers. The purpose was to investigate the extension of usual three peg Towers of Hanoi to four pegs and attempt to find a rule that could be used to predict the minimum number of moves required to…

  18. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Overview of U.S. electric utilities: Transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    I hope this brief description of the US electric utility industry has been interesting and informative. No doubt many characteristics, concerns, and research efforts mirror those of the electric utility industry in South Korea. It is hoped that through workshops such as this that electric utilities, manufacturers and consultants may learn from each other for the mutual benefit of all.

  1. Does More international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuepper, Gerd; Delarue, Erik; Delvaux, Bram; Meeus, Leonardo; Bekaert, David; Willems, Bert; Proost, Stef; D'haeseleer, William; Deketelaere, Kurt; Belmans, Ronnie

    2009-01-15

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling regional markets can increase competition. That suggests it may not be appropriate to assess market concentration using national market shares. (author)

  2. Wireless acoustic-electric feed-through for power and signal transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Doty, Benjamin (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Chang, Zensheu (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An embodiment provides electrical energy from a source on one side of a medium to a load on the other side of the medium, the embodiment including a first piezoelectric to generate acoustic energy in response to electrical energy from the source, and a second piezoelectric to convert the received acoustic energy to electrical energy used by the load. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. Successfully troubleshoot distillation towers

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.F. ); Kunesh, J.G. ); Smith, V.C. )

    1993-03-01

    Distillation dominates separation services in the chemical process industries. With this widespread use, not surprisingly, operating problems are common. Because distillation columns frequently are limiting factors in plant capacity or product quality, correcting these problems usually is urgent. The paper describes the steps to be taken to start to correct problems on distillation towers: understand the ground rules, understand the people and procedures, and understand the plant. Then observe the actual operation, monitor the system, collect required data, and analyze the data. The paper discusses how to determine the problem area, broadening the search, focusing on the distillation tower and its internals, confirming the specific problem, extending the troubleshooting activities, and dealing with tougher problems.

  4. Utility avoids cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    After more than four years of often rancorous debate, New Jersey late last month approved a plan that permits the state`s largest utility to reclaim and restore Delaware Bay marshland instead of constructing a costly cooling tower for two nuclear power units. Environmental interests say they`ll appeal the wetlands proposal, calling it an {open_quotes}unproven experiment{close_quotes} that violates Clean Water Act provisions.

  5. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  6. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  7. Biological effects from electric fields associated with high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    Efforts during the past year by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute-funded laboratories to investigate the biological effects from electric fields are described in resume form. Investigations generally have been summarized with objectives, accomplishments of the past year, and some indication of projected studies.

  8. 76 FR 23222 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ..., 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. Preambles 1986-1990 ] 30,783 (1987). \\23\\ 18 CFR 380... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of.... Background 2. Section 215 of the FPA requires a Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization...

  9. DWDM VSB modulation-format optical transmission: Effects of optical filtering and electrical equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2008-10-01

    The transmission of 40 Gb/s wavelength multiplexed channels under vestigial single side band modulation format is transmitted over long haul optically amplified fiber systems. Bit-error-rate (BER) of 10 -12 or better can be achieved across all channels. Optical filters are designed with asymmetric roll-off bands. Simulations of the transmission performance, BER versus receiver sensitivity are demonstrated with wavelength channel spacing of 20-40 GHz. An optical filter, whose passband is 28 GHz and 20 dB cut-off band, performs best for 40 Gb/s bit rate due to optimum filtering and minimum noise contribution. Furthermore the single-sideband property of VSB format can assist linear equalization by electronic processing. The transmission performance is accurately evaluated based on the eye opening using a fast statistical method based on an equivalent Gaussian probability density distribution (pdf) which is derived from multiple peaks pdf of distorted eye diagram.

  10. Political efficacy and familiarity as predictors of attitudes towards electric transmission lines in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Joe, Jeffrey C.; Hendrickson, Kelsie; Wong, Maria; Kane, Stephanie L.; Solan, David; Carlisle, Juliet E.; Koehler, David; Ames, Daniel P.; Beazer, Robert

    2016-05-18

    Public opposition to the construction (i.e., siting) of new high voltage overhead transmission lines is not a new or isolated phenomenon. Past research has posited a variety of reasons, applied general theories, and has provided empirical evidence to explain public opposition. The existing literature, while clarifying many elements of the issue, does not yet fully explain the complexities underlying this public opposition phenomenon. As a result, the current study demonstrated how two overlooked factors, people’s sense of political efficacy and their familiarity (i.e., prior exposure) with transmission lines, explained attitudes of support and opposition to siting new power lines.

  11. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  12. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  13. 75 FR 43519 - Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Area Power Administration Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between... purpose of transmitting renewable energy. Specifically, Western is soliciting interest from entities looking to transfer renewable energy from the area south of Phoenix, Arizona to the Palo Verde market...

  14. Towers of hybrid mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  15. 2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, south sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  16. Direct observation of unstained biological specimens in water by the frequency transmission electric-field method using SEM.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful tool for the direct visualization of biological specimens at nanometre-scale resolution. However, images of unstained specimens in water using an atmospheric holder exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Here, we present a new form of microscopy, the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method using SEM, that offers low radiation damage and high-contrast observation of unstained biological samples in water. The wet biological specimens are enclosed in two silicon nitride (SiN) films. The metal-coated SiN film is irradiated using a focused modulation electron beam (EB) at a low-accelerating voltage. A measurement terminal under the sample holder detects the electric-field frequency signal, which contains structural information relating to the biological specimens. Our results in very little radiation damage to the sample, and the observation image is similar to the transmission image, depending on the sample volume. Our developed method can easily be utilized for the observation of various biological specimens in water. PMID:24651483

  17. Planning and processing of new or upgraded electric transmission systems in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Toole, Gasper Loren

    2009-01-01

    RETA has been requested to identify and prioritize renewable energy resource zones in New Mexico that have a potential to support industry development among renewable energy developers for renewable resource generation projects. Moreover, Senate Memorial 44 requests that RETA identify and prioritize the best viable options for potential transmission corridors to accommodate renewable energy export from New Mexico in accordance with a defined time-line and to convene a working group to submit recommendations to the legislature for establishing a process to streamline procedures for establishing renewable energy transmission projects in New Mexico. RETA's July 9, 2009 request for comments outlined seven topical areas of specific value to Senate Memorial 44. This document addresses Topics 1, 3 and 4.

  18. Capacity constraints, pricing and investment decisions in regulated firms with a special emphasis on the Argentine electricity transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Gomez, Clemencia

    Restructuring the electricity sector has fostered competition in generation and distribution but has reinforced the need for better regulation to ensure efficiency of transmission networks. This dissertation assesses the impact of the Argentinean reforms in electricity on transmission efficiency. It then goes beyond the Argentinean case and analyzes some regulatory issues affecting transmission. Chapter 2 shows that the Argentinean reforms increased reliability and brought prices closer to costs. However, regulatory fine-tuning is required to ensure sustainability. Chapter 3 examines the impact of unbundling on the construction of the transmission link to the Yacyreta generation complex. A long-term commercial contract in an unbundled industry allowed competition to reduce investment cost and facilitated better monitoring by outsiders. Chapter 4 analyzes investment procedures in the context of the proposal to build a fourth line in the Comahue corridor. While procedures are mostly coherent, some rules appear to distort incentives to expand. The narrow definition of beneficiaries limits the number of participants in the decision-making. Grid users' limited accountability reduces incentives to pay for expansion. Long term contracts could increase the cost of the constraints for the party with the obligation to deliver. Chapter 5 analyzes incentives to promote grid expansion under uncertain demand using a single period-single generator model. The monopolist underinvests in comparison to an unconstrained system to reduce the likelihood of having to pay for unutilized capacity, under lower than expected demand. Optimal transmission capacity is monotonically decreasing in the cost of capital, and weakly increasing in the probability of experiencing high demand. Two possible equilibrium values for grid capacity are identified, associated with the rationing prices for either low or high demand. Chapter 6 analyzes the Laffont/Tirole model of monopoly regulation under

  19. Interaction of electrically evoked activity with intrinsic dynamics of cultured cortical networks with and without functional fast GABAergic synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Thomas; Voigt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modulation of neuronal activity by means of electrical stimulation is a successful therapeutic approach for patients suffering from a variety of central nervous system disorders. Prototypic networks formed by cultured cortical neurons represent an important model system to gain general insights in the input–output relationships of neuronal tissue. These networks undergo a multitude of developmental changes during their maturation, such as the excitatory–inhibitory shift of the neurotransmitter GABA. Very few studies have addressed how the output properties to a given stimulus change with ongoing development. Here, we investigate input–output relationships of cultured cortical networks by probing cultures with and without functional GABAAergic synaptic transmission with a set of stimulation paradigms at various stages of maturation. On the cellular level, low stimulation rates (<15 Hz) led to reliable neuronal responses; higher rates were increasingly ineffective. Similarly, on the network level, lowest stimulation rates (<0.1 Hz) lead to maximal output rates at all ages, indicating a network wide refractory period after each stimulus. In cultures aged 3 weeks and older, a gradual recovery of the network excitability within tens of milliseconds was in contrast to an abrupt recovery after about 5 s in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. In these GABA deficient cultures evoked responses were prolonged and had multiple discharges. Furthermore, the network excitability changed periodically, with a very slow spontaneous change of the overall network activity in the minute range, which was not observed in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. The electrically evoked activity of cultured cortical networks, therefore, is governed by at least two potentially interacting mechanisms: A refractory period in the order of a few seconds and a very slow GABA dependent oscillation of the network excitability. PMID:26236196

  20. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  1. 77 FR 44603 - Briefings on Preliminary Findings of 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ..., August 7, from 2:00 to 3:30 p.m. Eastern. Thursday, August 16, from 2:00 to 3:30 p.m. Eastern. Tuesday, August 21, from 2:00 to 3:30 p.m. Eastern. ADDRESSES: Those wishing to participate in these webinars.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Meyer, DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and...

  2. 76 FR 77432 - Coordination of Federal Authorizations for Electric Transmission Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...) (73 FR 54456). The interim final rule became effective on October 20, 2008, and the regulations can be... (NOPR) which proposed amendments to the interim final rule (73 FR 54461). This proposed rule would amend... facilities located within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) interconnection because...

  3. 76 FR 58101 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Reliability Standard, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 76 FR 23222 (Apr. 26, 2011), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32,674... No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. Preambles 1986-1990 ] 30,783 (1987). \\24... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation...

  4. The tower of Babel: survey on concepts and terminology in Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep (ESES) and Continuous Spikes and Waves during Sleep (CSWS) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Chapman, Kevin E.; Peters, Jurriaan; Kothare, Sanjeev V.; Nordli, Douglas R.; Jensen, Frances E.; Berg, Anne T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose The terms “electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES)” and “continuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS)” have been used interchangeably when referring to related but different concepts. In addition, the quantification of epileptiform activity has not been standardized and different approaches to quantification have been used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which pediatric neurologists and epileptologists use a homogeneous terminology and conceptualization in CSWS and ESES and to characterize the current understanding of these conditions. Methods A survey addressing the use of the “ESES” and “CSWS” terminology and the understanding of related concepts was distributed online to all members of the Child Neurology Society and the American Epilepsy Society mailing lists. Surveys were self-administered and collected using an online survey website (www.surveymonkey.com). Key findings Two hundred and nineteen surveys were completed, 137 from the Child Neurology Society mailing list and 82 from the American Epilepsy Society mailing list. ESES and CSWS were considered synonymous by 117 respondents, not synonymous by 61, 21 respondents did not know, and 20 did not respond. Most respondents (63.1%) considered CSWS as a devastating epileptic encephalopathy with severe sequelae even if treated correctly, but 25.1% of respondents indicated that it does not leave sequelae if epilepsy was treated early and another 11.8% noted that cognitive difficulties resolved with age. Cognitive and/or language regression was considered mandatory for the diagnosis of CSWS by only 27% of the respondents. The diagnosis of CSWS was based on EEG assessment alone by 31% of respondents. Respondents used different methods for calculation of the epileptiform activity, different EEG samples for calculation, and considered differently the lateralized epileptiform activity. The cut-off values for percentage of the sleep record occupied by

  5. Evaluating the potential impact of transmission constraints on the operation of a competitive electricity market in Illinois.

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Conzelmann, G.; Macal, C.; Boyd, G.; North, M.; Overbye, T.; Cheng, X.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois

    2006-04-30

    Despite the current adequacy of the generation and transmission system in Illinois, there is concern that the uncertainties of electricity restructuring warrant a more detailed analysis to determine if there might be pitfalls that have not been identified under current conditions. The problems experienced elsewhere in the country emphasize the need for an evaluation of how Illinois might fare under a restructured electricity market. The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) commissioned this study to be undertaken as a joint effort by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the Illinois situation in the 2007 period when restructuring is scheduled to be fully implemented in the State. The purpose of this study is to make an initial determination if the transmission system in Illinois and the surrounding region would be able to support a competitive electricity market, would allow for effective competition to keep prices in check, and would allow for new market participants to effectively compete for market share. The study seeks to identify conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur that would enable a company to exercise market power in one or more portions of the State and thereby create undue pressure on the prices charged to customers and/or inhibit new market participants from entering the market. The term 'market power' has many different definitions, and there is no universal agreement on how to measure it. For the purposes of this study, the term is defined as the ability to raise prices and increase profitability by unilateral action. A more complete definition is provided later. With this definition, the central question of this analysis becomes: 'Can a company, acting on its own, raise electricity prices and increase its profits?' It should be noted that the intent of the study is not to predict whether or not such market power would be exercised by any company. Rather, it is designed to determine

  6. Correlative transmission electron microscopy and electrical properties study of switchable phase-change random access memory line cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oosthoek, J. L. M.; Kooi, B. J.; Voogt, F. C.; Attenborough, K.; Verheijen, M. A.; Hurkx, G. A. M.; Gravesteijn, D. J.

    2015-02-14

    Phase-change memory line cells, where the active material has a thickness of 15 nm, were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation such that they still could be switched and characterized electrically after the preparation. The result of these observations in comparison with detailed electrical characterization showed (i) normal behavior for relatively long amorphous marks, resulting in a hyperbolic dependence between SET resistance and SET current, indicating a switching mechanism based on initially long and thin nanoscale crystalline filaments which thicken gradually, and (ii) anomalous behavior, which holds for relatively short amorphous marks, where initially directly a massive crystalline filament is formed that consumes most of the width of the amorphous mark only leaving minor residual amorphous regions at its edges. The present results demonstrate that even in (purposely) thick TEM samples, the TEM sample preparation hampers the probability to observe normal behavior and it can be debated whether it is possible to produce electrically switchable TEM specimen in which the memory cells behave the same as in their original bulk embedded state.

  7. Corona ions from overhead transmission voltage powerlines: effect on direct current electric field and ambient particle concentration levels.

    PubMed

    J-Fatokun, Folasade; Jayaratne, Rohan; Morawska, Lidia; Birtwhistle, David; Rachman, Rihandanu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    Along with their essential role in electricity transmission and distribution, some powerlines also generate large concentrations of corona ions. This study aimed at the comprehensive investigation of corona ions, vertical direct current electric field (dc e-field), ambient aerosol particle charge, and particle number concentration levels in the proximity of some high/subtransmission voltage powerlines. The influence of meteorology on the instantaneous value of these parameters and the possible existence of links or associations between the parameters measured were also statistically investigated. The presence of positive and negative polarities of corona ions was associated with variation in the mean vertical dc e-field, ambient ion, and particle charge concentration level. Though these variations increased with wind speed, their values also decreased with distance from the powerlines. Predominately positive polarities of ions were recorded up to a distance of 150 m (with the maximum values recorded 50 m downwind of the powerlines). At 200 m from the source, negative ions predominated. Particle number concentration levels, however, remained relatively constant (10(3) particle cm(-3)), irrespective of the sampling site and distance from the powerlines. Meteorological factors of temperature, humidity, and wind direction showed no influence on the electrical parameters measured. The study also discovered that e-field measurements were not necessarily a true representation of the ground-level ambient ion/particle charge concentrations.

  8. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-02-15

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO{sub 2} substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected.

  9. Sitting duck or wise old owl. [electricity generation and transmission and public relations

    SciTech Connect

    Rappoport, D.M.

    1993-02-15

    Utilities are building few generating stations these days, but modest customer growth means that transmission and distribution facilities must be built or rebuilt in the coming years. This means a customer typically opposing a construction project is likely to be a suburbanite worried about the effect a distribution or transmission line or substation may have on home values as well as the potential health risks posed by that facility. Those worried about the prospect of falling home prices or potential health risks have the motivation and the means to make life difficult for utilities that don't understand how the rules of the game have changed. While the profile of the protestors has changed in recent years, the views of many utility executives have not. Too many still believe the public can be ignored when it comes to siting facilities or structuring rates. Utilities will spend mightily to mollify the public after it becomes angry. But it would be less costly - and more productive - to invest in advance in an ongoing program to help avoid an angry public. If that approach is successful, those in media and government relations will find they have fewer brushfires.

  10. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-62) - Rocky Reach - Maple Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Mark A.

    2002-04-16

    Vegetation Management along the Rocky Reach – Maple Valley No. 1 Transmission Line ROW from structure 98/2 to structure 110/1. The transmission line is a 500 kV line. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation along access roads and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. BPA plans to conduct vegetation management along existing access road and around structure landings for the purpose of maintaining access to structures site. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards.

  11. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  12. Essays on empirical analysis of multi-unit auctions: Impacts of financial transmission rights on the restructured electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hailing

    This dissertation uses recently developed empirical methodologies for the study of multi-unit auctions to test the impacts of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) on the competitiveness of restructured electricity markets. FTRs are a special type of financial option that hedge against volatility in the cost of transporting electricity over the grid. Policy makers seek to use the prices of FTRs as market signals to incentivize efficient investment and utilization of transmission capacity. However, prices will not send the correct signals if market participants strategically use FTRs. This dissertation uses data from the Texas electricity market to test whether the prices of FTRs are efficient to achieve such goals. The auctions studied are multi-unit, uniform-price, sealed-bid auctions. The first part of the dissertation studies the auctions on the spot market of the wholesale electricity industry. I derive structural empirical models to test theoretical predictions as to whether bidders fully internalize the effect of FTRs on profits into their bidding decisions. I find that bidders are learning as to how to optimally bid above marginal cost for their inframarginal capacities. The bidders also learn to bid to include FTRs into their profit maximization problem during the course of the first year. But starting from the second year, they deviated from optimal bidding that includes FTRs in the profit maximization problems. Counterfactual analysis show that the primary effect of FTRs on market outcomes is changing the level of prices rather than production efficiency. Finally, I find that in most months, the current allocations of FTRs are statistically equivalent to the optimal allocations. The second part of the dissertation studies the bidding behavior in the FTR auctions. I find that FTRs' strategic impact on the FTR purchasing behavior is significant for large bidders---firms exercising market power in the FTR auctions. Second, trader forecasts future FTR credit

  13. The electric field and surface charges far and close to the battery for the transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandes, J. A.; Nogueira, G. T.

    2016-03-01

    We consider two long resistive straight parallel wires carrying opposite constant currents and calculate the potential and electric field everywhere in space and the surface charge densities along the wires. The problem is solved through Laplace’s equation in bi-cylinder coordinates, far from the battery. We compare these calculations with previous known results that used different methods. We also calculate the numerical solution for the case in which the battery is present, and show the equipotentials and surface charges close to the battery.

  14. 13. WEIGHING ROOM Fish were lifted up from tower by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEIGHING ROOM Fish were lifted up from tower by conveyor, controlled by buttons above the two sets of vertical electrical conduits. They entered the weighing room through the shielded window on the left (shielding missing from the window on the right), were weighed and then transported to the holding tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  15. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  16. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. You're a What?: Tower Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the role and functions of a tower technician. A tower technician climbs up the face of telecommunications towers to remove, install, test, maintain, and repair a variety of equipment--from antennas to light bulbs. Tower technicians also build shelters and radiofrequency shields for electronic equipment, lay…

  18. Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy

  19. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  20. Experimental evidence of cut-wire-induced enhanced transmission of transverse-electric fields through sub-wavelength slits in a thin metallic screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gennaro, Emiliano; Gallina, Ilaria; Andreone, Antonello; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2010-12-01

    Recent numerical studies have demonstrated the possibility of achieving substantial enhancements in the transmission of transverse-electric-polarized electromagnetic fields through subwavelength slits in a thin metallic screen by placing single or paired metallic cut-wire arrays at a close distance from the screen. In this Letter, we report on the first experimental evidence of such extraordinary transmission phenomena, via microwave (X/Ku-band) measurements on printed-circuit-board prototypes. Experimental results agree very well with full-wave numerical predictions, and indicate an intrinsic robustness of the enhanced transmission phenomena with respect to fabrication tolerances and experimental imperfections.

  1. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  2. Solar Two: A successful power tower demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    REILLY,HUGH E.; PACHECO,JAMES E.

    2000-03-02

    Solar Two, a 10MWe power tower plant in Barstow, California, successfully demonstrated the production of grid electricity at utility-scale with a molten-salt solar power tower. This paper provides an overview of the project, from inception in 1993 to closure in the spring of 1999. Included are discussions of the goals of the Solar Two consortium, the planned-vs.-actual timeline, plant performance, problems encountered, and highlights and successes of the project. The paper concludes with a number of key results of the Solar Two test and evaluation program.

  3. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  4. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  5. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  6. The Physics of Shot Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: "How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height…

  7. Novel solar tower structure to lower plant cost and construction risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, J. H.; White, S.; Hellwig, U.

    2016-05-01

    In recent times the interest in solar tower power plants is increasing with various plants being built in the last years and currently under construction, e.g. Ivanpah and Crescent Dunes in the US and Khi Solar One in South Africa. The higher cycle efficiency leads to lower levelised cost of electricity. However, further cost reductions are required and this paper compares a novel and patented solar tower structure with a conventional concrete tower. The novel solar tower design is cable-stayed which has the benefit that the cables absorb a large part of the wind and buckling loads. A tower that has to cope with fewer wind and buckling forces can have a significantly smaller diameter than a concrete tower, which enables workshop manufacture, sea and road transport, and rapid on-site installation. The case study provided in this paper finds that the tower area affected by wind can be reduced by up to 45%, installation time shortened by up to 66%, and tower cost by 20-40%. The novel design allows the construction and transport of the solar tower in few large modules, which are pre-manufactured including piping, cables, platform, ladders etc. The few modules can be assembled and installed rapidly not only lowering plant cost and construction time but also project risk.

  8. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  9. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructural origins for the electric field-induced phenomena in ferroelectric perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng

    Ferroelectrics are important materials due to their extensive technological applications, such as non-volatile memories, field-effect transistors, ferroelectric tunneling junctions, dielectric capacitors, piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. As is well known, the outstanding dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of these functional oxides originate from their ferroelectric domain arrangements and the corresponding evolution under external stimuli (e.g. electric field, stress, and temperature). Electric field has been known as the most efficient stimulus to manipulate the ferroelectric domains through polarization switching and alignment. Therefore, direct observation of the dynamic process of electric field-induced domain evolution and crystal structure transformation is of significant importance to understand the microstructural mechanisms for the functional properties of ferroelectrics. In this dissertation, electric field in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was employed to monitor the real-time evolution of the domain morphology and crystal structure during various electrical processes: (1) the initial poling process, (2) the electric field reversal process, and (3) the electrical cycling process. Two types of perovskite-structured ceramics, normal ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics, were used for this investigation. In addition to providing the microscopic insight for some well-accepted phase transformation rules, discoveries of some new or even unexpected physical phenomena were also demonstrated. For the initial poling process, microstructural origins for the piezoelectricity development in the three most promising lead-free piezoceramic systems were investigated. For the non-ergodic relaxor ferroelectric compositions ( x = 6% - 9%) in the (1-x)(Bi1/2Na 1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 system, well-developed piezoelectricity was realized at poling fields far below the coercive field and phase transition field. Such

  10. Development of solar tower observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  11. Plan now for cold-weather operation of cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Drew, D.H.

    1996-06-01

    This article describes what a midwestern utility has done to keep natural-draft towers running when faced with long bouts of high winds and single-digit temperatures. Severe ice buildup is the biggest threat. American Electric Power Co. (AEP) has six crossflow and eight counterflow natural-draft hyperbolic cooling towers in operation today. In the crossflow designs, subject of this discussion, the fill sections are more exposed to wind and cold. Their design circulating-water flow rates range from 220,000 to 600,000 gal/min; they serve 600-, 800-, and 1,300-MW coal-fired generating units. The towers are located in the Midwest and experience long periods of sub-freezing conditions during the winter months. High winds accompanied by single-digit temperatures often prevail for days at a time. During the record cold spell in January 1994, average temperatures as low as {minus}20 F occurred throughout AEP`s service area. Fill bypass systems have been incorporated into the design of AEP`s natural-draft cooling towers, and can pass between 25 and 50% of full-rated circulating-water flow. These systems prevent ice formation within the fill sections (heat-transfer media) by recirculating water directly to the tower cold-water basin during winter startup, when heat content of the circulating water is relatively low.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-21)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosales, Michael A.

    2001-08-07

    Vegetation Management along the Noxon-Hot Springs/Taft-Hot Springs 56/3 to 66/7+600 Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 230kV and 500KV Double Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 250 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-57)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Elaine

    2002-04-10

    Vegetation Management along the Trojan-Allston Transmission Lines 1 & 2 ROW between 1/1 and 9/1. The lines are 230 kV Single Circuit Transmission Lines having an easement width of 125 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-100)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosales, Michael A.

    2002-08-15

    Vegetation Management along the Libby-Conkelly, 1/2 to 26/4 Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 230kV Double Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 125 feet to 250 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-20)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ken

    2001-08-02

    Vegetation Management along the McNary-Ross 161/1 to 166/5+346 Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 345kV Single Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 175 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. Also, access road clearing will be conducted. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  16. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  17. Deployable tensegrity towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaud, Jean-Paul

    The design of a complete tensegrity system involves the analysis of static equilibria, the mechanical properties of the configuration, the deployment of the structure, and the regulation and dynamics of the system. This dissertation will explore these steps for two different types of structures. The first structure is the traditional Snelson Tower, where struts are disjointed, and is referred to as a Class 1 tensegrity. The second structure of interest is referred to as a Class 2 structure, where two struts come in contact at a joint. The first part of the thesis involves the dynamics of these tensegrity structures. Two complete nonlinear formulations for the dynamics of tensegrity systems are derived. In addition, a general formulation for the statics for an arbitrary tensegrity structure resulted from one of the dynamic formulations and is presented with symmetric and nonsymmetric tensegrity configurations. The second part of the thesis involves statics. The analysis of static equilibria and the implementation of this analysis into an open loop control law that will deploy the tensegrity structures along an equilibrium manifold are derived. The analysis of small stable tensegrity units allow for a modular design, where a collection of these units can be assembled into a larger structure that obeys the same control laws for deployment concepts. In addition, a loaded structure is analyzed to determine the optimal number of units required to obtain a minimal mass configuration. The third part of the thesis involves laboratory hardware that demonstrates the practical use of the methodology presented. A Class 2 symmetric structure is constructed, deployed, and stowed using the analysis from part two. In addition, the static equilibria of a Class 1 structure is computed to obtain nonsymmetric reconfigurations. The final part of the thesis involves the attenuation of white noise disturbances acting on nodes of both structures. The structures are simulated using linear

  18. A novel approach to smart grid technology for electrical power transmission lines by a self-organized optical network node based on optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Wakao

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a new smart grid model by our novel green photonics technology based on selforganized optical networks realizing an autonomous peer-to-peer electric power transmissions without centralized control for the power grid. In this optical network, we introduced an adaptive algorithm for concurrent peer-to-peer communications, by utilizing optical nonlinearity depending only on the signal strength passing through the network. This method is applicable for autonomous organization of functions for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems for the power grid. For this purpose, a simple optical- electrical hybrid bistable circuit composed of such as light emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD), has been incorporated into the network node. In the experiment, the method uses a simple, local adaptation of transmission weights at each network node, which enables self-organizing functions of the network, such as self-routing, self-optimization, self-recovery and self-protection. Based on this method, we have demonstrated experimentally a new smart grid model applicable for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems mediated by power comsumptions. In this model, electric power flow is controlled autonomously through the self-organized network nodes associated with individual power facilities having photovoltaics and electric storage devices, etc., and the nodes convert the amounts of electric power supply and/or comsumption to the light intensity values using above mentioned transmission weights at each node. As a consequence, we have experimentally demonstrated a simple shorthaul system model for ad-hoc electric power distribution with a self-organized optical network as a novel green photonics technology application for smart grid.

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-60) - Rocky Reach - Maple Valley No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Mark A.

    2002-04-15

    Vegetation Management along the Rocky Reach – Maple Valley No. 1 Transmission Line ROW from structure 110/1 to the Maple Valley Substation. The transmission line is a 500 kV line. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation along access roads and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. BPA plans to conduct vegetation management along existing access road and around structure landings for the purpose of maintaining access to structures site. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards.

  20. Control of Carbon Nanotube Density and Tower Height in an Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for controlling density or tower height of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays grown in spaced apart first and second regions on a substrate. CNTs having a first density range (or first tower height range) are grown in the first region using a first source temperature range for growth. Subsequently or simultaneously, CNTs having a second density range (or second tower height range), having an average density (or average tower height) in the second region different from the average density (or average tower height) for the first region, are grown in the second region, using supplemental localized hearing for the second region. Application for thermal dissipation and/or dissipation of electrical charge or voltage in an electronic device are discussed.

  1. Solar energy collection by the tower system

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, T.; Takemoto, M.

    1981-01-01

    Solar energy collecting tests were carried out under Japan's Sunshine Project, as part of the solar thermal electric power system. The total mirror area of the heliostats was increased by a factor of three to 300 sq m, making the dimensional ratio between the tower height and field diameter equivalent to that of the pilot plant, as well as achieving a similar heat flux magnitude as the pilot plant. The absorbing efficiency of the No. 4 receiver was studied and proven to be inferior to the No. 7 receiver, with its improved wind shield cavity, reducing reflection losses at higher wind velocities. The difference in convection heat losses between the two receivers in the solar energy collecting apparatus did not, however, directly correspond to the difference between them measured in the pilot plant. Thus, a heat loss test was applied to the No. 7 receiver, and fluctuations in the measured values of absorbing efficiencies were shown to be due to fluctuations of convection heat loss. Future plans include the design of external receivers suitable for low towers, with a lighter weight and a greater compactness for minimum heat loss potential.

  2. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  3. View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 12, second from left tower supports Circuit 11, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second from right tower supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 8, view west - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuit 3, second tower from left supports Circuit 12, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second tower from right supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 8, view southeast - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  6. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  7. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  8. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  9. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  10. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  11. Credit BG. Test Stand "D" tower as seen looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Test Stand "D" tower as seen looking northeast (See caption for CA-163-F-18). To the right of the view is the stainless steel dome top for Dv Cell (see CA-163-F-22 for view into cell), behind which rests a spherical accumulator--an electrically heated steam generator for powering the vacuum system at "C" and Test Stand "D." Part of the ejector system can be seen on the right corner of the tower, other connections include electrical ducts (thin, flat metal members) and fire protection systems. Note the stand in the foreground with lights used to indicate safety status of the stand during tests - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Paired Cut-Wire Arrays for Enhanced Transmission of Transverse-Electric Fields Through Subwavelength Slits in a Thin Metallic Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallina, Ilaria; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Emiliano; Andreone, Antonello

    It has recently been shown that the transmission of electromagnetic fields through sub-wavelength slits (parallel to the electric field direction) in a thin metallic screen can be greatly enhanced by covering one side of the screen with a metallic cut-wire array laid on a dielectric layer. In this Letter, we show that a richer phenomenology (which involves both electric- and magnetic-type resonances) can be attained by pairing a second cut-wire array at the other side of the screen. Via a full-wave comprehensive parametric study, we illustrate the underlying mechanisms and explore the additional degrees of freedom endowed, as well as their possible implications in the engineering of enhanced transmission phenomena.

  13. Droplet combustion drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering model built for droplet combustion drop tower tests is described. The model was built using a design with mechanical and electrical assemblies of the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and integrated into a 5-sec drop tower. Test data obtained to date are presented together with model and test cell diagrams.

  14. Plant Vogtle cooling tower studies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Steen, L.

    2000-01-26

    Intensive ground-based field studies of plumes from two large, natural-draft cooling towers were conducted in support of the MTI modeling effort. Panchromatic imagery, IR imagery, meteorological data, internal tower temperatures and plant power data were collected during the field studies. These data were used to evaluate plume simulations, plume radioactive transfer calculations and plume volume estimation algorithms used for power estimation. Results from six field studies indicate that a 3-D atmospheric model at sufficient spatial resolution can effectively simulate a cooling tower plume if the plume is of sufficient size and the ambient meteorology is known and steady. Small plumes and gusty wind conditions degrade the agreement between the simulated and observed plumes. Thermal radiance calculations based on the simulated plumes produced maximum IR temperatures (near tower exit) which were in good agreement with measured IR temperatures for the larger plumes. For the smaller plumes, the calculated IR temperature was lower than the measured temperature by several degrees. Variations in maximum IR plume temperature with decreasing power (one reactor was undergoing a shutdown process), were clearly observed in the IR imagery and seen in the simulations. These temperature changes agreed with those calculated from an overall tower energy and momentum balance. Plume volume estimates based on camcorder images at three look angles were typically 20--30 percent larger than the plume volumes derived from the simulations, although one estimate was twice the simulated volume. Volume overestimation is expected and will have to be accounted for to some degree if plume volume is to be a useful diagnostic quantity in power estimation. Volume estimation with MTI imagery will require a large, stable plume and two looks in the visible bands (5m GSD) along with a solar shadow.

  15. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  16. The shape of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Joseph

    2002-02-01

    The distinctive shape of the Eiffel Tower is based on simple physics and is designed so that the maximum torque created by the wind is balanced by the torque due to the Tower's weight. We use this idea to generate an equation for the shape of the Tower. The solution depends only on the width of the base and the maximum wind pressure. We parametrize the wind pressure and reproduce the shape of the Tower. We also discuss some of the Tower's interesting history and characteristics.

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife detection and observation technologies at a solar power tower facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Cryan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Michael J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife. PMID:27462989

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife. PMID:27462989

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  1. Earth to space dc to dc power transmission system utilizing a microwave beam as source of energy for electric propelled interorbital vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper contributes to the credibility of an electric propelled interorbital transportation system by introducing a new low-mass source of continuous dc power for electric propulsion and illustrating how the source can be economically tied to an electric utility on earth by an electronically steered microwave beam. The new thin-film rectenna, which functions as the receiving end of an earth-to-space microwave power transmission system is described. It is easily fabricated, is over 80 percent efficient, has a specific mass of no more than 2 kilograms per kilowatt of continuous dc power output, and is well adapted for deployment in space. The paper then describes a complete system consisting of the interorbital vehicle and the microwave power transmission system that supplies it with power. A design scenario is used to obtain performance data from the system in terms of vehicle transfer times, payload fractions, and costs. Electric energy costs are found to be less than $1000 per kilogram of payload delivered to geosynchronous orbit from low-earth orbit.

  2. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  3. Ozone Treatment For Cooling Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwelder, Rick; Baldwin, Leroy V.; Feeney, Ellen S.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents results of study of cooling tower in which water treated with ozone instead of usual chemical agents. Bacteria and scale reduced without pollution and at low cost. Operating and maintenance costs with treatment about 30 percent of those of treatment by other chemicals. Corrosion rates no greater than with other chemicals. Advantage of ozone, even though poisonous, quickly detected by smell in very low concentrations.

  4. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the

  5. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  6. Current conflicts in U.S. Electric transmission planning, cost allocation and renewable energy policies: More heat than light?

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, David; Forrester, J. Paul; Klugman, Nadav

    2010-12-15

    To surmount obstacles to expanding and upgrading the nation's transmission system that are impeding development of the renewables sector, it is critical that these issues be resolved quickly and on a consistent rather than ad hoc basis. (author)

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-28) - Port Angeles - Sappo No.1 Transmission Line ROW

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Mark A.

    2001-09-05

    Vegetation Management along the Port Angeles - Sappo No.1 Transmission Line ROW, from structure 1/1 to structure 42/10. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation. All work will be executed in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards.

  8. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  9. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Tariq; Horton, David R.; Cooper, W. Rodney; Swisher, Kylie D.; Zack, Richard S.; Pappu, Hanu R.; Munyaneza, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern). All haplotypes exhibited the full suite of stylet behaviors identified in previous studies with this psyllid, including intercellular penetration and secretion of the stylet pathway, xylem ingestion, and phloem activities, the latter comprising salivation and ingestion. The three haplotypes exhibited similar frequency and duration of probing behaviors, with the exception of salivation into phloem, which was of higher duration by psyllids of the Western haplotype. We manipulated how long psyllids were allowed access to potato (“inoculation access period”, or IAP) to examine the relationship between phloem activities and Lso transmission. Between 25 and 30% of psyllids reached and salivated into phloem at an IAP of 1 hr, increasing to almost 80% of psyllids as IAP was increased to 24 h. Probability of Lso-transmission was lower across all IAP levels than probability of phloem salivation, indicating that a percentage of infected psyllids which salivated into the phloem failed to transmit Lso. Logistic regression showed that probability of transmission increased as a function of time spent salivating into the phloem; transmission occurred as quickly as 5 min following onset of salivation. A small percentage of infected psyllids showed extremely long salivation events but nonetheless failed to transmit Lso, for unknown reasons. Information from these studies increases our understanding of Lso transmission by potato psyllid, and demonstrates the value of EPG technology in exploring

  10. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Tariq; Horton, David R; Cooper, W Rodney; Swisher, Kylie D; Zack, Richard S; Pappu, Hanu R; Munyaneza, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern). All haplotypes exhibited the full suite of stylet behaviors identified in previous studies with this psyllid, including intercellular penetration and secretion of the stylet pathway, xylem ingestion, and phloem activities, the latter comprising salivation and ingestion. The three haplotypes exhibited similar frequency and duration of probing behaviors, with the exception of salivation into phloem, which was of higher duration by psyllids of the Western haplotype. We manipulated how long psyllids were allowed access to potato ("inoculation access period", or IAP) to examine the relationship between phloem activities and Lso transmission. Between 25 and 30% of psyllids reached and salivated into phloem at an IAP of 1 hr, increasing to almost 80% of psyllids as IAP was increased to 24 h. Probability of Lso-transmission was lower across all IAP levels than probability of phloem salivation, indicating that a percentage of infected psyllids which salivated into the phloem failed to transmit Lso. Logistic regression showed that probability of transmission increased as a function of time spent salivating into the phloem; transmission occurred as quickly as 5 min following onset of salivation. A small percentage of infected psyllids showed extremely long salivation events but nonetheless failed to transmit Lso, for unknown reasons. Information from these studies increases our understanding of Lso transmission by potato psyllid, and demonstrates the value of EPG technology in exploring questions

  11. 'Towers in the Tempest' Computer Animation Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirah, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The following describes a computer animation that has been submitted to the ACM/SIGGRAPH 2008 computer graphics conference: 'Towers in the Tempest' clearly communicates recent scientific research into how hurricanes intensify. This intensification can be caused by a phenomenon called a 'hot tower.' For the first time, research meteorologists have run complex atmospheric simulations at a very fine temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Combining this simulation data with satellite observations enables detailed study of 'hot towers.' The science of 'hot towers' is described using: satellite observation data, conceptual illustrations, and a volumetric atmospheric simulation data. The movie starts by showing a 'hot tower' observed by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft's three dimensional precipitation radar data of Hurricane Bonnie. Next, the dynamics of a hurricane and the formation of 'hot towers' are briefly explained using conceptual illustrations. Finally, volumetric cloud, wind, and vorticity data from a supercomputer simulation of Hurricane Bonnie are shown using volume techniques such as ray marching.

  12. 1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, south southeast and east northeast sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  13. 2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, north northwest and west southwest sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  14. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  15. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  16. Electricity exchange and the valuation of transnational transmission access: A case study of intra-regional integration of the electric industries of Argentina and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, Beverly Ann

    The interconnection of neighboring electricity networks provides opportunities for the realization of synergies between electricity systems. Examples of the synergies to be realized are the rationalized management of the electricity networks whose fuel source domination differs, and the exploitation of non-coincident system peak demands. These factors allow technology diversity in the satisfaction of electricity demand, the coordination of planning and maintenance schedules between the networks by exploiting the cost differences in the pool of generation assets and the load configuration differences in the neighboring locations. The interconnection decision studied in this dissertation focused on the electricity networks of Argentina and Chile whose electricity systems operate in isolation at the current time. The cooperative game-theoretic framework was applied in the analysis of the decision facing the two countries and the net surplus to be derived from interconnection was evaluated. Measurement of the net gains from interconnection used in this study were reflected in changes in generating costs under the assumption that demand is fixed under all scenarios. With the demand for electricity assumed perfectly inelastic, passive or aggressive bidding strategies were considered under the scenarios for the generators in the two countries. The interconnection decision was modeled using a linear power flow model which utilizes linear programming techniques to reflect dispatch procedures based on generation bids. Results of the study indicate that the current interconnection project between Argentina and Chile will not result in positive net surplus under a variety of scenarios. Only under significantly reduced interconnection cost will the venture prove attractive. Possible sharing mechanisms were also explored in the research and a symmetric distribution of the net surplus to be derived under the reduced interconnection cost scenario was recommended to preserve equity

  17. 10. TRANSMISSION LINES BETWEEN DIABLO AND GORGE; CONSTRUCTION DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TRANSMISSION LINES BETWEEN DIABLO AND GORGE; CONSTRUCTION DETAIL OF TOWER STRUCTURE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  19. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-61) - Bell-Boundary No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Rosales, Michael A.

    2002-04-15

    Vegetation Management along the Bell-Boundary No.3, 84/4 to 96/1 Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 230kV Double Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 100 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-22)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Mark A.

    2001-08-17

    Vegetation Management along the Chief Joseph - Snohomish No.3 and 4 Transmission Line ROW. From STR 94/1 to STR 113/1. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line, danger and reclaim trees. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation. All work will be executed in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards.

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-43)

    SciTech Connect

    Howington, John

    2002-02-27

    Vegetation Management along the Lower Monumental – McNary 57/2 to 63/5, and Radar Tap 0/4 to 0/10 Transmission Line ROW’s. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor with and average corridor width of 165 and 80 feet respectively. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines and access roads, including Reclaim and Danger Trees. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation. All work will be executed in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. A follow-up herbicide treatment will occur following the initial entry to eliminate re-sprouting noxious weeds and tall-growing species along access roads and tower sites.

  3. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOEpatents

    Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  4. View second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 10 and right tower supports Circuit 11, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 157. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower City Development Office) TERMINAL TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL FRAMEWORK OF THE SOUTHWEST WING, VIEW WEST TO EAST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Design and Construction of a Scaled Whirl Tower Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, John Alexander

    Experimental development of helicopter rotors requires centrifugal testing before entry into a wind tunnel or flight test campaign. This centrifugal testing is performed on test rigs called whirl towers. These facilities are very rare, in fact there were none available in Canada at the time of writing this thesis, but they are very valuable experimental research tools. This thesis describes the design and construction of a whirl tower facility for the centrifugal testing of scaled helicopter rotors with actively controlled systems for reducing vibration. First, the trade-offs between the desired capabilities for the facility to be designed are reviewed, leading to the identification of a set of design requirements. Following this, various concepts for the drive system, frame, data acquisition, and safety infrastructure are proposed. From these, a final design is assembled, whose main advantage is its flexibility and robustness for developmental research. The whirl tower is capable of testing single or multi-bladed rotors (up to four blades), with blades between 1.0 and 1.6 m radius, up to 1,800 RPM frequency with no 'dead zones'. The whirl tower is equipped with a 60 HP, 575 V, AC motor, with flexible coupling and direct drive to the scaled rotor hub. The facility also features a digital telemetry system, slip rings for power and signal transmission for active control, interchangeable rotor heads with variable root distance, and a containment wall for protection from possible rotor blade failures. The manufacturing and construction of the facility, as well as its installation at the National Research Council in Ottawa, is described in detail.

  8. View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Photograph taken from Nevada side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 8, second from left tower supports Circuit 9, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second from right tower supports Circuit 11, and right tower supports Circuit 12, view southeast. - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. Analysis of air ions in biological exposure systems, near HV dc electric power transmission lines, in rooms containing ion generators, and near exposed humans and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaune, William T.; Gillis, Murlin F.; Weigel, Richard J.

    1983-11-01

    A number of systems containing space charge are analyzed using the transit-time technique developed in an earlier paper. (1) An inequality is derived for a room containing an air-ion generator which relates the ion source current to the minimum space-charge density. (2) Published wind-tunnel data are treated, and the characteristics of space-charge plumes produced downstream from localized corona and radioactive sources are explained. (3) Space-charge data published by other researchers can be evaluated; three examples are given, and in two of them published space-charge densities substantially exceed calculated upper-bound values. (4) Formulae are derived for the extrapolation of ground-level space-charge-density, electric field, and ion-current-density data to points above ground level; these formulae are useful for characterizing the three-dimensional environments in systems where only ground-level measurements are available. (5) A simple upper bound is derived for ground-level space-charge densities produced by high-voltage direct-current (HV dc) transmission lines, and it is shown that actual lines do produce densities closely approaching this upper-bound value. (6) The perturbed space-charge density at the surface of the body of an animal or human exposed to air ions and electric fields is estimated, and it is shown that perturbed and unperturbed space-charge densities are approximately equal for exposure conditions simulating those at ground level near HV dc transmission lines.

  10. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  11. Electrochemical characterization of the steel wire used as reinforcement in the conductors transmission networks electricity nitride by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé Moreno, H. J.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    The power company feature infrastructure, which are generally shaped so the transmission and distribution lines, here is why it is necessary to characterize the process of electrochemical corrosion of these components. In this case the steel wire coated with zinc or aluminium, as it is undergoes the rigor of corrosive environments. Given the geographical diversity and different climatic environments, atmospheric corrosion carried affecting service life of structures. For example in very humid environments such as coasts and high altitudes, wetting time (TOW), parameter that meets the conditions of temperature and relative humidity, it affects large proportion, accelerating the corrosion of ferrous materials. Given the importance of establishing mechanisms that lessen the impact on degradation in transmission and distribution lines of both the reliability and the availability of the same. This paper presents the implementation in nitride steels as an alternative or complement to zinc coating.

  12. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  13. Performance specification for control tower display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleva, Denise L.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    2003-09-01

    Personnel in airport control towers monitor and direct the takeoff of outgoing aircraft, landing of incoming aircraft and all movements of aircraft on the ground. Although the primary source of information for the Local Controller, Assistant Local Controller and the Ground Controller is the real world viewed through the windows of the control tower, electronic displays are also used to provide situation awareness. Due to the criticality of the work to be performed by the controllers and the rather unique environment of the air traffic control tower, display hardware standards, which have been developed for general use, are not directly applicable. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested assistance of Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate in producing a document which can be adopted as a Tower Display Standard usable by display engineers, human factors practitioners and system integrators. Particular emphasis was placed on human factors issues applicable to the control tower environment and controller task demands.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  15. Aesthetic-quality issues and their treatment in electric transmission-line planning - toward a new paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Priestley, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    In response to recent court decisions and regulatory changes that have greatly enhanced the importance of aesthetic issues in environmental decision making, visual analysis - the assessment of landscape aesthetic quality and the aesthetic implications of landscape change - has become an important part of landscape architecture and environmental planning practice. This paper's underlying concern is that ideas and methods now commonly used to evaluate landscape aesthetics and the aesthetic effects of transmission lines and other large infrastructure projects do not provide an entirely adequate basis for decision making. A number of the transmission-line visual assessment methods are reviewed in detail and are found wanting. The paper argues for developing a paradigm that will re-frame the aesthetic-quality issues in a way that takes psychological and social dimensions into account, permits the analyses to play an interactive role in the decision-making process, and allows the methods' assumptions and results to be empirically validated. As a first step, a case study was made of the portion of the recently completed Lakeville-Sobrante transmission line crossing a residential area in Vallejo, California.

  16. Fast initial continuous current pulses versus return stroke pulses in tower-initiated lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadifar, Mohammad; Rachidi, Farhad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Paolone, Mario; Pavanello, Davide; Metz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    We present a study focused on pulses superimposed on the initial continuous current of upward negative discharges. The study is based on experimental data consisting of correlated lightning current waveforms recorded at the instrumented Säntis Tower in Switzerland and electric fields recorded at a distance of 14.7 km from the tower. Two different types of pulses superimposed on the initial continuous current were identified: (1) M-component-type pulses, for which the microsecond-scale electric field pulse occurs significantly earlier than the onset of the current pulse, and (2) fast pulses, for which the onset of the field matches that of the current pulse. We analyze the currents and fields associated with these fast pulses (return-stroke type (RS-type) initial continuous current (ICC) pulses) and compare their characteristics with those of return strokes. A total of nine flashes containing 44 RS-type ICC pulses and 24 return strokes were analyzed. The median current peaks associated with RS-type ICC pulses and return strokes are, respectively, 3.4 kA and 8 kA. The associated median E-field peaks normalized to 100 km are 1.5 V/m and 4.4 V/m, respectively. On the other hand, the electric field peaks versus current peaks for the two data sets (RS-type ICC pulses and return strokes) are characterized by very similar linear regression slopes, namely, 3.67 V/(m kA) for the ICC pulses and 3.77 V/(m kA) for the return strokes. Assuming the field-current relation based on the transmission line model, we estimated the apparent speed of both the RS-type ICC pulses and return strokes to be about 1.4 × 108 m/s. A strong linear correlation is observed between the E-field risetime and the current risetime for the ICC pulses, similar to the relation observed between the E-field risetime and current risetime for return strokes. The similarity of the RS-type ICC pulses with return strokes suggests that these pulses are associated with the mixed mode of charge transfer to ground.

  17. Droplet combustion experiment drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) is an experiment that is being developed to ultimately operate in the shuttle environment (middeck or Spacelab). The current experiment implementation is for use in the 2.2 or 5 sec drop towers at NASA Lewis Research Center. Initial results were reported in the 1986 symposium of this meeting. Since then significant progress was made in drop tower instrumentation. The 2.2 sec drop tower apparatus, a conceptual level model, was improved to give more reproducible performance as well as operate over a wider range of test conditions. Some very low velocity deployments of ignited droplets were observed. An engineering model was built at TRW. This model will be used in the 5 sec drop tower operation to obtain science data. In addition, it was built using the flight design except for changes to accommodate the drop tower requirements. The mechanical and electrical assemblies have the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and then delivered to NASA Lewis. The model was then integrated into the 5 sec drop tower. The model is currently undergoing initial operational tests prior to starting the science tests.

  18. Assessment of foetal exposure to the homogeneous magnetic field harmonic spectrum generated by electricity transmission and distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level. PMID:25837346

  19. Assessment of foetal exposure to the homogeneous magnetic field harmonic spectrum generated by electricity transmission and distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level.

  20. Assessment of Foetal Exposure to the Homogeneous Magnetic Field Harmonic Spectrum Generated by Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchi, Serena; Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level. PMID:25837346

  1. Wastewater reuse as cooling-tower makeup: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.; Wei, I.; Casana, J.

    1987-08-01

    The objectives of this program are to document electric utility experience and concerns on the use of municipal wastewater as makeup to cooling towers and to identify areas lacking sufficient information for their application as well as to identify problem areas. Current users of municipal wastewater in electric utility cooling towers have been contacted and the literature has been reviewed. In addition, literature on the reuse of industrial wastewater has been reviewed. The findings are summarized in this report with emphasis on the use of municipal wastewater in electric utility cooling towers. It was found that this practice has been going on for sufficient time at sufficient places that the problems are fairly well understood. Scale formation by calcium phosphate is a problem. It is controlled by pH reduction or by removal of phosphate and suggested techniques are given. Fouling by slime is a problem. It is controlled by heavy doses of chlorine and other biocides or by mechanical and other non-chemical means without use of any biocide. Foaming, corrosion and blowdown disposal are not problems. There are a number of problem areas where more information is desired to establish a higher level of confidence in using sewage water as makeup. Three areas of research are recommended: (1) a study comparing the technological and environmental problems and costs of various technologies used to control the formation of biological slime, (2) laboratory and pilot scale testing to verify the prediction techniques for phosphate precipitation, and (3) to determine whether the health hazards of using sewage water are worse than the use of normal waters.

  2. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  3. Simultaneous backward data transmission and power harvesting in an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link employing acoustically dependent electric impedance modulation.

    PubMed

    Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron

    2014-09-01

    The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant. PMID:24861424

  4. Simultaneous backward data transmission and power harvesting in an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link employing acoustically dependent electric impedance modulation.

    PubMed

    Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron

    2014-09-01

    The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant.

  5. Blasting response of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlyck, Lachlan; Hayes, Kieran; Caetano, Ryan; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    A finite element model of the Eiffel Tower was constructed using Strand7 software. The model replicates the existing tower, with dimensions justified through the use of original design drawings. A static and dynamic analysis was conducted to determine the actions of the tower under permanent, imposed and wind loadings, as well as under blast pressure loads and earthquake loads due to an explosion. It was observed that the tower utilises the full axial capacity of individual members by acting as a `truss of trusses'. As such, permanent and imposed loads are efficiently transferred to the primary columns through compression, while wind loads induce tensile forces in the windward legs and compressive forces in the leeward. Under blast loading, the tower experienced both ground vibrations and blast pressures. Ground vibrations induced a negligibly small earthquake loading into the structure which was ignored in subsequent analyses. The blast pressure was significant, and a dynamic analysis of this revealed that further research is required into the damping qualities of the structure due to soil and mechanical properties. In the worst case scenario, the blast was assumed to completely destroy several members in the adjacent leg. Despite this weakened condition, it was observed that the tower would still be able to sustain static loads, at least for enough time for occupant evacuation. Further, an optimised design revealed the structure was structurally sound under a 46% reduction of the metal tower's mass.

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-120 Hanford-Ostrander Corridor Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ken

    2003-02-10

    Vegetation Management for the Hanford-Ostrander Transmission Line Corridor from Tower 10/4 to Tower 17/2 + 770. The line is a 500kV Single Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 300 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor as referenced on the attached checklist. The work will include the performance of road maintenance and tower pad maintenance along the Hanford-Ostrander transmission line. Maintenance will be performed from Tower 10/1, close to Army Loop road near the northeast corner of 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation to the western edge of the Arid Lands Ecological Reserve (ALE) at Tower 17/2 + 700. Total distance of the work is approximately 7.5 miles. The planned work includes spraying with herbicides to minimize vegetation regrowth along the access roads and removing shrubs from within 50 feet of each transmission tower.

  7. Geology of Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Charles Sherwood

    1956-01-01

    Devils Tower is a steep-sided mass of igneous rock that rises above the surrounding hills and the valley of the Belle Fourche River in Crook County, Wyo. It is composed of a crystalline rock, classified as phonolite porphyry, that when fresh is gray but which weathers to green or brown. Vertical joints divide the rock mass into polygonal columns that extend from just above the base to the top of the Tower. The hills in the vicinity and at the base of the Tower are composed of red, yellow, green, or gray sedimentary rocks that consist of sandstone, shale, or gypsum. These rocks, in aggregate about 400 feet thick, include, from oldest to youngest, the upper part of the Spearfish formation, of Triassic age, the Gypsum Spring formation, of Middle Jurassic age, and the Sundance formation, of Late Jurassic age. The Sundance formation consists of the Stockade Beaver shale member, the Hulett sandstone member, the Lak member, and the Redwater shale member. The formations have been only slightly deformed by faulting and folding. Within 2,000 to 3.000 feet of the Tower, the strata for the most part dip at 3 deg - 5 deg towards the Tower. Beyond this distance, they dip at 2 deg - 5 deg from the Tower. The Tower is believed to have been formed by the intrusion of magma into the sedimentary rocks, and the shape of the igneous mass formed by the cooled magma is believed to have been essentially the same as the Tower today. Devils Tower owes its impressiveness to its resistance to erosion as compared with the surrounding sedimentary rocks, and to the contrast of the somber color of the igneous column to the brightly colored bands of sedimentary rocks.

  8. The prediction of the thermal and hydraulic performance of underground electric transmission systems with turbulent forced convection cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghetzler, R.

    Heat transfer and friction factors were experimentally determined in a scale model of high voltage underground transmission systems for Reynolds numbers up to 8000. Two ratios of cable to enclosure pipe were considered, corresponding to standard and oversize enclosure pipes. Helical wire wrap was included to simulate protective skid wires around the cables. Three configurations of cable positioning were considered. A method of generalizing the heat transfer coefficients was developed and tested for pipe cables. Friction factors were determined experimentally for cables with up to 13 percent snaking, to simulate cable buckling due to thermal expansion. Hydraulic losses downstream of a buckled section, and through a sudden expansion at the outlet of a cable system were developed for friction factor as a function of cable snaking.

  9. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

    2011-11-01

    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  10. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  11. A comment on towers for windmills. [structural and economic criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budgen, H. P.

    1973-01-01

    Design considerations for windmill tower structures include the effects of normal wind forces on the rotor and on the tower. Circular tabular or masonry towers present a relatively simple aerodynamic solution. Economic factors establish the tubular tower as superior for small and medium sized windmills. Concrete and standard concrete block designs are cheaper than refabricated steel structures that have to be freighted.

  12. View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 8, middle tower supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 10, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  13. View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuits 7 and 14, middle tower supports Circuit 6, and right tower supports Circuit 5, view west - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  14. 17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE OF TOWER MAST AND WOOD DECKING ON SIGNAL TOWER ROOF. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Opto-mechano-electrical tripling in ZnO nanowires probed by photocurrent spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Golberg, D. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Xu, Z. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Kvashnin, D. G.; Tang, D.-M.; Xue, Y. M.; Bando, Y.; Sorokin, P. B.

    2015-08-31

    Photocurrent spectroscopy of individual free-standing ZnO nanowires inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is reported. By using specially designed optical in situ TEM system capable of scanning tunneling microscopy probing paired with light illumination, opto-mechano-electrical tripling phenomenon in ZnO nanowires is demonstrated. Splitting of photocurrent spectra at around 3.3 eV under in situ TEM bending of ZnO nanowires directly corresponds to nanowire deformation and appearance of expanded and compressed nanowire sides. Theoretical simulation of a bent ZnO nanowire has an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The splitting effect could be explained by a change in the valence band structure of ZnO nanowires due to a lattice strain. The strain-induced splitting provides important clues for future flexible piezo-phototronics.

  16. Nanoscale analysis of unstained biological specimens in water without radiation damage using high-resolution frequency transmission electric-field system based on FE-SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2015-04-10

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to examine biological specimens of bacteria, viruses and proteins. Until now, atmospheric and/or wet biological specimens have been examined using various atmospheric holders or special equipment involving SEM. Unfortunately, they undergo heavy radiation damage by the direct electron beam. In addition, images of unstained biological samples in water yield poor contrast. We recently developed a new analytical technology involving a frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method based on thermionic SEM. This method is suitable for high-contrast imaging of unstained biological specimens. Our aim was to optimise the method. Here we describe a high-resolution FTE system based on field-emission SEM; it allows for imaging and nanoscale examination of various biological specimens in water without radiation damage. The spatial resolution is 8 nm, which is higher than 41 nm of the existing FTE system. Our new method can be easily utilised for examination of unstained biological specimens including bacteria, viruses and protein complexes. Furthermore, our high-resolution FTE system can be used for diverse liquid samples across a broad range of scientific fields, e.g. nanoparticles, nanotubes and organic and catalytic materials. - Highlights: • We developed a high-resolution frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. • High-resolution FTE system is introduced in the field-emission SEM. • The spatial resolution of high-resolution FTE method is 8 nm. • High-resolution FTE system enables observation of the intact IgM particles in water.

  17. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We developed a high-sensitive frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. • The output signal was highly enhanced by applying voltage to a metal layer on SiN. • The spatial resolution of new FTE method is 41 nm. • New FTE system enables observation of the intact bacteria and virus in water. - Abstract: The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41 nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses.

  18. Transmission versus transflection mode in FTIR analysis of blood plasma: is the electric field standing wave effect the only reason for observed spectral distortions?

    PubMed

    Staniszewska-Slezak, Emilia; Rygula, Anna; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy is assessed in terms of two techniques (i.e., transmission and transflection) as a method for rapid measurements of blood plasma. Apart from the expected effect of the electric field standing wave (EFSW), we also noticed that second-derivative IR spectra recorded in transflection mode exhibited a significant shift in the amide I band (up to 1667 cm(-1)) in comparison to the one recorded in transmission (1658 cm(-1)). This has not been reported thus far in studies of the EFSW distortion of IR spectra of biological material. The thinner the sample deposited on the low-e microscope slide, the lower the position of the amide I band found in FTIR spectra, suggesting various plasma compositions after stratification or certain changes in secondary protein conformations due to chemical and/or physical effects. There are potentially several phenomena that can occur at the surface of both IR substrates affecting the protein profile, including changes in optical properties (refractive index), variation in water content in the sample, and segregation of plasma components. All three hypotheses are discussed here, with the help of atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:25562064

  19. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  20. Another Look at the Tower of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwarger, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of sequences, geometric progressions and permutations, the author investigates some interesting and unusual questions concerning the number of moves required by each disc in solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. (JT)

  1. Ozone inhibits corrosion in cooling towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, K. R.; Howe, R. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available corona discharge ozone generator, fitted onto industrial cooling tower, significantly reduces formation of scales (calcium carbonate) and corrosion. System also controls growth of algae and other microorganisms. Modification lowers cost and improves life of cooling system.

  2. Strong stabilisation of a wind turbine tower model in the plane of the turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Weiss, George

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the strong stabilisation of a wind turbine tower model in the plane of the turbine blades, which comprises a nonuniform NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) system and a two-mass drive-train model (with gearbox). The control input is the torque created by the electrical generator. Using a strong stabilisation theorem for a class of impedance passive linear systems with bounded control and observation operators, we show that the wind turbine tower model can be strongly stabilised. The control is by static output feedback from the angular velocities of the nacelle and the generator rotor.

  3. Establishment of the Security Apparatus against Damage Caused by Lightning on a Transmission line of Electrical Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhakim, Daas; Ali, Haddouche; Djalel, Dib

    Lightning is the visible discharge of static electricity within a cloud, between clouds, or between tile earth and a cloud. Scientists still do not fully understand what causes lightning, but most experts believe that different kinds of ice interact in a cloud. Updrafts in the clouds separate charges so that positive charges moves end up at the top of the cloud while negative flow to the bottom. A lighting protection system provides a means by which this discharge may enter or leave earth without passing through and damaging non-conducting parts of a structure, such as those made of wood, brick, and tile of- concrete. A lightning protection system does not prevent lightning from striking; it provides a means for controlling it and preventing damage by providing a low resistance path for the discharge of lightning energy.

  4. An economical solution to cooling tower drift

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, G.C.; Lamkin, V.K.; Seich, M.

    1987-01-01

    Most processes one encounters in the refining and petrochemical industries require the rejection of waste heat. The most economical and effective means of accomplishing this is through the use of cooling towers. Heat is transferred by convection and evaporation (mass transfer) by the direct contact of the atmospheric air and water. This results in a major environmental concern of cooling towers - DRIFT, which is discussed in this paper.

  5. Evaluation of two herbicide techniques on electric transmission rights-of-way: Development of relatively stable shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Glenn D.; Niering, William A.

    1986-01-01

    Postmanagement vegetation patterns were studied on five transmission rights-of-way subjected to over a decade of basal or stem-foliar herbicide applications designed to eliminate tall-growing trees. The basally treated lines had a mean of 100% greater shrub and 50% less herbaceous cover than stem-foliar treated lines due primarily to the lack of overspray damage to nontarget plant species with the basal technique. Persisting tree growth was also 50% less with basal treatments when Sassafras albidum, a rootsuckering problem species on all areas, was excluded. Tree seedling establishment on basally treated rights-of-way was 34% less than on stem-foliar treated lines. The creation of stable shrublands can potentially reduce the amount of future herbicide usage. These findings also lend support to the Initial Floristic Composition concept in vegetation development proposed by Egler. In southern New England, commercial basal applications can effectively control unwanted tree growth on rights-of-way while promoting the development of relatively stable shrublands which tend to inhibit the invasion of tree seedlings.

  6. Rock Creek Tower Painting Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1988-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) built a 500-kV line across Rock Creek, a Class I trout stream about 20 miles east of Missoula, MT. Two 190-foot towers rise on either side of the Rock Creek valley, and the line between is suspended 600 feet over the valley floor. The crossing poses a hazard to passing airplanes and disrupts the natural landscape. The area where the line crosses Rock Creek is prized for its scenic beauty. In response to public demand that BPA protect the visual beauty of this area, BPA painted the towers gray to blend them best in with their natural surroundings. The issue now is to decide between either two gray towers or two orange-and-white towers. The underlying need is to resolve the conflict of pilot safety against scenic intrusion. The proposed action is to paint the gray tower aeronautical orange and white. Alternatives are to paint the orange-and-white tower back to its original gray; or leave the dilemma unresolved (the ''no-action'' alternative). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Stripping of phenols in model cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.D.; Moe, T.A.; Wentz, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cooling towers are used to remove waste heat from unit operations in chemical processing plants. Using cooling towers for wastewater treatment and disposal through internal recycling has become an important alternative because of stricter wastewater discharge standards, the expense of specialized wastewater treatment systems and the limited availability and cost of water in arid regions. Designs for synfuels plants must address the problem of wastewater disposal. Alternative systems under consideration usually include zero discharge designs that incorporate evaporative cooling towers in the system. The mechanisms for contaminant removal in cooling towers are biological oxidation, stripping and chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation is generally considered undesirable because of losses in heat transfer efficiency. Predicting whether stripping or biological oxidation will be the primary removal mechanism for phenolic compounds from coal conversion wastewaters used as makeup in cooling towers does not appear to be possible based on the results of these tests. The tests do indicate that the biological oxidation of phenol is possible in forced draft cooling towers.

  8. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in Swedish radio stations and tall FM/TV towers.

    PubMed

    Mild, K H

    1981-01-01

    Radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields have been measured around 11 large broadcast stations and tall FM/TV towers in Sweden. The results show that operating personnel may be exposed to fields exceeding by several times the present standard for occupational exposure to RF radiation. Maintenance personnel are especially vulnerable to exposure when climbing energized towers. The present study indicates that the transmitters should be switched off during the performance of certain tasks on the tower. Safe passage of maintenance personnel near energized antennas of certain types is impossible without a drastic reduction of the transmitted power. In the stations, the RF leakage radiation was generally low, but when work was done with the cabinet doors of the transmitter open, high strengths were found in the vicinity of the transmitter even though it was switched off. It was found that the transmitter acted as a tuned receiver of energy from the other transmitters.

  9. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  10. Electrical signal transmission and gap junction regulation in a bone cell network: a cable model for an osteon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, D.; Cowin, S. C.; Weinbaum, S.

    1997-01-01

    A cable model is formulated to estimate the spatial distribution of intracellular electric potential and current, from the cement line to the lumen of an osteon, as the frequency of the loading and the conductance of the gap junction are altered. The model predicts that the characteristic diffusion time for the spread of current along the membrane of the osteocytic processes, 0.03 sec, is nearly the same as the predicted pore pressure relaxation time in Zeng et al. (Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 1994) for the draining of the bone fluid into the osteonal canal. This approximate equality of characteristic times causes the cable to behave as a high-pass, low-pass filter cascade with a maximum in the spectral response for the intracellular potential at approximately 30 Hz. This behavior could be related to the experiments of Rubin and McLeod (Osteoporosis, Academic Press, 1996) which show that live bone appears to be selectively responsive to mechanical loading in a specific frequency range (15-30 Hz) for several species.

  11. Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. A.; Hugues-Salas, O.; Savini, B.; Keogh, W.

    2016-09-01

    The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods.

  12. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields in relation to mortality from brain cancer among electricity generation and transmission workers.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J M; McBride, D I; Sorahan, T; Paddle, G M; van Tongeren, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the risks of mortality from brain cancer are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. METHODS: A total of 112 cases of primary brain cancer (1972-91) were identified from a cohort of 84,018 male and female employees of the (then) Central Electricity Generating Board and its privatised successor companies. Individual cumulative occupational exposures to magnetic fields were estimated by linking available computerised job history data with magnetic field measurements collected over 675 person-workshifts. Estimated exposure histories of the case workers were compared with those of 654 control workers drawn from the cohort (nested case-control study), by means of conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: For exposure assessments based on arithmetic means, the risk of mortality from brain cancer for subjects with an estimated cumulative exposure to magnetic fields of 5.4-13.4 microT.y v subjects with lower exposures (0.0-5.3 microT.y) was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.60 to 1.80). The corresponding relative risk in subjects with higher exposures (> or = 13.5 microT.y) was 0.95 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.69). There was no indication of a positive trend for cumulative exposure and risk of mortality from brain cancer either when the analysis used exposure assessments based on geometric means or when the analysis was restricted to exposures received within five years of the case diagnosis (or corresponding period for controls). CONCLUSIONS: Although the exposure categorisation was based solely on recent observations, the study findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of brain cancer is associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:9072027

  13. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  14. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-34)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Elaine

    2001-12-03

    Vegetation Management along the McNary-Ross Transmission Line ROW between 152/3+2120 to 153/4. The line is 345 kV Single Circuit Transmission Line (project includes adjacent N. Bonneville-Ross 230 kV Single Circuit Transmission Line) having a combined easement width of 300 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. Also, access road clearing will be conducted. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  16. Hayden-Blue River 345-kV transmission line project, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Colorado-Ute Electric Association, Inc., Platte River Power Authority, and Western Area Power Administration propose to construct and operate approximately 90 miles of 345-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between Hayden and the Blue River Valley in Colorado. The project would involve expansion of existing substation facilities at Hayden and construction of two new substations. The line would be operated at 230 kV initially. Estimated cost of the project is $37.8 million. The new line and substation facilities would provide a backup transmission path, satisfy the long-term needs in meeting the energy requirements, improve system reliability, improve system stability for the Craig and Hayden generating stations, and leave the existing 115-kV and 138-kV lines in operation to provide additional transmission capacity that would function as backup transmission during an outage on another line. Minute amounts of lands would be displaced. Construction activities would disturb critical ranges for elk and mule deer, elk calving areas, and the mating and nesting areas of greater sandhill cranes, great blue herons, sage grouse, golden eagles, and prairie falcons. Management of timberland would damage natural vegetation. The line would traverse 3.1 miles of flood-prone area, and as many as three transmission towers would lie within the floodplain of the Colorado River. The visual quality of land crossed by the line would be degraded somewhat.

  17. EXTRACTION OF FRACTURE-MECHANICS AND TRANSMISSION-ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY SAMPLES FROM TRITIUM-EXPOSED RESERVOIRS USING ELECTRIC-DISCHARGE MACHINING

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Ken Imrich, K; Michael Tosten, M

    2006-08-31

    The Enhanced Surveillance Campaign is funding a program to investigate tritium aging effects on the structural properties of tritium reservoir steels. The program is designed to investigate how the structural properties of reservoir steels change during tritium service and to examine the role of microstructure and reservoir manufacturing on tritium compatibility. New surveillance tests are also being developed that can better gauge the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the properties of reservoir steels. In order to conduct these investigations, three types of samples are needed from returned reservoirs: tensile, fracture mechanics, and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM). An earlier report demonstrated how the electric-discharge machining (EDM) technique can be used for cutting tensile samples from serial sections of a 3T reservoir and how yield strength, ultimate strength and elongation could be measured from those samples. In this report, EDM was used successfully to section sub-sized fracture-mechanics samples from the inner and outer walls of a 3T reservoir and TEM samples from serial sections of a 1M reservoir. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR 15.1 ''Cut Fracture-Mechanics Samples from Tritium-Exposed Reservoir'' and TSR 15.2 ''Cut Transmission-electron-microscopy foils from Tritium-Exposed Reservoir'' for the Enhance Surveillance Campaign (ESC). This was in support of ESC L2-1870 Milestone-''Provide aging and lifetime assessments of selected components and materials for multiple enduring stockpile systems''.

  18. The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100

  19. Tilts of the Master Equatorial Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G., Jr.; Gawronski, W.; Girdner, D.; Noskoff, E.; Sommerville, J. N.

    2000-07-01

    At the center of the DSS-14 antenna, a tower reaches to the focal point of the antenna dish. The master equatorial (ME) instrument is located at the top of the tower. This instrument precisely (with an accuracy that exceeds that of the antenna) follows the commanded trajectory. Through the optical coupling, the antenna focal point follows the ME. One factor of the antenna pointing precision is the movement of the ME base, i.e., the top of the tower. For this reason, measurements of the ME tower tilts have been taken in order to quantify the tilts, to determine possible causes of the tilting, and to update the antenna pointing budget. They were conducted under three antenna operating modes: during tracking, slewing, and antenna stowing. The measurements indicate that the ME tower tilts introduce significant pointing errors that exceed the required 32-GHz (Ka-band) pointing precision (estimated as 0.8 mdeg for a 0.1-dB gain loss). Four different sources of tilt were identified and require verification.

  20. Tower Mesonetwork Climatology and Interactive Display Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron and Spaceflight Meteorology Group use data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria, and issue and verify forecasts for ground operations. Systematic biases in these parameters could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification. Also, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. To address these concerns, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identified the geographical variation and significant tower biases. The mesoclimate is largely driven by the complex land-water interfaces across KSC/CCAFS. Towers with close proximity to water typically had much warmer nocturnal temperatures and higher wind speeds throughout the year. The strongest nocturnal wind speeds occurred from October to March whereas the strongest mean daytime wind speeds occurred from February to May. These results of this project can be viewed by forecasters through an interactive graphical user interface developed by the AMU. The web-based interface includes graphical and map displays of mean, standard deviation, bias, and data availability for any combination of towers, variables, months, hours, and wind directions.

  1. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  2. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  3. Simple model of a cooling tower plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Cizek; Jiri, Nozicka

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the possibilities in the area of modeling of the so called cooling tower plume emergent at operating evaporating cooling systems. As opposed to recent publication, this text focuses on the possibilities of a simplified analytic description of the whole problem where this description shall - in the future - form the base of a calculation algorithms enabling to simulate the efficiency of systems reducing this cooling tower plume. The procedure is based on the application of basic formula for the calculation of the velocity and concentration fields in the area above the cooling tower. These calculation is then used to determine the form and the total volume of the plume. Although this approach does not offer more exact results, it can provide a basic understanding of the impact of individual quantities relating to this problem.

  4. Did Geomagnetic Activity Challenge Electric Power Reliability During Solar Cycle 23? Evidence from the PJM Regional Transmission Organization in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; Cyr, Chris St

    2012-01-01

    During solar cycle 22, a very intense geomagnetic storm on 13 March 1989 contributed to the collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada. This event clearly demonstrated that geomagnetic storms have the potential to lead to blackouts. This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged power system reliability during solar cycle 23. Operations by PJM Interconnection, LLC (hereafter PJM), a regional transmission organization in North America, are examined over the period 1 April 2002 through 30 April 2004. During this time PJM coordinated the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia in the United States. We examine the relationship between a proxy of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and a metric of challenged reliability. In this study, GICs are proxied using magnetometer data from a geomagnetic observatory located just outside the PJM control area. The metric of challenged reliability is the incidence of out-of-economic-merit order dispatching due to adverse reactive power conditions. The statistical methods employed make it possible to disentangle the effects of GICs on power system operations from purely terrestrial factors. The results of the analysis indicate that geomagnetic activity can significantly increase the likelihood that the system operator will dispatch generating units based on system stability considerations rather than economic merit.

  5. Nanoscale analysis of unstained biological specimens in water without radiation damage using high-resolution frequency transmission electric-field system based on FE-SEM.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2015-04-10

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to examine biological specimens of bacteria, viruses and proteins. Until now, atmospheric and/or wet biological specimens have been examined using various atmospheric holders or special equipment involving SEM. Unfortunately, they undergo heavy radiation damage by the direct electron beam. In addition, images of unstained biological samples in water yield poor contrast. We recently developed a new analytical technology involving a frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method based on thermionic SEM. This method is suitable for high-contrast imaging of unstained biological specimens. Our aim was to optimise the method. Here we describe a high-resolution FTE system based on field-emission SEM; it allows for imaging and nanoscale examination of various biological specimens in water without radiation damage. The spatial resolution is 8 nm, which is higher than 41 nm of the existing FTE system. Our new method can be easily utilised for examination of unstained biological specimens including bacteria, viruses and protein complexes. Furthermore, our high-resolution FTE system can be used for diverse liquid samples across a broad range of scientific fields, e.g. nanoparticles, nanotubes and organic and catalytic materials. PMID:25747717

  6. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-01

    The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses. PMID:25058457

  7. Nanoscale analysis of unstained biological specimens in water without radiation damage using high-resolution frequency transmission electric-field system based on FE-SEM.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2015-04-10

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to examine biological specimens of bacteria, viruses and proteins. Until now, atmospheric and/or wet biological specimens have been examined using various atmospheric holders or special equipment involving SEM. Unfortunately, they undergo heavy radiation damage by the direct electron beam. In addition, images of unstained biological samples in water yield poor contrast. We recently developed a new analytical technology involving a frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method based on thermionic SEM. This method is suitable for high-contrast imaging of unstained biological specimens. Our aim was to optimise the method. Here we describe a high-resolution FTE system based on field-emission SEM; it allows for imaging and nanoscale examination of various biological specimens in water without radiation damage. The spatial resolution is 8 nm, which is higher than 41 nm of the existing FTE system. Our new method can be easily utilised for examination of unstained biological specimens including bacteria, viruses and protein complexes. Furthermore, our high-resolution FTE system can be used for diverse liquid samples across a broad range of scientific fields, e.g. nanoparticles, nanotubes and organic and catalytic materials.

  8. Lessons learned from the Lena guyed tower

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, L.D.; Maus, L.D.

    1984-10-01

    The design, fabrication, and installation of the Lena guyed tower required the development of new offshore technology in several areas. Lessons learned from this experience include an understanding of the consequences of major design decisions and insight into the interactive behavior of the structural components. The guyed tower is now a proven deepwater production platform concept for the Gulf of Mexico and is also judged to be applicable for a wide range of water depths and deck loads in the North Sea and other areas of the world.

  9. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  10. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  11. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of house, northwest and southwest sides of tower - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  12. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  13. 2. Slacking Tower south side, view to the northnortheast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Slacking Tower south side, view to the north-northeast. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Slacking Tower, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  14. Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the central guard tower, facing southeast (note view also includes cell block ten (left) and cell block nine (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 1. General view of crossing gate tower, taken in 1916 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of crossing gate tower, taken in 1916 (courtesy of Erie Railroad Company) (photocopy) - Erie Railway, Crossing Gate Tower, West side of Lincoln Street, 100 feet South of Concord Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  16. 39. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SW at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SW at tower cornice, main cable and stay cables. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  17. 54. Angled view looking up at Brooklyn Tower showing juncture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Angled view looking up at Brooklyn Tower showing juncture of deck superstructure with the tower and diagonal cables. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  18. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of tower - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  19. 2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, northwest and northeast sides of tower, east and north sides of keeper's house and shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  20. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  2. TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) AND 24. NOTE “LAZY JACK” TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR IN FOREGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  3. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  4. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  5. TOWER S389, MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. Naval Magazine Lualualei, West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER S389, MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. TOWER 450 WITH POLE. Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER 450 WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS BUILDING #626 AND PORTION OF QUADRANGLE - Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Depot, Water-Watch Tower, Grayson Street & New Braunfels Avenue, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  9. S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel compass ring in the tower. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 27. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSEUP VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL AT REAR OF TOWER UNDER SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and east sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of light tower - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  14. 3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower with World Trade Tower parapet in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  15. INTERIOR OF SA WETSIDE BUILDING. TOP OF CARBONATION TOWERS (SOLVAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SA WETSIDE BUILDING. TOP OF CARBONATION TOWERS (SOLVAY TOWERS) PROBABLY SAME LEVEL AS NY-300-D-6 BUT OPPOSITE VIEW. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND SIGNAL BRIDGE No. 6 AND DWARF SIGNAL IN FOREGROUND - South Station Tower No. 1 & Interlocking System, Dewey Square, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. View of the southwest guard tower, cell blocks seven and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the southwest guard tower, cell blocks seven and eight, administration building west tower, and Fairmount Avenue, looking from the administration building facing west - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing thirty-acre irrigated field - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Weather Tower, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. Control tower northwest corner of building 29. View southward shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Control tower northwest corner of building 29. View southward shows tower and stairway built onto door outrigger structure. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Hangars, Roe Street, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  1. 5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing southeast - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  2. View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, TOWERS 16 and 17 in the distance, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  3. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast corner - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  5. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  6. Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double Pole Tower, Single Pole Tower - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  7. 1. Slacking Tower north side, view to the southsouthwest. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Slacking Tower north side, view to the south-southwest. The tower was used for dredging the river downstream of the powerhouse. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Slacking Tower, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  8. 8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER S-111 FACING NORTHEAST. BUILDING 1 AND ANTENNA TOWER S-110 IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Lualualei Radio Transmitter, Edison & Tower Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest Service Generic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card. OMB Number: 0596-0222. Expiration Date...

  10. 38. View from top of Brooklyn Tower showing man walking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View from top of Brooklyn Tower showing man walking up main cable, stay cables radiating from top of tower and tower cornice. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  11. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  12. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  13. View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 10 and right tower supports Circuit 11, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR WITH TOWERS FIVE AND SIX IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE TWO INTACT CABLES RUNNING ALONG TOP OF THE TOWERS ARE FIXED. WHILE THE MOVING CABLE IS LYING SLACK ON THE GROUND. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. 3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light Tower, view northeast, southwest side of Cape Elizabeth Tower - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  16. CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. The Legacy of the Texas Tower Sniper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the incident that happened at the University of Texas to the tragedy that took place at Virginia Tech. On August 1, 1966, Charles Joseph Whitman ascended the University of Texas Tower, in Austin, and in 96 minutes fired 150 high-powered rounds of ammunition down upon an unsuspecting university family. The…

  18. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment must not be exceeded. (c) Signs. The size and location of signs installed on tower cranes must be in accordance with manufacturer specifications. Where... must approve in writing the size and location of any signs. (d) Safety devices. (1) Section...

  20. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following brakes, which must automatically set in the event of pressure loss or power failure, are required: (A) A hoist brake on all hoists. (B) Swing brake. (C) Trolley brake. (D) Rail travel brake. (viii...) Hoist drum lower limiting device. Tower cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011 must be equipped...

  2. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  3. Balsa Tower Walls Brave "Big Buster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2008-01-01

    Like many technology teachers, the author, a technology education teacher at Arthur Hill High School in Saginaw, Michigan, tries to stretch his budget by "milking" each student activity for maximum benefit. In the technology department, they use balsa wood towers to teach the basics of structural engineering. To get the most from their materials,…

  4. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  5. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-07)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-04-18

    Vegetation Management on section of three ROWs. The ROWs include selected sections of the McNary Powerhouse, the present and proposed new sections of the McNary-Roundup and the McNary Switchyard South Transmission lines. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. See Section 1.1 of the attached checklist for pertinent information on each section of referenced transmission line. BPA would conduct the vegetation control with the goal of removing tall-growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission lines and to promote low-growing plant communities in the right-of-way and to clear vegetation from new rights-of-way corridors. This project meets the standards and guidelines for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD).

  6. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  7. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  8. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1994-12-31

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  9. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  10. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  11. Experimental optimization of cooling-tower-fan control based on field data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    Energy costs continue to play an important role in the decision-making process for building design and operation. Since the chiller, cooling tower fans, and associated pumps consume the largest fraction of energy in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, the control of these components is of major importance in determining building energy use. A significant control parameter for the chilled water system is the minimum entering condenser water set point temperature at which the cooling tower fans are cycled on and off, several studies have attempted to determine the optimum value for this minimum set point temperature, but direct measurements are not available to validate these studies. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the optimum minimum entering condenser water set point temperature from field data based on minimum energy consumption and to validate a chilled water system analytical model previously developed in earlier work. The total chiller system electrical consumption (chiller and cooling tower fan energy) was measured for four entering condensor water set point temperatures (70, 75, 80, and 85 deg F). The field results were compared to results obtained using an analytical model previously developed in a thesis entitled Optimized Design of a Commercial Building Chiller/Cooling Tower System, written by Joyce.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-40) - Allston-Keeler 500 kV Transmission Line

    SciTech Connect

    Hermeston, Mark W.

    2002-02-19

    Vegetation Management along the Allston-Keeler 500 kV Transmission Line ROW exclusive to BLM lands between 8/4 through 27/4. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor with an average corridor width of 150 feet. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines and access roads, including Reclaim and Danger Trees. The lands in this SA are administered by BLM. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation. All work will be executed in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. Work is to begin in March 2002. In accordance with a court injunction, no chemical treatment is planned on BLM lands.

  13. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  14. Hanoi tower-like multilayered ultrathin palladium nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xi; Liu, Xinhong; Pan, Yung-Tin; Walsh, Kathleen A; Yang, Hong

    2014-12-10

    This paper describes the synthesis, formation mechanism, and mechanical property of multilayered ultrathin Pd nanosheets. An anisotropic, Hanoi Tower-like assembly of Pd nanosheets was identified by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These nanosheets may contain ultrathin Pd layers, down to single unit cell thickness. Selected area electron diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy data show the interconnected atomically thick layers stacking vertically with rotational mismatches, resulting in unique diffractions and Moiré patterns. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation with van der Waals correction (DFT+vdW) shows the adsorption of Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4 on Pd(110) surface (Ead = -5.68 eV) is much stronger than that on Pd(100) (Ead = -4.72 eV) or on Pd(111) (Ead = -3.80 eV). The adsorption strength of this Pd complex is significantly stronger than that of CO on the same Pd surfaces. The DFT+vdW calculation results suggest a new mechanism for the observed anisotropic growth of nanosheets with unusually high aspect ratio, in which the competitive adsorptions between Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4 complex and CO on various surfaces result in a favored growth along the ⟨110⟩ directions and inhibition along ⟨111⟩ directions. The mechanical property of these multilayered Pd nanosheets was studied using AFM and nanoindentation techniques, which indicate multilayered nanosheets show more plastic deformation than the bulk in response to an applied force. PMID:25369350

  15. Kaluza-Klein towers on general manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Levin, Janna; Zukowski, Claire

    2014-04-01

    A higher dimensional universe with compactified extra dimensions admits a four-dimensional description consisting of an infinite Kaluza-Klein tower of fields. We revisit the problem of describing the free part of the complete Kaluza-Klein tower of gauge fields, p forms, gravity, and flux compactifications. In contrast to previous studies, we work with a generic internal manifold of any dimension, completely at the level of the action, in a gauge-invariant formulation and without resorting to the equations of motion or analysis of propagators. We demonstrate that the physical fields and Stückelberg fields are naturally described by ingredients of the Hodge decomposition and its analog for symmetric tensors. The spectrum of states and stability conditions, in terms of the eigenvalues of various Laplacians on the internal manifold, is easily read from the action.

  16. Dynamic analysis of the Milad Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Edwin; Ford, Mitchell; Coelho, Darren; Lawler, Lachlan; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Tahmasebinia, Faham

    2016-08-01

    This report involves the modelling of the Milad Tower using the finite element analysis program Strand7. A dynamic analysis was performed on the structure in order to understand the deflections and stresses as a result of earthquake and wind loading. In particular, Linear Static as well as Natural Frequency and Spectral Response solvers were used to determine the behaviour of the structure under loading. The findings of the report highlight that the structure was modelled accurately with the outputs representing realistic values. The report suggests that the design of the beams, columns, slabs and all structural members was sufficient enough to support the tower during maximum loading cases. The governing load case was earthquake loading.

  17. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOEpatents

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  18. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  19. Aspects of cooling tower biocides and protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Ashburn, R.J.; Ting, R.S.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work has shown that certain cooling tower amoebae and ciliated protozoa are resistant to several cooling tower biocides, even at the manufacturer`s recommended dosages. For the present study, an Acunthumoeba species was isolated from a cooling tower in Australia. Suspensions of the trophozoites (feeding stages) were exposed to isothiazolones. Cysts were tested separately. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) for trophozoites was between 31-62 ppm of the biocide product, which is slightly less than the MLC for an amoebae species from the United States; and cyst forms were twofold more resistant than those of the US species, with a MLC of 62,500 ppm. A ciliate and an amoeba species were also exposed to bromochlorodimethylhydantoin. The MLC for the ciliate species was 1 ppm of the biocide product, and the MLC was 30--40 ppm for the amoeba trophozoites. Since amoebae can expel vesicles containing live Legionella, experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure of Acunthamoebu polyphugu to biocides influenced release of such potentially infectious particles. Vesicle release was not inhibited by any of the three biocides: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), isothiazolones, and a thiocarbamate compound. These results suggest that amoebae from various sources are resistant to recommended levels of biocides, and the amoebae may continue to release potentially infectious vesicles in the presence of biocides.

  20. Legionella spp. in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Negron-Alvira, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C. )

    1988-10-01

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, P.R., were assayed for various Legionella spp. and serogroups by using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured for each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species; its density reached 10{sup 5} cells per ml, which is within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (acridine orange direct count) were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems and that, without continuous biocide treatment, they may reach densities that present a health risk.

  1. Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

  2. Droplet size of cooling tower fog.

    PubMed

    Rothman, T; Ledbetter, J O

    1975-01-01

    Fog from cooling towers causes problems of visibility and icing along roadways adjacent to the towers; moreover, the visible plume from the towers offers difficulty in that it is equated by much of the public with air pollution. It is desirable to know the size of the fog droplets in order to plan abatement procedures and to determine the airborne lifetimes of such fogs. The methodology involved capturing the droplets on slides coated with a vaseline-mineral oil mixture, making photomicrographs of the droplets, counting and sizing the droplets into eight droplet diameter increments; namely less than 5 mum, 5-10 mum, 10-20 mum, 20-40 mum, 40-60 mum, 60-80 mum, 80-100 mum, and greater than 100 mum. The resulting distribution was similar to that for natural fogs and clouds; i.e., it was bi-modal, the first mode at less than 5 mum containing the vast majority of the droplets, and the second at 20-40 mum. This study agrees with others that the size distribution of a fog in a saturated environment is continuously changing, with the smaller droplets tending to evaporate and the larger ones tending to grow, thus shifting the second mode toward larger sizes.

  3. Water-conserving cooling tower treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathie, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Water conservation in cooling towers and evaporative coolers can finally become a reality. Also, fouled closed hot and chilled water systems can be restored to near original efficiency using the same technology. The barrier limiting the traditional water treatment industry from serious involvement in water conservation is the lack of a really good chemical to control scale. Poor scale inhibitors are the reason for a heavy bleed. Minerals concentrated by evaporation is wasted to the sewer while low solids make-up water fills the tower. Water conservation is important because of the increasing usable water shortage, the cost to add infrastructure to deliver increasing amounts of water to accommodate growth and the limitations imposed on disposal to the sewer. Now, due to innovations in chemical treatment, users of cooling towers and evaporative coolers can conserve water. In this presentation the author assumes the audience has some knowledge of traditional water treatment. Except for a few general references to establish common understanding, the author confines his remarks to discussing an advanced technology developed by DIAS, Inc., and the economics of its use.

  4. Legionella spp. in Puerto Rico cooling towers.

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Alvíra, A; Pérez-Suarez, I; Hazen, T C

    1988-01-01

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, P.R., were assayed for various Legionella spp. and serogroups by using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured for each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species; its density reached 10(5) cells per ml, which is within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (acridine orange direct count) were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems and that, without continuous biocide treatment, they may reach densities that present a health risk. PMID:3202625

  5. Particle tower technology applied to metallurgic plants and peak-time boosting of steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbeck, Lars; Buck, Reiner; Prosin, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Using solar tower technology with ceramic particles as heat transfer and storage medium to preheat scrap for induction furnaces in foundries provides solar generated heat to save electricity. With such a system an unsubsidized payback time of only 4 years is achieved for a 70000t/a foundry in Brazil. The same system can be also used for heat treatment of metals. If electricity is used to heat inert atmospheres a favorable economic performance is also achievable for the particle system. The storage in a particle system enables solar boosting to be restricted to only peak times, enabling an interesting business case opportunity.

  6. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing... directly with Joseph M. Wolfe, Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation, Kirkwood Office Tower, 919 South...

  7. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  8. Tracking of smokestack and cooling tower plumes using wind measurements at different levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Patrinos, A.A.N.

    1980-08-01

    Relationships between cooling tower and smokestack plumes at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant in northwestern Georgia and wind direction measurements at levels from the surface at 850 mb (approx. 1.5 km) are examined. The wind measurements play an important role in estimating plume directions which in turn are utilized to establish control and target (upwind and downwind) areas for a study of plant-induced precipitation modification. Fifty-two plume observations were made during a three week period in December 1979. Results indicate that a windset (4.5 km from the plant) mounted at a level approximating that of the cooling tower plume is a better predictor of plume direction than surface windsets (1.0 km from the plant) or 850 mb level winds. However, an apparent topographical influence on the wind direction measurements at the plume-level windset site somewhat limits its plume tracking capability, at least for ambient winds from the SW quadrant.

  9. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  10. 10. Photocopy of photograph of tower as constructed at Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph of tower as constructed at Cape Henlopen, Delaware, September 1926 (original photograph in National Archives and Records Service, Still Pictures Branch, RG 26, 26-LG-22-A), photographer G.W. Hitchens, September 10, 1926. "New Tower. Camera Station West 100 ft." - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  11. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  12. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jr., John E.

    1985-01-01

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  13. 37. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. THIS VIEW SHOWS TWO MAJOR CHANGES TO THE STATIC TEST TOWER: THE ADDITION OF THE NASA LOGO TO THE FACADE AND THE ADDITION OF THE UPPER STAGES TO THE JUPITER MISSILE IN THE WEST POSITION ON THE TOWER TO REPRESENT THE JUNO II CONFIGURATION. 1961, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U. S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

  15. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF DOG EAR AND TRUSS (BRACKET) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 8. STATIC TEST TOWER NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STATIC TEST TOWER - NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Detail of towers at southwest corner; camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of towers at southwest corner; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Wards, Cedar Avenue, eat side between Fourteenth Avenue & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. View of commissary, central guard tower, and cell block five, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of commissary, central guard tower, and cell block five, looking from the chapel stairs, facing southeast - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Convective Cloud Towers and Precipitation Initiation, Frequency and Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vant-hull, B.; Mahani, S. E.; Autones, F.; Rabin, R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    : Geosynchronous satellite retrieval of precipitation is desirable because it would provide continuous observation throughout most of the globe in regions where radar data is not available. In the current work the distribution of precipitation rates is examined as a function of cloud tower area and cloud top temperature. A thunderstorm tracking algorithm developed at Meteo-France is used to track cumulus towers that are matched up with radar data at 5 minute 1 km resolution. It is found that roughly half of the precipitation occurs in the cloud mass that surrounds the towers, and when a tower is first detected the precipitation is already in progress 50% of the time. The average density of precipitation per area is greater as the towers become smaller and colder, yet the averaged shape of the precipitation intensity distribution is remarkably constant in all convective situations with cloud tops warmer than 220 K. This suggests that on average all convective precipitation events look the same, unaffected by the higher frequency of occurrence per area inside the convective towers. Only once the cloud tops are colder than 220 K does the precipitation intensity distribution become weighted towards higher instantaneous intensities. Radar precipitation shown in shades of green to blue, lightning in orange; black diamonds are coldest points in each tower. Ratio of number of pixels of given precipitation inside versus outside the convective towers, for various average cloud top temperatures. A flat plot indicates the distribution of rainfall inside and outside the towers has the same shape.

  1. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  2. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  3. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  4. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  5. Ferruginous hawk nesting on the US DOE Hanford Site: Case history of a recent invasion caused by transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Newell, R.L.

    1989-04-01

    Ferruginous hawks were an uncommon nesting raptor on the US DOE Hanford Site prior to 1987, with only one or two pairs nesting each year. In 1987, four pair were found nesting on transmission towers. In 1988, seven pairs were observed nesting on the towers. This recent increase in nesting pairs may correspond to an acceptance phenomena related to age of the transmission towers. The increase may be due to an overall increase in the population of ferruginous hawks in Washington. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-25) - Ostrander-Pearl Transmission Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Elaine S.

    2001-09-05

    Vegetation Management along selected ROW sections of the Ostrander-Pearl transmission line. The ROWs include sections of the Ostrander-Pearl 500 kV line; the Ostrander-McLoughlin 500 kV line; the Big Eddy-Chemawa 230 kV line and the Big Eddy-McLoughlin 230 kV line. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-way and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. The project also includes clearing approximately 3 miles of access road and cutting of some danger trees. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA Standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall-growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission lines and to promote low-growing plant communities in the right-of-way and to clear vegetation from new rights-of-way corridors.

  7. 34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON TOP OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTHWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The construction of water-powered astronomical instruments was a long tradition of instrument making that started in the second century AD with Zhang Heng's water-powered celestial globe. The technology reached a peak when, in the eleventh century, Su Song and his team constructed the Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower which combined the armillary sphere, the celestial globe, and the time-keeping mechanism into a large automatic structure. Su Song's instrument contained a mechanism for controlling the water-powered movements of its wheels that amounts to an "escapement mechanism" for a mechanical clock. A new reconstruction of the mechanism is introduced in this chapter.

  9. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  10. 6. VIEW OF ANTENNA TOWER S111 FACING NORTHWEST. COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF ANTENNA TOWER S-111 FACING NORTHWEST. COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL LINK BUILDING (BLDG NO. 205) LOCATED JUST INFONT OF THE TOWER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Lualualei Radio Transmitter, Edison & Tower Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Observed characteristics of upward leaders that are initiated from a windmill and its lightning protection tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Takagi, N.; Watanabe, T.; Sakurano, H.; Hashimoto, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have analyzed the electric field changes of 14 upward leaders that were initiated from a windmill and its lightning protection tower. We found that these upward leaders can be sub-classified into two types according to whether they are triggered by nearby lightning discharge activity or they are initiated without any nearby preceding discharge activities. We have also obtained evidence of upward aborted leaders that are initiated from high-grounded objects in response to nearby lightning. All these results suggest that once the electric field which surrounds the high-grounded object is large enough, an upward leader can be initiated no matter whether the electric field is built up slowly or created rapidly by a nearby lightning discharge, although the later appears to be more efficient in triggering the leader. In addition, we found that without the assistance of a rising electric field produced by a nearby lightning discharge, compared to a stationary windmill and a tower with a similar height, a rotating windmill tends to have a bigger chance of initiating an upward leader.

  12. Development of the LSST raft tower modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, P.; Kotov, I.; Takacs, P. Z.; Frank, J. S.; Plate, S.; Van Berg, R.; Newcomer, M.; Antilogus, P.; Lebbolo, Hervé; Tocut, V.; Juramy, C.; Doherty, P.; Felt, N.

    2012-07-01

    The science focal plane of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is made up of 21 modules designated "raft towers". Each raft tower module (RTM) is an autonomous, fully-testable and serviceable 144 Mpixel imager consisting of nine highly-segmented CCDs with complete readout electronics chain. To minimize noise and obscuration the RTM is housed in a compact enclosure fully contained within the camera cryostat. The RTM is required to meet strict performance goals for image plane flatness, readout speed, noise, and power dissipation. Key components include the 4K × 4K fully-depleted CCDs with 16 outputs each, ceramic CCD support structure, and ASIC electronics for video processing and clock/bias generation. In addition to CCD signal handling, the RTM electronics also includes monitoring for temperature, voltage, and current, makeup heater control, ASIC configuration and readback, powerdown modes, and specialized diagnostic outputs. Digitized data are transmitted out of the camera cryostat over a single 3Gb/s serial link.

  13. Meteorological Towers Display for Windows NT

    1999-05-20

    The Towers Display Program provides a convenient means of graphically depicting current wind speed and direction from a network of meteorological monitoring stations. The program was designed primarily for emergency response applications and, therefore, plots observed wind directions as a transport direction, i.e., the direction toward which the wind would transport a release of an atmospheric contaminant. Tabular summaries of wind speed and direction as well as temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence measured atmore » each monitoring station can be displayed. The current implementation of the product at SRS displays data from eight Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System meteorological towers at SRS, meteorological stations established jointly by SRS/WSRC and the Augusta/Richmond County Emergency Management Agency in Augusta, GA, and National Weather Service stations in Augusta, GA. Wind speed and direction are plotted in a Beaufort scale format at the location of the station on a geographic map of the area. A GUI provides for easy specification of a desired date and time for the data to be displayed.« less

  14. 13. View of Truss tower and pivot pier locking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Truss tower and pivot pier locking east. When the draw is open, the two arms of the truss act as cantilevers supported by the truss tower. A counterweight in the shorter of the bridge keeps the span in proper balance. - Center Street Swing Bridge, Southwest of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. 5. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view south, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view south, northeast side and northwest front of tower, northeast side of house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  16. 6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, northwest front and southwest side of tower, southwest side of house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  17. 3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  18. 4. Keeper's house and light tower, view northeast, southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Keeper's house and light tower, view northeast, southwest side of house, northwest front and southwest side of tower - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  19. 2. Light tower and oil house, view west, southeast and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and oil house, view west, southeast and northeast sides of tower and south side of oil house - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  20. Cross-flow versus counterflow air-stripping towers

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.C.; Marinas, B.J.

    1997-07-01

    Mass-transfer and pressure-drop packing performance correlations are used together with tower design equations and detailed cost models to compare the effectiveness of cross-flow and counterflow air stripping towers over a wide range of contaminant volatility. Cross-flow towers are shown to offer a significant economic advantage over counterflow towers when stripping low volatility organic contaminants primarily due to savings in energy costs. These savings increase as contaminant volatility decreases and as water flow rate increases. A further advantage of the cross-flow configuration is that it extends the feasible operating range for air stripping as cross-flow towers can accommodate higher air-to-water flow ratios than conventional counterflow towers. Finally it is shown that the optimized least-cost design for both counterflow and cross-flow towers varies with Henry`s law constant, water flow rate, and percent removal, but that the optimum is virtually insensitive to other cost and operating variables. This greatly simplifies the tower design procedure.