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Sample records for electrical neuroimaging evidence

  1. Neuroimage evidence and the insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, N J; Saks, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of neuroscientific evidence in criminal trials has given rise to fears that neuroimagery presented by an expert witness might inordinately influence jurors' evaluations of the defendant. In this experiment, a diverse sample of 1,170 community members from throughout the U.S. evaluated a written mock trial in which psychological, neuropsychological, neuroscientific, and neuroimage-based expert evidence was presented in support of a not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) defense. No evidence of an independent influence of neuroimagery was found. Overall, neuroscience-based evidence was found to be more persuasive than psychological and anecdotal family history evidence. These effects were consistent across different insanity standards. Despite the non-influence of neuroimagery, however, jurors who were not provided with a neuroimage indicated that they believed neuroimagery would have been the most helpful kind of evidence in their evaluations of the defendant.

  2. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  3. Electrical neuroimaging based on biophysical constraints.

    PubMed

    Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Murray, Micah M; Michel, Christoph M; Martuzzi, Roberto; Gonzalez Andino, Sara L

    2004-02-01

    This paper proposes and implements biophysical constraints to select a unique solution to the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem. It first shows that the brain's electric fields and potentials are predominantly due to ohmic currents. This serves to reformulate the inverse problem in terms of a restricted source model permitting noninvasive estimations of Local Field Potentials (LFPs) in depth from scalp-recorded data. Uniqueness in the solution is achieved by a physically derived regularization strategy that imposes a spatial structure on the solution based upon the physical laws that describe electromagnetic fields in biological media. The regularization strategy and the source model emulate the properties of brain activity's actual generators. This added information is independent of both the recorded data and head model and suffices for obtaining a unique solution compatible with and aimed at analyzing experimental data. The inverse solution's features are evaluated with event-related potentials (ERPs) from a healthy subject performing a visuo-motor task. Two aspects are addressed: the concordance between available neurophysiological evidence and inverse solution results, and the functional localization provided by fMRI data from the same subject under identical experimental conditions. The localization results are spatially and temporally concordant with experimental evidence, and the areas detected as functionally activated in both imaging modalities are similar, providing indices of localization accuracy. We conclude that biophysically driven inverse solutions offer a novel and reliable possibility for studying brain function with the temporal resolution required to advance our understanding of the brain's functional networks.

  4. Memory Systems, Processing Modes, and Components: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Roberto; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a major theoretical debate in the memory domain regarding the multiple memory systems and processing modes frameworks. The components of processing framework argued for a middle ground: Instead of neatly divided memory systems or processing modes, this framework proposed the existence of numerous processing components that are recruited in different combinations by memory tasks and yield complex patterns of associations and dissociations. Because behavioral evidence was not sufficient to decide among these three frameworks, the debate was largely abandoned. However, functional neuroimaging evidence accumulated during the last two decades resolves the stalemate, because this evidence is more consistent with the components framework than with the other two frameworks. For example, functional neuroimaging evidence shows that brain regions attributed to one memory system can contribute to tasks associated with other memory systems and that brain regions attributed to the same processing mode (perceptual or conceptual) can be dissociated from each other. Functional neuroimaging evidence suggests that memory processes are supported by transient interactions between a few regions called process-specific alliances. These conceptual developments are an example of how functional neuroimaging can contribute to theoretical debates in cognitive psychology.

  5. Electrical neuroimaging reveals early generator modulation to emotional words.

    PubMed

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Michel, Christoph M; Murray, Micah M; Mohr, Christine; Carbonnel, Serge; Landis, Theodor

    2004-04-01

    Functional electrical neuroimaging investigated incidental emotional word processing. Previous research suggests that the brain may differentially respond to the emotional content of linguistic stimuli pre-lexically (i.e., before distinguishing that these stimuli are words). We investigated the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms of this apparent paradox and in particular whether the initial differentiation of emotional stimuli is marked by different brain generator configurations using high-density, event-related potentials. Such would support the existence of specific cerebral resources dedicated to emotional word processing. A related issue concerns the possibility of right-hemispheric specialization in the processing of emotional stimuli. Thirteen healthy men performed a go/no-go lexical decision task with bilateral word/non-word or non-word/non-word stimulus pairs. Words included equal numbers of neutral and emotional stimuli, but subjects made no explicit discrimination along this dimension. Emotional words appearing in the right visual field (ERVF) yielded the best overall performance, although the difference between emotional and neutral words was larger for left than for right visual field presentations. Electrophysiologically, ERVF presentations were distinguished from all other conditions over the 100-140 ms period by a distinct scalp topography, indicative of different intracranial generator configurations. A distributed linear source estimation (LAURA) of this distinct scalp potential field revealed bilateral lateral-occipital sources with a right hemisphere current density maximum. These data support the existence of a specialized brain network triggered by the emotional connotation of words at a very early processing stage.

  6. Functions of the human frontoparietal attention network: Evidence from neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N; Kastner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Human frontoparietal cortex has long been implicated as a source of attentional control. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of these control functions have remained elusive due to limitations of neuroimaging techniques that rely on anatomical landmarks to localize patterns of activation. The recent advent of topographic mapping via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the reliable parcellation of the network into 18 independent subregions in individual subjects, thereby offering unprecedented opportunities to address a wide range of empirical questions as to how mechanisms of control operate. Here, we review the human neuroimaging literature that has begun to explore space-based, feature-based, object-based and category-based attentional control within the context of topographically defined frontoparietal cortex. PMID:27398396

  7. Functions of the human frontoparietal attention network: Evidence from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-02-01

    Human frontoparietal cortex has long been implicated as a source of attentional control. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of these control functions have remained elusive due to limitations of neuroimaging techniques that rely on anatomical landmarks to localize patterns of activation. The recent advent of topographic mapping via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the reliable parcellation of the network into 18 independent subregions in individual subjects, thereby offering unprecedented opportunities to address a wide range of empirical questions as to how mechanisms of control operate. Here, we review the human neuroimaging literature that has begun to explore space-based, feature-based, object-based and category-based attentional control within the context of topographically defined frontoparietal cortex.

  8. Neuroimaging in Alzheimer disease: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Kejal; Jack, Clifford R

    2003-05-01

    Current clinical criteria (DSM-IIIR and NINCDS-ADRDA) for the diagnosis of dementia and AD are reliable; however, these criteria remain to be validated by clinicians of different levels of expertise at different clinical settings. Structural neuroimaging has an important role in initial evaluation of dementia for ruling out potentially treatable causes. Although CT is the appropriate choice when brain tumors, subdural hematoma, or normal pressure hydrocephalus is suspected, MR imaging is more sensitive to the white-matter changes in vascular dementia. The diagnostic accuracy of PET, SPECT, 1H MRS, and MR volumetry of the hippocampus for distinguishing patients with AD from healthy elderly individuals is comparable to the accuracy of a pathologically confirmed clinical diagnosis. Sensitivity of PET for distinguishing patients with dementia with Lewy bodies from AD, however, is higher than that of clinical evaluation; similarly, SPECT and 1H MRS may be adjuncts to clinical evaluation for distinguishing patients with frontotemporal dementia from those with AD. Neuroimaging is valuable in predicting future development of AD in patients with MCI and in carriers of the ApoE epsilon 4 allele who are at a higher risk of developing AD than are cognitively normal elderly individuals. Quantitative MR techniques (e.g., MR volumetry, DWI, magnetization transfer MR imaging, and 1H MRS) and PET are sensitive to the structural and functional changes in the brains of patients with MCI, and hippocampal volumes on MR imaging are associated with future development of AD in these individuals. PET is also sensitive to the regional metabolic decline in the brains of carriers of the ApoE epsilon 4 allele. The longitudinal decrease of whole brain and hippocampal volumes on MR imaging, NAA levels on 1H MRS, cerebral glucose metabolism on PET, and cerebral blood flow on SPECT are associated with rate of cognitive decline in patients with AD. These neuroimaging markers may be useful for

  9. Neuroimaging evidence of deficient axon myelination in Wolfram syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lugar, Heather M.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Marshall, Bess A.; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Urano, Fumihiko; Bischoff, Allison N.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Hershey, Tamara; Austin, P.; Beato, B.; Bihun, E.; Doty, T.; Earhart, G.; Eisenstein, S.; Hoekel, J.; Karzon, R.; Licis, A.; Manwaring, L.; Paciorkowski, A. R.; Pepino de Gruev, Y.; Permutt, A.; Pickett, K.; Ranck, S.; Reiersen, A.; Tychsen, L.; Viehoever, A.; Wasson, J.; White, N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by insulin dependent diabetes and vision, hearing and brain abnormalities which generally emerge in childhood. Mutations in the WFS1 gene predispose cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and may induce myelin degradation in neuronal cell models. However, in vivo evidence of this phenomenon in humans is lacking. White matter microstructure and regional volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in children and young adults with Wolfram syndrome (n = 21) and healthy and diabetic controls (n = 50). Wolfram patients had lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in major white matter tracts and lower volume in the basilar (ventral) pons, cerebellar white matter and visual cortex. Correlations were found between key brain findings and overall neurological symptoms. This pattern of findings suggests that reduction in myelin is a primary neuropathological feature of Wolfram syndrome. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-related dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome may interact with the development of myelin or promote degeneration of myelin during the progression of the disease. These measures may provide objective indices of Wolfram syndrome pathophysiology that will be useful in unraveling the underlying mechanisms and in testing the impact of treatments on the brain. PMID:26888576

  10. Sensory gain control (amplification) as a mechanism of selective attention: electrophysiological and neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hillyard, S A; Vogel, E K; Luck, S J

    1998-01-01

    Both physiological and behavioral studies have suggested that stimulus-driven neural activity in the sensory pathways can be modulated in amplitude during selective attention. Recordings of event-related brain potentials indicate that such sensory gain control or amplification processes play an important role in visual-spatial attention. Combined event-related brain potential and neuroimaging experiments provide strong evidence that attentional gain control operates at an early stage of visual processing in extrastriate cortical areas. These data support early selection theories of attention and provide a basis for distinguishing between separate mechanisms of attentional suppression (of unattended inputs) and attentional facilitation (of attended inputs). PMID:9770220

  11. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal lobes in depression: 20 years on.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2016-11-01

    In 1997, neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence supported the involvement of the frontal lobes and indeed the brain in depression. This was a challenge to conventional phenomenology and linked with the imperative to use neuroscience to understand major mental illness. Since that time, we are seeing ever more convincing evidence for the genetic basis of mental illness (including depression), relevant abnormality in grey and white matter and neuropsychological analysis of brain function. It has proved more difficult to pin down structural abnormality in major depression at the cellular level, but a focus on glial cells is increasingly justified by the evidence. Neuroscience continues to be a buttress against anti-scientific impulses in psychiatry and can help attract young people to enter it as a profession.

  12. Neurobiological foundations of acupuncture: the relevance and future prospect based on neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lijun; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is currently gaining popularity as an important modality of alternative and complementary medicine in the western world. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography open a window into the neurobiological foundations of acupuncture. In this review, we have summarized evidence derived from neuroimaging studies and tried to elucidate both neurophysiological correlates and key experimental factors involving acupuncture. Converging evidence focusing on acute effects of acupuncture has revealed significant modulatory activities at widespread cerebrocerebellar brain regions. Given the delayed effect of acupuncture, block-designed analysis may produce bias, and acupuncture shared a common feature that identified voxels that coded the temporal dimension for which multiple levels of their dynamic activities in concert cause the processing of acupuncture. Expectation in acupuncture treatment has a physiological effect on the brain network, which may be heterogeneous from acupuncture mechanism. "Deqi" response, bearing clinical relevance and association with distinct nerve fibers, has the specific neurophysiology foundation reflected by neural responses to acupuncture stimuli. The type of sham treatment chosen is dependent on the research question asked and the type of acupuncture treatment to be tested. Due to the complexities of the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture, using multiple controls is an optimal choice.

  13. Neurobiological Foundations of Acupuncture: The Relevance and Future Prospect Based on Neuroimaging Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lijun; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is currently gaining popularity as an important modality of alternative and complementary medicine in the western world. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography open a window into the neurobiological foundations of acupuncture. In this review, we have summarized evidence derived from neuroimaging studies and tried to elucidate both neurophysiological correlates and key experimental factors involving acupuncture. Converging evidence focusing on acute effects of acupuncture has revealed significant modulatory activities at widespread cerebrocerebellar brain regions. Given the delayed effect of acupuncture, block-designed analysis may produce bias, and acupuncture shared a common feature that identified voxels that coded the temporal dimension for which multiple levels of their dynamic activities in concert cause the processing of acupuncture. Expectation in acupuncture treatment has a physiological effect on the brain network, which may be heterogeneous from acupuncture mechanism. “Deqi” response, bearing clinical relevance and association with distinct nerve fibers, has the specific neurophysiology foundation reflected by neural responses to acupuncture stimuli. The type of sham treatment chosen is dependent on the research question asked and the type of acupuncture treatment to be tested. Due to the complexities of the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture, using multiple controls is an optimal choice. PMID:23737848

  14. Clocking the social mind by identifying mental processes in the IAT with electrical neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Bastian; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Baumgartner, Thomas; Nash, Kyle; Koenig, Thomas; Knoch, Daria

    2016-03-08

    Why do people take longer to associate the word "love" with outgroup words (incongruent condition) than with ingroup words (congruent condition)? Despite the widespread use of the implicit association test (IAT), it has remained unclear whether this IAT effect is due to additional mental processes in the incongruent condition, or due to longer duration of the same processes. Here, we addressed this previously insoluble issue by assessing the spatiotemporal evolution of brain electrical activity in 83 participants. From stimulus presentation until response production, we identified seven processes. Crucially, all seven processes occurred in the same temporal sequence in both conditions, but participants needed more time to perform one early occurring process (perceptual processing) and one late occurring process (implementing cognitive control to select the motor response) in the incongruent compared with the congruent condition. We also found that the latter process contributed to individual differences in implicit bias. These results advance understanding of the neural mechanics of response time differences in the IAT: They speak against theories that explain the IAT effect as due to additional processes in the incongruent condition and speak in favor of theories that assume a longer duration of specific processes in the incongruent condition. More broadly, our data analysis approach illustrates the potential of electrical neuroimaging to illuminate the temporal organization of mental processes involved in social cognition.

  15. Clocking the social mind by identifying mental processes in the IAT with electrical neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Bastian; Gianotti, Lorena R. R.; Baumgartner, Thomas; Nash, Kyle; Koenig, Thomas; Knoch, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Why do people take longer to associate the word “love” with outgroup words (incongruent condition) than with ingroup words (congruent condition)? Despite the widespread use of the implicit association test (IAT), it has remained unclear whether this IAT effect is due to additional mental processes in the incongruent condition, or due to longer duration of the same processes. Here, we addressed this previously insoluble issue by assessing the spatiotemporal evolution of brain electrical activity in 83 participants. From stimulus presentation until response production, we identified seven processes. Crucially, all seven processes occurred in the same temporal sequence in both conditions, but participants needed more time to perform one early occurring process (perceptual processing) and one late occurring process (implementing cognitive control to select the motor response) in the incongruent compared with the congruent condition. We also found that the latter process contributed to individual differences in implicit bias. These results advance understanding of the neural mechanics of response time differences in the IAT: They speak against theories that explain the IAT effect as due to additional processes in the incongruent condition and speak in favor of theories that assume a longer duration of specific processes in the incongruent condition. More broadly, our data analysis approach illustrates the potential of electrical neuroimaging to illuminate the temporal organization of mental processes involved in social cognition. PMID:26903643

  16. Neurobiological model of obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Tomohiro; Okada, Kayo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was previously considered refractory to most types of therapeutic intervention. There is now, however, ample evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavior therapy are highly effective methods for treatment of OCD. Furthermore, recent neurobiological studies of OCD have found a close correlation between clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and brain function. A large number of previous neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified abnormally high activities throughout the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in patients with OCD. Most studies reported excessive activation of these areas during symptom provocation. Furthermore, these hyperactivities were decreased after successful treatment using either selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or behavioral therapy. Based on these findings, an orbitofronto-striatal model has been postulated as an abnormal neural circuit that mediates symptomatic expression of OCD. On the other hand, previous neuropsychological studies of OCD have reported cognitive dysfunction in executive function, attention, nonverbal memory, and visuospatial skills. Moreover, recent fMRI studies have revealed a correlation between neuropsychological dysfunction and clinical symptoms in OCD by using neuropsychological tasks during fMRI. The evidence from fMRI studies suggests that broader regions, including dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior regions, might be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Further, we should consider that OCD is heterogeneous and might have several different neural systems related to clinical factors, such as symptom dimensions. This review outlines recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of OCD. We will also describe several neurobiological models that have been developed recently. Advanced findings in these fields will update the

  17. Dissociation between emotion and personality judgments: convergent evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Andrea S; Saxe, Rebecca R

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists widely agree on the importance of providing convergent evidence from neuroimaging and lesion studies to establish structure-function relationships. However, such convergent evidence is, in practice, rarely provided. A previous lesion study found a striking double dissociation between two superficially similar social judgment processes, emotion recognition and personality attribution, based on the same body movement stimuli (point-light walkers). Damage to left frontal opercular (LFO) cortices was associated with impairments in personality trait attribution, whereas damage to right postcentral/supramarginal cortices was associated with impairments in emotional state attribution. Here, we present convergent evidence from fMRI in support of this double dissociation, with regions of interest (ROIs) defined by the regions of maximal lesion overlap from the previous study. Subjects learned four emotion words and four trait words, then watched a series of short point-light walker body movement stimuli. After each stimulus, subjects saw either an emotion word or a trait word and rated how well the word described the stimulus. The LFO ROI exhibited greater activity during personality judgments than during emotion judgments. In contrast, the right postcentral/supramarginal ROI exhibited greater activity during emotion judgments than during personality judgments. Follow-up experiments ruled out the possibility that the LFO activation difference was due to word frequency differences. Additionally, we found greater activity in a region of the medial prefrontal cortex previously associated with "theory of mind" tasks when subjects made personality, as compared to emotion judgments.

  18. MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE CONTRIBUTIONS TO FUTURE THINKING: EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING AND AMNESIA

    PubMed Central

    Verfaellie, Mieke; Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Following early amnesic case reports, there is now considerable evidence suggesting a link between remembering the past and envisioning the future. This link is evident in the overlap in neural substrates as well as cognitive processes involved in both kinds of tasks. While constructing a future narrative requires multiple processes, neuroimaging and lesion data converge on a critical role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in retrieving and recombining details from memory in the service of novel simulations. Deficient detail retrieval and recombination may lead to impairments not only in episodic, but also in semantic prospection. MTL contributions to scene construction and mental time travel may further compound impairments in amnesia on tasks that pose additional demands on these processes, but are unlikely to form the core deficit underlying amnesics’ cross-domain future thinking impairment. Future studies exploring the role of episodic memory in other forms of self-projection or future-oriented behaviour may elucidate further the adaptive role of memory. PMID:23447709

  19. Electrical neuroimaging of memory discrimination based on single-trial multisensory learning.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Antonia; Cappe, Céline; Murray, Micah M

    2012-09-01

    Multisensory experiences influence subsequent memory performance and brain responses. Studies have thus far concentrated on semantically congruent pairings, leaving unresolved the influence of stimulus pairing and memory sub-types. Here, we paired images with unique, meaningless sounds during a continuous recognition task to determine if purely episodic, single-trial multisensory experiences can incidentally impact subsequent visual object discrimination. Psychophysics and electrical neuroimaging analyses of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) compared responses to repeated images either paired or not with a meaningless sound during initial encounters. Recognition accuracy was significantly impaired for images initially presented as multisensory pairs and could not be explained in terms of differential attention or transfer of effects from encoding to retrieval. VEP modulations occurred at 100-130 ms and 270-310 ms and stemmed from topographic differences indicative of network configuration changes within the brain. Distributed source estimations localized the earlier effect to regions of the right posterior temporal gyrus (STG) and the later effect to regions of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Responses in these regions were stronger for images previously encountered as multisensory pairs. Only the later effect correlated with performance such that greater MTG activity in response to repeated visual stimuli was linked with greater performance decrements. The present findings suggest that brain networks involved in this discrimination may critically depend on whether multisensory events facilitate or impair later visual memory performance. More generally, the data support models whereby effects of multisensory interactions persist to incidentally affect subsequent behavior as well as visual processing during its initial stages.

  20. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Nijeboer, Savannah; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Domhoff, G. William; Christoff, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both “daydreaming” and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term memory, and simulates social interactions. Both states are also characterized by a relative lack of meta-awareness. To relate first-person reports to neural evidence, we compared meta-analytic data from numerous functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) studies of the default mode network (DMN, with high chances of MW) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (with high chances of dreaming). Our findings show large overlaps in activation patterns of cortical regions: similar to MW/DMN activity, dreaming and REM sleep activate regions implicated in self-referential thought and memory, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), medial temporal lobe structures, and posterior cingulate. Conversely, in REM sleep numerous PFC executive regions are deactivated, even beyond levels seen during waking MW. We argue that dreaming can be understood as an “intensified” version of waking MW: though the two share many similarities, dreams tend to be longer, more visual and immersive, and to more strongly recruit numerous key hubs of the DMN. Further, whereas MW recruits fewer PFC regions than goal-directed thought, dreaming appears to be characterized by an even deeper quiescence of PFC regions involved in cognitive control and metacognition, with a corresponding lack of insight and meta-awareness. We suggest, then, that dreaming amplifies the same features that distinguish MW from goal-directed waking

  1. Neural Correlates of Developmental Speech and Language Disorders: Evidence from Neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Frédérique; Mayes, Angela; Morgan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of speech and language arise out of a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and neural factors. Little is understood about the neural bases of these disorders. Here we systematically reviewed neuroimaging findings in Speech disorders (SD) and Language disorders (LD) over the last five years (2008-2013; 10 articles). In participants with SD, structural and functional anomalies in the left supramarginal gyrus suggest a possible deficit in sensory feedback or integration. In LD, cortical and subcortical anomalies were reported in a widespread language network, with little consistency across studies except in the superior temporal gyri. In summary, both functional and structural anomalies are associated with LD and SD, including greater activity and volumes relative to controls. The variability in neuroimaging approach and heterogeneity within and across participant samples restricts our full understanding of the neurobiology of these conditions- reducing the potential for devising novel interventions targeted at the underlying pathology.

  2. The Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) of intelligence: converging neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J

    2007-04-01

    "Is there a biology of intelligence which is characteristic of the normal human nervous system?" Here we review 37 modern neuroimaging studies in an attempt to address this question posed by Halstead (1947) as he and other icons of the last century endeavored to understand how brain and behavior are linked through the expression of intelligence and reason. Reviewing studies from functional (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) and structural (i.e., magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, voxel-based morphometry) neuroimaging paradigms, we report a striking consensus suggesting that variations in a distributed network predict individual differences found on intelligence and reasoning tasks. We describe this network as the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). The P-FIT model includes, by Brodmann areas (BAs): the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BAs 6, 9, 10, 45, 46, 47), the inferior (BAs 39, 40) and superior (BA 7) parietal lobule, the anterior cingulate (BA 32), and regions within the temporal (BAs 21, 37) and occipital (BAs 18, 19) lobes. White matter regions (i.e., arcuate fasciculus) are also implicated. The P-FIT is examined in light of findings from human lesion studies, including missile wounds, frontal lobotomy/leukotomy, temporal lobectomy, and lesions resulting in damage to the language network (e.g., aphasia), as well as findings from imaging research identifying brain regions under significant genetic control. Overall, we conclude that modern neuroimaging techniques are beginning to articulate a biology of intelligence. We propose that the P-FIT provides a parsimonious account for many of the empirical observations, to date, which relate individual differences in intelligence test scores to variations in brain structure and function. Moreover, the model provides a framework for testing new hypotheses in future experimental designs.

  3. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Stewart, Janet; Sarà, Marco; Carolei, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS), as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS). However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to reliably investigate

  4. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the cognitive and behavioral outcomes seen in individuals with FraX. Specifically, structural MRI studies have established and begun to refine the specific topography of neuroanatomical variation associated with FraX. In addition, functional neuroimaging studies have begun to elucidate the neural underpinnings of many of the unique characteristics of FraX including difficulties with eye gaze, executive functioning, and behavioral inhibition. This review highlights studies with a focus on the relevant gene-brain-behavior connections observed in FraX. The relationship of brain regions and activation patterns to FMRP are discussed as well as the clinical cognitive and behavioral correlates of these neuroimaging findings. PMID:20014368

  5. Overlapping neurobehavioral circuits in ADHD, obesity, and binge eating: Evidence from Neuroimaging Research

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Karen E.; Reinblatt, Shauna P.; Benson, Leora; Carnell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conditions involving excessive eating (e.g. obesity, binge / loss of control eating) are increasingly prevalent within pediatric populations, and correlational and some longitudinal studies have suggested inter-relationships between these disorders. In addition, a number of common neural correlates are emerging across conditions, e.g. functional abnormalities within circuits subserving reward processing and executive functioning. To explore this potential cross-condition overlap in neurobehavioral underpinnings, we selectively review relevant functional neuroimaging literature, specifically focusing on studies probing i) reward processing, ii) response inhibition, and iii) emotional processing and regulation, and outline three specific shared neurobehavioral circuits. Based on our review, we also identify gaps within the literature that would benefit from further research. PMID:26098969

  6. Head modeling for realistic electrical brain activity mapping identification of a multimodal neuroimaging protocol.

    PubMed

    Vatta, F; Bruno, P; Di Salle, F; Esposito, F; Meneghini, F; Mininel, S; Rodaro, M

    2008-01-01

    Realistic electrical brain activity mapping implies reconstructing and visualizing sources of electrical brain activity within the specific patient's head. This requires the assumption of a precise and realistic volume conductor model of the specific subject's head, i.e., a 3-D representation of the head's electrical properties in terms of shape and electrical conductivities. Source reconstruction accuracy is influenced by errors committed in head modeling. Clinical images, MRI and CT, are used to identify the head structures to be included in the volume conductor head model. Modeling accuracy mainly relies on the correct image-based identification of head structures, characterized by different electrical conductivities, to be included as separate compartments in the model. This paper analyzes the imaging protocols used in clinical practice to define the most suitable procedures for identification of the various head structures necessary to build an accurate head model also in the presence of morphologic brain pathologies. Furthermore, tissues anisotropy is discussed and identified as well. With this work we have identified a protocol for the acquisition of multimodal patient's imaging data for realistic electrical brain activity mapping purposes, able to account for pathological conditions and for head tissues anisotropy.

  7. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: Evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Mueller, Veronika I.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The supervisory attentional system has been proposed to mediate non-routine, goal-oriented behaviour by guiding the selection and maintenance of the goal-relevant task schema. Here, we aimed to delineate the brain regions that mediate these high-level control processes via neuroimaging meta-analysis. In particular, we investigated the core neural correlates of a wide range of tasks requiring supervisory control for the suppression of a routine action in favour of another, non-routine one. Our sample comprised n = 173 experiments employing go/no-go, stop-signal, Stroop or spatial interference tasks. Consistent convergence across all four paradigm classes was restricted to right anterior insula and inferior frontal junction, with anterior midcingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area being consistently involved in all but the go/no-go task. Taken together with lesion studies in patients, our findings suggest that the controlled activation and maintenance of adequate task schemata relies, across paradigms, on a right-dominant midcingulo-insular-inferior frontal core network. This also implies that the role of other prefrontal and parietal regions may be less domain-general than previously thought. PMID:25446951

  8. Evidence against functionalism from neuroimaging of the alien colour effect in synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeffrey A; Parslow, David M; Brammer, Michael J; Chopping, Susan; Vythelingum, Goparlen N; ffytche, Dominic H

    2006-02-01

    Coloured hearing synaesthetes experience colours to heard words, as confirmed by reliability of self-report, psychophysical testing and functional neuroimaging data. Some also describe the 'alien colour effect' (ACE): in response to colour names, they experience colours different from those named. We have previously reported that the ACE slows colour naming in a Stroop task, reflecting cognitive interference from synaesthetically induced colours, which depends upon their being consciously experienced. It has been proposed that the hippocampus mediates such consciously experienced conflict. Consistent with this hypothesis, we now report that, in functional magnetic resonance imaging of the Stroop task, hippocampal activation differentiates synaesthetes with the ACE from those without it and from non-synaesthete controls. These findings confirm the reality of coloured hearing synaesthesia and the ACE, phenomena which pose major challenges to the dominant contemporary account of mental states, functionalism. Reductive functionalism identifies types of mental states with causal roles: relations to inputs, outputs and other states. However, conscious mental states, such as experiences of colour, are distinguished by their qualitative properties or qualia. If functionalism is applied to conscious mental states, it identifies the qualitative type of an experience with its causal role or function. This entails both that experiences with disparate qualitative properties cannot have the same functional properties, and that experiences with disparate functional properties cannot have the same qualitative properties. Challenges to functionalism have often denied the first entailment. Here, we challenge the second entailment on empirical grounds. In coloured hearing synaesthesia, colour qualia are associated with both hearing words and seeing surfaces; and, in the ACE, these two functions act in opposition to one another. Whatever its merits as an account of other mental states

  9. Multimodal neuroimaging evidence of alterations in cortical structure and function in HIV-infected older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tony W.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Becker, Katherine M.; Aloi, Joey; Robertson, Kevin R.; Sandkovsky, Uriel; White, Matthew L.; O’Neill, Jennifer; Knott, Nichole L.; Fox, Howard S.; Swindells, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy transformed HIV-infection from a terminal illness to a manageable condition, but these patients remain at a significantly elevated risk of developing cognitive impairments and the mechanisms are not understood. Some previous neuroimaging studies have found hyperactivation in fronto-parietal networks of HIV-infected patients, whereas others reported aberrations restricted to sensory cortices. In this study, we utilize high-resolution structural and neurophysiological imaging to determine whether alterations in brain structure, function, or both contribute to HIV-related cognitive impairments. HIV-infected adults and individually-matched controls completed 3-Tesla structural magnetic-resonance imaging (sMRI) and a mechanoreception task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data was examined using advanced beamforming methods, and sMRI data was analyzed using the latest voxel-based morphometry methods with DARTEL. We found significantly reduced theta responses in the postcentral gyrus and increased alpha activity in the prefrontal cortices of HIV-infected patients compared with controls. Patients also had reduced gray matter volume in the postcentral gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and other regions. Importantly, reduced gray matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus was spatially-coincident with abnormal MEG responses in HIV-infected patients. Finally, left prefrontal and postcentral gyrus activity was correlated with neuropsychological performance and, when used in conjunction, these two MEG findings had a sensitivity and specificity of over 87.5% for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. This study is the first to demonstrate abnormally increased activity in association cortices with simultaneously decreased activity in sensory areas. These MEG findings had excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-associated cognitive impairment, and may hold promise as a potential disease marker. PMID:25376125

  10. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) and NeuroImaging: the state-of-the-art, new insights and prospects in basic and clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Herring, Jim Don; McGonigle, David

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself. At the same time, they also point to the many caveats and specific challenges associated with such studies, which can arise from both technical and biological sources. Besides promising to advance basic neuroscience, combined tES and neuroimaging studies may also substantially change previous conceptions about the methods of action of electric or magnetic stimulation on the brain.

  11. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials.

  12. Evidence from neuroimaging for the role of the menstrual cycle in the interplay of emotion and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sacher, Julia; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Villringer, Arno

    2013-01-01

    Women show increased predisposition for certain psychiatric disorders, such as depression, that are associated with disturbances in the integration of emotion and cognition. While this suggests that sex hormones need to be considered as modulating factors in the regulation of emotion, we still lack a sound understanding of how the menstrual cycle impacts emotional states and cognitive function. Though signals for the influence of the menstrual cycle on the integration of emotion and cognition have appeared as secondary findings in numerous behavioral and neuroimaging studies, this has only very rarely been the primary research goal. This review summarizes evidence: (1) that the menstrual cycle modulates the integration of emotional and cognitive processing on a behavioral level, and (2) that this change in behavior can be associated with functional, molecular and structural changes in the brain during a specific menstrual cycle phase. The growing evidence for menstrual cycle-specific differences suggests a modulating role for sex hormones on the neural networks supporting the integration of emotional and cognitive information. It will further be discussed what methodological aspects need to be considered to capture the role of the menstrual cycle in the emotion-cognition interplay more systematically. PMID:23898247

  13. Motor Inhibition during Overt and Covert Actions: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Monica; Calbi, Marta; Ferrari, Annachiara; Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Franca, Michele; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Given ample evidence for shared cortical structures involved in encoding actions, whether or not subsequently executed, a still unsolved problem is the identification of neural mechanisms of motor inhibition, preventing “covert actions” as motor imagery from being performed, in spite of the activation of the motor system. The principal aims of the present study were the evaluation of: 1) the presence in covert actions as motor imagery of putative motor inhibitory mechanisms; 2) their underlying cerebral sources; 3) their differences or similarities with respect to cerebral networks underpinning the inhibition of overt actions during a Go/NoGo task. For these purposes, we performed a high density EEG study evaluating the cerebral microstates and their related sources elicited during two types of Go/NoGo tasks, requiring the execution or withholding of an overt or a covert imagined action, respectively. Our results show for the first time the engagement during motor imagery of key nodes of a putative inhibitory network (including pre-supplementary motor area and right inferior frontal gyrus) partially overlapping with those activated for the inhibition of an overt action during the overt NoGo condition. At the same time, different patterns of temporal recruitment in these shared neural inhibitory substrates are shown, in accord with the intended overt or covert modality of action performance. The evidence that apparently divergent mechanisms such as controlled inhibition of overt actions and contingent automatic inhibition of covert actions do indeed share partially overlapping neural substrates, further challenges the rigid dichotomy between conscious, explicit, flexible and unconscious, implicit, inflexible forms of motor behavioral control. PMID:26000451

  14. Motor Inhibition during Overt and Covert Actions: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Monica; Calbi, Marta; Ferrari, Annachiara; Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Franca, Michele; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Given ample evidence for shared cortical structures involved in encoding actions, whether or not subsequently executed, a still unsolved problem is the identification of neural mechanisms of motor inhibition, preventing "covert actions" as motor imagery from being performed, in spite of the activation of the motor system. The principal aims of the present study were the evaluation of: 1) the presence in covert actions as motor imagery of putative motor inhibitory mechanisms; 2) their underlying cerebral sources; 3) their differences or similarities with respect to cerebral networks underpinning the inhibition of overt actions during a Go/NoGo task. For these purposes, we performed a high density EEG study evaluating the cerebral microstates and their related sources elicited during two types of Go/NoGo tasks, requiring the execution or withholding of an overt or a covert imagined action, respectively. Our results show for the first time the engagement during motor imagery of key nodes of a putative inhibitory network (including pre-supplementary motor area and right inferior frontal gyrus) partially overlapping with those activated for the inhibition of an overt action during the overt NoGo condition. At the same time, different patterns of temporal recruitment in these shared neural inhibitory substrates are shown, in accord with the intended overt or covert modality of action performance. The evidence that apparently divergent mechanisms such as controlled inhibition of overt actions and contingent automatic inhibition of covert actions do indeed share partially overlapping neural substrates, further challenges the rigid dichotomy between conscious, explicit, flexible and unconscious, implicit, inflexible forms of motor behavioral control.

  15. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Richards, Todd L.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4-9 (N = 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history…

  16. Inhibitory control and emotional stress regulation: neuroimaging evidence for frontal-limbic dysfunction in psycho-stimulant addiction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiang-shan Ray; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on neuroimaging studies that examined stress processing and regulation and cognitive inhibitory control in patients with psycho-stimulant addiction. We provide an overview of these studies, summarizing converging evidence and discrepancies as they occur in the literature. We also adopt an analytic perspective and dissect these psychological processes into their sub-components, to identify the neural pathways specific to each component process and those that are more specifically involved in psycho-stimulant addiction. To this aim we refer frequently to studies conducted in healthy individuals. Despite the separate treatment of stress/affect regulation, stress-related craving or compulsive drug seeking, and inhibitory control, neural underpinnings of these processes overlap significantly. In particular, the ventromedial prefrontal regions including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and the striatum are implicated in psychostimulant dependence. Our overarching thesis is that prefrontal activity ensures intact emotional stress regulation and inhibitory control. Altered prefrontal activity along with heightened striatal responses to addicted drug and drug-related salient stimuli perpetuates habitual drug seeking. Further studies that examine the functional relationships of these neural systems will likely provide the key to understanding the mechanisms underlying compulsive drug use behaviors in psycho-stimulant dependence.

  17. The contribution of the fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in processing facial attractiveness: neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Iaria, G; Fox, C J; Waite, C T; Aharon, I; Barton, J J S

    2008-08-13

    Current cognitive models suggest that the processing of dynamic facial attributes, including social signals such as gaze direction and facial expression, involves the superior temporal sulcus, whereas the processing of invariant facial structure such as the individuals' identity involves the fusiform face area. Where facial attractiveness, a social signal that may emerge from invariant facial structure, is processed within this dual-route model of face perception is uncertain. Here, we present two studies. First, we investigated the explicit judgments of facial attractiveness and attractiveness-motivated behavior in patients with acquired prosopagnosia, a deficit in familiar face recognition usually associated with damage to medial occipitotemporal cortex. We found that both abilities were impaired in these patients, with some weak residual ability for attractiveness judgments found only in those patients with unilateral right occipitotemporal or bilateral anterior temporal lesions. Importantly, deficits in attractiveness perception correlated with the severity of the face recognition deficit. Second, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy subjects that included an implicit and explicit processing of facial attractiveness. We found increased neural activity when explicitly judging facial attractiveness within a number of cortical regions including the fusiform face area, but not the superior temporal sulcus, indicating a potential contribution of the fusiform face area to this judgment. Thus, converging neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence points to a critical role of the inferior occipitotemporal cortex in the processing of facial attractiveness.

  18. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Richards, Todd; Abbott, Robert D

    2015-10-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4 to 9 (N= 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to categorize participants into diagnostic groups for dysgraphia (impaired subword handwriting) (n=26), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading) (n=38), or oral and written language learning disability OWL LD (impaired oral and written syntax comprehension and expression) (n=13) or control oral and written language learners (OWLs) without SLDs (n=11) were consistent withreported history. Impairments in working memory components supporting language learning were also examined. In Study 2, right handed children from Study 1 who did not wear braces (controls, n=9, dysgraphia, n= 14; dyslexia, n=17, OWL LD, n=5) completed an fMRI functional connectivity brain imaging study in which they performed a word-specific spelling judgment task, which is related to both word reading and spelling, and may be impaired in dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD for different reasons. fMRI functional connectivity from 4 seed points in brain locations involved in written word processing to other brain regions also differentiated dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD; both specific regions to which connected and overall number of functional connections differed. Thus, results provide converging neurological and behavioral evidence, for dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD being different, diagnosable specific learning disabilities (SLDs) for persisting written language problems during middle childhood and early adolescence. Translation of the research findings into practice at policy and administrative levels and

  19. Neuroimaging Evidence for 2 Types of Plasticity in Association with Visual Perceptual Learning

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Yuka; Kawato, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is long-term performance improvement as a result of perceptual experience. It is unclear whether VPL is associated with refinement in representations of the trained feature (feature-based plasticity), improvement in processing of the trained task (task-based plasticity), or both. Here, we provide empirical evidence that VPL of motion detection is associated with both types of plasticity which occur predominantly in different brain areas. Before and after training on a motion detection task, subjects' neural responses to the trained motion stimuli were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In V3A, significant response changes after training were observed specifically to the trained motion stimulus but independently of whether subjects performed the trained task. This suggests that the response changes in V3A represent feature-based plasticity in VPL of motion detection. In V1 and the intraparietal sulcus, significant response changes were found only when subjects performed the trained task on the trained motion stimulus. This suggests that the response changes in these areas reflect task-based plasticity. These results collectively suggest that VPL of motion detection is associated with the 2 types of plasticity, which occur in different areas and therefore have separate mechanisms at least to some degree. PMID:27298301

  20. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  1. Resilience after 9/11: Multimodal neuroimaging evidence for stress-related change in the healthy adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Ganzel, Barbara L.; Kim, Pilyoung; Glover, Gary H.; Temple, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to psychological trauma is common and predicts long-term physical and mental health problems, even in those who initially appear resilient. Here, we used multimodal neuroimaging in healthy adults who were at different distances from the World Trade Center on 9/11/01 to examine the neural mechanisms that may underlie this association. More than three years after 9/11/01, adults with closer proximity to the disaster had lower gray matter volume in amygdala, hippocampus, insula, anterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex, with control for age, gender, and total gray matter volume. Further analysis showed a nonlinear (first-order quadratic) association between total number of traumas in lifetime and amygdala gray matter volume and function in the whole group. Post hoc analysis of subgroups with higher versus lower levels of lifetime trauma exposure revealed systematic associations between amygdala gray matter volume, amygdala functional reactivity, and anxiety that suggest a nonlinear trajectory in the neural response to accumulated trauma in healthy adults PMID:18234524

  2. Where do bright ideas occur in our brain? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies of domain-specific creativity

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Palermo, Liana; Nori, Raffaella; Palmiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the neural underpinnings of creativity, failing to find a clear anatomical localization. We aimed to provide evidence for a multi-componential neural system for creativity. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 45 fMRI studies. Three individual ALE analyses were performed to assess creativity in different cognitive domains (Musical, Verbal, and Visuo-spatial). The general ALE revealed that creativity relies on clusters of activations in the bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes. The individual ALE revealed different maximal activation in different domains. Musical creativity yields activations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, in the left cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral and fusiform gyri. Verbal creativity yields activations mainly located in the left hemisphere, in the prefrontal cortex, middle and superior temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral and supramarginal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, and insula. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the lingual gyrus were also activated. Visuo-spatial creativity activates the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, the bilateral thalamus and the left precentral gyrus. This evidence suggests that creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks and that different creativity domains depend on different brain regions. PMID:26322002

  3. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    PubMed

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  4. The Brain Basis of Positive and Negative Affect: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Human Neuroimaging Literature.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Satpute, Ajay B; Wager, Tor D; Weber, Jochen; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-05-01

    The ability to experience pleasant or unpleasant feelings or to represent objects as "positive" or "negative" is known as representing hedonic "valence." Although scientists overwhelmingly agree that valence is a basic psychological phenomenon, debate continues about how to best conceptualize it scientifically. We used a meta-analysis of 397 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography studies (containing 914 experimental contrasts and 6827 participants) to test 3 competing hypotheses about the brain basis of valence: the bipolarity hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a brain system that monotonically increases and/or decreases along the valence dimension, the bivalent hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by independent brain systems, and the affective workspace hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a flexible set of valence-general regions. We found little evidence for the bipolar or bivalent hypotheses. Findings instead supported the hypothesis that, at the level of brain activity measurable by fMRI, valence is flexibly implemented across instances by a set of valence-general limbic and paralimbic brain regions.

  5. Electrical Neuroimaging with Irrotational Sources.

    PubMed

    Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Gonzalez Andino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of the modeling of the sources of the EEG (i.e., the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem or source localization problem). Using the Helmholtz decomposition (HD) of the current density vector (CDV) of the primary current into an irrotational (I) and a solenoidal (S) part we show that only the irrotational part can contribute to the EEG measurements. In particular we present for the first time the HD of a dipole and of a pure irrotational source. We show that, for both kinds of sources, I extends all over the space independently of whether the source is spatially concentrated (as the dipole) or not. However, the divergence remains confined to a region coinciding with the expected location of the sources, confirming that it is the divergence rather than the CDV that really defines the spatial extension of the generators, from where it follows that an irrotational source model (ELECTRA) is always physiologically meaningful as long as the divergence remains confined to the brain. Finally we show that the irrotational source model remains valid for the most general electrodynamics model of the EEG in inhomogeneous anisotropic dispersive media and thus far beyond the (quasi) static approximation.

  6. Electrical Neuroimaging with Irrotational Sources

    PubMed Central

    Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Gonzalez Andino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of the modeling of the sources of the EEG (i.e., the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem or source localization problem). Using the Helmholtz decomposition (HD) of the current density vector (CDV) of the primary current into an irrotational (I) and a solenoidal (S) part we show that only the irrotational part can contribute to the EEG measurements. In particular we present for the first time the HD of a dipole and of a pure irrotational source. We show that, for both kinds of sources, I extends all over the space independently of whether the source is spatially concentrated (as the dipole) or not. However, the divergence remains confined to a region coinciding with the expected location of the sources, confirming that it is the divergence rather than the CDV that really defines the spatial extension of the generators, from where it follows that an irrotational source model (ELECTRA) is always physiologically meaningful as long as the divergence remains confined to the brain. Finally we show that the irrotational source model remains valid for the most general electrodynamics model of the EEG in inhomogeneous anisotropic dispersive media and thus far beyond the (quasi) static approximation. PMID:26113873

  7. Neuroimaging of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cendes, Fernando; Theodore, William H.; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cascino, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging is pivotal in the evaluation and management of patients with seizure disorders. Elegant structural neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may assist in determining the etiology of focal epilepsy and demonstrating the anatomical changes associated with seizure activity. The high diagnostic yield of MRI to identify the common pathological findings in individuals with focal seizures including mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular anomalies, low-grade glial neoplasms and malformations of cortical development has been demonstrated. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most commonly performed interictal functional neuroimaging technique that may reveal a focal hypometabolic region concordant with seizure onset. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies may assist performance of ictal neuroimaging in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy being considered for neurosurgical treatment. This chapter highlights neuroimaging developments and innovations, and provides a comprehensive overview of the imaging strategies used to improve the care and management of people with epilepsy. PMID:27430454

  8. Functional neuroimaging in psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, C H; McGuire, P K

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is one of the most powerful means available for investigating the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we shall focus on the different ways that it can be employed to this end, describing the major findings in the field in the context of different methodological approaches. We will also discuss practical issues that are particular to studying psychiatric disorders and the potential contribution of functional neuroimaging to future psychiatric research. PMID:10466156

  9. Turner Syndrome: Neuroimaging Findings--Structural and Functional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullaney, Ronan; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including…

  10. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of longitudinal neuroimaging to study the developmental perspectives of brain pathology in children with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is described. Structural neuroimaging is capable of providing evidence of neurobiological specificity of COS to distinguish it from other brain abnormalities seen in neuropsychiatric illnesses like…

  11. Exploring yawning with neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Nahab, Fatta B

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms responsible for spontaneous yawning as well as contagious yawning are not well characterized. Neuroimaging is an essential tool for helping to identify the seminal neural structures and their inter-related functions to carry out this complex stereotyped motor program. Studies to date have explored the structural neural correlates of yawning through a series of lesion-based case reports and identified participatory structures at various levels of the central nervous system. Functional neuroimaging methods like fMRI have also shed led on the genesis of contagious yawning, though cohesive models explaining the neural mechanisms of contagious motor programs such as yawning remain limited.

  12. Neuroimaging and Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steve R.

    2005-01-01

    This review presents the most recent research concerning neuroimaging in developmental disabilities. Changes in structure and activation have been found in children with ADHD and learning disabilities, following intervention. For the children with learning disabilities changes in activation have been found following intensive behavioral and…

  13. Introduction to neuroimaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orrison, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The author focuses on neuroradiology with emphasis on the current imaging modalities. There are chapters on angiography, myelography, nuclear medicine, ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The other chapters are dedicated to the spine, skull, head and neck, and pediatric neuroimaging.

  14. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  15. Stress regulation in the central nervous system: evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging studies in human populations - 2008 Curt Richter Award Winner.

    PubMed

    Pruessner, Jens C; Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Marita; Lord, Catherine; Buss, Claudia; Collins, Louis; Dagher, Alain; Lupien, Sonia J

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic effects of stress are known to have significant health effects in both humans and animals. Most of these effects are mediated by the major stress hormonal axis in the body, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Within the central nervous system (CNS), the hippocampus, the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex as part of the limbic system are believed to play important roles in the regulation of the HPA axis. With the advent of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, the role of different CNS structures in the regulation of the HPA axis can be investigated more directly. In the current paper, we summarize the findings obtained in our laboratory in the context of stress and HPA axis regulation. Our laboratory has developed and contributed to the development of manual and automated segmentation protocols from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for assessment of hippocampus, amygdala, medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe structures. Employing these protocols, we could show significant age-related changes in HC volumes, which were different between men and women, with pre-menopausal women showing smaller age-related volume decline compared to men. We could recently extent these findings by showing how estrogen therapy after menopause leads to higher volumes in the HC. Investigating possible neurotoxicity effects of steroids, we showed effects of long-term steroid exposure on HC volumes, and investigated variability of HC volumes in relation to HPA axis regulation in young and elderly populations. Here, we were able to follow-up from non-imaging studies showing that subjects low in self-esteem have higher cortisol stress responses, and the HC emerged as the critical link between these variables. Recently, we have made two more important discoveries with regard to HC volume: we could show that HC volume is as variable in young as it is in older adults, in subjects ranging in age from 18 to 80 years. Also, we have linked birth

  16. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business

    PubMed Central

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing — neuromarketing — has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released — when it is just an idea being developed. PMID:20197790

  17. Psychotherapy and Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Jay C.; Price, Rebecca B.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in neuroimaging have enabled researchers to examine, in vivo, the relationship between psychotherapeutic interventions and markers of brain activity. This review focuses on two kinds of neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy: those that examine the patterns of brain activity associated with response to treatments and those that examine the changes that occur in brain activity during treatment. A general, hypothetical neural model of psychotherapy is presented, and support for the model is evaluated across anxiety disorders and major depression. Neuroimaging studies are broadly consistent in observing associations between response to psychotherapy and baseline activity in several key regions within the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic areas. These regions are involved in the generation and regulation of emotion, fear responding, and response to reward. Pre-post examinations of change following psychotherapy also typically observe that psychological treatments for anxiety and depression can affect neural activity in these regions. Despite general consensus that activity in these regions is associated with psychotherapy, substantial discrepancy persists regarding the precise direction of the observed relationships. Methodological challenges of the existing literature are considered, and future directions are discussed. PMID:25346646

  18. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2009-06-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ~;;38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation.

  19. A review of neuroimaging studies of stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity: Emerging evidence for a brain-body pathway to coronary heart disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Sheu, Lei K.

    2009-01-01

    An individual's tendency to show exaggerated or otherwise dysregulated cardiovascular reactions to acute stressors has long been associated with increased risk for clinical and preclinical endpoints of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the ‘brain-body’ pathways that link stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactions to CHD risk remain uncertain. This review summarizes emerging neuroimaging research indicating that individual differences in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity (a particular form of cardiovascular reactivity) are associated with activation patterns in corticolimbic brain areas that are jointly involved in processing stressors and regulating the cardiovascular system. As supported empirically by activation likelihood estimates derived from a meta-analysis, these corticolimbic areas include divisions of the cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala—as well as networked cortical and subcortical areas involved in mobilizing hemodynamic and metabolic support for stress-related behavioral responding. Contextually, the research reviewed here illustrates how behavioral medicine and health neuroscience methods can be integrated to help characterize the ‘brain-body’ pathways that mechanistically link stressful experiences with CHD risk. PMID:19410652

  20. An evidence-based approach to electrical injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Suzanne; Meltzer, James A

    2013-09-01

    Electrical injuries, while uncommon, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In children, the injuries tend to occur in the household; in adolescents, they are most often associated with misguided youthful exploration outside the home. Injuries in adults are primarily occupational and due to workplace accidents. Electrical injuries are categorized by their electrical source and can result from low-voltage, high-voltage, lightning strike, or electrical arc exposure. The injury can range from minor to life threatening, and they can cause multisystem complications. High-voltage electrical exposures usually cause severe burns, whereas victims of lightning strikes may have no obvious physical injury but may present in cardiopulmonary arrest. Strategies to prevent electrical injuries have been developed and should be discussed with families and healthcare providers to reduce the incidence of these injuries in children. This review highlights the current literature related to the evaluation and management of children with electrical injuries presenting to the emergency department.

  1. Systematic Redaction for Neuroimage Data

    PubMed Central

    Matlock, Matt; Schimke, Nakeisha; Kong, Liang; Macke, Stephen; Hale, John

    2013-01-01

    In neuroscience, collaboration and data sharing are undermined by concerns over the management of protected health information (PHI) and personal identifying information (PII) in neuroimage datasets. The HIPAA Privacy Rule mandates measures for the preservation of subject privacy in neuroimaging studies. Unfortunately for the researcher, the management of information privacy is a burdensome task. Wide scale data sharing of neuroimages is challenging for three primary reasons: (i) A dearth of tools to systematically expunge PHI/PII from neuroimage data sets, (ii) a facility for tracking patient identities in redacted datasets has not been produced, and (iii) a sanitization workflow remains conspicuously absent. This article describes the XNAT Redaction Toolkit—an integrated redaction workflow which extends a popular neuroimage data management toolkit to remove PHI/PII from neuroimages. Quickshear defacing is also presented as a complementary technique for deidentifying the image data itself. Together, these tools improve subject privacy through systematic removal of PII/PHI. PMID:24179597

  2. Neuroimaging of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging, particularly that based upon functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), has become a dominant tool in cognitive neuroscience. This review provides a personal and selective perspective on its past, present, and future. Two trends currently characterize the field that broadly reflect a pursuit of “where”- and “how”-type questions. The latter addresses basic mechanisms related to the expression of task-induced neural activity and is likely to be an increasingly important theme in the future. This trend entails an enhanced symbiosis among investigators pursuing similar questions in fields such as computational and theoretical neuroscience as well as through the detailed analysis of microcircuitry. PMID:18995825

  3. Neuroimaging Evidence of Major Morpho-Anatomical and Functional Abnormalities in the BTBR T+TF/J Mouse Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dodero, Luca; Damiano, Mario; Galbusera, Alberto; Bifone, Angelo; Tsaftsaris, Sotirios A.; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice display prominent behavioural deficits analogous to the defining symptoms of autism, a feature that has prompted a widespread use of the model in preclinical autism research. Because neuro-behavioural traits are described with respect to reference populations, multiple investigators have examined and described the behaviour of BTBR mice against that exhibited by C57BL/6J (B6), a mouse line characterised by high sociability and low self-grooming. In an attempt to probe the translational relevance of this comparison for autism research, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to map in both strain multiple morpho-anatomical and functional neuroimaging readouts that have been extensively used in patient populations. Diffusion tensor tractography confirmed previous reports of callosal agenesis and lack of hippocampal commissure in BTBR mice, and revealed a concomitant rostro-caudal reorganisation of major cortical white matter bundles. Intact inter-hemispheric tracts were found in the anterior commissure, ventro-medial thalamus, and in a strain-specific white matter formation located above the third ventricle. BTBR also exhibited decreased fronto-cortical, occipital and thalamic gray matter volume and widespread reductions in cortical thickness with respect to control B6 mice. Foci of increased gray matter volume and thickness were observed in the medial prefrontal and insular cortex. Mapping of resting-state brain activity using cerebral blood volume weighted fMRI revealed reduced cortico-thalamic function together with foci of increased activity in the hypothalamus and dorsal hippocampus of BTBR mice. Collectively, our results show pronounced functional and structural abnormalities in the brain of BTBR mice with respect to control B6 mice. The large and widespread white and gray matter abnormalities observed do not appear to be representative of the neuroanatomical alterations typically observed in autistic patients. The presence of reduced

  4. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Breeze, Janis L.; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Hanke, Michael; Haselgrove, Christian; Helmer, Karl G.; Keator, David B.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Schwartz, Yannick; Ashburner, John; Kennedy, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. PMID:22493576

  5. Functional connectivity of the left and right hippocampi: Evidence for functional lateralization along the long-axis using meta-analytic approaches and ultra-high field functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; Salibi, Nouha; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2016-07-15

    Theories regarding the functional specialization of the hippocampus date back to over a century ago. Two main theories have dominated the field. First, evidence has supported the notion of hemispheric specialization, which appears to be preserved across species. Second, an emergent and mounting set of data has suggested an anterior-posterior neurofunctional gradient. However, no study has examined these theories, and their potential interaction, using objective, robust methodological approaches. Here, we employed an established meta-analytic technique and use ultra-high field, high-resolution functional and structural neuroimaging to examine hippocampal lateralization with consideration for a long-axis differentiation. Data revealed strong support for an evolutionarily preserved hemispheric specialization. Specifically, we found intra- and interhemispheric differences with regard to anterior and posterior functional and structural connectivity, between the right and left hippocampi. For task-independent functional connectivity, we found the right anterior hippocampus to have functional connectivity with a large, distributed network, whereas the left anterior hippocampus demonstrated primarily fronto-limbic connectivity. These patterns were reversed for the posterior segmentations. Not surprisingly, for task-dependent connectivity, we found interhemispheric differences within key ipsilateral structures (i.e., parahippocampal gyrus) for both anterior and posterior segmentations. Furthermore, we identified pivotal neural hubs that share connectivity across behavioral domains, and are supported by structural connectivity (i.e., posterior cingulate cortex). Thus, our data provide evidence for a hemisphere-specific, anterior-posterior specialization of the hippocampal formation.

  6. Effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca on regional brain electrical activity in humans: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; Anderer, Peter; Jané, Francesc; Saletu, Bernd; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2004-01-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT(2A) agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which parallel the time course of subjective effects. In the present study, the spatial distribution of ayahuasca-induced changes in brain electrical activity was investigated by means of low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 18 volunteers after the administration of a dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca containing 0.85 mg DMT/kg body weight and placebo. The intracerebral power density distribution was computed with LORETA from spectrally analyzed data, and subjective effects were measured by means of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). Statistically significant differences compared to placebo were observed for LORETA power 60 and 90 min after dosing, together with increases in all six scales of the HRS. Ayahuasca decreased power density in the alpha-2, delta, theta and beta-1 frequency bands. Power decreases in the delta, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands were found predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, whereas theta power was reduced in the temporomedial cortex and in frontomedial regions. The present results suggest the involvement of unimodal and heteromodal association cortex and limbic structures in the psychological effects elicited by ayahuasca.

  7. Provenance in Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.; Van Horn, John D.; Woods, Roger P.; Crawford, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image’s provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data. PMID:18519166

  8. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders†

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Nicolas A.; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. Aims To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. Method We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Results Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. Conclusions From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. PMID:26045351

  9. Neuroimaging: beginning to appreciate its complexities.

    PubMed

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have sought to see through the protective shield of the human skull and into the living brain. Today, an array of technologies allows researchers and clinicians to create astonishingly detailed images of our brain's structure as well as colorful depictions of the electrical and physiological changes that occur within it when we see, hear, think and feel. These technologies-and the images they generate-are an increasingly important tool in medicine and science. Given the role that neuroimaging technologies now play in biomedical research, both neuroscientists and nonexperts should aim to be as clear as possible about how neuroimages are made and what they can-and cannot-tell us. Add to this that neuroimages have begun to be used in courtrooms at both the determination of guilt and sentencing stages, that they are being employed by marketers to refine advertisements and develop new products, that they are being sold to consumers for the diagnosis of mental disorders and for the detection of lies, and that they are being employed in arguments about the nature (or absence) of powerful concepts like free will and personhood, and the need for citizens to have a basic understanding of how this technology works and what it can and cannot tell us becomes even more pressing.

  10. Neuroimaging Studies in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Arpit; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 2–3% in general population. The pathophysiology of OCD is not yet fully understood, however over the last few decades, evidence for abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CSTC) circuitry in etiopathogenesis of OCD has accumulated. Recent brain imaging techniques have been particularly convincing in suggesting that CSTC circuits are responsible for mediation of OCD symptoms. Neuroimaging studies, especially more recent studies using functional neuroimaging methods have looked for possible changes seen in the brain of patients with OCD, the specificity of the findings (as compared to other psychiatric illnesses) and the effects of treatment (pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy) on such changes were observed. This narrative review discusses the neuroimaging findings seen in patients with OCD with a special focus on relatively more recent neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography. PMID:27833219

  11. Source counting in MEG neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-02-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.

  12. Neurophysiological and biophysical evidence on the mechanism of electric taste

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of electric taste was investigated by recording from the chorda tympani nerve of the rat in response to both electrical and chemical stimulations of the tongue with electrolytes in order to gain some insight into its mechanism on both a neurophysiological and biophysical basis. The maximum neural response levels were identical for an individual salt (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2), whether it was presented as a chemical solution or as an anodal stimulus through a subthreshold solution. These observations support the idea that stimulation occurs by iontophoresis of ions to the receptors at these current densities (less than 100 microA/cm2). Electric responses through dilute HCl were smaller than the chemically applied stimulations, but the integrated anodal responses appeared similar to chemical acid responses, as evidenced by an OFF response to both forms of stimuli. Hydrogen may be more permeant to the lingual epithelium and would thus be shunted away from the taste receptors during anodal stimulation. When the anion of electric taste was varied via subthreshold salt solutions, the response magnitude increased as the mobility of the anion decreased. The transport numbers of the salts involved adequately explains these differences. The physical aspects of ion migration occurring within the adapting fluid on the tongue are also discussed. Direct neural stimulation by the current appears to occur only at higher current densities (greater than 300 microA/cm2). If the taste cells of the tongue were inactivated with either iodoacetic acid (IAA) or N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), or removed with collagenase, then responses from the chorda tympani could be obtained only at these higher current densities. Latency measurements before and after IAA or NEM treatment corroborated these findings. The results are discussed in terms of several proposed mechanisms of electric taste and it is concluded that an ion accumulation mechanism can adequately explain the data. PMID

  13. Functional neuroimaging of extraversion-introversion.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xu; Yang, Tianliang; Wu, Taoyu

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography have provided an unprecedented neurobiological perspective for research on personality traits. Evidence from task-related neuroimaging has shown that extraversion is associated with activations in regions of the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus and the amygdala. Currently, resting-state neuroimaging is being widely used in cognitive neuroscience. Initial exploration of extraversion has revealed correlations with the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, and the precuneus. Recent research work has indicated that the long-range temporal dependence of the resting-state spontaneous oscillation has high test-retest reliability. Moreover, the long-range temporal dependence of the resting-state networks is highly correlated with personality traits, and this can be used for the prediction of extraversion. As the long-range temporal dependence reflects real-time information updating in individuals, this method may provide a new approach to research on personality traits.

  14. Sports concussions and aging: a neuroimaging investigation.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sebastien; De Beaumont, Louis; Henry, Luke C; Boulanger, Yvan; Evans, Alan C; Bourgouin, Pierre; Poirier, Judes; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-05-01

    Recent epidemiological and experimental studies suggest a link between cognitive decline in late adulthood and sports concussions sustained in early adulthood. In order to provide the first in vivo neuroanatomical evidence of this relation, the present study probes the neuroimaging profile of former athletes with concussions in relation to cognition. Former athletes who sustained their last sports concussion >3 decades prior to testing were compared with those with no history of traumatic brain injury. Participants underwent quantitative neuroimaging (optimized voxel-based morphometry [VBM], hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS; medial temporal lobes and prefrontal cortices), and neuropsychological testing, and they were genotyped for APOE polymorphisms. Relative to controls, former athletes with concussions exhibited: 1) Abnormal enlargement of the lateral ventricles, 2) cortical thinning in regions more vulnerable to the aging process, 3) various neurometabolic anomalies found across regions of interest, 4) episodic memory and verbal fluency decline. The cognitive deficits correlated with neuroimaging findings in concussed participants. This study unveiled brain anomalies in otherwise healthy former athletes with concussions and associated those manifestations to the long-term detrimental effects of sports concussion on cognitive function. Findings from this study highlight patterns of decline often associated with abnormal aging.

  15. Neuroimaging of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Chul; Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, mammillary bodies and midbrain tectal plate. An initial bout of WE can result in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), but repeated bouts in conjunction with its typical comorbidity, chronic alcoholism, can result in signs of tissue degeneration in vulnerable brain regions. Chronic abnormalities identified with neuroimaging enable examination of brain damage in living patients with KS and have expanded the understanding of the neuropsychological deficits resulting from thiamine deficiency, alcohol neurotoxicity, and their comorbidity. Brain structure and functional studies indicate that the interactions involving the thalamus, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, frontal lobes, and cerebellum are crucial for memory formation and executive functions, and the interruption of these circuits by WE and chronic alcoholism can contribute substantially to the neuropsychological deficits in KS.

  16. Electric field exposure and evidence of stress in mice

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruyn, L.; De Jager, L. )

    1994-04-01

    The effect of stress induced by an electric field on the adrenal gland cortex of mice was examined by means of corticosterone serum assay and evaluation of the lipid profile of the different zones of the cortex. Six generations of experimental mice were exposed to a 10 kV/m electric field from conception and corresponding control groups were sham exposed. Mice were sacrificed at 35 days (n = 10), as adults (n = 20) and at 18 months (old mice) (n = 10). Blinded lipid estimates were performed on histological preparations of the adrenals, serum corticosterone levels were determined, and the results were statistically analyzed. The mean lipid volume in the zona glomerulosa of the exposed adult male group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.004). The median daytime corticosterone level of the exposed male mice was also significantly higher than that in the controls (P = 0.02). The lipid profiles and corticosterone values in the other subgroups did not differ significantly. As chronic stress increases the lipid volume of all the zones of the adrenal cortex and stimulates the zona glomerulosa to corticosterone secretion, the data suggest that the electric field acted as a chronic stressor in the adult male mice. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Neuroimaging in Cockayne syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koob, M; Laugel, V; Durand, M; Fothergill, H; Dalloz, C; Sauvanaud, F; Dollfus, H; Namer, I J; Dietemann, J-L

    2010-10-01

    CS is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder, which is mainly characterized by neurologic and sensory impairment, cachectic dwarfism, and photosensitivity. We describe the neuroimaging features (MR imaging, ¹H-MR spectroscopy, and CT) in the various clinical subtypes of CS from a cohort of genetically and biochemically proved cases. Hypomyelination, calcifications, and brain atrophy were the main imaging features. Calcifications were typically found in the putamen and less often in the cortex and dentate nuclei. Severe progressive atrophy was seen in the supratentorial white matter, the cerebellum, the corpus callosum, and the brain stem. Patients with early-onset disease displayed more severe hypomyelination and prominent calcifications in the sulcal depth of the cerebral cortex, but atrophy was less severe in late-onset patients. On proton MR spectroscopy, lactate was detected and Cho and NAA values were decreased. These combined neuroradiologic findings can help in the differential diagnosis of CS, distinguishing it from other leukoencephalopathies and/or cerebral calcifications in childhood.

  18. Electric Properties of Obsidian: Evidence for Positive Hole Charge Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordvik, R.; Freund, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    The blackness of obsidian is due to the presence of oxygen anions in the valence state 1-, creating broad energy levels at the upper edge of the valence band, which absorb visible light over a wide spectral range. These energy states are associated with defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice, well-known from "smoky quartz", where Al substituting for Si captures a defect electron in the oxygen anion sublattice for charge compensation [1]. Such defect electrons, also known as positive holes, are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity in igneous rocks when uniaxial stresses are applied, causing the break-up of pre-existing peroxy defects, Si-OO-Si [2]. Peroxy defects in obsidian cannot be so easily activated by mechanical stress because the glassy matrix will break before sufficiently high stress levels can be reached. If peroxy defects do exist, however, they can be studied by activating them thermally [3]. We describe experiments with rectangular slabs of obsidian with Au electrodes at both ends. Upon heating one end, we observe (i) a thermopotential and (ii) a thermocurrent developing at distinct temperatures around 250°C and 450°C, marking the 2-step break-up of peroxy bonds. [1] Schnadt, R., and Schneider, J.: The electronic structure of the trapped-hole center in smoky quartz, Zeitschrift Physik B Condensed Matter 11, 19-42, 1970. [2] Freund, F. T., Takeuchi, A., and Lau, B. W.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 389-396, 2006. [3] Freund, F., and Masuda, M. M.: Highly mobile oxygen hole-type charge carriers in fused silica, Journal Material Research, 8, 1619-1622, 1991.

  19. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research.

  20. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  1. Neuroimaging evaluation in refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Ana M; Orejuela, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the application of neuroimaging analysis, compared to neuropsychological tests and video-electroencephalogram, for the evaluation of refractory epilepsy in a reference centre in Cali, Colombia. Methods Between March 2013 and November 2014, 29 patients, 19 men and 10 women, aged 9–65 years and with refractory epilepsy, were assessed by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing tasks related to language, verbal and non-verbal memory. Also, volumetric evaluation was performed. A 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in all cases. Results Neuroimaging evaluation identified 13 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The remaining patients were classified as: 10 patients with neoplastic masses, two patients with cortical atrophy, two patients with scarring lesions and two patients with non-structural aetiology. Among patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, comparison between techniques for lateralising the epileptogenic foci was made; the κ index between functional magnetic resonance imaging and hippocampi volumetry was κ = 1.00, agreement between neuroimaging and video-electroencephalogram was good (κ = 0.78) and comparison with a neuropsychological test was mild (κ = 0.24). Conclusions Neuroimaging studies allow the assessment of functional and structural damage related to epileptogenic lesions and foci, and are helpful to select surgical treatment, conduct intraoperative neuronavigation techniques, predict surgical deficits and evaluate patient recovery. PMID:26427897

  2. Functional Neuroimaging: A Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Gao, Jia-Hong; Duong, Timonthy Q.; Fox, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic physiology and functional neuroimaging have played important and complementary roles over the past two decades. In particular, investigations of the mechanisms underlying functional neuroimaging signals have produced fundamental new insights into hemodynamic and metabolic regulation. However, controversies were also raised as regards the metabolic pathways (oxidative vs. non-oxidative) for meeting the energy demand and driving the increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during brain activation. In a recent study, with the concurrent functional MRI-MRS measurements, we found that task-evoked energy demand was predominately met through oxidative metabolism (approximately 98%), despite a small increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (12–17%). In addition, the task-induced increases in CBF were most likely mediated by anaerobic glycolysis rather than oxygen demand. These observations and others from functional neuroimaging support the activation-induced neuron-astrocyte interactions portrayed by the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model. The concurrent developments of neuroimaging methods and metabolic physiology will also pave the way for the future investigation of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in disease states. PMID:20725632

  3. Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Heledd; Rubia, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum (CC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during response inhibition, working memory, and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioral and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity

  4. [Correlation between EEG and neuroimaging].

    PubMed

    Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of physiological mechanisms underlying nonepileptiform EEG abnormalities is reviewed to clarify the correlation between EEG and neuroimaging. Focal and widespread slow waves, background abnormalities, and bursts of rhythmic slow activity are discussed. EEG phenomena were correlated with lesion size, location, type (white matter vs. gray matter, high density vs. low density), and mass effect. Clinical and experimental accumulated over the past five decades suggest that polymorphic slow activity is generated in cerebral cortex by layers of pyramidal cells and is probably due to partial deafferentation from subcortical areas. Unilateral background activity changes are probably thalamic dysfunction, and bilateral paroxysmal slow activity is due to abnormal thalamocortical circuits combined with cortical pathology. Paroxysmal discharges indicate the presence of epilepsy with possible brain lesion(s). The EEG is a functional test and provides us complementary information to neuroimaging studies.

  5. Computational Modeling and Neuroimaging Techniques for Targeting during Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Jennifer A.; Pace, Jonathan; Girgis, Fady; Miller, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate surgical localization of the varied targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a process undergoing constant evolution, with increasingly sophisticated techniques to allow for highly precise targeting. However, despite the fastidious placement of electrodes into specific structures within the brain, there is increasing evidence to suggest that the clinical effects of DBS are likely due to the activation of widespread neuronal networks directly and indirectly influenced by the stimulation of a given target. Selective activation of these complex and inter-connected pathways may further improve the outcomes of currently treated diseases by targeting specific fiber tracts responsible for a particular symptom in a patient-specific manner. Moreover, the delivery of such focused stimulation may aid in the discovery of new targets for electrical stimulation to treat additional neurological, psychiatric, and even cognitive disorders. As such, advancements in surgical targeting, computational modeling, engineering designs, and neuroimaging techniques play a critical role in this process. This article reviews the progress of these applications, discussing the importance of target localization for DBS, and the role of computational modeling and novel neuroimaging in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases, and thus paving the way for improved selective target localization using DBS. PMID:27445709

  6. Initial Evidence for Self-Organized Criticality in Electric Power System Blackouts

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B.A.; Dobson, I.; Newman, D.E.; Poole, A.B.

    2000-01-04

    We examine correlations in a time series of electric power system blackout sizes using scaled window variance analysis and R/S statistics. The data shows some evidence of long time correlations and has Hurst exponent near 0.7. Large blackouts tend to correlate with further large blackouts after a long time interval. Similar effects are also observed in many other complex systems exhibiting self-organized criticality. We discuss this initial evidence and possible explanations for self-organized criticality in power systems blackouts. Self-organized criticality, if fully confirmed in power systems, would suggest new approaches to understanding and possibly controlling blackouts.

  7. Commentary: Applications of functional neuroimaging to civil litigation of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The current definition of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is in flux. Presently, there are at least three working definitions of this disorder in the United States, with no clear consensus. Functional neuroimaging, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), initially showed promise in their ability to improve the diagnostic credibility of MTBI. Over the past decade, that promise has not been fulfilled and there is a paucity of quality studies or standards for the application of functional neuroimaging to traumatic brain injury, particularly in litigation. The legal profession is ahead of the science in this matter. The emergence of neurolaw is driving a growing use of functional neuroimaging, as a sole imaging modality, used by lawyers in an attempt to prove MTBI at trial. The medical literature on functional neuroimaging and its applications to MTBI is weak scientifically, sparse in quality publications, lacking in well-designed controlled studies, and currently does not meet the complete standards of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., for introduction of scientific evidence at trial. At the present time, there is a clear lack of clinical correlation between functional neuroimaging of MTBI and behavioral, neuropsychological, or structural neuroimaging deficits. The use of SPECT or PET, without concurrent clinical correlation with structural neuroimaging (CT or MRI), is not recommended to be offered as evidence of MTBI in litigation.

  8. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  9. Tinnitus: perspectives from human neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Langguth, Berthold; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of phantom sound in the absence of a corresponding external source. It is a highly prevalent disorder, and most cases are caused by cochlear injury that leads to peripheral deafferentation, which results in adaptive changes in the CNS. In this article we critically assess the recent neuroimaging studies in individuals with tinnitus that suggest that the disorder is accompanied by functional and structural brain abnormalities in distributed auditory and non-auditory brain regions. Moreover, we consider how the identification of the neuronal mechanisms underlying the different forms of tinnitus would benefit from larger studies, replication and comprehensive clinical assessment of patients.

  10. Neuroimaging Week: A Novel, Engaging, and Effective Curriculum for Teaching Neuroimaging to Junior Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downar, Jonathan; Krizova, Adriana; Ghaffar, Omar; Zaretsky, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuroimaging techniques are increasingly important in psychiatric research and clinical practice, but few postgraduate psychiatry programs offer formal training in neuroimaging. To address this need, the authors developed a course to prepare psychiatric residents to use neuroimaging techniques effectively in independent practice.…

  11. Direct Evidence for Daily Plasticity of Electrical Coupling between Rod Photoreceptors in the Mammalian Retina

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nan Ge

    2016-01-01

    Rod photoreceptors are electrically coupled through gap junctions. Coupling is a key determinant of their light response properties, but whether rod electrical coupling is dynamically regulated remains elusive and controversial. Here, we have obtained direct measurements of the conductance between adjacent rods in mouse retina and present evidence that rod electrical coupling strength is dependent on the time of day, the lighting conditions, and the mouse strain. Specifically, we show in CBA/Ca mice that under circadian conditions, the rod junctional conductance has a median value of 98 pS during the subjective day and of 493 pS during the subjective night. In C57BL/6 mice, the median junctional conductance between dark-adapted rods is ∼140 pS, regardless of the time in the circadian cycle. Adaptation to bright light decreases the rod junctional conductance to ∼0 pS, regardless of the time of day or the mouse strain. Together, these results establish the high degree of plasticity of rod electrical coupling over the course of the day. Estimates of the rod coupling strength will provide a foundation for further investigations of rod interactions and the role of rod coupling in the ability of the visual system to anticipate, assimilate, and respond to the daily changes in ambient light intensity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many cells in the CNS communicate via gap junctions, or electrical synapses, the regulation of which remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the strength of electrical coupling between rod photoreceptors of the retina is regulated by the time of day and the lighting conditions. This mechanism may help us understand some key aspects of day and night vision as well as some visual malfunctions. PMID:26740659

  12. Neuroimaging of Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Alfonso; Herman, Talia; Tessitore, Alessandro; Strafella, Antonio P.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional brain imaging techniques appear ideally suited to explore the pathophysiology of freezing of gait (FOG). In the last two decades, techniques based on magnetic resonance or nuclear medicine imaging have found a number of structural changes and functional disconnections between subcortical and cortical regions of the locomotor network in patients with FOG. FOG seems to be related in part to disruptions in the “executive-attention” network along with regional tissue loss including the premotor area, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the parietal and occipital areas involved in visuospatial functions of the right hemisphere. Several subcortical structures have been also involved in the etiology of FOG, principally the caudate nucleus and the locomotor centers in the brainstem. Maladaptive neural compensation may present transiently in the presence of acute conflicting motor, cognitive or emotional stimulus processing, thus causing acute network overload and resulting in episodic impairment of stepping. In this review we will summarize the state of the art of neuroimaging research for FOG. We will also discuss the limitations of current approaches and delineate the next steps of neuroimaging research to unravel the pathophysiology of this mysterious motor phenomenon. PMID:25757831

  13. What's new in neuroimaging methods?

    PubMed Central

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid advancement of neuroimaging methodology and availability has transformed neuroscience research. The answers to many questions that we ask about how the brain is organized depend on the quality of data that we are able to obtain about the locations, dynamics, fluctuations, magnitudes, and types of brain activity and structural changes. In this review, an attempt is made to take a snapshot of the cutting edge of a small component of the very rapidly evolving field of neuroimaging. For each area covered, a brief context is provided along with a summary of a few of the current developments and issues. Then, several outstanding papers, published in the past year or so, are described, providing an example of the directions in which each area is progressing. The areas covered include functional MRI (fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), optical imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET). More detail is included on fMRI, as subsections include: functional MRI interpretation, new functional MRI contrasts, MRI technology, MRI paradigms and processing, and endogenous oscillations in functional MRI. PMID:19338512

  14. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  15. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.

  16. Intergenerational Neuroimaging of Human Brain Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tiffany C; Sanders, Stephan J; Gotlib, Ian H; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-10-01

    Neuroscientists are increasingly using advanced neuroimaging methods to elucidate the intergenerational transmission of human brain circuitry. This new line of work promises to shed light on the ontogeny of complex behavioral traits, including psychiatric disorders, and possible mechanisms of transmission. Here we highlight recent intergenerational neuroimaging studies and provide recommendations for future work.

  17. Neuroimaging of Cognitive Load in Instructional Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on cognitive load measurement in learning and neuroimaging, and describes a mapping between the main elements of cognitive load theory and findings in functional neuroanatomy. It is argued that these findings may lead to the improved measurement of cognitive load using neuroimaging. The paper describes how…

  18. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  19. Evidence for the transmission of information through electric potentials in injured avocado trees.

    PubMed

    Oyarce, Patricio; Gurovich, Luis

    2011-01-15

    Electrical excitability and signaling, frequently associated with rapid responses to environmental stimuli, have been documented in both animals and higher plants. The presence of electrical potentials (EPs), such as action potentials (APs) and variation potentials (VPs), in plant cells suggests that plants make use of ion channels to transmit information over long distances. The reason why plants have developed pathways for electrical signal transmission is most probably the necessity to respond rapidly, for example, to environmental stress factors. We examined the nature and specific characteristics of the electrical response to wounding in the woody plant Persea americana (avocado). Under field conditions, wounds can be the result of insect activity, strong winds or handling injury during fruit harvest. Evidence for extracellular EP signaling in avocado trees after mechanical injury was expressed in the form of variation potentials. For tipping and pruning, signal velocities of 8.7 and 20.9 cm/s, respectively, were calculated, based on data measured with Ag/AgCl microelectrodes inserted at different positions of the trunk. EP signal intensity decreased with increasing distance between the tipping and pruning point and the electrode. Recovery time to pre-tipping or pre-pruning EP values was also affected by the distance and signal intensity from the tipping or pruning point to the specific electrode position. Real time detection of remote EP signaling can provide an efficient tool for the early detection of insect attacks, strong wind damage or handling injury during fruit harvest. Our results indicate that electrical signaling in avocado, resulting from microenvironment modifications, can be quantitatively related to the intensity and duration of the stimuli, as well as to the distance between the stimuli site and the location of EP detection. These results may be indicative of the existence of a specific kind of proto-nervous system in plants.

  20. Structural and electric evidence of ferrielectric state in Pb₂MnWO₆ double perovskite system.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Righi, Lara; Cabassi, Riccardo; Delmonte, Davide; Pernechele, Chiara; Bolzoni, Fulvio; Mezzadri, Francesco; Solzi, Massimo; Merlini, Marco; Calestani, Gianluca

    2014-10-06

    In this paper we describe the new ferri-electric compound Pb2MnWO6 (PMW), a double perovskite that can be considered as a novel structural prototype showing complex nuclear structure and interesting electric properties. According to single-crystal synchrotron data, PMW crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric polar group Pmc21, in which the two symmetry-independent lead atoms give rise to a ferrielectric arrangement. The accurate crystallographic characterization indicates the presence of a complex distortion of the perovskite lattice driven by the local instability induced by the 6s(2) lone pair of the lead atoms. These peculiar structural features are confirmed by the complete electrical characterization of the system. Dielectric and transport measurements indicate an insulating character of the sample, while pyroelectric measurements point out a ferrielectric state characterized by different contributions. The magnetic transition at 45 K is accompanied by a magnetostrictive effect indicating a probable spin-lattice coupling. The characterizations carried out on PMW, showing the evidence of a coexistence of antiferromagnetism and ferrielectricity at low temperature, could lead to the definition of a new class of multiferroic materials.

  1. Workflow-based approaches to neuroimaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Fissell, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain images requires a complex sequence of data processing steps to proceed from raw image data to the final statistical tests. Neuroimaging researchers have begun to apply workflow-based computing techniques to automate data analysis tasks. This chapter discusses eight major components of workflow management systems (WFMSs): the workflow description language, editor, task modules, data access, verification, client, engine, and provenance, and their implementation in the Fiswidgets neuroimaging workflow system. Neuroinformatics challenges involved in applying workflow techniques in the domain of neuroimaging are discussed.

  2. Integrating Genetic, Psychopharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies: A Converging Methods Approach to Understanding the Neurobiology of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how combining multiple approaches can inform us about the neurobiology of ADHD. Converging evidence from genetic, psychopharmacological and functional neuroimaging studies has implicated dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while the observation of converging evidence from multiple vantage points…

  3. Molecular Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Namgung, Eun; Choi, Yejee; Kim, Jung Yoon; Rhie, Sandy Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have provided insight into the neurobiological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PSTD). In particular, molecular neuroimaging techniques have been employed in examining metabolic and neurochemical processes in PTSD. This article reviews molecular neuroimaging studies in PTSD and focuses on findings using three imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although there were some inconsistences in the findings, patients with PTSD showed altered cerebral metabolism and perfusion, receptor bindings, and metabolite profiles in the limbic regions, medial prefrontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Studies that have investigated brain correlates of treatment response are also reviewed. Lastly, the limitations of the molecular neuroimaging studies and potential future research directions are discussed. PMID:28035179

  4. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders leading to dementia are common diseases that affect many older and some young adults. Neuroimaging methods are important tools for assessing and monitoring pathological brain changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, the authors describe key findings from neuroimaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging and radionucleotide imaging) in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and prodromal stages, familial and atypical AD syndromes, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia, Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and prion protein associated diseases (i.e., Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). The authors focus on neuroimaging findings of in vivo pathology in these disorders, as well as the potential for neuroimaging to provide useful information for differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24234359

  5. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aine, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain.

  6. Functional near-infrared neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Bunce, Scott; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Onaral, Banu; Pourrezaei, Kambiz

    2004-01-01

    Functional near-infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy is a wearable neuroimaging device that enables the continuous, non-invasive, and portable monitoring of changes in blood oxygen and blood volume related to human brain function. Over the last three years, studies in the laboratory and under field conditions have established the positive correlation between a participant's performance and oxygenation responses as a function of task load. Our findings indicate that fNIR can effectively monitor attention and working memory in real-life situations. These experimental outcomes compare favorably with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, and in particular, with the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. The capacity to monitor brain hemodynamics with a wearable device holds promise for the use of fNIR in the creation of a symbiotic relationship between the user and his/her everyday environment. Moreover, under operational conditions, the fNIR system is amenable to integration with other established physiological and neurobehavioral measures, including EEG, eye tracking, pupil reflex, heart rate variability, respiration and electrodermal activity.

  7. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments.

  8. Electrical Stimulation in Bone Healing: Critical Analysis by Evaluating Levels of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Direct current, capacitive coupling, and inductive coupling are modes of electrical stimulation (ES) used to enhance bone healing. It is important to assess the effectiveness of ES for bone healing to ensure optimization for clinical practice. This review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE) for the application of ES to enhance bone healing and investigate the proposed mechanism for its stimulatory effect. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted to identify clinical and in vitro studies utilizing ES for bone healing since 1959. A total of 105 clinical studies and 35 in vitro studies were evaluated. Clinical studies were assigned LOE according to Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (LOE-1, highest; LOE-5, lowest). Results: Direct current was found to be effective in enhancing bone healing in spinal fusion but only LOE-4 supported its use for nonunions. Eleven studies were retrieved for capacitive coupling with LOE-1 demonstrating its effectiveness for treating nonunions. The majority of studies utilized inductive coupling with LOE-1 supporting its application for healing osteotomies and nonunions. In vitro studies demonstrate that ES enhances bone healing by changes in growth factors and transmembrane signaling although no clear mechanism has been defined. Conclusion: Overall, the studies, although in favor of ES application in bone repair, displayed variability in treatment regime, primary outcome measures, follow-up times, and study design, making critical evaluation and assessment difficult. Electrical stimulation shows promise in enhancement of bone healing; however, better-designed clinical studies will enable the optimization for clinical practice. PMID:21847434

  9. Human neuroimaging as a "Big Data" science.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-06-01

    The maturation of in vivo neuroimaging has led to incredible quantities of digital information about the human brain. While much is made of the data deluge in science, neuroimaging represents the leading edge of this onslaught of "big data". A range of neuroimaging databasing approaches has streamlined the transmission, storage, and dissemination of data from such brain imaging studies. Yet few, if any, common solutions exist to support the science of neuroimaging. In this article, we discuss how modern neuroimaging research represents a multifactorial and broad ranging data challenge, involving the growing size of the data being acquired; sociological and logistical sharing issues; infrastructural challenges for multi-site, multi-datatype archiving; and the means by which to explore and mine these data. As neuroimaging advances further, e.g. aging, genetics, and age-related disease, new vision is needed to manage and process this information while marshalling of these resources into novel results. Thus, "big data" can become "big" brain science.

  10. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  11. Does social approval stimulate prosocial behavior? Evidence from a field experiment in the residential electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoeli, Erez

    At least since Veblen (1899), economists have proposed that people do good because they desire "social approval" and want to look good in front of others. Evidence from the laboratory supports this claim, but is difficult to generalize due to the unrealistic degree of scrutiny in a laboratory environment. I administer a field experiment to test the potency of social approval in a realistic and policy relevant setting. In the experiment I solicit 7893 customers of a large electric utility for a program that helps prevent blackouts. I vary whether their decision to participate in the program is revealed to their neighbors. Customers whose decision is revealed are 1.5% more likely to sign up than those whose decision is anonymous when their decision is framed as a contribution to a public good. Social approval increases participation more than offering subjects a $25 incentive, and its effect is large relative to the mean sign-up rate of 4.1%. I explore whether social approval contributes to crowding out and conditionally cooperative behavior, but the evidence is inconclusive.

  12. Structural Neuroimaging of the Medial Temporal Lobe in Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; de Celis Alonso, Benito; Salas-Pacheco, José; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe (MTA) is being used as a criterion to support a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are several structural neuroimaging approaches for quantifying MTA, including semiquantitative visual rating scales, volumetry (3D), planimetry (2D), and linear measures (1D). Current applications of structural neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease clinical trials (ADCTs) incorporate it as a tool for improving the selection of subjects for enrollment or for stratification, for tracking disease progression, or providing evidence of target engagement for new therapeutic agents. It may also be used as a surrogate marker, providing evidence of disease-modifying effects. However, despite the widespread use of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ADCTs, there are some important challenges and limitations, such as difficulties in the interpretation of results, limitations in translating results into clinical practice, and reproducibility issues, among others. Solutions to these issues may arise from other methodologies that are able to link the results of volumetric MRI from trials with conventional MRIs performed in routine clinical practice (linear or planimetric methods). Also of potential benefit are automated volumetry, using indices for comparing the relative rate of atrophy of different regions instead of absolute rates of atrophy, and combining structural neuroimaging with other biomarkers. In this review, authors present the existing structural neuroimaging approaches for MTA quantification. They then discuss solutions to the limitations of the different techniques as well as the current challenges of the field. Finally, they discuss how the current advances in AD neuroimaging can help AD diagnosis.

  13. Electrical Stimulation and Cutaneous Wound Healing: A Review of Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ud-Din, Sara; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to have beneficial effects in wound healing. It is important to assess the effects of ES on cutaneous wound healing in order to ensure optimization for clinical practice. Several different applications as well as modalities of ES have been described, including direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), high-voltage pulsed current (HVPC), low-intensity direct current (LIDC) and electrobiofeedback ES. However, no one method has been advocated as the most optimal for the treatment of cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, this review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE) for the application of different types of ES to enhance cutaneous wound healing in the skin. An extensive search was conducted to identify relevant clinical studies utilising ES for cutaneous wound healing since 1980 using PubMed, Medline and EMBASE. A total of 48 studies were evaluated and assigned LOE. All types of ES demonstrated positive effects on cutaneous wound healing in the majority of studies. However, the reported studies demonstrate contrasting differences in the parameters and types of ES application, leading to an inability to generate sufficient evidence to support any one standard therapeutic approach. Despite variations in the type of current, duration, and dosing of ES, the majority of studies showed a significant improvement in wound area reduction or accelerated wound healing compared to the standard of care or sham therapy as well as improved local perfusion. The limited number of LOE-1 trials for investigating the effects of ES in wound healing make critical evaluation and assessment somewhat difficult. Further, better-designed clinical trials are needed to improve our understanding of the optimal dosing, timing and type of ES to be used. PMID:27429287

  14. Multimodal neuroimaging computing: the workflows, methods, and platforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Fan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron

    The last two decades have witnessed the explosive growth in the development and use of noninvasive neuroimaging technologies that advance the research on human brain under normal and pathological conditions. Multimodal neuroimaging has become a major driver of current neuroimaging research due to the recognition of the clinical benefits of multimodal data, and the better access to hybrid devices. Multimodal neuroimaging computing is very challenging, and requires sophisticated computing to address the variations in spatiotemporal resolution and merge the biophysical/biochemical information. We review the current workflows and methods for multimodal neuroimaging computing, and also demonstrate how to conduct research using the established neuroimaging computing packages and platforms.

  15. Multimodal neuroimaging computing: the workflows, methods, and platforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Fan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron

    2015-09-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the explosive growth in the development and use of noninvasive neuroimaging technologies that advance the research on human brain under normal and pathological conditions. Multimodal neuroimaging has become a major driver of current neuroimaging research due to the recognition of the clinical benefits of multimodal data, and the better access to hybrid devices. Multimodal neuroimaging computing is very challenging, and requires sophisticated computing to address the variations in spatiotemporal resolution and merge the biophysical/biochemical information. We review the current workflows and methods for multimodal neuroimaging computing, and also demonstrate how to conduct research using the established neuroimaging computing packages and platforms.

  16. Neuroimaging Coordination Dynamics in the Sport Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Kelly J.; Oullier, Olivier; Kelso, J.A. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Key methodological issues for designing, analyzing, and interpreting neuroimaging experiments are presented from the perspective of the framework of Coordination Dynamics. To this end, a brief overview of Coordination Dynamics is introduced, including the main concepts of control parameters and collective variables, theoretical modeling, novel experimental paradigms, and cardinal empirical findings. Basic conceptual and methodological issues for the design and implementation of coordination experiments in the context of neuroimaging are discussed. The paper concludes with a presentation of neuroimaging findings central to understanding the neural basis of coordination and addresses their relevance for the sport sciences. The latter include but are not restricted to learning and practice-related issues, the role of mental imagery, and the recovery of function following brain injury. PMID:18602998

  17. Molecular neuroimaging of emotional decision-making.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-04-01

    With the dissemination of non-invasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions and social cognition have become established. Along with this advancement, behavioral economics taking emotional and social factors into account for economic decisions has been merged with neuroscientific studies, and this interdisciplinary approach is called neuroeconomics. Past neuroeconomics studies have demonstrated that subcortical emotion-related brain structures play an important role in "irrational" decision-making. The research field that investigates the role of central neurotransmitters in this process is worthy of further development. Here, we provide an overview of recent molecular neuroimaging studies to further the understanding of the neurochemical basis of "irrational" or emotional decision-making and the future direction, including clinical implications, of the field.

  18. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and central nervous system (CNS) disorganization, with specific structural abnormalities of the corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate, and hippocampus. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have allowed detection of regional increases in cortical thickness and gray matter volume along with decreased volume and disorganization of white matter in individuals with FASD. In addition, functional imaging studies have found functional and neurochemical differences in those prenatally exposed to alcohol. Behavioral alterations noted in individuals with FASD are consistent with the findings noted in the brain imaging studies. Continued neuroimaging studies are needed to further advance understanding of the neuroteratogenic effects of alcohol. PMID:19731391

  19. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  20. Neuroimaging and Recovery of Language in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart

    2010-01-01

    The use of functional neuroimaging techniques has advanced what is known about the neural mechanisms used to support language processing in aphasia resulting from brain damage. This paper highlights recent findings derived from neuroimaging studies focused on neuroplasticity of language networks, the role of the left and right hemispheres in this process, and studies examining how treatment affects the neurobiology of recovery. We point out variability across studies as well as factors related to this variability, and we emphasize challenges that remain for research. PMID:18957184

  1. Model-based neuroimaging for cognitive computing.

    PubMed

    Poznanski, Roman R

    2009-09-01

    The continuity of the mind is suggested to mean the continuous spatiotemporal dynamics arising from the electrochemical signature of the neocortex: (i) globally through volume transmission in the gray matter as fields of neural activity, and (ii) locally through extrasynaptic signaling between fine distal dendrites of cortical neurons. If the continuity of dynamical systems across spatiotemporal scales defines a stream of consciousness then intentional metarepresentations as templates of dynamic continuity allow qualia to be semantically mapped during neuroimaging of specific cognitive tasks. When interfaced with a computer, such model-based neuroimaging requiring new mathematics of the brain will begin to decipher higher cognitive operations not possible with existing brain-machine interfaces.

  2. Heritability and Genetic Association Analysis of Neuroimaging Measures in the Diabetes Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Raffield, Laura M; Cox, Amanda J; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Freedman, Barry I; Langefeld, Carl D; Williamson, Jeff D; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Maldjian, Joseph A; Bowden, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroimaging measures such as white matter lesion volume, brain volume, and fractional anisotropy may reflect the pathogenesis of these cognitive declines, and genetic factors may contribute to variability in these measures. This study examined multiple neuroimaging measures in 465 participants from 238 families with extensive genotype data in the type 2 diabetes enriched Diabetes Heart Study-Mind cohort. Heritability of these phenotypes and their association with candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNP data from genome-and exome-wide arrays was explored. All neuroimaging measures analysed were significantly heritable (ĥ2 =0.55–0.99 in unadjusted models). Seventeen candidate SNPs (from 16 genes/regions) associated with neuroimaging phenotypes in prior studies showed no significant evidence of association. A missense variant (rs150706952, A432V) in PLEKHG4B from the exome-wide array was significantly associated with white matter mean diffusivity (p=3.66×10−7) and gray matter mean diffusivity (p=2.14×10−7). This analysis suggests genetic factors contribute to variation in neuroimaging measures in a population enriched for metabolic disease and other associated comorbidities. PMID:25523635

  3. [Functional neuroimaging in the diagnosis of patients with Parkinsonism: Update and recommendations for clinical use].

    PubMed

    Arbizu, J; Luquin, M R; Abella, J; de la Fuente-Fernández, R; Fernandez-Torrón, R; García-Solís, D; Garrastachu, P; Jiménez-Hoyuela, J M; Llaneza, M; Lomeña, F; Lorenzo-Bosquet, C; Martí, M J; Martinez-Castrillo, J C; Mir, P; Mitjavila, M; Ruiz-Martínez, J; Vela, L

    2014-01-01

    Functional Neuroimaging has been traditionally used in research for patients with different Parkinsonian syndromes. However, the emergence of commercial radiotracers together with the availability of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and, more recently, positron emission tomography (PET) have made them available for clinical practice. Particularly, the development of clinical evidence achieved by functional neuroimaging techniques over the past two decades have motivated a progressive inclusion of several biomarkers in the clinical diagnostic criteria for neurodegenerative diseases that occur with Parkinsonism. However, the wide range of radiotracers designed to assess the involvement of different pathways in the neurodegenerative process underlying Parkinsonian syndromes (dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway integrity, basal ganglia and cortical neuronal activity, myocardial sympathetic innervation), and the different neuroimaging techniques currently available (scintigraphy, SPECT and PET), have generated some controversy concerning the best neuroimaging test that should be indicated for the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. In this article, a panel of nuclear medicine and neurology experts has evaluated the functional neuroimaging techniques emphazising practical considerations related to the diagnosis of patients with uncertain origin parkinsonism and the assessment Parkinson's disease progression.

  4. Evidence that dirty electricity is causing the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Milham, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The epidemics of obesity and diabetes most apparent in recent years had their origins with Thomas Edison's development of distributed electricity in New York City in 1882. His original direct current (DC) generators suffered serious commutator brush arcing which is a major source of high-frequency voltage transients (dirty electricity). From the onset of the electrical grid, electrified populations have been exposed to dirty electricity. Diesel generator sets are a major source of dirty electricity today and are used almost universally to electrify small islands and places unreachable by the conventional electric grid. This accounts for the fact that diabetes prevalence, fasting plasma glucose and obesity are highest on small islands and other places electrified by generator sets and lowest in places with low levels of electrification like sub-Saharan Africa and east and Southeast Asia.

  5. Functional neuroimaging: technical, logical, and social perspectives.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Geoffrey K

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists have long sought to study the dynamic activity of the human brain-what's happening in the brain, that is, while people are thinking, feeling, and acting. Ideally, an inside look at brain function would simultaneously and continuously measure the biochemical state of every cell in the central nervous system. While such a miraculous method is science fiction, a century of progress in neuroimaging technologies has made such simultaneous and continuous measurement a plausible fiction. Despite this progress, practitioners of modern neuroimaging struggle with two kinds of limitations: those that attend the particular neuroimaging methods we have today and those that would limit any method of imaging neural activity, no matter how powerful. In this essay, I consider the liabilities and potential of techniques that measure human brain activity. I am concerned here only with methods that measure relevant physiologic states of the central nervous system and relate those measures to particular mental states. I will consider in particular the preeminent method of functional neuroimaging: BOLD fMRI. While there are several practical limits on the biological information that current technologies can measure, these limits-as important as they are-are minor in comparison to the fundamental logical restraints on the conclusions that can be drawn from brain imaging studies.

  6. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  7. The open-source neuroimaging research enterprise.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Daniel S; Archie, Kevin A; Olsen, Timothy R; Ramaratnam, Mohana

    2007-11-01

    While brain imaging in the clinical setting is largely a practice of looking at images, research neuroimaging is a quantitative and integrative enterprise. Images are run through complex batteries of processing and analysis routines to generate numeric measures of brain characteristics. Other measures potentially related to brain function - demographics, genetics, behavioral tests, neuropsychological tests - are key components of most research studies. The canonical scanner - PACS - viewing station axis used in clinical practice is therefore inadequate for supporting neuroimaging research. Here, we model the neuroimaging research enterprise as a workflow. The principal components of the workflow include data acquisition, data archiving, data processing and analysis, and data utilization. We also describe a set of open-source applications to support each step of the workflow and the transitions between these steps. These applications include DIGITAL IMAGING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN MEDICINE viewing and storage tools, the EXTENSIBLE NEUROIMAGING ARCHIVE TOOLKIT data archiving and exploration platform, and an engine for running processing/analysis pipelines. The overall picture presented is aimed to motivate open-source developers to identify key integration and communication points for interoperating with complimentary applications.

  8. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology.

  9. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Juan Carlos Sanz; Barrios, Maite; Junqué, Carme

    2005-08-01

    Functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological performance indicate a prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia patients. Frontal morphological brain abnormalities are also evident in these patients, but the relationship between neuropsychology and neuroimaging findings remains unclear. In this study, thirty patients with schizophrenia and 30 control participants were assessed using a neuropsychological test battery sensitive to fronto-striatal system dysfunction. Computed tomography (CT) scans were used to calculate the distance from the corpus callosum to the frontal pole corrected for brain size (anterioposterior length) in the group of patients and in a group of control participants with negative radiological findings. Schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse than controls in all frontal lobe tests. Corrected length from the corpus callosum to the frontal pole was reduced in patients with schizophrenia. This easy-to-perform measurement has not been used in previous studies, and indicates that schizophrenia patients have structural frontal abnormalities. However, correlations between structural and functional measures fail to show a clear relationship between the prefrontal performance and the main CT measures. As a rule, the trend observed in the correlation matrix pointed towards a relationship between CT parameters and a dysfunction on neuropsychological tests sensitive to frontal lobe damage.

  10. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  11. The Cerebellum and Addiction: Insights Gained from Neuroimaging Research

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric A; Elman, Igor; Becerra, Lino R; Goldstein, Rita Z; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    Although cerebellar alterations have been consistently noted in the addiction literature, the pathophysiology of this link remains unclear. The cerebellum is commonly classified as a motor structure, but human functional neuroimaging along with clinical observations in cerebellar stroke patients and anatomical tract tracing in non-human primates suggest its involvement in cognitive and affective processing. A comprehensive literature search on the role of the cerebellum in addiction was performed. This review article (1) considers the potential role of the cerebellum in addiction, (2) summarizes the cerebellar structural alterations linked to addiction, (3) presents the functional neuroimaging evidence linking the cerebellum with addiction, and (4) proposes a model for addiction that underscores the role of the cerebellum. The data implicate the cerebellum as an intermediary between motor and reward, motivation and cognitive control systems, as all are relevant etiologic factors in addiction. Furthermore, consideration of these findings could contribute to deeper and more sophisticated insights into normal reward and motivational function. The goal of this review is to spread awareness of cerebellar involvement in addictive processes, and to suggest a preliminary model for its potential role. PMID:24851284

  12. Neuronal oscillations in sleep: insights from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2012-09-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies have investigated brain activity patterns during sleep in humans, beyond the conventionally defined sleep stages. These works have characterized the neural activations related to the major brain oscillations of sleep, that is, spindles and slow waves during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and ponto-geniculo-occipital waves during rapid-eye-movement sleep. These phasic events have been found associated with increases of brain activity in specific neural networks, which identify structures involved in the generation of sleep oscillations. Most importantly, these results confirm that, even during the deepest stages of sleep, neuronal network activities are sustained and organized by spontaneous brain oscillations of sleep. The understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying sleep oscillations is fundamental since increasing evidence suggests a pivotal role for these rhythms in the functional properties of sleep. In particular, interactions between the sleeping brain and the surrounding environment are closely modulated by neuronal oscillations of sleep. Functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that spindles distort the transmission of auditory information to the cortex, therefore isolating the brain from external disturbances during sleep. In contrast, slow waves evoked by acoustic stimulation--and also termed K-complexes--are associated with larger auditory cortex activation, thus reflecting an enhanced processing of external information during sleep. Future brain imaging studies of sleep should further explore the contribution of neuronal oscillations to the off-line consolidation of memory during sleep.

  13. Cultured Construction: Global Evidence of the Impact of National Values on Renewable Electricity Infrastructure Choice.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2016-02-16

    Renewable electricity is an important tool in the fight against climate change, but globally these technologies are still in the early stages of diffusion. To contribute to our understanding of the factors driving this diffusion, I study relationships between national values (measured by Hofstede's cultural dimensions) and renewable electricity adoption at the national level. Existing data for 66 nations (representing an equal number of developed and developing economies) are used to fuel the analysis. Somewhat dependent on limited available data on controls for grid reliability and the cost of electricity, I discover that three of Hofstede's dimensions (high uncertainty avoidance, low masculinity-femininity, and high individualism-collectivism) have significant exponential relationships with renewable electricity adoption. The dimension of uncertainty avoidance appears particularly appropriate for practical application. Projects or organizations implementing renewable electricity policy, designs, or construction should particularly attend to this cultural dimension. In particular, as the data imply that renewable technologies are being used to manage risk in electricity supply, geographies with unreliable grids are particularly likely to be open to renewable electricity technologies.

  14. Transcranial electrical stimulation during sleep enhances declarative (but not procedural) memory consolidation: Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barham, Michael P; Enticott, Peter G; Conduit, Russell; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2016-04-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes research examining whether transcranial electrical stimulation (transcranial direct current stimulation with oscillating and constant currents; transcranial alternating current stimulation), administered during sleep, can modulate declarative and procedural memory consolidation. Included in the meta-analysis were 13 experiments that represented data from 179 participants. Study findings were summarized using standardized mean difference (SMD) which is an effect size that summarizes differences in standard deviation units. Results showed electrical stimulation during sleep could enhance (SMD=0.447; p=.003) or disrupt (SMD=-0.476, p=.030) declarative memory consolidation. However, transcranial electric stimulation does not appear to be able to enhance (SMD=0.154, p=.279) or disrupt (SMD=0.076, p=.675) procedural memory consolidation. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence that TES is able to modulate some consolidation processes. Additional research is required to determine the mechanisms by which transcranial electrical stimulation is able to influence declarative memory consolidation. Finally, it is yet to be determined whether transcranial electrical stimulation can modulate procedural memory consolidation.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR MICROBIAL ENHANCED ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical conductivity of sediments during microbial mineralization of diesel was investigated in a mesoscale column experiment consisting of biotic contaminated and uncontaminated columns. Microbial population numbers increased with a clear pattern of depth zonation within the ...

  16. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Plis, Sergey M; Hjelm, Devon R; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Allen, Elena A; Bockholt, Henry J; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges) in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  17. Human auditory neuroimaging of intensity and loudness.

    PubMed

    Uppenkamp, Stefan; Röhl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The physical intensity of a sound, usually expressed in dB on a logarithmic ratio scale, can easily be measured using technical equipment. Loudness is the perceptual correlate of sound intensity, and is usually determined by means of some sort of psychophysical scaling procedure. The interrelation of sound intensity and perceived loudness is still a matter of debate, and the physiological correlate of loudness perception in the human auditory pathway is not completely understood. Various studies indicate that the activation in human auditory cortex is more a representation of loudness sensation rather than of physical sound pressure level. This raises the questions (1), at what stage or stages in the ascending auditory pathway is the transformation of the physical stimulus into its perceptual correlate completed, and (2), to what extent other factors affecting individual loudness judgements might modulate the brain activation as registered by auditory neuroimaging. An overview is given about recent studies on the effects of sound intensity, duration, bandwidth and individual hearing status on the activation in the human auditory system, as measured by various approaches in auditory neuroimaging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  18. Advanced Neuroimaging in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Wu, Ona

    2013-01-01

    Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging have occurred at a rapid pace over the past two decades. Novel techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow, metabolism, white matter connectivity, and neural network activation have great potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), while also providing biomarkers to guide the development of new therapies. Several of these advanced imaging modalities are currently being implemented into clinical practice, whereas others require further development and validation. Ultimately, for advanced neuroimaging techniques to reach their full potential and improve clinical care for the many civilians and military personnel affected by TBI, it is critical for clinicians to understand the applications and methodological limitations of each technique. In this review, we examine recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging and the potential applications of these techniques to the clinical care of patients with TBI. We also discuss pitfalls and confounders that should be considered when interpreting data from each technique. Finally, given the vast amounts of advanced imaging data that will soon be available to clinicians, we discuss strategies for optimizing data integration, visualization and interpretation. PMID:23361483

  19. Insights from the application of computational neuroimaging to social neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Simon; O'Doherty, John P

    2013-06-01

    A recent approach in social neuroscience has been the application of formal computational models for a particular social-cognitive process to neuroimaging data. Here we review preliminary findings from this nascent subfield, focusing on observational learning and strategic interactions. We present evidence consistent with the existence of three distinct learning systems that may contribute to social cognition: an observational-reward-learning system involved in updating expectations of future reward based on observing rewards obtained by others, an action-observational learning system involved in learning about the action tendencies of others, and a third system engaged when it is necessary to learn about the hidden mental-states or traits of another. These three systems appear to map onto distinct neuroanatomical substrates, and depend on unique computational signals.

  20. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  1. Language context modulates reading route: an electrical neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Buetler, Karin A.; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The orthographic depth hypothesis (Katz and Feldman, 1983) posits that different reading routes are engaged depending on the type of grapheme/phoneme correspondence of the language being read. Shallow orthographies with consistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor encoding via non-lexical pathways, where each grapheme is sequentially mapped to its corresponding phoneme. In contrast, deep orthographies with inconsistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor lexical pathways, where phonemes are retrieved from specialized memory structures. This hypothesis, however, lacks compelling empirical support. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of orthographic depth on reading route selection using a within-subject design. Method: We presented the same pseudowords (PWs) to highly proficient bilinguals and manipulated the orthographic depth of PW reading by embedding them among two separated German or French language contexts, implicating respectively, shallow or deep orthography. High density electroencephalography was recorded during the task. Results: The topography of the ERPs to identical PWs differed 300–360 ms post-stimulus onset when the PWs were read in different orthographic depth context, indicating distinct brain networks engaged in reading during this time window. The brain sources underlying these topographic effects were located within left inferior frontal (German > French), parietal (French > German) and cingular areas (German > French). Conclusion: Reading in a shallow context favors non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of frontal phonological areas in the shallow versus the deep orthographic context. In contrast, reading PW in a deep orthographic context recruits less routine non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of visuo-attentional parietal areas in the deep versus shallow orthographic context. These collective results support a modulation of reading route by orthographic depth. PMID:24600377

  2. Direct Imaging of the Onset of Electrical Conduction in Silver Nanowire Networks by Infrared Thermography: Evidence of Geometrical Quantized Percolation.

    PubMed

    Sannicolo, Thomas; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Moreau, Stéphane; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Bréchet, Yves; Bellet, Daniel

    2016-11-09

    Advancement in the science and technology of random metallic nanowire (MNW) networks is crucial for their appropriate integration in many applications including transparent electrodes for optoelectronics and transparent film heaters. We have recently highlighted the discontinuous activation of efficient percolating pathways (EPPs) for networks having densities slightly above the percolation threshold. Such networks exhibit abrupt drops of electrical resistance when thermal or electrical annealing is performed, which gives rise to a "geometrically quantized percolation". In this Letter, lock-in thermography (LiT) is used to provide visual evidence of geometrical quantized percolation: when low voltage is applied to the network, individual "illuminated pathways" can be detected, and new branches get highlighted as the voltage is incrementally increased. This experimental approach has allowed us to validate our original model and map the electrical and thermal distributions in silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. We also study the effects of electrode morphology and wire dimensions on quantized percolation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the network failure at high temperature can also be governed by a quantized increase of the electrical resistance, which corresponds to the discontinuous destruction of individual pathways (antipercolation). More generally, we demonstrate that LiT is a promising tool for the detection of conductive subclusters as well as hot spots in AgNW networks.

  3. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  4. Experimental evidence of tunable space-charge-layer-induced electrical properties of nanocrystalline ceria thin films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Ryul; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Han-Ill

    2013-10-07

    Fully dense nanocrystalline ceria films were successfully deposited on a MgO single crystal by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The electrical conductivity of the nanocrystalline thin film was 20 times higher than that of the bulk sample. The activation energy of bulk ceria was 2.3 eV, whereas the activation energy of the nanocrystalline sample was only 1.2 eV. After post-annealing at 1273 K in which the grain size of the nanocrystalline thin film increased to ~400 nm, the electrical conductivity and activation energy of the film were changed similar to those of bulk. These unique electrical properties of the nano-crystalline thin-film can be attributed to the grain size effect, or more specifically, to the space charge layer (SCL) effect. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of the nanocrystalline thin film became similar to that of the bulk in an extremely reducing atmosphere because of the unusual dependence of the SCL effect on the oxygen partial pressure.

  5. Neuroimaging of Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Key Insights from the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes are characterized by distressing symptoms, such as pain and fatigue, in the absence of clinically obvious pathology. The scientific underpinnings of these disorders are not currently known. Modern neuroimaging techniques promise new insights into mechanisms mediating these postulated syndromes. We review the results of neuroimaging applied to five central sensitivity syndromes: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular joint disorder, and vulvodynia syndrome. Neuroimaging studies of basal metabolism, anatomic constitution, molecular constituents, evoked neural activity, and treatment effect are compared across all of these syndromes. Evoked sensory paradigms reveal sensory augmentation to both painful and non-painful stimulation. This is a transformative observation for these syndromes, which were historically considered to be completely of hysterical or feigned in origin. However, whether sensory augmentation represents the cause of these syndromes, a predisposing factor, an endophenotype, or an epiphenomenon cannot be discerned from the current literature. Further, the result from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies of basal activity, anatomy, and molecular constituency are extremely heterogeneous within and between the syndromes. A defining neuroimaging “signature” cannot be discerned for any of the particular syndromes or for an over-arching central sensitization mechanism common to all of the syndromes. Several issues confound initial attempts to meaningfully measure treatment effects in these syndromes. At this time, the existence of “central sensitivity syndromes” is based more soundly on clinical and epidemiological evidence. A coherent picture of a “central sensitization” mechanism that bridges across all of these syndromes does not emerge from the existing scientific evidence. PMID:26717948

  6. Neuroimaging procedures and related acquisitions in bipolar disorder: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Dobrea, Cristina; Palazzo, Maria Carlotta; Cremaschi, Laura; Penzo, Beatrice; Benatti, Beatrice; Camuri, Giulia; Arici, Chiara; Suppes, Trisha; Altamura, A Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and disabling mood disorder, with significant suicide rates among psychiatric disorders. Although the pathophysiological bases of BD have not been fully elucidated yet, over the last two decades, neuroimaging research has documented specific neuroanatomic and functional abnormalities in bipolar patients. The present review was aimed to provide an updated and comprehensive overview about currently available evidence on main structural and functional alterations documented in BD by neuroimaging procedures, through a Medline research. Among the structural alterations, the most consistent ones seem to be at the level of frontal, temporal and insular cortices, amygdala and basal ganglia, having been ventriculomegaly reported as well. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings showed, in turn, biochemical alterations in several neurotransmitter systems. Functional neuroimaging data are quite heterogeneous with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography studies showing phase-specific abnormalities of blood flow and glucose metabolism, as well as modifications of serotonin transporter density and binding. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data documented impaired neural networks involved in emotional regulation, including anterior limbic, ventral and dorsal prefrontal regions. Taken as a whole, neuroimaging data are strongly advancing the understanding of the neural bases of BD as described in the present review.

  7. Bridging the gap between neuroimaging and neuropsychology: using working memory as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Fiez, J A

    2001-02-01

    Neuropsychology and neuroimaging both provide information about the relationship between brain structure and function, and thus attempt to understand if the neural basis of cognition should benefit from converging results obtained across the two methods. However, serious attempts to integrate the two methodologies face several challenges, such as differences in basic paradigm designs. To illustrate these points, this article will review neuropsychological and neuroimaging research in the area of working memory. Points of discussion will include discrepancies between neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence for domain-specific rehearsal systems, the role of left inferior parietal cortex in phonological storage, and the contributions of Brocas area and the cerebellum to articulatory rehearsal. Methodological factors and assumptions that may account for these discrepancies, and the steps that could be taken to overcome them, will be evaluated. The overall objective of this "case study" is to encourage neuroimagers and neuropsychologists to evaluate seriously the results obtained in both methodologies when formulating interpretations of their data and when designing new studies.

  8. Evidence for involvement of an electron shuttle in electricity generation by Geothrix fermentans.

    PubMed

    Bond, Daniel R; Lovley, Derek R

    2005-04-01

    In experiments performed using graphite electrodes poised by a potentiostat (+200 mV versus Ag/AgCl) or in a microbial fuel cell (with oxygen as the electron acceptor), the Fe(III)-reducing organism Geothrix fermentans conserved energy to support growth by coupling the complete oxidation of acetate to reduction of a graphite electrode. Other organic compounds, such as lactate, malate, propionate, and succinate as well as components of peptone and yeast extract, were utilized for electricity production. However, electrical characteristics and the results of shuttling assays indicated that unlike previously described electrode-reducing microorganisms, G. fermentans produced a compound that promoted electrode reduction. This is the first report of complete oxidation of organic compounds linked to electrode reduction by an isolate outside of the Proteobacteria.

  9. Neuroimaging Evidence of Cerebellar Involvement in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rapkin, Andrea J.; Berman, Steven M.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Morgan, Melinda; London, Edythe D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a debilitating cyclic disorder that is characterized by affective symptoms, including irritability, depression, and anxiety which arise in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and resolve soon after the onset of menses. Despite a prevalence of up to 8% in women of reproductive age, few studies have investigated the brain mechanisms that underlie this disorder. Methods We used positron emission tomography with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose and self-report questionnaires to assess cerebral glucose metabolism and mood in 12 women with PMDD and 12 healthy comparison subjects in the follicular and late luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The primary biological endpoint was incorporated regional cerebral radioactivity (scaled to the global mean) as an index of glucose metabolism. Relationships between regional brain activity and mood ratings were assessed. Blood samples were taken before each session for assay of plasma estradiol and progesterone concentrations. Results There were no group differences in hormone levels in either the follicular or late luteal phase, but the groups differed in the effect of menstrual phase on cerebellar activity. Women with PMDD, but not comparison subjects, showed an increase in cerebellar activity (particularly in the right cerebellar vermis) from the follicular phase to the late luteal phase (p = 0.003). In the PMDD group, this increase in cerebellar activity was correlated with worsening of mood (p = 0.018). Conclusions These findings suggest that the midline cerebellar nuclei, which have been implicated in other mood disorders, also contribute to negative mood in PMDD. PMID:21092938

  10. Medical-Legal Inferences From Functional Neuroimaging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Mayberg

    1996-07-01

    Positron emission (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) are validated functional imaging techniques for the in vivo measurement of many neuro-phsyiological and neurochemical parameters. Research studies of patients with a broad range of neurological and psychiatric illness have been published. Reproducible and specific patterns of altered cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism, however, have been demonstrated and confirmed for only a limited number of specific illnesses. The association of functional scan patterns with specific deficits is less conclusive. Correlations of regional abnormalities with clinical symptoms such as motor weakness, aphasia, and visual spatial dysfunction are the most reproducible but are more poorly localized than lesion-deficit studies would suggest. Findings are even less consistent for nonlocalizing behavioral symptoms such as memory difficulties, poor concentration, irritability, or chronic pain, and no reliable patterns have been demonstrated. In a forensic context, homicidal and sadistic tendencies, aberrant sexual drive, violent impulsivity, psychopathic and sociopathic personality traits, as well as impaired judgement and poor insight, have no known PET or SPECT patterns, and their presence in an individual with any PET or SPECT scan finding cannot be inferred or concluded. Furthermore, the reliable prediction of any specific neurological, psychiatric, or behavioral deficits from specific scan findings has not been demonstrated. Unambiguous results from experiments designed to specifically examine the causative relationships between regional brain dysfunction and these types of complex behaviors are needed before any introduction of functional scans into the courts can be considered scientifically justified or legally admissible.

  11. LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

  12. Applications of Optical Neuroimaging in Usability Research

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Audrey P.; Bohil, Corey J.

    2016-01-01

    FEATURE AT A GLANCE In this article we review recent and potential applications of optical neuroimaging to human factors and usability research. We focus specifically on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) because of its cost-effectiveness and ease of implementation. Researchers have used fNIRS to assess a range of psychological phenomena relevant to human factors, such as cognitive workload, attention, motor activity, and more. It offers the opportunity to measure hemodynamic correlates of mental activity during task completion in human factors and usability studies. We also consider some limitations and future research directions. PMID:28286404

  13. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories.

    PubMed

    Neu, Scott C; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead.

  14. The Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit: an informatics platform for managing, exploring, and sharing neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Daniel S; Olsen, Timothy R; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Buckner, Randy L

    2007-01-01

    The Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT) is a software platform designed to facilitate common management and productivity tasks for neuroimaging and associated data. In particular, XNAT enables qualitycontrol procedures and provides secure access to and storage of data. XNAT follows a threetiered architecture that includes a data archive, user interface, and middleware engine. Data can be entered into the archive as XML or through data entry forms. Newly added data are stored in a virtual quarantine until an authorized user has validated it. XNAT subsequently maintains a history profile to track all changes made to the managed data. User access to the archive is provided by a secure web application. The web application provides a number of quality control and productivity features, including data entry forms, data-type-specific searches, searches that combine across data types, detailed reports, and listings of experimental data, upload/download tools, access to standard laboratory workflows, and administration and security tools. XNAT also includes an online image viewer that supports a number of common neuroimaging formats, including DICOM and Analyze. The viewer can be extended to support additional formats and to generate custom displays. By managing data with XNAT, laboratories are prepared to better maintain the long-term integrity of their data, to explore emergent relations across data types, and to share their data with the broader neuroimaging community.

  15. Biophysical mechanisms: a component in the weight of evidence for health effects of power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Swanson, John; Kheifets, Leeka

    2006-04-01

    Comparatively high exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields produce established biological effects that are explained by accepted mechanisms and that form the basis of exposure guidelines. Lower exposures to magnetic fields (< 1 microT average in the home) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" on the basis of epidemiological studies of childhood leukemia. This classification takes into consideration largely negative laboratory data. Lack of biophysical mechanisms operating at such low levels also argues against causality. We survey around 20 biophysical mechanisms that have been proposed to explain effects at such low levels, with particular emphasis on plausibility: the principle that to produce biological effects, a mechanism must produce a "signal" larger than the "noise" that exists naturally. Some of the mechanisms are impossible, and some require specific conditions for which there is limited or no evidence as to their existence in a way that would make them relevant to human exposure. Others are predicted to become plausible above some level of field. We conclude that effects below 5 microT are implausible. At about 50 microT, no specific mechanism has been identified, but the basic problem of implausibility is removed. Above about 500 microT, there are established or likely effects from accepted mechanisms. The absence of a plausible biophysical mechanism at lower fields cannot be taken as proof that health effects of environmental electric and magnetic fields are impossible. Nevertheless, it is a relevant consideration in assessing the overall evidence on these fields.

  16. “Can It Read My Mind?” – What Do the Public and Experts Think of the Current (Mis)Uses of Neuroimaging?

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, Joanna M.; O'Connell, Garret; Shuler, Kirsten; DeWilde, Janet; Haley, Jane; Escobar, Oliver; Murray, Shaun; Rae, Robert; Jarvie, Donald; Sandercock, Peter; Schafer, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Emerging applications of neuroimaging outside medicine and science have received intense public exposure through the media. Media misrepresentations can create a gulf between public and scientific understanding of the capabilities of neuroimaging and raise false expectations. To determine the extent of this effect and determine public opinions on acceptable uses and the need for regulation, we designed an electronic survey to obtain anonymous opinions from as wide a range of members of the public and neuroimaging experts as possible. The surveys ran from 1st June to 30 September 2010, asked 10 and 21 questions, respectively, about uses of neuroimaging outside traditional medical diagnosis, data storage, science communication and potential methods of regulation. We analysed the responses using descriptive statistics; 660 individuals responded to the public and 303 individuals responded to the expert survey. We found evidence of public skepticism about the use of neuroimaging for applications such as lie detection or to determine consumer preferences and considerable disquiet about use by employers or government and about how their data would be stored and used. While also somewhat skeptical about new applications of neuroimaging, experts grossly underestimated how often neuroimaging had been used as evidence in court. Although both the public and the experts rated highly the importance of a better informed public in limiting the inappropriate uses to which neuroimaging might be put, opinions differed on the need for, and mechanism of, actual regulation. Neuroscientists recognized the risks of inaccurate reporting of neuroimaging capabilities in the media but showed little motivation to engage with the public. The present study also emphasizes the need for better frameworks for scientific engagement with media and public education. PMID:21991367

  17. Evidence-based analysis of field testing of medical electrical equipment.

    PubMed

    Taktak, A G; Brown, M C

    2006-01-01

    Field testing of medical electrical equipment remains a topic of debate amongst biomedical engineers. A questionnaire was circulated among members of the main professional body for Medical Engineering Departments in the UK and Ireland and in the Medical Physics and Engineering Mailbase Server. The aim of the questionnaire was to establish consensus on common practice on the frequency and type of safety tests carried out in the field and common sources of hazards and risk management. Twenty-six replies were received in total. A clear majority of 54% of the respondents reported that they carried out safety tests on hospital-based medical equipment on a yearly basis. For other equipment, regular tests were carried out by 58% on loan equipment and by 69% on medical electrical systems. Laboratory equipment on the other hand were not tested in 42% of the cases. Domiciliary and research equipment were only tested in 11% and 15% of the cases respectively. A clear majority of 93% said that they label equipment after tests, 34% said that they always record the actual values (as opposed to pass or fail) and 54% said they carry out functional test as part of the safety test. Although 61% of failures were attributed to the mains lead, only 50% of the respondents said that they had a management system in place for detachable mains leads.

  18. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    PubMed

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  19. Auditory verbal hallucinations: neuroimaging and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, M M; Hugdahl, K; Sommer, I E C

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a frequently occurring phenomenon in the general population and are considered a psychotic symptom when presented in the context of a psychiatric disorder. Neuroimaging literature has shown that AVH are subserved by a variety of alterations in brain structure and function, which primarily concentrate around brain regions associated with the processing of auditory verbal stimuli and with executive control functions. However, the direction of association between AVH and brain function remains equivocal in certain research areas and needs to be carefully reviewed and interpreted. When AVH have significant impact on daily functioning, several efficacious treatments can be attempted such as antipsychotic medication, brain stimulation and cognitive-behavioural therapy. Interestingly, the neural correlates of these treatments largely overlap with brain regions involved in AVH. This suggests that the efficacy of treatment corresponds to a normalization of AVH-related brain activity. In this selected review, we give a compact yet comprehensive overview of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature on AVH, with a special focus on the neural correlates of efficacious treatment.

  20. How much do electric customers want to pay for reliability; New evidence on an old controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.K. ); Pupp, R.L. ); Flaim, T.; Mango, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Electric utilities are facing competitive challenges from independent power producers, cogenerators, qualifying facilities, and customer bypass, in addition to increasing resistance to building new capacity whether it be conventional or nuclear. Utilities are meeting these challenges by offering an array of demand-side management programs and differentiated tariffs that better match utility rates and customer preferences for service reliability. Customer preferences for service reliability may be gathered by market survey, however, survey estimates are subject to various common criticisms a fact that has retarded the adoption of this approach. by using power survey design techniques and statistical methods, the authors show in this paper, how accurate customer value of service reliability data may be collected with a market survey.

  1. Evidence of harvesting electricity by exciton recombination in an n-n type solar cell.

    PubMed

    Song, Qun Liang; Yang, Hong Bin; Gan, Ye; Gong, Cheng; Ming Li, Chang

    2010-04-07

    Free electrons and holes bounded by weak interactions in organic molecules must be generated from excitons to produce photocurrent in organic solar cells. Free charge carriers, in either small molecule- or polymer-based solar cells, are generated so far by dissociation of excitons at the donor-acceptor interface through injecting electrons (holes) from a donor (acceptor) into an acceptor (donor) while leaving holes (electrons) in the donor (acceptor). Here we report a new way, intermolecular exciton recombination, to generate free carriers from organic semiconductors. Unlike the exciton dissociation between donor and acceptor, the recombination of electrons from perfluorinated hexadecafluorophthalo-cyaninatozinc (F16ZnPc) with holes from fullerene (C(60)) frees their counterpart carriers. A new organic solar cell based on this intermolecular exciton recombination at the interface is fabricated to clearly demonstrate this new way to produce free carriers and then harvest electricity from sunlight.

  2. Cognitive Neuroimaging: Cognitive Science out of the Armchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive scientists were not quick to embrace the functional neuroimaging technologies that emerged during the late 20th century. In this new century, cognitive scientists continue to question, not unreasonably, the relevance of functional neuroimaging investigations that fail to address questions of interest to cognitive science. However, some…

  3. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  4. On the use and misuse of genomic and neuroimaging science in forensic psychiatry: current roles and future directions.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Michael T; Buckholtz, Joshua W

    2011-07-01

    Dramatic advances in the understanding of the neurobiological bases of human behavior have prompted excitement and controversy surrounding the ethical, legal, and social applications of this knowledge. The authors critically examine the promise and challenges of integrating genomic and neuroimaging techniques into legal settings. They suggest criteria for enhancing the viability of incorporating these data within a legal context and highlight several recent developments that may eventually allow genetic and neuroimaging evidence to meet these criteria and play a more prominent role in forensic science and law.

  5. A Review on the Bioinformatics Tools for Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    MAN, Mei Yen; ONG, Mei Sin; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; DERIS, Safaai; SULONG, Ghazali; YUNUS, Jasmy; CHE HARUN, Fauzan Khairi

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a new technique used to create images of the structure and function of the nervous system in the human brain. Currently, it is crucial in scientific fields. Neuroimaging data are becoming of more interest among the circle of neuroimaging experts. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a large amount of neuroimaging tools. This paper gives an overview of the tools that have been used to image the structure and function of the nervous system. This information can help developers, experts, and users gain insight and a better understanding of the neuroimaging tools available, enabling better decision making in choosing tools of particular research interest. Sources, links, and descriptions of the application of each tool are provided in this paper as well. Lastly, this paper presents the language implemented, system requirements, strengths, and weaknesses of the tools that have been widely used to image the structure and function of the nervous system. PMID:27006633

  6. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  7. Neuroimaging correlates of cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; O'Brien, John T

    2015-08-01

    There has been a gradual shift in the definition of Parkinson's disease, from a movement disorder to a neurodegenerative condition affecting multiple cognitive domains. Mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) is a frequent comorbidity in PD that is associated with progression to dementia (PDD) and debilitating consequences for patients and caregivers. At present, the pathophysiology underpinning cognitive impairment in PD is not established, although emerging evidence has suggested that multi-modal imaging biomarkers could be useful in the early diagnosis of PD-MCI and PDD, thereby identifying at-risk patients to enable treatment at the earliest stage possible. Structural MRI studies have revealed prominent grey matter atrophy and disruptions of white matter tracts in PDD, although findings in non-demented PD have been more variable. There is a need for further longitudinal studies to clarify the spatial and temporal progression of morphological changes in PD, as well as to assess their underlying involvement in the evolution of cognitive deficits. In this review, we discuss the aetiology and neuropsychological profiles of PD-MCI and PDD, summarize the putative imaging substrates in light of evidence from multi-modal neuroimaging studies, highlight limitations in the present literature, and suggest recommendations for future research.

  8. Functional neuroimaging for addiction medicine: From mechanisms to practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ekhtiari, Hamed; Faghiri, Ashkan; Oghabian, Mohammad-Ali; Paulus, Martin P

    2016-01-01

    During last 20 years, neuroimaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in people with drug addictions has introduced a wide range of quantitative biomarkers from brain's regional or network level activities during different cognitive functions. These quantitative biomarkers could be potentially used for assessment, planning, prediction, and monitoring for "addiction medicine" during screening, acute intoxication, admission to a program, completion of an acute program, admission to a long-term program, and postgraduation follow-up. In this chapter, we have briefly reviewed main neurocognitive targets for fMRI studies associated with addictive behaviors, main study types using fMRI among drug dependents, and potential applications for fMRI in addiction medicine. Main challenges and limitations for extending fMRI studies and evidences aiming at clinical applications in addiction medicine are also discussed. There is still a significant gap between available evidences from group-based fMRI studies and personalized decisions during daily practices in addiction medicine. It will be important to fill this gap with large-scale clinical trials and longitudinal studies using fMRI measures with a well-defined strategic plan for the future.

  9. Systems Biology, Neuroimaging, Neuropsychology, Neuroconnectivity and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    The patient who sustains a traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically undergoes neuroimaging studies, usually in the form of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases the neuroimaging findings are clinically assessed with descriptive statements that provide qualitative information about the presence/absence of visually identifiable abnormalities; though little if any of the potential information in a scan is analyzed in any quantitative manner, except in research settings. Fortunately, major advances have been made, especially during the last decade, in regards to image quantification techniques, especially those that involve automated image analysis methods. This review argues that a systems biology approach to understanding quantitative neuroimaging findings in TBI provides an appropriate framework for better utilizing the information derived from quantitative neuroimaging and its relation with neuropsychological outcome. Different image analysis methods are reviewed in an attempt to integrate quantitative neuroimaging methods with neuropsychological outcome measures and to illustrate how different neuroimaging techniques tap different aspects of TBI-related neuropathology. Likewise, how different neuropathologies may relate to neuropsychological outcome is explored by examining how damage influences brain connectivity and neural networks. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes that occur following TBI and how best to capture those pathologies via different neuroimaging methods. However, traditional clinical neuropsychological techniques are not well suited for interpretation based on contemporary and advanced neuroimaging methods and network analyses. Significant improvements need to be made in the cognitive and behavioral assessment of the brain injured individual to better interface with advances in neuroimaging-based network analyses. By viewing both neuroimaging and neuropsychological processes within a systems biology

  10. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-05

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment.

  11. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment. PMID:26728251

  12. Evidence of nonclassical plasma transport in hollow cathodes for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2007-03-15

    Measurements, simplified analyses, and two-dimensional numerical simulations with a fluid plasma model show that classical resistivity cannot account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in a 25-27.5 A electric propulsion hollow cathode. The cathode consisted of a 1.5 cm hollow tube with an {approx}0.28 cm diameter orifice and was operated with 5.5 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) of xenon flow using two different anode geometries: a segmented cone and a circular flat plate. The numerical simulations show that classical resistivity yields as much as four times colder electron temperatures compared to the measured values in the orifice and near-plume regions of the cathode. Classical transport and Ohm's law also predict exceedingly high electron-ion relative drift speeds compared to the electron thermal speed (>4). It is found that the addition of anomalous resistivity based on existing growth rate formulas for electron-ion streaming instabilities improves qualitatively the comparison between the numerical results and the time-averaged measurements. Simplified analyses that have been based largely on the axial measurements support the conclusion that additional resistivity is required in Ohm's law to explain the measurements. The combined results from the two-dimensional simulations and the analyses bound the range of enhanced resistivity to be 3-100 times the classical value.

  13. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment.

  14. The Human Connectome Project's neuroimaging approach.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Smith, Stephen M; Marcus, Daniel S; Andersson, Jesper L R; Auerbach, Edward J; Behrens, Timothy E J; Coalson, Timothy S; Harms, Michael P; Jenkinson, Mark; Moeller, Steen; Robinson, Emma C; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Xu, Junqian; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-26

    Noninvasive human neuroimaging has yielded many discoveries about the brain. Numerous methodological advances have also occurred, though inertia has slowed their adoption. This paper presents an integrated approach to data acquisition, analysis and sharing that builds upon recent advances, particularly from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The 'HCP-style' paradigm has seven core tenets: (i) collect multimodal imaging data from many subjects; (ii) acquire data at high spatial and temporal resolution; (iii) preprocess data to minimize distortions, blurring and temporal artifacts; (iv) represent data using the natural geometry of cortical and subcortical structures; (v) accurately align corresponding brain areas across subjects and studies; (vi) analyze data using neurobiologically accurate brain parcellations; and (vii) share published data via user-friendly databases. We illustrate the HCP-style paradigm using existing HCP data sets and provide guidance for future research. Widespread adoption of this paradigm should accelerate progress in understanding the brain in health and disease.

  15. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    PubMed

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said.

  16. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  17. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors. PMID:22117165

  18. An Overview of Multimodal Neuroimaging Using Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sriram; Mishra, Sachin; Gulyás, Miklós; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Gulyás, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have gained tremendous significance as contrast agents for both anatomical and functional preclinical bio-imaging. Contrary to conventional medical practices, molecular imaging plays an important role in exploring the affected cells, thus providing precision medical solutions. It has been observed that incorporating nanoprobes improves the overall efficacy of the diagnosis and treatment processes. These nano-agents and tracers are therefore often incorporated into preclinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Multimodal imaging approaches are well equipped with nanoprobes to explore neurological disorders, as they can display more than one type of characteristic in molecular imaging. Multimodal imaging systems are explored by researchers as they can provide both anatomical and functional details of tumors and affected tissues. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art research concerning multimodal imaging systems and nanoprobes for neuroimaging applications. PMID:28157157

  19. The teen brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Giedd, Jay N

    2008-04-01

    Few parents of a teenager are surprised to hear that the brain of a 16-year-old is different from the brain of an 8-year-old. Yet to pin down these differences in a rigorous scientific way has been elusive. Magnetic resonance imaging, with the capacity to provide exquisitely accurate quantifications of brain anatomy and physiology without the use of ionizing radiation, has launched a new era of adolescent neuroscience. Longitudinal studies of subjects from ages 3-30 years demonstrate a general pattern of childhood peaks of gray matter followed by adolescent declines, functional and structural increases in connectivity and integrative processing, and a changing balance between limbic/subcortical and frontal lobe functions, extending well into young adulthood. Although overinterpretation and premature application of neuroimaging findings for diagnostic purposes remains a risk, converging data from multiple imaging modalities is beginning to elucidate the implications of these brain changes on cognition, emotion, and behavior.

  20. The experience of art: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The experience of art is a complex one. It emerges from the interaction of multiple cognitive and affective processes. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies are revealing the broadly distributed network of brain regions upon which it relies. This network can be divided into three functional components: (i) prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions support evaluative judgment, attentional processing, and memory retrieval; (ii) the reward circuit, including cortical, subcortical regions, and some of its regulators, is involved in the generation of pleasurable feelings and emotions, and the valuation and anticipation of reward; and (iii) attentional modulation of activity in low-, mid-, and high-level cortical sensory regions enhances the perceptual processing of certain features, relations, locations, or objects. Understanding how these regions act in concert to produce unique and moving art experiences and determining the impact of personal and cultural meaning and context on this network the biological foundation of the experience of art--remain future challenges.

  1. The Northwestern University Neuroimaging Data Archive (NUNDA)

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Kathryn; Kogan, Alexandr; Parrish, Todd; Marcus, Daniel; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The Northwestern University Neuroimaging Data Archive (NUNDA), an XNAT-powered data archiving system, aims to facilitate secure data storage; centralized data management; automated, standardized data processing; and simple, intuitive data sharing. NUNDA is a federated data archive, wherein individual project owners regulate access to their data. NUNDA supports multiple methods of data import, enabling data collection in a central repository. Data in NUNDA are available by project to any authorized user, allowing coordinated data management and review across sites. With NUNDA pipelines, users capitalize on existing procedures or standardize custom routines for consistent, automated data processing. NUNDA can be integrated with other research databases to simplify data exploration and discovery. And data on NUNDA can be confidently shared for secure collaboration. PMID:26032888

  2. [Functional neuroimaging of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Font, M; Parellada, E; Fernández-Egea, E; Bernardo, M; Lomeña, F

    2003-01-01

    The neurobiological bases underlying the generation of auditory hallucinations, a distressing and paradigmatic symptom of schizophrenia, are still unknown in spite of in-depth phenomenological descriptions. This work aims to make a critical review of the latest published literature in recent years, focusing on functional neuroimaging studies (PET, SPECT, fMRI) of auditory hallucinations. Thus, the studies are classified according to whether they are sensory activation, trait and state. The two main hypotheses proposed to explain the phenomenon, external speech vs. subvocal or inner speech, are also explained. Finally, the latest unitary theory as well as the limitations the studies published are commented on. The need to continue investigating in this field, that is still underdeveloped, is posed in order to understand better the etiopathogenesis of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  3. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  4. Communicating with vegetative state patients: the role of neuroimaging in American disability law.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dalia B

    2014-06-01

    Patients in vegetative states appear to be awake but unconscious. If they have been in a vegetative state for more than one year, they have little chance of ever recovering. Additionally, no one can communicate with them, including physicians, loved ones, and families. However, new scientific evidence has challenged our understanding of this bleak reality. In particular, recent neuroscience research has shown that a substantial number of patients in vegetative states may actually be conscious and able to communicate through the use of brain-scanning technology. This exciting development poses many difficult questions, including the one analyzed here: now that we know neuroimaging may be the only way to communicate with these patients, will health care facilities be required to provide brain-scanning equipment under American disability law? This Note argues that lawsuits seeking neuroimaging technology from hospitals have a significant chance of success. The main challenge for plaintiffs will be convincing judges that existing scientific evidence actually shows that neuroimaging can facilitate communication with patients. Ultimately, if the appropriate legal framework develops, brain-scanning technology could permit patients in vegetative states to make decisions regarding their own medical care and allow families to communicate with their loved ones.

  5. Linking variability in brain chemistry and circuit function through multimodal human neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P M; Hariri, A R

    2012-08-01

    Identifying neurobiological mechanisms mediating the emergence of individual differences in behavior is critical for advancing our understanding of relative risk for psychopathology. Neuroreceptor positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to assay in vivo regional brain chemistry and function, respectively. Typically, these neuroimaging modalities are implemented independently despite the capacity for integrated data sets to offer unique insight into molecular mechanisms associated with brain function. Through examples from the serotonin and dopamine system and its effects on threat- and reward-related brain function, we review evidence for how such a multimodal neuroimaging strategy can be successfully implemented. Furthermore, we discuss how multimodal PET-fMRI can be integrated with techniques such as imaging genetics, pharmacological challenge paradigms and gene-environment interaction models to more completely map biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior and related risk for psychopathology and inform the development of novel therapeutic targets.

  6. Neuroimaging features in C9orf72 and TARDBP double mutation with FTD phenotype.

    PubMed

    Origone, Paola; Accardo, Jennifer; Verdiani, Simonetta; Lamp, Merit; Arnaldi, Dario; Bellone, Emilia; Picco, Agnese; Morbelli, Silvia; Mandich, Paola; Nobili, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that morphological and functional neuroimaging may help to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to behavioral disturbances in patients with genetic or sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The C9orf72 expansion was found in association with the N267S TARDBP mutation in two siblings with behavioral-variant FTD (bvFTD). In one of them with very mild dementia, MRI showed symmetric atrophy of temporal, inferolateral and orbital frontal cortex, while [18F]FDG-PET disclosed more extended hypometabolism in dorsolateral and inferolateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and caudate nucleus. Hypometabolism in right lateral and orbital frontal cortex was confirmed also in comparison with a group of sporadic bvFTD patients. These findings appear as the neuroimaging hallmark of double C9orf72 and TARDBP gene mutation with a bvFTD phenotype.

  7. Neuroimaging and Occupational Therapy: Bridging the Gap to Advance Rehabilitation in Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown-Lum, Meisan; Zwicker, Jill G

    2017-02-06

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor motor skills that interfere with a child's ability to perform everyday activities. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that implicate DCD, making it difficult to understand why children with DCD struggle to learn motor skills and selecting the best intervention to optimize function. Neuroimaging studies that utilize magnetic resonance imaging techniques have the capacity to play a critical role in helping to guide clinicians to optimize functional outcomes of children with DCD using evidence-based rehabilitation interventions. The authors' goal is to describe how neuroimaging research can be applied to occupational therapy and rehabilitation sciences by highlighting projects that are at the forefront of the field and elucidate future directions.

  8. Aging, neurodegenerative disease, and traumatic brain injury: the role of neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Esopenko, Carrie; Levine, Brian

    2015-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly prevalent condition with significant effects on cognition and behavior. While the acute and sub-acute effects of TBI recover over time, relatively little is known about the long-term effects of TBI in relation to neurodegenerative disease. This issue has recently garnered a great deal of attention due to publicity surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes, although CTE is but one of several neurodegenerative disorders associated with a history of TBI. Here, we review the literative on neurodegenerative disorders linked to remote TBI. We also review the evidence for neuroimaging changes associated with unhealthy brain aging in the context of remote TBI. We conclude that neuroimaging biomarkers have significant potential to increase understanding of the mechanisms of unhealthy brain aging and neurodegeneration following TBI, with potential for identifying those at risk for unhealthy brain aging prior to the clinical manifestation of neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Cerebral Microbleeds: A Review of Clinical, Genetic, and Neuroimaging Associations

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Paul A.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Desmond, Patricia M.; Masters, Colin L.; Rowe, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (microbleeds) are small, punctuate hypointense lesions seen in T2* Gradient-Recall Echo (GRE) and Susceptibility-Weighted (SWI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences, corresponding to areas of hemosiderin breakdown products from prior microscopic hemorrhages. They occur in the setting of impaired small vessel integrity, commonly due to either hypertensive vasculopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Microbleeds are more prevalent in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and in those with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However they are also found in asymptomatic individuals, with increasing prevalence with age, particularly in carriers of the Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele. Other neuroimaging findings that have been linked with microbleeds include lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI, and increased cerebral β-amyloid burden using 11C-PiB Positron Emission Tomography. The presence of microbleeds has been suggested to confer increased risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage – particularly in the setting of anticoagulation – and of complications of immunotherapy for AD. Prospective data regarding the natural history and sequelae of microbleeds are currently limited, however there is a growing evidence base that will serve to inform clinical decision-making in the future. PMID:24432010

  10. Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

    2013-11-15

    Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed.

  11. Neuroimaging Signatures and Cognitive Correlates of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Screen in a Nonclinical Elderly Sample

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Tate, David F.; Heaps, Jodi; Romo, Dana M.; Akbudak, Erbil; Niehoff, Jennifer; Conturo, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) screen was developed as a brief instrument to identify mild cognitive impairment and dementia among older individuals. To date, limited information is available regarding the neuroimaging signatures associated with performance on the scale, or the relationship between the MoCA and more comprehensive cognitive screening measures. The present study examined performances on the MoCA among 111 non-clinical older adults (ages 51–85) enrolled in a prospective study of cognitive aging. Participants were administered the MoCA, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). A subset of participants (N = 69) underwent structural 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define the volumes of total frontal gray matter, total hippocampus, T2-weighted subcortical hyperintensities (SH), and total brain volume. The results revealed significant correlations between the total score on the MoCA and total score on the RBANS and MMSE, though the strength of the correlations was more robust between the MoCA and the RBANS. Modest correlations between individual subscales of the MoCA and neuroimaging variables were evident, but no patterns of shared variance emerged between the MoCA total score and neuroimaging indices. In contrast, total brain volume correlated significantly with total score on the RBANS. These results suggest that additional studies are needed to define the significance of MoCA scores relative to brain integrity among an older population. PMID:21642663

  12. The brain network for deductive reasoning: a quantitative meta-analysis of 28 neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jérôme; Chadha, Angad; Booth, James R

    2011-11-01

    Over the course of the past decade, contradictory claims have been made regarding the neural bases of deductive reasoning. Researchers have been puzzled by apparent inconsistencies in the literature. Some have even questioned the effectiveness of the methodology used to study the neural bases of deductive reasoning. However, the idea that neuroimaging findings are inconsistent is not based on any quantitative evidence. Here, we report the results of a quantitative meta-analysis of 28 neuroimaging studies of deductive reasoning published between 1997 and 2010, combining 382 participants. Consistent areas of activations across studies were identified using the multilevel kernel density analysis method. We found that results from neuroimaging studies are more consistent than what has been previously assumed. Overall, studies consistently report activations in specific regions of a left fronto-parietal system, as well as in the left BG. This brain system can be decomposed into three subsystems that are specific to particular types of deductive arguments: relational, categorical, and propositional. These dissociations explain inconstancies in the literature. However, they are incompatible with the notion that deductive reasoning is supported by a single cognitive system relying either on visuospatial or rule-based mechanisms. Our findings provide critical insight into the cognitive organization of deductive reasoning and need to be accounted for by cognitive theories.

  13. The Current Impact of Incidental Findings Found during Neuroimaging on Neurologists’ Workloads

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Thomas C.; Boyd-Ellison, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging is an important diagnostic tool in the assessment of neurological disease, but often unmasks Incidental Findings (IFs). The negative impacts of IFs, such as ‘patient’ anxiety, present neurologists with management dilemmas, largely due to the limited knowledge base surrounding the medical significance of these IFs. In particular, the lack of evidence-based clinical trials investigating the efficacy of treatments for subclinical IFs makes management protocols challenging. The objective was to determine the impact IFs may have on neurologists’ workloads and healthcare budgets and to examine neurologists’ concerns regarding the clinical management of these ‘patients’. Methods Qualitative research based on constructivist grounded theory. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews of purposively sampled neurologists, coded, and concurrent comparative analysis performed. A substantive theory of the ‘IF impacts’ was developed after concept saturation. Results Neurologists managed the escalating workload caused by an increased number of referrals of ‘patients’ with IFs found during neuroimaging; however it was unclear whether this was sustainable in the future. Neurologists experienced IF management dilemmas and spent more time with ‘patients’ affected by anxiety. The lack of information provided to those undergoing neuroimaging by the referring clinician regarding the possibility of discovering IFs was highlighted. Conclusion The impact of IFs upon the neurologist, ‘patient’ and the health institution appeared considerable. Further research determining the natural history of subclinical IFs and the efficacy of intervention will help to alleviate these issues. PMID:25723558

  14. The Evolution of Neuroimaging Research and Developmental Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Angela B.; Foundas, Anne L.; Leonard, Christiana M.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews current neuroimaging literature, including computer tomography, positron emission tomography, single photon emission spectroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging, on individuals with developmental language disorders. The review suggests a complicated relationship between cortical morphometry and language development that is…

  15. Commentary on the 2016 named series: Neuroimaging, inflammation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Neil A

    2016-11-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are increasingly used to characterize the neural circuitry mediating actions of inflammation on mood, motivation, and cognition and its relationship to common mental illnesses, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD). In addition, imaging techniques such as single photon emission tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can index effects of inflammation on specific neurotransmitters, monoamine transporters, metabolites and even activation of discrete cells such as microglia. The special named series 'Neuroimaging, inflammation and behavior' illustrates the power of neuroimaging techniques to characterize discrete actions of inflammation on the brain at neurochemical, cellular, regional and network levels. Combined with careful cognitive assessment and pre-clinical studies, diverse neuroimaging techniques are helping clarify the mechanisms through which inflammation acts on the brain to reorient behavior and predispose to mental and physical illnesses.

  16. Auditory Neuroimaging with fMRI and PET

    PubMed Central

    Talavage, Thomas M.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Scott, Sophie K.

    2013-01-01

    For much of the past 30 years, investigations of auditory perception and language have been enhanced or even driven by the use of functional neuroimaging techniques that specialize in localization of central responses. Beginning with investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and gradually shifting primarily to usage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), auditory neuroimaging has greatly advanced our understanding of the organization and response properties of brain regions critical to the perception of and communication with the acoustic world in which we live. As the complexity of the questions being addressed has increased, the techniques, experiments and analyses applied have also become more nuanced and specialized. A brief review of the history of these investigations sets the stage for an overview and analysis of how these neuroimaging modalities are becoming ever more effective tools for understanding the auditory brain. We conclude with a brief discussion of open methodological issues as well as potential clinical applications for auditory neuroimaging. PMID:24076424

  17. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or "resting state") activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  18. Challenges for Molecular Neuroimaging with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lelyveld, Victor S.; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Jasanoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MRI)-based molecular imaging methods are beginning to have impact in neuroscience. A growing number of molecular imaging agents have been synthesized and tested in vitro, but so far relatively few have been validated in the brains of live animals. Here, we discuss key challenges associated with expanding the repertoire of successful molecular neuroimaging approaches. The difficulty of delivering agents past the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a particular obstacle to molecular imaging in the central nervous system. We review established and emerging techniques for trans-BBB delivery, including intracranial infusion, BBB disruption, and transporter-related methods. Improving the sensitivity with which MRI-based molecular agents can be detected is a second major challenge. Better sensitivity would in turn reduce the requirements for delivery and alleviate potential side effects. We discuss recent efforts to enhance relaxivity of conventional longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agents, as well as strategies that involve amplifying molecular signals or reducing endogenous background influences. With ongoing refinement of imaging approaches and brain delivery methods, MRI-based techniques for molecular-level neuroscientific investigation will fall increasingly within reach. PMID:20808721

  19. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, David; Moulton, Eric A; Schmidt, Karl F; Becerra, Lino R

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1) Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2) Functional Imaging (fMRI) that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI); (3) Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS) has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS. PMID:17848191

  20. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    PubMed

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  1. Sleep Neuroimaging and Models of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or “resting state”) activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages. PMID:23717291

  2. Single subject prediction of brain disorders in neuroimaging: Promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Plis, Sergey; Sui, Jing; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-01-15

    Neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders has gained increasing attention in recent years. Using a variety of neuroimaging modalities such as structural, functional and diffusion MRI, along with machine learning techniques, hundreds of studies have been carried out for accurate classification of patients with heterogeneous mental and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More than 500 studies have been published during the past quarter century on single subject prediction focused on a multiple brain disorders. In the first part of this study, we provide a survey of more than 200 reports in this field with a focus on schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorders, autism spectrum disease (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detailed information about those studies such as sample size, type and number of extracted features and reported accuracy are summarized and discussed. To our knowledge, this is by far the most comprehensive review of neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders. In the second part, we present our opinion on major pitfalls of those studies from a machine learning point of view. Common biases are discussed and suggestions are provided. Moreover, emerging trends such as decentralized data sharing, multimodal brain imaging, differential diagnosis, disease subtype classification and deep learning are also discussed. Based on this survey, there is extensive evidence showing the great potential of neuroimaging data for single subject prediction of various disorders. However, the main bottleneck of this exciting field is still the limited sample size, which could be potentially addressed by modern data sharing models such as the ones discussed in this paper. Emerging big data technologies and advanced data-intensive machine learning methodologies such as deep learning have coincided with an increasing need

  3. Cognitive neuroscience neuroimaging repository for the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Razlighi, Qolamreza R; Habeck, Christian; Barulli, Daniel; Stern, Yaakov

    2017-01-01

    With recent advances in neuroimaging technology, it is now possible to image human brain function in vivo, which revolutionized the cognitive neuroscience field. However, like any other newly developed technique, the acquisition of neuroimaging data is costly and logistically challenging. Furthermore, studying human cognition requires acquiring a large amount of neuroimaging data, which might not be feasible to do by every researcher in the field. Here, we describe our group's efforts to acquire one of the largest neuroimaging datasets that aims to investigate the neural substrates of age-related cognitive decline, which will be made available to share with other investigators. Our neuroimaging repository includes up to 14 different functional images for more than 486 subjects across the entire adult lifespan in addition to their 3 structural images. Currently, data from 234 participants have been acquired, including all 14 functional and 3 structural images, which is planned to increased to 375 participants in the next few years. A complete battery of neuropsychological tests was also administered to all participants. The neuroimaging and accompanying psychometric data will be available through an online and easy-to-use data sharing website.

  4. Environmental impact of electric motorcycles: Evidence from traffic noise assessment by a building-based data mining technique.

    PubMed

    Sheng, N; Zhou, X; Zhou, Y

    2016-06-01

    This study provided new evidence on the potential adoption of electric motorcycle (EM) as a cleaner alternative to gasoline-powered motorcycle. The effects of EM on human exposure to traffic noise were assessed in different urban areas with different traffic scenarios. The assessment was carried out by a developed building-based model system that took into account the contribution of motorcycle traffic. The results indicated that the EM could be an appealing solution to reduce the risk of human exposure to excessive high traffic noise in a motorcycle city. Particularly, in a historical urban area in which the total traffic volume was lower and motorcycle traffic was dominant, the proportion of noise levels meeting the standard of 70 dB(A) increased significantly from 12.2% to 41.9% when 100% of gasoline motorcycles in the real traffic scenario were replaced by EMs. On the other hand, in a modern urban area in which the total traffic volume was higher and traffic noise levels at majority of sites were higher than 75 dB(A), the proportion of noise levels above 75 dB(A) decreased significantly from 82.6% to 59.9%. Nevertheless, the effect of EM on improving the traffic noise compliance rate in the modern urban area was not significant and other policies or measures need to be sought.

  5. Enhanced photoacoustic neuroimaging with gold nanorods and PEBBLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Russell S.; Kim, K.; Agarwal, A.; Fan, W.; Kopelman, R.; Kotov, N.; Kipke, D.; O'Donnell, M.

    2008-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging provides excellent optical contrast with decent penetration and high spatial resolution, making it attractive for a variety of neural applications. We evaluated optical contrast agents with high absorption in the near infrared (NIR) as potential enhancers for PA neuroimaging: optical dyes, gold nanorods (GNRs) and PEBBLEs loaded with indocyanine green. Two PA systems were developed to test these agents in excised neural tissue and in vivo mouse brain. Lobster nerves were stained with the agents for 30 minutes and placed in a hybrid nerve chamber capable of electrical stimulation and recording, optical spectroscopy and PA imaging. Contrast agents boosted the PA signal by at least 30 dB using NIR illumination from a tunable pulsed laser. Photobleaching may be a limiting factor for optical dyes-the PA signal decreased steadily with laser illumination. The second setup enabled in vivo transcranial imaging of the mouse brain. A custom clinical ultrasound scanner and a 10-MHz linear array provided near real-time images during and after an injection of 2 nM gold nanorods into the tail vein. The peak PA signal from the brain vasculature was enhanced by up to 2 dB at 710 nm. Temporal dynamics of the PA signal were also consistent with mixing of the GNRs in the blood. These studies provide a baseline for enhanced PA imaging in neural tissue. The smart contrast agents employed in this study can be further engineered for molecular targeting and controlled drug delivery with potential treatment for a myriad of neural disorders.

  6. Nonhuman Primate Neuroimaging and Cocaine Medication Development

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Leonard L.

    2011-01-01

    Given the important role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the addictive properties of cocaine, the development and use of compounds that target the DAT represents a reasonable approach for the pharmacological treatment of cocaine abuse. The present report describes a series of studies conducted in nonhuman primates that evaluated the effectiveness of DAT inhibitors in reducing cocaine self-administration. In addition, drug substitution studies evaluated the abuse liability of the DAT inhibitors. PET neuroimaging studies quantified DAT occupancy at behaviorally relevant doses, characterized the time-course of drug uptake in brain, and documented drug-induced changes in cerebral blood flow as a model of brain activation. Selective DAT inhibitors were effective in reducing cocaine use but high (>70%) levels of DAT occupancy were associated with significant reductions in cocaine self-administration. The selective DAT inhibitors were reliably self-administered but rates of responding were lower than those maintained by cocaine even at higher levels of DAT occupancy. A profile of slow rate of drug uptake in brain accompanied by a gradual increase in extracellular dopamine may account for the more limited reinforcing effectiveness of the DAT inhibitors. Selective serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors were also effective in reducing cocaine use and blocked cocaine-induced brain activation and increases in extracellular dopamine. Co-administration of SERT inhibitors with a selective DAT inhibitor was more effective than the DAT inhibitor administered alone, even at comparable levels of DAT occupancy. The results indicate that combined inhibition of DAT and SERT may be a viable approach to treat cocaine addiction. PMID:19086766

  7. Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; O'Brien, John T

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson's disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer's disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our

  8. The human parental brain: in vivo neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Swain, James E

    2011-07-01

    Interacting parenting thoughts and behaviors, supported by key brain circuits, critically shape human infants' current and future behavior. Indeed, the parent-infant relationship provides infants with their first social environment, forming templates for what they can expect from others, how to interact with them and ultimately how they go on to themselves to be parents. This review concentrates on magnetic resonance imaging experiments of the human parent brain, which link brain physiology with parental thoughts and behaviors. After reviewing brain imaging techniques, certain social cognitive and affective concepts are reviewed, including empathy and trust-likely critical to parenting. Following that is a thorough study-by-study review of the state-of-the-art with respect to human neuroimaging studies of the parental brain-from parent brain responses to salient infant stimuli, including emotionally charged baby cries and brief visual stimuli to the latest structural brain studies. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic-midbrain-limbic-paralimbic-cortical circuits act in concert to support parental brain responses to infants, including circuits for limbic emotion response and regulation. Thus, a model is presented in which infant stimuli activate sensory analysis brain regions, affect corticolimbic limbic circuits that regulate emotional response, motivation and reward related to their infant, ultimately organizing parenting impulses, thoughts and emotions into coordinated behaviors as a map for future studies. Finally, future directions towards integrated understanding of the brain basis of human parenting are outlined with profound implications for understanding and contributing to long term parent and infant mental health.

  9. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Battaglia, D. J.; Rudakov, D. L.; Belli, E. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hollmann, E.; Lasnier, C.; Solomon, W. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J.

    2016-09-21

    Here, bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, VD+||, peaking at 40–60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring large (10–20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that VD+|| is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core VC6+|| velocity and the peak edge VD+|| in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.

  10. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    DOE PAGES

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here, bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, VD+||, peaking at 40–60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring largemore » (10–20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that VD+|| is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core VC6+|| velocity and the peak edge VD+|| in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.« less

  11. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Battaglia, D. J.; Rudakov, D. L.; Belli, E. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hollmann, E.; Lasnier, C.; Solomon, W. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J.

    2016-09-01

    Bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, V| | D + , peaking at 40-60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring large (10-20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that V| | D + is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core V| | C 6 + velocity and the peak edge V| | D + in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.

  12. Neuroimaging assessment of early and late neurobiological sequelae of traumatic brain injury: implications for CTE

    PubMed Central

    Sundman, Mark; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been increasingly accepted as a major external risk factor for neurodegenerative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence indicates that the resultant chronic neurobiological sequelae following head trauma may, at least in part, contribute to a pathologically distinct disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). The clinical manifestation of CTE is variable, but the symptoms of this progressive disease include impaired memory and cognition, affective disorders (i.e., impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidality, etc.), and diminished motor control. Notably, mounting evidence suggests that the pathology contributing to CTE may be caused by repetitive exposure to subconcussive hits to the head, even in those with no history of a clinically evident head injury. Given the millions of athletes and military personnel with potential exposure to repetitive subconcussive insults and TBI, CTE represents an important public health issue. However, the incidence rates and pathological mechanisms are still largely unknown, primarily due to the fact that there is no in vivo diagnostic tool. The primary objective of this manuscript is to address this limitation and discuss potential neuroimaging modalities that may be capable of diagnosing CTE in vivo through the detection of tau and other known pathological features. Additionally, we will discuss the challenges of TBI research, outline the known pathology of CTE (with an emphasis on Tau), review current neuroimaging modalities to assess the potential routes for in vivo diagnosis, and discuss the future directions of CTE research. PMID:26441507

  13. Neuroimaging assessment of early and late neurobiological sequelae of traumatic brain injury: implications for CTE.

    PubMed

    Sundman, Mark; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Morey, Rajendra A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been increasingly accepted as a major external risk factor for neurodegenerative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence indicates that the resultant chronic neurobiological sequelae following head trauma may, at least in part, contribute to a pathologically distinct disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). The clinical manifestation of CTE is variable, but the symptoms of this progressive disease include impaired memory and cognition, affective disorders (i.e., impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidality, etc.), and diminished motor control. Notably, mounting evidence suggests that the pathology contributing to CTE may be caused by repetitive exposure to subconcussive hits to the head, even in those with no history of a clinically evident head injury. Given the millions of athletes and military personnel with potential exposure to repetitive subconcussive insults and TBI, CTE represents an important public health issue. However, the incidence rates and pathological mechanisms are still largely unknown, primarily due to the fact that there is no in vivo diagnostic tool. The primary objective of this manuscript is to address this limitation and discuss potential neuroimaging modalities that may be capable of diagnosing CTE in vivo through the detection of tau and other known pathological features. Additionally, we will discuss the challenges of TBI research, outline the known pathology of CTE (with an emphasis on Tau), review current neuroimaging modalities to assess the potential routes for in vivo diagnosis, and discuss the future directions of CTE research.

  14. Neuroimaging of Parkinson’s Disease: Expanding views

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, Carol P.; Sundman, Mark H.; Hickey, Patrick; Chen, Nankuei

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular and structural and functional neuroimaging are rapidly expanding the complexity of neurobiological understanding of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This review article begins with an introduction to PD neurobiology as a foundation for interpreting neuroimaging findings that may further lead to more integrated and comprehensive understanding of PD. Diverse areas of PD neuroimaging are then reviewed and summarized, including positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, transcranial sonography, magnetoencephalography, and multimodal imaging, with focus on human studies published over the last five years. These included studies on differential diagnosis, co-morbidity, genetic and prodromal PD, and treatments from L-DOPA to brain stimulation approaches, transplantation and gene therapies. Overall, neuroimaging has shown that PD is a neurodegenerative disorder involving many neurotransmitters, brain regions, structural and functional connections, and neurocognitive systems. A broad neurobiological understanding of PD will be essential for translational efforts to develop better treatments and preventive strategies. Many questions remain and we conclude with some suggestions for future directions of neuroimaging of PD. PMID:26409344

  15. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Dyster, Timothy G.; Mikell, Charles B.; Sheth, Sameer A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field’s history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine. PMID:27445706

  16. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. PMID:26396520

  17. Differentiating emotional processing and attention in psychopathy with functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Steele, Vaughn R; Maurer, J Michael; Rao, Vikram; Koenigs, Michael R; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2017-01-16

    Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a task designed to manipulate attention to emotional features of visual stimuli, we demonstrate effects representing implicit emotional processing, explicit emotional processing, attention-facilitated emotional processing, and vigilance for emotional content. Results confirm the importance of considering mechanisms of attention when evaluating emotional processing differences related to psychopathic traits. The affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy (PCL-R Factor 1) were associated with relatively lower emotion-dependent augmentation of activity in visual processing areas during implicit emotional processing, while antisocial-lifestyle features (PCL-R Factor 2) were associated with elevated activity in the amygdala and related salience network regions. During explicit emotional processing, psychopathic traits were associated with upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and superior frontal regions. Isolating the impact of explicit attention to emotional content, only Factor 1 was related to upregulation of activity in the visual processing stream, which was accompanied by increased activity in the angular gyrus. These effects highlight some important mechanisms underlying abnormal features of attention and emotional processing that accompany psychopathic traits.

  18. The micro-architecture of the cerebral cortex: Functional neuroimaging models and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Jorge J.; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Howarth, Clare; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    In order to interpret/integrate data obtained with different functional neuroimaging modalities (e.g. fMRI, EEG/MEG, PET/SPECT, fNIRS), forward-generative models of a diversity of brain mechanisms at the mesoscopic level are considered necessary. For the cerebral cortex, the brain structure with possibly the most relevance for functional neuroimaging, a variety of such biophysical models has been proposed over the last decade. The development of technological tools to investigate in vitro the physiological, anatomical and biochemical principles at the microscopic scale in comparative studies formed the basis for such theoretical progresses. However, with the most recent introduction of systems to record electrical (e.g. miniaturized probes chronically/acutely implantable in the brain), optical (e.g. two-photon laser scanning microscopy) and atomic nuclear spectral (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) signals using living laboratory animals, the field is receiving even greater attention. Major advances have been achieved by combining such sophisticated recording systems with new experimental strategies (e.g. transgenic/knock-out animals, high resolution stereotaxic manipulation systems for probe-guidance and cellular-scale chemical-delivery). Theoreticians may now be encouraged to re-consider previously formulated mesoscopic level models in order to incorporate important findings recently made at the microscopic scale. In this series of reviews, we summarize the background at the microscopic scale, which we suggest will constitute the foundations for upcoming representations at the mesoscopic level. In this first part, we focus our attention on the nerve ending particles in order to summarize basic principles and mechanisms underlying cellular metabolism in the cerebral cortex. It will be followed by two parts highlighting major features in its organization/working-principles to regulate both cerebral blood circulation and neuronal activity, respectively

  19. Building better biomarkers: brain models in translational neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Chang, Luke J; Lindquist, Martin A; Wager, Tor D

    2017-02-23

    Despite its great promise, neuroimaging has yet to substantially impact clinical practice and public health. However, a developing synergy between emerging analysis techniques and data-sharing initiatives has the potential to transform the role of neuroimaging in clinical applications. We review the state of translational neuroimaging and outline an approach to developing brain signatures that can be shared, tested in multiple contexts and applied in clinical settings. The approach rests on three pillars: (i) the use of multivariate pattern-recognition techniques to develop brain signatures for clinical outcomes and relevant mental processes; (ii) assessment and optimization of their diagnostic value; and (iii) a program of broad exploration followed by increasingly rigorous assessment of generalizability across samples, research contexts and populations. Increasingly sophisticated models based on these principles will help to overcome some of the obstacles on the road from basic neuroscience to better health and will ultimately serve both basic and applied goals.

  20. Functional neuroimaging studies of the effects of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Mario

    2014-03-01

    It has been long established that psychological interventions can markedly alter patients' thinking patterns, beliefs, attitudes, emotional states, and behaviors. Little was known about the neural mechanisms mediating such alterations before the advent of functional neuroimaging techniques. Since the turn of the new millenium, several functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted to tackle this important issue. Some of these studies have explored the neural impact of various forms of psychotherapy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Other neuroimaging studies have investigated the effects of psychological interventions for anxiety disorders. I review these studies in the present article, and discuss the putative neural mechanisms of change in psychotherapy. The findings of these studies suggest that mental and behavioral changes occurring during psychotherapeutic interventions can lead to a normalization of functional brain activity at a global level.

  1. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  2. Image analysis and statistical inference in neuroimaging with R.

    PubMed

    Tabelow, K; Clayden, J D; de Micheaux, P Lafaye; Polzehl, J; Schmid, V J; Whitcher, B

    2011-04-15

    R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It can be considered an alternative implementation of the S language developed in the 1970s and 1980s for data analysis and graphics (Becker and Chambers, 1984; Becker et al., 1988). The R language is part of the GNU project and offers versions that compile and run on almost every major operating system currently available. We highlight several R packages built specifically for the analysis of neuroimaging data in the context of functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. We review their methodology and give an overview of their capabilities for neuroimaging. In addition we summarize some of the current activities in the area of neuroimaging software development in R.

  3. Neuroethics, neuroimaging, and disorders of consciousness: promise or peril?

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J

    2011-01-01

    The advent of powerful neuroimaging tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has begun to redefine how we diagnose, define, and understand disorders of consciousness such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states. In my paper, I review how research using these methods is both elucidating these brain states and creating diagnostic dilemmas related to their classification as the specificity and sensitivity of traditional behavior-based assessments are weighed against sensitive but not yet fully validated neuroimaging data. I also consider how these methods are being studied as potential communication vectors for therapeutic use in subjects who heretofore have been thought to be unresponsive or minimally conscious. I conclude by considering the ethical challenges posed by novel diagnostic and therapeutic neuroimaging applications and contextualize these scientific developments against the broader needs of patients and families touched by severe brain injury.

  4. Role of emerging neuroimaging modalities in patients with cognitive impairment: a review from the Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD4) was held 3 to 4 May 2012 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A group of neuroimaging experts were assigned the task of reviewing and summarizing the literature on clinical and research applications of different neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. This paper summarizes the literature and recommendations made to the conference regarding the role of several emerging neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging are discussed in detail within this paper. Other emergent neuroimaging modalities such as positron emission tomography with novel ligands, high-field MRI, arterial spin labeling MRI and noncerebral blood flow single-photon emission computerized tomography are only discussed briefly. Neuroimaging modalities that were recommended at the CCCDTD4 for both clinical and research applications such as amyloid and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computerized tomography and structural MRI are discussed in a separate paper by the same authors. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database including articles in English that involved human subjects and covered the period from the last CCCDTD publication (CCCDTD3; January 2006) until April 2012. Search terms included the name of the specific modality, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment. A separate search used the same parameters but was restricted to review articles to identify recent evidence-based reviews. Case studies and small case series were not included. Papers representing current evidence were selected, reviewed, and summarized, and the results were presented at the CCCDTD4 meeting with recommendations regarding the utility of various neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. The evidence was graded according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based

  5. Role of emerging neuroimaging modalities in patients with cognitive impairment: a review from the Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia 2012.

    PubMed

    Burhan, Amer M; Bartha, Robert; Bocti, Christian; Borrie, Michael; Laforce, Robert; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul

    2013-07-08

    The Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD4) was held 3 to 4 May 2012 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A group of neuroimaging experts were assigned the task of reviewing and summarizing the literature on clinical and research applications of different neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. This paper summarizes the literature and recommendations made to the conference regarding the role of several emerging neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging are discussed in detail within this paper. Other emergent neuroimaging modalities such as positron emission tomography with novel ligands, high-field MRI, arterial spin labeling MRI and noncerebral blood flow single-photon emission computerized tomography are only discussed briefly. Neuroimaging modalities that were recommended at the CCCDTD4 for both clinical and research applications such as amyloid and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computerized tomography and structural MRI are discussed in a separate paper by the same authors. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database including articles in English that involved human subjects and covered the period from the last CCCDTD publication (CCCDTD3; January 2006) until April 2012. Search terms included the name of the specific modality, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment. A separate search used the same parameters but was restricted to review articles to identify recent evidence-based reviews. Case studies and small case series were not included. Papers representing current evidence were selected, reviewed, and summarized, and the results were presented at the CCCDTD4 meeting with recommendations regarding the utility of various neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. The evidence was graded according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based

  6. Structural Neuroimaging Genetics Interactions in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Seok Woo; Dinov, Ivo D.; Kim, Jaebum; Zamanyan, Alen; Hobel, Sam; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates late-onset cognitive impairment using neuroimaging and genetics biomarkers for subjects participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Eight hundred and eight ADNI subjects were identified and divided into three groups: those with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and asymptomatic normal control (NC) group. Two hundred of the subjects qualified for AD diagnosis at the baseline; three hundred and eighty-three had MCI; and 225 were included in the NC group. The structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were parcellated using BrainParser, and the 80 most important neuroimaging biomarkers were extracted using the Global Shape Analysis (GSA) Pipeline workflow. We obtained 80 SNPs using Plink analysis via the Pipeline environment. In the AD cohort, rs2137962 was significantly associated with changes in left and right hippocampi and bilaterally in parahippocampal gyri, and rs1498853, rs288503, and rs288496 were significantly associated with hippocampi bilaterally, the right parahippocampal gyrus, and left inferior temporal gyrus. In the MCI cohort, rs17028008 and rs17027976 were significantly associated with right caudate and right fusiform gyrus, and rs2075650 (TOMM40) was significantly associated with right caudate, rs1334496 and rs4829605 were significantly associated with right inferior temporal gyrus. In the NC cohort, Chromosome 15 [rs734854 (STOML1), rs11072463 (PML), rs4886844 (PML) and rs1052242 (PML)] was significantly associated with the both hippocampi and both insular cortex and rs4899412 (RGS6) was significantly associated with caudate related biomarkers. We observed significant correlations between the SNPs and the neuroimaging phenotypes in the 808 subjects in terms of neuroimaging genetics. These results illustrate some of the neuroimaging-genetics associations between the AD, MCI and NC cohorts. PMID:26444770

  7. Neuroimaging the interaction of mind and metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Alexandra E.; Small, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal and metabolic signals interact with neural circuits orchestrating behavior to guide food intake. Neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enable the identification of where in the brain particular mental processes like desire, satiety and pleasure occur. Once these neural circuits are described it then becomes possible to determine how metabolic and hormonal signals can alter brain response to influence psychological states and decision-making processes to guide intake. Here, we provide an overview of the contributions of functional neuroimaging to the understanding of how subjective and neural responses to food and food cues interact with metabolic/hormonal factors. PMID:24024114

  8. Scanning the horizon: towards transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Poldrack, Russell A; Baker, Chris I; Durnez, Joke; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Matthews, Paul M; Munafò, Marcus R; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Vul, Edward; Yarkoni, Tal

    2017-02-01

    Functional neuroimaging techniques have transformed our ability to probe the neurobiological basis of behaviour and are increasingly being applied by the wider neuroscience community. However, concerns have recently been raised that the conclusions that are drawn from some human neuroimaging studies are either spurious or not generalizable. Problems such as low statistical power, flexibility in data analysis, software errors and a lack of direct replication apply to many fields, but perhaps particularly to functional MRI. Here, we discuss these problems, outline current and suggested best practices, and describe how we think the field should evolve to produce the most meaningful and reliable answers to neuroscientific questions.

  9. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing) and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract) with a suggested protocol of approach.

  10. The Role of Functional Neuroimaging in Pre-Surgical Epilepsy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pittau, Francesca; Grouiller, Frédéric; Spinelli, Laurent; Seeck, Margitta; Michel, Christoph M.; Vulliemoz, Serge

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy is about 1% and one-third of cases do not respond to medical treatment. In an eligible subset of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone is the only treatment that can possibly cure the disease. Non-invasive techniques provide information for the localization of the epileptic focus in the majority of cases, whereas in others invasive procedures are required. In the last years, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, such as simultaneous recording of functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram (EEG-fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), electric and magnetic source imaging (MSI, ESI), spectroscopy (MRS), have proved their usefulness in defining the epileptic focus. The combination of these functional techniques can yield complementary information and their concordance is crucial for guiding clinical decision, namely the planning of invasive EEG recordings or respective surgery. The aim of this review is to present these non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, their potential combination, and their role in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. PMID:24715886

  11. Using neural modeling and functional neuroimaging to study the neural basis of auditory object processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Barry; Husain, Fatima T.

    2003-04-01

    The neural basis of auditory object processing in the human cerebral cortex was investigated by combining neural modeling and functional neuroimaging. We developed a large-scale, neurobiologically realistic network model of auditory pattern recognition that relates neuronal dynamics of cortical auditory processing of frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps to functional neuroimaging data obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FM sweeps are ubiquitous in animal communication. Areas included in the model extend from primary auditory to prefrontal cortex. The electrical activities of the model neuronal units were constrained to agree with data from the neurophysiological literature regarding FM sweep perception. A fMRI experiment using stimuli and tasks similar to those used in our simulations was performed. The regional integrated synaptic activities of the model were used to determine simulated regional fMRI activities, and generally agreed with the experimentally observed fMRI data. Our results demonstrate that the model is capable of exhibiting the salient features of both electrophysiological neuronal activities and fMRI values that are in agreement with empirically observed data. These findings provide support for our hypotheses concerning how auditory objects are processed by primate neocortex. This type of approach offers the potential for understanding the neural basis of human speech perception.

  12. PRoNTo: pattern recognition for neuroimaging toolbox.

    PubMed

    Schrouff, J; Rosa, M J; Rondina, J M; Marquand, A F; Chu, C; Ashburner, J; Phillips, C; Richiardi, J; Mourão-Miranda, J

    2013-07-01

    In the past years, mass univariate statistical analyses of neuroimaging data have been complemented by the use of multivariate pattern analyses, especially based on machine learning models. While these allow an increased sensitivity for the detection of spatially distributed effects compared to univariate techniques, they lack an established and accessible software framework. The goal of this work was to build a toolbox comprising all the necessary functionalities for multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data, based on machine learning models. The "Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging Toolbox" (PRoNTo) is open-source, cross-platform, MATLAB-based and SPM compatible, therefore being suitable for both cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. In addition, it is designed to facilitate novel contributions from developers, aiming to improve the interaction between the neuroimaging and machine learning communities. Here, we introduce PRoNTo by presenting examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine learning framework implemented in PRoNTo, and cannot be easily investigated with mass univariate statistical analysis.

  13. Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2007-01-01

    There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…

  14. Functional neuroimaging of human vocalizations and affective speech.

    PubMed

    Frühholz, Sascha; Sander, David; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have verified the important integrative role of the basal ganglia during affective vocalizations. They, however, also point to additional regions supporting vocal monitoring, auditory-motor feedback processing, and online adjustments of vocal motor responses. For the case of affective vocalizations, we suggest partly extending the model to fully consider the link between primate-general and human-specific neural components.

  15. A Developmental Neuroimaging Investigation of the Change Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura A.; Hall, Julie M.; Skup, Martha; Jenkins, Sarah E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    This neuroimaging study examines the development of cognitive flexibility using the Change task in a sample of youths and adults. The Change task requires subjects to inhibit a prepotent response and substitute an alternative response, and the task incorporates an algorithm that adjusts task difficulty in response to subject performance. Data from…

  16. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  17. A review of β-amyloid neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Adlard, Paul A.; Tran, Bob A.; Finkelstein, David I.; Desmond, Patricia M.; Johnston, Leigh A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Egan, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. As advancing age is the greatest risk factor for developing AD, the number of those afflicted is expected to increase markedly with the aging of the world's population. The inability to definitively diagnose AD until autopsy remains an impediment to establishing effective targeted treatments. Neuroimaging has enabled in vivo visualization of pathological changes in the brain associated with the disease, providing a greater understanding of its pathophysiological development and progression. However, neuroimaging biomarkers do not yet offer clear advantages over current clinical diagnostic criteria for them to be accepted into routine clinical use. Nonetheless, current insights from neuroimaging combined with the elucidation of biochemical and molecular processes in AD are informing the ongoing development of new imaging techniques and their application. Much of this research has been greatly assisted by the availability of transgenic mouse models of AD. In this review we summarize the main efforts of neuroimaging in AD in humans and in mouse models, with a specific focus on β-amyloid, and discuss the potential of new applications and novel approaches. PMID:25400539

  18. Neuroimaging in Psychiatric Pharmacogenetics Research: The Promise and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Kumar Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23793356

  19. Neuroimaging of the Periaqueductal Gray: State of the Field

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Moulton, Eric A.; Barmettler, Gabi; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    This review and meta-analysis aims at summarizing and integrating the human neuroimaging studies that report periaqueductal gray (PAG) involvement; 250 original manuscripts on human neuroimaging of the PAG were identified. A narrative review and meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimates is included. Behaviors covered include pain and pain modulation, anxiety, bladder and bowel function and autonomic regulation. Methods include structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity measures, diffusion weighted imaging and positron emission tomography. Human neuroimaging studies in healthy and clinical populations largely confirm the animal literature indicating that the PAG is involved in homeostatic regulation of salient functions such as pain, anxiety and autonomic function. Methodological concerns in the current literature, including resolution constraints, imaging artifacts and imprecise neuroanatomical labeling are discussed, and future directions are proposed. A general conclusion is that PAG neuroimaging is a field with enormous potential to translate animal data onto human behaviors, but with some growing pains that can and need to be addressed in order to add to our understanding of the neurobiology of this key region. PMID:22197740

  20. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  1. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Ejareh Dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard Aa

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found.

  2. The use of functional neuroimaging to evaluate psychological and other non-pharmacological treatments for clinical pain

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Karin B.; Berna, Chantal; Loggia, Marco L.; Wasan, Ajay; Edwards, Robert R.; Gollub, Randy L.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of psychological and other non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic pain. While these methods are increasingly used to treat pain, remarkably few studies focused on the exploration of their neural correlates. The aim of this article was to review the findings from neuroimaging studies that evaluated the neural response to distraction-based techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), clinical hypnosis, mental imagery, physical therapy/exercise, biofeedback, and mirror therapy. To date, the results from studies that used neuroimaging to evaluate these methods have not been conclusive and the experimental methods have been suboptimal for assessing clinical pain. Still, several different psychological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities were associated with increased painrelated activations of executive cognitive brain regions, such as the ventral- and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was also evidence for decreased pain-related activations in afferent pain regions and limbic structures. If future studies will address the technical and methodological challenges of today’s experiments, neuroimaging might have the potential of segregating the neural mechanisms of different treatment interventions and elucidate predictive and mediating factors for successful treatment outcomes. Evaluations of treatment-related brain changes (functional and structural) might also allow for sub-grouping of patients and help to develop individualized treatments. PMID:22445888

  3. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential current, electrical muscle stimulation, ultrasound, and thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Stéphane; Brosseau, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    The management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) has proven to be very challenging in North America, as evidenced by its mounting socioeconomic burden. Choosing among available nonsurgical therapies can be overwhelming for many stakeholders, including patients, health providers, policy makers, and third-party payers. Although all parties share a common goal and wish to use limited health-care resources to support interventions most likely to result in clinically meaningful improvements, there is often uncertainty about the most appropriate intervention for a particular patient. To help understand and evaluate the various commonly used nonsurgical approaches to CLBP, the North American Spine Society has sponsored this special focus issue of The Spine Journal, titled Evidence-Informed Management of Chronic Low Back Pain Without Surgery. Articles in this special focus issue were contributed by leading spine practitioners and researchers, who were invited to summarize the best available evidence for a particular intervention and encouraged to make this information accessible to nonexperts. Each of the articles contains five sections (description, theory, evidence of efficacy, harms, and summary) with common subheadings to facilitate comparison across the 24 different interventions profiled in this special focus issue, blending narrative and systematic review methodology as deemed appropriate by the authors. It is hoped that articles in this special focus issue will be informative and aid in decision making for the many stakeholders evaluating nonsurgical interventions for CLBP.

  4. Drug Abuse and Hepatitis C Infection as Comorbid Features of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Features

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse and co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV) are two highly relevant determinants of neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities associated with HIV. Substance abuse and HCV are common in the HIV population and there is increasing evidence that the CNS is directly compromised by these comorbid conditions via additive or synergistic processes. In this article we review the current literature regarding mechanisms of neuronal injury as well as the neuropsychological and neuroimaging signatures associated with substance abuse and HCV status among HIV patients. We discuss specific methodological challenges and threats to validity associated with studies of HIV and comorbid substance use disorders or HCV and review potential strategies for minimizing their confounding effects. Efforts to understand the interactions between HIV, substance abuse and HCV co-infection will lead to more complete models of neuropathogenesis of HIV and a greater understanding of the variability in neuropsychological expression of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. PMID:19468837

  5. Neuroimaging: A Window to the Neurological Foundations of Learning and Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.; Rumsey, Judith M., Ed.

    This book presents 11 papers on the use of neuroimaging technology in brain-related disorders. The text contains full-color neuroimaging scans and provides both theoretical and methodological explanations of the various neuroimaging techniques and their application to developmental disorders in children. The papers are grouped into three sections,…

  6. Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.

  7. Bulk electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes immobilized by dielectrophoresis: evidence of metallic or semiconductor behavior.

    PubMed

    Mureau, Natacha; Watts, Paul C P; Tison, Yann; Silva, S Ravi P

    2008-06-01

    We report the electrical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) trapped between two electrodes by dielectrophoresis (DEP). At high frequency, SWCNTs collected by DEP are expected to be of metallic type. Indeed current-voltage (I-V) measurements for devices made at 10 MHz show high values of conductivity and exhibit metallic behavior with linear and symmetric electrical features attributed to ohmic conduction. At low frequency, SWCNTs attracted by DEP are expected to be of semiconducting nature. Devices made at 10 kHz behave as semiconductors and demonstrate nonlinear and rectifying electrical characteristics with conductivities many orders of magnitude below the sample resulting from high-frequency immobilization of SWCNTs. Conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) and current density calculation results are presented to reinforce results obtained by I-V measurements which clearly show type separation of SWCNTs after DEP experiments.

  8. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  9. Using neuroimaging to resolve the psi debate.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Samuel T; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Parapsychology is the scientific investigation of apparently paranormal mental phenomena (such as telepathy, i.e., "mind reading"), also known as psi. Despite widespread public belief in such phenomena and over 75 years of experimentation, there is no compelling evidence that psi exists. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in an effort to document the existence of psi. If psi exists, it occurs in the brain, and hence, assessing the brain directly should be more sensitive than using indirect behavioral methods (as have been used previously). To increase sensitivity, this experiment was designed to produce positive results if telepathy, clairvoyance (i.e., direct sensing of remote events), or precognition (i.e., knowing future events) exist. Moreover, the study included biologically or emotionally related participants (e.g., twins) and emotional stimuli in an effort to maximize experimental conditions that are purportedly conducive to psi. In spite of these characteristics of the study, psi stimuli and non-psi stimuli evoked indistinguishable neuronal responses-although differences in stimulus arousal values of the same stimuli had the expected effects on patterns of brain activation. These findings are the strongest evidence yet obtained against the existence of paranormal mental phenomena.

  10. Clinical and neuroimaging biomarkers of amyloid-negative logopenic primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Schwarz, Christopher G.; Reid, Robert; Baker, Matthew C.; Perkerson, Ralph B.; Lowe, Val J.; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) is a progressive language disorder characterized by anomia, difficulty repeating complex sentences, and phonological errors. The majority, although not all, lvPPA patients have underlying Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to determine whether clinical or neuroimaging features differ according to the deposition of Aβ on Pittsburgh-compound B PET in lvPPA. Clinical features, patterns of atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on FDG-PET, and white matter tract degeneration were compared between six PiB-negative and 20 PiB-positive lvPPA patients. PiB-negative patients showed more asymmetric left-sided patterns of atrophy, hypometabolism and white matter tract degeneration, with greater left anteromedial temporal and medial prefrontal involvement, than PiB-positive patients. PiB-positive patients showed greater involvement of right temporoparietal and frontal lobes. There was very little evidence for clinical differences between the groups. Strikingly asymmetric neuroimaging findings with relatively preserved right hemisphere may provide clues that AD pathology is absent in lvPPA. PMID:25658633

  11. Neuroimaging Biomarkers Predict Brain Structural Connectivity Change in a Mouse Model of Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Füchtemeier, Martina; Foddis, Marco; Mueller, Susanne; Trueman, Rebecca C.; Zille, Marietta; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Kypraios, Theodore; Shaw, Laurence; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Chronic hypoperfusion in the mouse brain has been suggested to mimic aspects of vascular cognitive impairment, such as white matter damage. Although this model has attracted attention, our group has struggled to generate a reliable cognitive and pathological phenotype. This study aimed to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of brain pathology in aged, more severely hypoperfused mice. Methods— We used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain degeneration in mice hypoperfused by refining the surgical procedure to use the smallest reported diameter microcoils (160 μm). Results— Acute cerebral blood flow decreases were observed in the hypoperfused group that recovered over 1 month and coincided with arterial remodeling. Increasing hypoperfusion resulted in a reduction in spatial learning abilities in the water maze that has not been previously reported. We were unable to observe severe white matter damage with histology, but a novel approach to analyze diffusion tensor imaging data, graph theory, revealed substantial reorganization of the hypoperfused brain network. A logistic regression model from the data revealed that 3 network parameters were particularly efficient at predicting group membership (global and local efficiency and degrees), and clustering coefficient was correlated with performance in the water maze. Conclusions— Overall, these findings suggest that, despite the autoregulatory abilities of the mouse brain to compensate for a sudden decrease in blood flow, there is evidence of change in the brain networks that can be used as neuroimaging biomarkers to predict outcome. PMID:28070001

  12. Neurocognitive-genetic and neuroimaging-genetic research paradigms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna Arlina; Kuswanto, Carissa Nadia; McIntyre, Roger S; Qiu, Anqi; Ho, Beng Choon; Sim, Kang

    2011-11-01

    Studies examining intermediate phenotypes such as neurocognitive and neuroanatomical measures along with susceptibility genes are important for improving our understanding of the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). In this paper, we review extant studies involving neurocognitive-genetic and neuroimaging-genetic perspectives and particularly related to catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) genes in SZ and BD. In terms of neurocognitive-genetic investigations, COMT and BDNF are the two most studied candidate genes especially in patients with SZ. Whereas BDNF Met carriers perform worse on verbal working memory, problem solving and visuo-spatial abilities, COMT Met carriers perform better in working memory, attention, executive functioning with evidence of genotype by diagnosis interactions including high-risk individuals. In terms of genetic-structural MRI studies, patients with SZ are found to have reductions in the frontal, temporal, parietal cortices, and limbic regions, which are associated with BDNF, COMT, and NRGI genes. Genetic-functional MRI studies in psychotic disorders are sparse, especially with regard to BD. These neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings are associated with genes which are implicated in functional pathways related to neuronal signaling, inter-neuronal communication and neuroplasticity.

  13. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment.

    PubMed

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-09-28

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  14. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  15. Application of Dipole-dipole, Induced Polarization, and CSAMT Electrical Methods to Detect Evidence of an Underground Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. J.; Felske, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is little experience with application of electrical methods that can be applied during the continuation period of an on-site inspection (OSI), one of the verification methods of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order add to such experience, we conducted controlled source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT), dipole-dipole resistivity, and induced polarization electrical measurements along three survey lines over and near to ground zero of an historic nuclear explosion. The presentation will provide details and results of the surveys, an assessment of application of the method toward the purposes of an OSI, and an assessment of the manpower and time requirements for data collection and processing that will impact OSI inspection team operations. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. An evidence for prompt electric field disturbance driven by changes in the solar wind density under northward IMF Bz condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Diptiranjan; Chakrabarty, D.; Sekar, R.; Reeves, G. D.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Pant, Tarun K.; Veenadhari, B.; Shiokawa, K.

    2016-05-01

    Before the onset of a geomagnetic storm on 22 January 2012 (Ap = 24), an enhancement in solar wind number density from 10/cm3 to 22/cm3 during 0440-0510 UT under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) condition is shown to have enhanced the high-latitude ionospheric convection and also caused variations in the geomagnetic field globally. Conspicuous changes in ΔX are observed not only at longitudinally separated low-latitude stations over Indian (prenoon), South American (midnight), Japanese (afternoon), Pacific (afternoon) and African (morning) sectors but also at latitudinally separated stations located over high and middle latitudes. The latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the ΔX during 0440-0510 UT is shown to be consistent with the characteristics of prompt penetration electric field disturbances. Most importantly, the density pulse event caused enhancements in the equatorial electrojet strength and the peak height of the F layer (hmF2) over the Indian dip equatorial sector. Further, the concomitant enhancements in electrojet current and F layer movement over the dip equator observed during this space weather event suggest a common driver of prompt electric field disturbance at this time. Such simultaneous variations are found to be absent during magnetically quiet days. In absence of significant change in solar wind velocity and magnetospheric substorm activity, these observations point toward perceptible prompt electric field disturbance over the dip equator driven by the overcompression of the magnetosphere by solar wind density enhancement.

  17. Why do people pirate? A neuroimaging investigation.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2016-05-08

    It is not uncommon for people to openly admit to pirating information from the internet despite the known legal consequences. Those same people are often less inclined to steal the same physical item from a shop. This raises the question, why do people have fewer reservations with stealing intangible items compared to tangible? Using questionnaires and fMRI we provide evidence across three studies as to the differences between tangible and intangible theft. In a questionnaire (Study 1), participants revealed that across different conditions they were more willing to steal intangible compared to tangible goods. Study 2a used fMRI to reveal that a network involved in imagining objects was more active when participants were representing intangible versus tangible objects, suggesting people have greater difficulty representing intangible items. Study 2b used fMRI to show that when stealing tangible objects versus intangible, participants had increased activation in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, an area typically activated in response to morally laden situations. The findings from the current investigation provide novel insights into the higher prevalence of intangible theft and suggest that differential neural representation of tangible and intangible items may, in part, explain why people are more willing to steal intangible items.

  18. Neuroimaging and Genetics: Exploring, Searching, and Finding

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Dirk J. A.; van ‘t Ent, Dennis; de Zubicaray, Greig; Stein, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    This issue on the genetics of brain imaging phenotypes is a celebration of the happy marriage between two of science’s highly interesting fields: neuroscience and genetics. The articles collected here are ample evidence that a good deal of synergy exists in this marriage. A wide selection of papers is presented that provide many different perspectives on how genes cause variation in brain structure and function, which in turn influence behavioral phenotypes (including psychopathology). They are examples of the many different methodologies in contemporary genetics and neuroscience research. Genetic methodology includes genome-wide association (GWA), candidate-gene association, and twin studies. Sources of data on brain phenotypes include cortical gray matter (GM) structural/volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); white matter (WM)measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), such as fractional anisotropy; functional- (activity-) based measures from electroencephalography (EEG), and functional MRI (fMRI). Together, they reflect a combination of scientific fields that have seen great technological advances, whether it is the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in genetics, the increasingly high-resolution MRI imaging, or high angular resolution diffusion imaging technique for measuring WM connective properties. PMID:22856362

  19. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  20. Genetic imaging consortium for addiction medicine: From neuroimaging to genes.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Scott; Kan, Kees-Jan; Chaarani, Bader; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Batalla, Albert; Brooks, Samantha; Cousijn, Janna; Dagher, Alain; de Ruiter, Michiel; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Goldstein, Rita Z; Goudriaan, Anna E; Heitzeg, Mary M; Hutchison, Kent; Li, Chiang-Shan R; London, Edythe D; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Luijten, Maartje; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Morales, Angelica M; Paulus, Martin P; Paus, Tomas; Pearlson, Godfrey; Schluter, Renée; Momenan, Reza; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Sinha, Rajita; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Elliot A; Solowij, Nadia; Tapert, Susan; Uhlmann, Anne; Veltman, Dick; van Holst, Ruth; Walter, Henrik; Wright, Margaret J; Yucel, Murat; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Hibar, Derrek P; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Since the sample size of a typical neuroimaging study lacks sufficient statistical power to explore unknown genomic associations with brain phenotypes, several international genetic imaging consortia have been organized in recent years to pool data across sites. The challenges and achievements of these consortia are considered here with the goal of leveraging these resources to study addiction. The authors of this review have joined together to form an Addiction working group within the framework of the ENIGMA project, a meta-analytic approach to multisite genetic imaging data. Collectively, the Addiction working group possesses neuroimaging and genomic data obtained from over 10,000 subjects. The deadline for contributing data to the first round of analyses occurred at the beginning of May 2015. The studies performed on this data should significantly impact our understanding of the genetic and neurobiological basis of addiction.

  1. Neuroimaging in Tourette Syndrome: Research Highlights From 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Deanna J.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Black, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (ts) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder of the central nervous system defined by the presence of chronic tics. While investigations of the underlying brain mechanisms have provided valuable information, a complete understanding of the pathophysiology of ts remains elusive. Neuroimaging methods provide remarkable tools for examining the human brain, and have been used to study brain structure and function in ts. In this article, we review ts neuroimaging studies published in 2014–2015. We highlight a number of noteworthy studies due to their innovative methods and interesting findings. Yet, we note that many of the recent studies share common concerns, specifically susceptibility to motion artifacts and modest sample sizes. Thus, we encourage future work to carefully address potential methodological confounds and to study larger samples to increase the potential for replicable results. PMID:26543796

  2. The role of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of headache disorders

    PubMed Central

    Obermann, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Headache is a common clinical feature in patients in the emergency room and in general neurology clinics. For physicians not experienced in headache disorders it might be difficult sometimes to decide in which patients neuroimaging is necessary to diagnose an underlying brain pathology and in which patients cerebral imaging is unnecessary. Most patients presenting to the primary-care physician with a nonacute headache and no further neurological signs or symptoms will not be suffering from an underlying serious condition. This review focuses on the main primary headache diseases, including migraine, tension-type headache and cluster headache, as well as frequent secondary headache entities with common clinical presentation and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms to help guide the decision on the utilization of neuroimaging in the diagnostic workup. PMID:24228072

  3. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    PubMed

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation.

  4. The neural network for tool-related cognition: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 70 neuroimaging contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Ryo; Pobric, Gorana; Saito, Satoru; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to recognize and use a variety of tools is an intriguing human cognitive function. Multiple neuroimaging studies have investigated neural activations with various types of tool-related tasks. In the present paper, we reviewed tool-related neural activations reported in 70 contrasts from 56 neuroimaging studies and performed a series of activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to identify tool-related cortical circuits dedicated either to general tool knowledge or to task-specific processes. The results indicate the following: (a) Common, task-general processing regions for tools are located in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and ventral premotor cortex; and (b) task-specific regions are located in superior parietal lobule (SPL) and dorsal premotor area for imagining/executing actions with tools and in bilateral occipito-temporal cortex for recognizing/naming tools. The roles of these regions in task-general and task-specific activities are discussed with reference to evidence from neuropsychology, experimental psychology and other neuroimaging studies. PMID:27362967

  5. Neuroimaging essentials in essential tremor: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Sarvi; Nederveen, Aart J.; Booij, Jan; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Background Essential tremor is regarded to be a disease of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging is a rapidly growing field with potential benefits to both diagnostics and research. The exact role of imaging techniques with respect to essential tremor in research and clinical practice is not clear. A systematic review of the different imaging techniques in essential tremor is lacking in the literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms essential tremor and familial tremor with the following keywords: imaging, MRI, VBM, DWI, fMRI, PET and SPECT, both in abbreviated form as well as in full form. We summarize and discuss the quality and the external validity of each study and place the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of essential tremor. Results A total of 48 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 29 functional and metabolic studies. The quality of the studies varied, especially concerning inclusion criteria. Functional imaging studies indicated cerebellar hyperactivity during rest and during tremor. The studies also pointed to the involvement of the thalamus, the inferior olive and the red nucleus. Structural studies showed less consistent results. Discussion and conclusion Neuroimaging techniques in essential tremor give insight into the pathophysiology of essential tremor indicating the involvement of the cerebellum as the most consistent finding. GABAergic dysfunction might be a major premise in the pathophysiological hypotheses. Inconsistencies between studies can be partly explained by the inclusion of heterogeneous patient groups. Improvement of scientific research requires more stringent inclusion criteria and application of advanced analysis techniques. Also, the use of multimodal neuroimaging techniques is a promising development in movement disorders research. Currently, the role of imaging techniques in essential tremor in daily

  6. Triangulating perspectives on functional neuroimaging for disorders of mental health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging is being used in clinical psychiatry today despite the vigorous objections of many in the research community over issues of readiness. To date, a systematic examination of the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in this debate has not yet been attempted. To this fill this gap, we interviewed investigators who conduct functional neuroimaging studies involving adults with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, providers who offer clinical neuroimaging services in the open marketplace, and consumers of these services, in order to understand perspectives underlying different views and practices. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone. Verbal consent was obtained and all interviews were audio recorded. Interviews of investigators and service providers followed the same interview guide. A separate set of questions was developed for consumers. All interviews were transcribed and made software ready. We applied the qualitative methodology of constant comparison to analyze the data, whereby two researchers independently analyzed the results into textual themes. Coding discrepancies were discussed until consensus was achieved. Results Investigators, service providers, and consumers held many common perspectives about the potential or actual risks and benefits of functional neuroimaging for mental illness. However, we also found striking divergences. Service providers focused on the challenges posed by the persistence of symptoms based diagnostic categories, whereas the limitations of the science in this area was the challenge noted most frequently by investigators. The majority of consumers stated that their expectations were met. Conclusion Our findings point toward a fundamental tension between academic investigators on the one hand, and commercial service providers and their customers on the other. This scenario poses dangers to

  7. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis in Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron; Feng, Dagan D.

    2016-01-01

    The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC) to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed nine types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI, and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging. PMID:26941639

  8. Exploration of Prostate Cancer Treatment Induced Neurotoxicity with Neuroimaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0033 TITLE: Exploration of Prostate Cancer Treatment Induced...Prostate Cancer Treatment Induced Neurotoxicity with Neuroimaging 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0033 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeri...consequences on brain health of prostate cancer treatments in men despite data suggesting that ADT may cause memory or other cognitive impairments. Our study

  9. Neonatal Neuroimaging Findings in Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Poretti, Andrea; Blaser, Susan I.; Lequin, Maarten H.; Fatemi, Ali; Meoded, Avner; Northington, Frances J.; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individually, metabolic disorders are rare, but overall they account for a significant number of neonatal disorders affecting the central nervous system. The neonatal clinical manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are characterized by nonspecific systemic symptoms that may mimic more common acute neonatal disorders like sepsis, severe heart insufficiency, or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Certain IEMs presenting in the neonatal period may also be complicated by sepsis and cardiomyopathy. Early diagnosis is mandatory to prevent death and permanent long-term neurological impairments. Although neuroimaging findings are rarely specific, they play a key role in suggesting the correct diagnosis, limiting the differential diagnosis, and may consequently allow early initiation of targeted metabolic and genetic laboratory investigations and treatment. Neuroimaging may be especially helpful to distinguish metabolic disorders from other more common causes of neonatal encephalopathy, as a newborn may present with an IEM prior to the availability of the newborn screening results. It is therefore important that neonatologists, pediatric neurologists, and pediatric neuroradiologists are familiar with the neuroimaging findings of metabolic disorders presenting in the neonatal time period. PMID:22566357

  10. Neuroimaging of Cerebrovascular Disease in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Nair, Sreejit; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Kishore, Sirish; Johnson, Carl E.; Comunale, Joseph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease remains a significant public health burden with its greatest impact on the elderly population. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow detailed and sophisticated evaluation of many manifestations of cerebrovascular disease in the brain parenchyma as well as in the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. These tools continue to contribute to our understanding of the multifactorial processes that occur in the age-dependent development of cerebrovascular disease. Structural abnormalities related to vascular disease in the brain and vessels have been well characterized with CT and MRI based techniques. We review some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms in the aging brain and cerebral vasculature and the related structural abnormalities detectable on neuroimaging, including evaluation of age-related white matter changes, atherosclerosis of the cerebral vasculature, and cerebral infarction. In addition, newer neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion techniques, and assessment of cerebrovascular reserve, are also reviewed, as these techniques can detect physiologic alterations which complement the morphologic changes that cause cerebrovascular disease in the aging brain.Further investigation of these advanced imaging techniques has potential application to the understanding and diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. PMID:23185721

  11. Pain in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, D.; Foley, P.; Palace, J.; Lima, D.; Ramos, I.; Tracey, I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, in many cases the precise mechanisms are unclear. Neuroimaging studies could have a valuable role in investigating the aetiology of pain syndromes. The aim of this review was to synthesise and appraise the current literature on neuroimaging studies of pain syndromes in MS. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus from their inception dates to the 2nd of April 2013. Studies were selected by predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality was appraised. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted. Results We identified 38 studies of variable methodology and quality. All studies but one used conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging, and the majority reported a positive association between location of demyelinating lesions and specific neuropathic pain syndromes. Most investigated headache and facial pain, with more common pain syndromes such as limb pain being relatively understudied. We identified a number of methodological concerns, which along with variable study design and reporting limit our ability to synthesise data. Higher quality studies were however less likely to report positive associations of lesion distribution to pain syndromes. Conclusions Further high quality hypothesis-driven neuroimaging studies of pain syndromes in MS are required to clarify pain mechanisms, particularly for the commonest pain syndromes. PMID:25161898

  12. Sharing brain mapping statistical results with the neuroimaging data model

    PubMed Central

    Maumet, Camille; Auer, Tibor; Bowring, Alexander; Chen, Gang; Das, Samir; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit; Glatard, Tristan; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Helmer, Karl G.; Jenkinson, Mark; Keator, David B.; Nichols, B. Nolan; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Reynolds, Richard; Sochat, Vanessa; Turner, Jessica; Nichols, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Only a tiny fraction of the data and metadata produced by an fMRI study is finally conveyed to the community. This lack of transparency not only hinders the reproducibility of neuroimaging results but also impairs future meta-analyses. In this work we introduce NIDM-Results, a format specification providing a machine-readable description of neuroimaging statistical results along with key image data summarising the experiment. NIDM-Results provides a unified representation of mass univariate analyses including a level of detail consistent with available best practices. This standardized representation allows authors to relay methods and results in a platform-independent regularized format that is not tied to a particular neuroimaging software package. Tools are available to export NIDM-Result graphs and associated files from the widely used SPM and FSL software packages, and the NeuroVault repository can import NIDM-Results archives. The specification is publically available at: http://nidm.nidash.org/specs/nidm-results.html. PMID:27922621

  13. Sharing brain mapping statistical results with the neuroimaging data model.

    PubMed

    Maumet, Camille; Auer, Tibor; Bowring, Alexander; Chen, Gang; Das, Samir; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit; Glatard, Tristan; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Helmer, Karl G; Jenkinson, Mark; Keator, David B; Nichols, B Nolan; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Reynolds, Richard; Sochat, Vanessa; Turner, Jessica; Nichols, Thomas E

    2016-12-06

    Only a tiny fraction of the data and metadata produced by an fMRI study is finally conveyed to the community. This lack of transparency not only hinders the reproducibility of neuroimaging results but also impairs future meta-analyses. In this work we introduce NIDM-Results, a format specification providing a machine-readable description of neuroimaging statistical results along with key image data summarising the experiment. NIDM-Results provides a unified representation of mass univariate analyses including a level of detail consistent with available best practices. This standardized representation allows authors to relay methods and results in a platform-independent regularized format that is not tied to a particular neuroimaging software package. Tools are available to export NIDM-Result graphs and associated files from the widely used SPM and FSL software packages, and the NeuroVault repository can import NIDM-Results archives. The specification is publically available at: http://nidm.nidash.org/specs/nidm-results.html.

  14. [Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-06-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed.

  15. Research updates in neuroimaging studies of children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soo-Eun

    2014-05-01

    In the past two decades, neuroimaging investigations of stuttering have led to important discoveries of structural and functional brain differences in people who stutter, providing significant clues to the neurological basis of stuttering. One major limitation, however, has been that most studies so far have only examined adults who stutter, whose brain and behavior likely would have adopted compensatory reactions to their stuttering; these confounding factors have made interpretations of the findings difficult. Developmental stuttering is a neurodevelopmental condition, and like many other neurodevelopmental disorders, stuttering is associated with an early childhood onset of symptoms and greater incidence in males relative to females. More recent studies have begun to examine children who stutter using various neuroimaging techniques that allow examination of functional neuroanatomy and interaction of major brain areas that differentiate children who stutter compared with age-matched controls. In this article, I review these more recent neuroimaging investigations of children who stutter, in the context of what we know about typical brain development, neuroplasticity, and sex differences relevant to speech and language development. Although the picture is still far from complete, these studies have potential to provide information that can be used as early objective markers, or prognostic indicators, for persistent stuttering in the future. Furthermore, these studies are the first steps in finding potential neural targets for novel therapies that may involve modulating neuroplastic growth conducive to developing and maintaining fluent speech, which can be applied to treatment of young children who stutter.

  16. Multimodal functional neuroimaging: integrating functional MRI and EEG/MEG.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Liu, Zhongming

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive functional neuroimaging, as an important tool for basic neuroscience research and clinical diagnosis, continues to face the need of improving the spatial and temporal resolution. While existing neuroimaging modalities might approach their limits in imaging capability mostly due to fundamental as well as technical reasons, it becomes increasingly attractive to integrate multiple complementary modalities in an attempt to significantly enhance the spatiotemporal resolution that cannot be achieved by any modality individually. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic/metabolic signals reflect distinct but closely coupled aspects of the underlying neural activity. Combining fMRI and EEG/MEG data allows us to study brain function from different perspectives. In this review, we start with an overview of the physiological origins of EEG/MEG and fMRI, as well as their fundamental biophysics and imaging principles, we proceed with a review of the major advances in the understanding and modeling of neurovascular coupling and in the methodologies for the fMRI-EEG/MEG simultaneous recording. Finally, we summarize important remaining issues and perspectives concerning multimodal functional neuroimaging, including brain connectivity imaging.

  17. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism.

    PubMed

    Good, Ryan J; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V; Press, Craig A; Carpenter, Todd C

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots.

  18. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism-from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to twenty-first century product naming. It synthesizes recent behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. The review finishes by describing how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language.

  19. A practical review of the neuropathology and neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Paul M; Roncaroli, Frederico; Waldman, Adam; Sormani, Maria Pia; De Stefano, Nicola; Giovannoni, Gavin; Reynolds, Richard

    2016-08-01

    The variability in the severity and clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has as its basis an extreme heterogeneity in the location, nature and extent of pathology in the brain and spinal cord. Understanding the underlying neuropathology and associated pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease helps to communicate the rationale for treatment and disease monitoring to patients. Neuroimaging is an important tool for this: it allows clinicians to relate neuropathological changes to clinical presentations and to monitor the course of their disease. Here, we review MS neuropathology and its imaging correlates to provide a practical guide for using MRI to assess disease severity and treatment responses. This provides a foundation for optimal management of patients based on the principle that they show 'no evidence of disease activity'.

  20. Long-term outcome of preterm infants and the role of neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Myers, Eliza; Ment, Laura R

    2009-12-01

    Preterm birth has been defined as one of the major public health problems of this decade, preterm neonates being at high risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. As preterm survival rates increase, the next great imperative for perinatal medicine is to understand and prevent the serious adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm birth. The challenge for neonatologists and neurologists alike is identifying early markers of outcome in the prematurely born. This article reviews current trends in prevalence, mortality, and morbidity, and the present status of outcome data for cognitive and neurosensory neurodevelopmental dysfunctions in preterm infants. New neuroimaging modalities and analysis tools are contributing to the understanding of neurologic sequelae of preterm birth by providing microstructural evidence of injury sustained by the preterm brain.

  1. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism—from infants to adults, and from Sapir’s foundational studies to twenty-first century product naming. It synthesizes recent behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. The review finishes by describing how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language. PMID:26379581

  2. Neuroimaging in social anxiety disorder: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecilia; Hallak, Jaime E C; Trzesniak, Clarissa; Filho, Alaor Santos; Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Nardi, Antonio E; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2010-05-30

    Brain imaging techniques allow the in vivo evaluation of the human brain, leading to a better understanding of its anatomical, functional and metabolic substrate. The aim of this current report is to present a systematic and critical review of neuroimaging findings in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A literature review was performed in the PubMed Medline, Scielo and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: 'MRI', 'functional', 'tomography', 'PET', 'SPECT', 'spectroscopy', 'relaxometry', 'tractography' and 'voxel' crossed one by one with the terms 'social anxiety' and 'social phobic', with no limit of time. We selected 196 articles and 48 of them were included in our review. Most of the included studies have explored the neural response to facial expressions of emotion, symptoms provocation paradigms, and disorder-related abnormalities in dopamine or serotonin neurotransmission. The most coherent finding among the brain imaging techniques reflects increased activity in limbic and paralimbic regions in SAD. The predominance of evidence implicating the amygdala strengthens the notion that it plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of SAD. The observation of alterations in pre-frontal regions and the reduced activity observed in striatal and parietal areas show that much remains to be investigated within the complexity of SAD. Interesting, follow-up designed studies observed a decrease in perfusion in these same areas after either by pharmacological or psychological treatment. The medial prefrontal cortex provided additional support for a corticolimbic model of SAD pathophysiology, being a promising area to investigation. Furthermore, the dopaminergic and GABAergic hypotheses seem directed related to its physiopathology. The present review indicates that neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the neurobiology of SAD. Although there were several methodological differences among the studies, the global results have often been

  3. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  4. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  5. Electric fields associated with small-scale magnetic holes in the plasma sheet: Evidence for electron currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Stawarz, Julia E.

    2016-06-01

    We report observations of magnetic holes (MHs) in the near-Earth (8 RE to 12 RE) plasma sheet that have physical sizes perpendicular to the magnetic field (B) on the order of the ion Larmor radius (ρi) and, more importantly, have current layers less than ρi in thickness. Small-scale MHs can have >90% depletion in |B| and are commonly associated with the braking of bursty bulk flow events. The generation of MHs is often attributed to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, which requires a size greater than ρi; the depletion in |B| is from an ion current consistent with a pressure gradient. Electric field (E) observations indicate a negative potential inside of small-scale MHs that creates an outward E at the boundary, which drives an E × B electron current in a thin layer. These observations indicate that a Hall electron current is primarily responsible for the depletion of |B| in small-scale magnetic holes, rather than the ion pressure gradient.

  6. Experimental evidence and modeling studies support a synchronizing role for electrical coupling in the cat thalamic reticular neurons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, Pablo; Crochet, Sylvain; Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Steriade, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    Thalamic reticular (RE) neurons are crucially implicated in brain rhythms. Here, we report that RE neurons of adult cats, recorded and stained intracellularly in vivo, displayed spontaneously occurring spikelets, which are characteristic of central neurons that are coupled electrotonically via gap junctions. Spikelets occurred spontaneously during spindles, an oscillation in which RE neurons play a leading role, as well as during interspindle lulls. They were significantly different from excitatory postsynaptic potentials and also distinct from fast prepotentials that are presumably dendritic spikes generated synaptically. Spikelets were strongly reduced by halothane, a blocker of gap junctions. Multi-site extracellular recordings performed before, during and after administration of halothane demonstrated a role for electrical coupling in the synchronization of spindling activity within the RE nucleus. Finally, computational models of RE neurons predicted that gap junctions between these neurons could mediate the spread of low-frequency activity at great distances. These experimental and modeling data suggest that electrotonic coupling within the RE nucleus plays an important role in the generation and synchronization of low-frequency (spindling) activities in the thalamus. PMID:15245484

  7. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  8. Neuroimaging and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Extremely Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Patrick D.; Bulas, Dorothy; Slovis, Thomas L.; Finer, Neil N.; Wrage, Lisa A.; Das, Abhik; Tyson, Jon E.; Stevenson, David K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Faix, Roger G.; Rich, Wade; Newman, Nancy S.; Cheng, Helen; Heyne, Roy J.; Vohr, Betty R.; Acarregui, Michael J.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Pappas, Athina; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Evans, Patricia W.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Myers, Gary J.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Fuller, Janell; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Early cranial ultrasound (CUS) is usual practice, but near-term brain MRI has been reported to better predict outcomes. We prospectively evaluated MRI white matter abnormality (WMA) and cerebellar lesions, and serial CUS adverse findings as predictors of outcomes at 18 to 22 months’ corrected age. METHODS: Early and late CUS, and brain MRI were read by masked central readers, in a large cohort (n = 480) of infants <28 weeks’ gestation surviving to near term in the Neonatal Research Network. Outcomes included NDI or death after neuroimaging, and significant gross motor impairment or death, with NDI defined as cognitive composite score <70, significant gross motor impairment, and severe hearing or visual impairment. Multivariable models evaluated the relative predictive value of neuroimaging while controlling for other factors. RESULTS: Of 480 infants, 15 died and 20 were lost. Increasing severity of WMA and significant cerebellar lesions on MRI were associated with adverse outcomes. Cerebellar lesions were rarely identified by CUS. In full multivariable models, both late CUS and MRI, but not early CUS, remained independently associated with NDI or death (MRI cerebellar lesions: odds ratio, 3.0 [95% confidence interval: 1.3–6.8]; late CUS: odds ratio, 9.8 [95% confidence interval: 2.8–35]), and significant gross motor impairment or death. In models that did not include late CUS, MRI moderate-severe WMA was independently associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Both late CUS and near-term MRI abnormalities were associated with outcomes, independent of early CUS and other factors, underscoring the relative prognostic value of near-term neuroimaging. PMID:25554820

  9. High-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Ivo D; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Hobel, Sam; Vespa, Paul; Woo Moon, Seok; Van Horn, John D; Franco, Joseph; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary neuroscientific investigations face significant challenges in terms of data management, computational processing, data mining, and results interpretation. These four pillars define the core infrastructure necessary to plan, organize, orchestrate, validate, and disseminate novel scientific methods, computational resources, and translational healthcare findings. Data management includes protocols for data acquisition, archival, query, transfer, retrieval, and aggregation. Computational processing involves the necessary software, hardware, and networking infrastructure required to handle large amounts of heterogeneous neuroimaging, genetics, clinical, and phenotypic data and meta-data. Data mining refers to the process of automatically extracting data features, characteristics and associations, which are not readily visible by human exploration of the raw dataset. Result interpretation includes scientific visualization, community validation of findings and reproducible findings. In this manuscript we describe the novel high-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure available at the Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics (INI) and the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) at University of Southern California (USC). INI and LONI include ultra-high-field and standard-field MRI brain scanners along with an imaging-genetics database for storing the complete provenance of the raw and derived data and meta-data. In addition, the institute provides a large number of software tools for image and shape analysis, mathematical modeling, genomic sequence processing, and scientific visualization. A unique feature of this architecture is the Pipeline environment, which integrates the data management, processing, transfer, and visualization. Through its client-server architecture, the Pipeline environment provides a graphical user interface for designing, executing, monitoring validating, and disseminating of complex protocols that utilize

  10. High-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Hobel, Sam; Vespa, Paul; Woo Moon, Seok; Van Horn, John D.; Franco, Joseph; Toga, Arthur W.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary neuroscientific investigations face significant challenges in terms of data management, computational processing, data mining, and results interpretation. These four pillars define the core infrastructure necessary to plan, organize, orchestrate, validate, and disseminate novel scientific methods, computational resources, and translational healthcare findings. Data management includes protocols for data acquisition, archival, query, transfer, retrieval, and aggregation. Computational processing involves the necessary software, hardware, and networking infrastructure required to handle large amounts of heterogeneous neuroimaging, genetics, clinical, and phenotypic data and meta-data. Data mining refers to the process of automatically extracting data features, characteristics and associations, which are not readily visible by human exploration of the raw dataset. Result interpretation includes scientific visualization, community validation of findings and reproducible findings. In this manuscript we describe the novel high-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure available at the Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics (INI) and the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) at University of Southern California (USC). INI and LONI include ultra-high-field and standard-field MRI brain scanners along with an imaging-genetics database for storing the complete provenance of the raw and derived data and meta-data. In addition, the institute provides a large number of software tools for image and shape analysis, mathematical modeling, genomic sequence processing, and scientific visualization. A unique feature of this architecture is the Pipeline environment, which integrates the data management, processing, transfer, and visualization. Through its client-server architecture, the Pipeline environment provides a graphical user interface for designing, executing, monitoring validating, and disseminating of complex protocols that utilize

  11. Neuroimaging and other investigations in patients presenting with headache

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Callum W.

    2012-01-01

    Headache is very common. In the United Kingdom, it accounts for 4.4% of primary care consultations, 30% of referrals to neurology services and 0.5–0.8% of alert patients presenting to emergency departments. Primary headache disorders account for the majority of patients and most patients do not require investigation. Warning features (red flags) in the history and on examination help target those who need investigation and what investigations are required. This article summarizes the typical presentations of the common secondary headaches and what neuroimaging and other investigations are appropriate for each headache type. PMID:23024561

  12. Functional Neuroimaging Investigations of Motor Networks in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, Aribert; Roessner, Veit

    2013-01-01

    Motor and vocal tics are the core symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS). Tic generation seems to develop throughout the known motor pathways. This review focuses on functional neuroimaging in order to check this assumption. Also it elucidates the alterations and interactions of motor networks in TS depending on different contexts and circumstances like resting state, spontaneous tic movements, suppression of tics and premonitory urges, voluntary goal-oriented movements as well as electrophysiological neuronal stimulation. In general, the primary tic generating motor network uses the basic motor pathways differently, interacts with secondary sensorimotor networks and neuronal systems of cognitive behavioural control in a merely hierarchical manner, changing during neurodevelopment. PMID:23187141

  13. Age-specific MRI templates for pediatric neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carmen E.; Richards, John E.; Almli, C. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study created a database of pediatric age-specific MRI brain templates for normalization and segmentation. Participants included children from 4.5 through 19.5 years, totaling 823 scans from 494 subjects. Open-source processing programs (FSL, SPM, ANTS) constructed head, brain and segmentation templates in 6 month intervals. The tissue classification (WM, GM, CSF) showed changes over age similar to previous reports. A volumetric analysis of age-related changes in WM and GM based on these templates showed expected increase/decrease pattern in GM and an increase in WM over the sampled ages. This database is available for use for neuroimaging studies (blindedforreview). PMID:22799759

  14. Multimodal Neuroimaging-Informed Clinical Applications in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Rafael; Kopell, Brian H.; Sprooten, Emma; Goodman, Wayne K.; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key gray matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability therefore relevant

  15. Neuroimaging and sexual behavior: identification of regional and functional differences.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Joseph C; Secondary, Joseph; Burke, William H; Fedoroff, J Paul; Dwyer, R Gregg

    2015-07-01

    The neuroanatomical correlates of human sexual desire, arousal, and behavior have been characterized in recent years with functional brain imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we briefly review the results of functional neuroimaging studies in humans, whether healthy or suffering from sexual disorders, and the current models of regional and network activation in sexual arousal. Attention is paid, in particular, to findings from both regional and network studies in the past 3 years. We also identify yet unanswered and pressing questions of interest to areas of ongoing investigations for psychiatric, scientific, and forensic disciplines.

  16. Multimodal Neuroimaging-Informed Clinical Applications in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Rafael; Kopell, Brian H; Sprooten, Emma; Goodman, Wayne K; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key gray matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability therefore relevant

  17. Bifurcation in the Steady-State Height of Colloidal Particles near an Electrode in Oscillatory Electric Fields: Evidence for a Tertiary Potential Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehl, T. J.; Chen, B. J.; Heatley, K. L.; Talken, N. H.; Bukosky, S. C.; Dutcher, C. S.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2015-01-01

    Application of an oscillatory electric field is known to alter the separation distance between micron-scale colloidal particles and an adjacent electrode. This behavior is believed to be partially due to a lift force caused by electrohydrodynamic flow generated around each particle, with previous work focused on identifying a single steady-state "height" of the individual particles over the electrode. Here, we report the existence of a pronounced bifurcation in the particle height in response to low-frequency electric fields. Optical and confocal microscopy observations reveal that application of a ˜100 Hz field induces some of the particles to rapidly move several particle diameters up from the electrode, while the others move closer to the electrode. Statistics compiled from repeated trials demonstrate that the likelihood for a particle to move up follows a binomial distribution, indicating that the height bifurcation is random and does not result from membership in some distinct subpopulation of particles. The fraction of particles that move up increases with increased applied potential and decreased frequency, in a fashion qualitatively consistent with an energy landscape predicated on competition between electrohydrodynamic flow, colloidal interactions, and gravitational forces. Taken together, the results provide evidence for the existence of a deep tertiary minimum in the effective electrode-particle interaction potential at a surprisingly large distance from the electrode.

  18. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel B; Massari, Aaron M

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  19. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation

    SciTech Connect

    O’Brien, Daniel B.; Massari, Aaron M.

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  20. Geometry and faults tectonic activity of the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Evidence from magnetotelluric and electrical resistivity tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufford, Kelsey Mosley; Atekwana, Estella A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Shemang, Elijah; Atekwana, Eliot A.; Mickus, Kevin; Moidaki, Moikwathai; Modisi, Motsoptse P.; Molwalefhe, Loago

    2012-04-01

    We used Magnetotelluric (MT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to investigate the geometry and nature of faults activity of the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in Botswana, an incipient rift at the southern tip of the Southwestern Branch of the East African Rift System. The ORZ forms a subtle topographic depression filled with Quaternary lacustrine and fluvio-deltaic sediments and is bounded by NE-trending normal faults that are more prominent in the southeastern portion of the rift basin. An MT model from a regional (˜140 km) NW-SE trending MT transect shows that much of the rift basin is underlain by a broad asymmetrical low resistivity anomaly that slopes gently (˜1°) from NW to SE reaching a depth of ˜300 m. This anomaly suggests that faults in the southeastern part of the rift form a NW-dipping border fault zone and that the lacustrine and fluvio-deltaic sediments contain brackish to saline water filling the broad half-graben structure. Furthermore, MT and ERT models from detailed (4-13 km long) MT transects and resistivity profiles show that one border fault (Thamalakane) and two within-basin faults (Lecha and Tsau) in the southeastern part of the ORZ are characterized by a localized high conductivity anomaly while another border fault (Kunyere) lacks such an anomaly. These localized anomalies are attributed to channelized fresh surface water and saline groundwater percolating through these faults forming "fault zone conductors" and suggest actively displacing faults. The lack of a "fault zone conductor" in the Kunyere fault is interpreted as indicating diminishing displacement on this fault, and that strain was transferred to the Thamalakane fault further to the east. The fluids provide lubricant for the ORZ faults, hence preventing infrequent large magnitude earthquakes, but favoring frequent micro-seismicity.

  1. Sleep modulates cortical connectivity and excitability in humans: Direct evidence from neural activity induced by single-pulse electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Usami, Kiyohide; Matsumoto, Riki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Hitomi, Takefumi; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsuhashi, Masao; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Sleep-induced changes in human brain connectivity/excitability and their physiologic basis remain unclear, especially in the frontal lobe. We investigated sleep-induced connectivity and excitability changes in 11 patients who underwent chronic implantation of subdural electrodes for epilepsy surgery. Single-pulse electrical stimuli were directly injected to a part of the cortices, and cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) and CCEP-related high-gamma activities (HGA: 100-200 Hz) were recorded from adjacent and remote cortices as proxies of effective connectivity and induced neuronal activity, respectively. HGA power during the initial CCEP component (N1) correlated with the N1 size itself across all states investigated. The degree of cortical connectivity and excitability changed during sleep depending on sleep stage, approximately showing dichotomy of awake vs. non-rapid eye movement (REM) [NREM] sleep. On the other hand, REM sleep partly had properties of both awake and NREM sleep, placing itself in the intermediate state between them. Compared with the awake state, single-pulse stimulation especially during NREM sleep induced increased connectivity (N1 size) and neuronal excitability (HGA increase at N1), which was immediately followed by intense inhibition (HGA decrease). The HGA decrease was temporally followed by the N2 peak (the second CCEP component), and then by HGA re-increase during sleep across all lobes. This HGA rebound or re-increase of neuronal synchrony was largest in the frontal lobe compared with the other lobes. These properties of sleep-induced changes of the cortex may be related to unconsciousness during sleep and frequent nocturnal seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  2. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-09-05

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  3. Multimodal neuroimaging based classification of autism spectrum disorder using anatomical, neurochemical, and white matter correlates

    PubMed Central

    Libero, Lauren E.; DeRamus, Thomas P.; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) have uncovered evidence for widespread functional and anatomical brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggesting it to be a system-wide neural systems disorder. Nevertheless, most previous studies have focused on examining one index of neuropathology through a single neuroimaging modality, and seldom using multiple modalities to examine the same cohort of individuals. The current study aims to bring together multiple brain imaging modalities (structural MRI, DTI, and 1H-MRS) to investigate the neural architecture in the same set of individuals (19 high-functioning adults with ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) peers). Morphometry analysis revealed increased cortical thickness in ASD participants, relative to typical controls, across the left cingulate, left pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal cortex, and right precuneus, and reduced cortical thickness in right cuneus and right precentral gyrus. ASD adults also had reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) for two clusters on the forceps minor of the corpus callosum, revealed by DTI analyses. 1H-MRS results showed a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/Creatine ratio in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in ASD participants. A decision tree classification analysis across the three modalities resulted in classification accuracy of 91.9% with FA, RD, and cortical thickness as key predictors. Examining the same cohort of adults with ASD and their TD peers, this study found alterations in cortical thickness, white matter (WM) connectivity, and neurochemical concentration in ASD. These findings underscore the potential for multimodal imaging to better inform on the neural characteristics most relevant to the disorder. PMID:25797658

  4. Use of advanced neuroimaging techniques in the evaluation of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ashwal, Stephen; Holshouser, Barbara A; Tong, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging techniques are now used to expand our knowledge of traumatic brain injury, and increasingly, they are being applied to children. This review will examine four of these methods as they apply to children who present acutely after injury. (1) Susceptibility weighted imaging is a 3-dimensional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging technique that is more sensitive than conventional imaging in detecting hemorrhagic lesions that are often associated with diffuse axonal injury. (2) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquires metabolite information reflecting neuronal integrity and function from multiple brain regions and provides sensitive, noninvasive assessment of neurochemical alterations that offers early prognostic information regarding the outcome. (3) Diffusion weighted imaging is based on differences in diffusion of water molecules within the brain and has been shown to be very sensitive in the early detection of ischemic injury. It is now being used to study the direct effects of traumatic injury as well as those due to secondary ischemia. (4) Diffusion tensor imaging is a form of diffusion weighted imaging and allows better evaluation of white matter fiber tracts by taking advantage of the intrinsic directionality (anisotropy) of water diffusion in human brain. It has been shown to be useful in identifying white matter abnormalities after diffuse axonal injury when conventional imaging appears normal. An important aspect of these advanced methods is that they demonstrate that 'normal-appearing' brain in many instances is not normal, i.e. there is evidence of significant undetected injury that may underlie a child's clinical status. Availability and integration of these advanced imaging methods will lead to better treatment and change the standard of care for use of neuroimaging to evaluate children with traumatic brain injury.

  5. Multimodal Functional Neuroimaging: Integrating Functional MRI and EEG/MEG

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Liu, Zhongming

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive functional neuroimaging, as an important tool for basic neuroscience research and clinical diagnosis, continues to face the need of improving the spatial and temporal resolution. While existing neuroimaging modalities might approach their limits in imaging capability mostly due to fundamental as well as technical reasons, it becomes increasingly attractive to integrate multiple complementary modalities in an attempt to significantly enhance the spatiotemporal resolution that cannot be achieved by any modality individually. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic/metabolic signals reflect distinct but closely coupled aspects of the underlying neural activity. Combining fMRI and EEG/MEG data allows us to study brain function from different perspectives. In this review, we start with an overview of the physiological origins of EEG/MEG and fMRI, as well as their fundamental biophysics and imaging principles; it is followed by a review of major progresses in understanding and modeling the neurovascular coupling, methodologies for the fMRI-EEG/MEG integration and EEG-fMRI simultaneous recording; finally, important remaining issues and perspectives (including brain connectivity imaging) are summarized. PMID:20634915

  6. [Neuroimaging for patients with Alzheimer disease in routine practice].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    In routine practice neuroimaging has been applied as an adjunct technique for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in routine practice. Of the several neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been commonly used in Japan; further software programs are used to aid statistical analysis of the imaging results. For example voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer disease (VSRAD) for MRI and easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) are used for the analysis of MRI and SPECT. In the early stage of Alzheimer disease, specific findings of regional atrophy and perfusion reduction are observed in some areas. In the posterior cingulate gyrus precuneus and parietal cortex, perfusion reduction was more frequently observed than atrophy. On the other hand, in the medial temporal structures, perfusion reduction was less frequently observed than atrophy. Perfusion reduction in the the posterior cingulate gyrus precuneus and in the parietal cortex was more prominent in the case of patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease than in the case of patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease. Further, atrophy in the medial temporal structures was more prominent in the case of patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease than in the case of those with early-onset Alzheimer disease. These findings are helpful for differentiating of Alzheimer disease from other diseases characterized by dementia.

  7. Behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging studies of acquired apraxia of speech

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tourville, Jason A.; Robin, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    A critical examination of speech motor control depends on an in-depth understanding of network connectivity associated with Brodmann areas 44 and 45 and surrounding cortices. Damage to these areas has been associated with two conditions—the speech motor programming disorder apraxia of speech (AOS) and the linguistic/grammatical disorder of Broca’s aphasia. Here we focus on AOS, which is most commonly associated with damage to posterior Broca’s area (BA) and adjacent cortex. We provide an overview of our own studies into the nature of AOS, including behavioral and neuroimaging methods, to explore components of the speech motor network that are associated with normal and disordered speech motor programming in AOS. Behavioral, neuroimaging, and computational modeling studies are indicating that AOS is associated with impairment in learning feedforward models and/or implementing feedback mechanisms and with the functional contribution of BA6. While functional connectivity methods are not yet routinely applied to the study of AOS, we highlight the need for focusing on the functional impact of localized lesions throughout the speech network, as well as larger scale comparative studies to distinguish the unique behavioral and neurological signature of AOS. By coupling these methods with neural network models, we have a powerful set of tools to improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie AOS, and speech production generally. PMID:25404911

  8. Neuroimaging correlates of pharmacological and psychological treatments for specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Linares, Ila M; Chags, Marcos H N; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Crippa, José A S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2014-01-01

    Specific phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by irrational fear and avoidance of specific things or situations, interfering significantly with the patients' daily life. Treatment for the disorder consists of both pharmacological and psychological approaches, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Neuroimaging techniques have been used in an attempt to improve our understanding of the neurobiology of SP and of the effects of treatment options available. This review describes the design and results of eight articles investigating the neuroimaging correlates of pharmacological and psychological treatments for SP. The studies show that CBT is effective in SP, leading to a reduction of anxiety symptoms that is accompanied by functional alterations in the brain. The results of pharmacological interventions for SP are less uniform, but suggest that the partial agonist of the NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) receptor DCS (D-cycloserine) can be used in combination with psychotherapy techniques for the achievement of quicker treatment response and that DCS modulates the function of structures implicated in the neurobiology of SP. Further research should explore the augmentation of CBT treatment with DCS in controlled trials.

  9. Structural Neuroimaging Markers of Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is a major challenge since it has been established that 25 to 40% of patients will develop cognitive impairment early in the disease. Furthermore, it has been reported that up to 80% of Parkinsonian patients will eventually develop dementia. Thus, it is important to improve the diagnosing procedures in order to detect cognitive impairment at early stages of development and to delay as much as possible the developing of dementia. One major challenge is that patients with mild cognitive impairment exhibit measurable cognitive deficits according to recently established criteria, yet those deficits are not severe enough to interfere with daily living, hence being avoided by patients, and might be overseen by clinicians. Recent advances in neuroimaging brain analysis allowed the establishment of several anatomical markers that have the potential to be considered for early detection of cognitive impairment in Parkinsonian patients. This review aims to outline the neuroimaging possibilities in diagnosing cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease and to take into consideration the near-future possibilities of their implementation into clinical practice.

  10. Anatomical and functional neuroimaging in awake, behaving marmosets.

    PubMed

    Silva, Afonso C

    2017-03-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey that has gained significant recent interest in neuroscience research, not only because of its compatibility with gene editing techniques, but also due to its tremendous versatility as an experimental animal model. Neuroimaging modalities, including anatomical (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), complemented by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain. High-resolution anatomical MRI of the marmoset brain can be obtained with remarkable cytoarchitectonic detail. Functional MRI of the marmoset brain has been used to study various sensory systems, including somatosensory, auditory, and visual pathways, while resting-state fMRI studies have unraveled functional brain networks that bear great correspondence to those previously described in humans. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of the marmoset brain has enabled the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity from thousands of neurons with single cell spatial resolution. In this article, we aim to review the main results obtained by our group and by our colleagues in applying neuroimaging techniques to study the marmoset brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 373-389, 2017.

  11. Structural Neuroimaging Markers of Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is a major challenge since it has been established that 25 to 40% of patients will develop cognitive impairment early in the disease. Furthermore, it has been reported that up to 80% of Parkinsonian patients will eventually develop dementia. Thus, it is important to improve the diagnosing procedures in order to detect cognitive impairment at early stages of development and to delay as much as possible the developing of dementia. One major challenge is that patients with mild cognitive impairment exhibit measurable cognitive deficits according to recently established criteria, yet those deficits are not severe enough to interfere with daily living, hence being avoided by patients, and might be overseen by clinicians. Recent advances in neuroimaging brain analysis allowed the establishment of several anatomical markers that have the potential to be considered for early detection of cognitive impairment in Parkinsonian patients. This review aims to outline the neuroimaging possibilities in diagnosing cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease and to take into consideration the near-future possibilities of their implementation into clinical practice. PMID:27190672

  12. Cognitive disorders in pediatric medulloblastoma: what neuroimaging has to offer.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Duc Ha; Pagnier, Anne; Guichardet, Karine; Dubois-Teklali, Fanny; Schiff, Isabelle; Lyard, Geneviève; Cousin, Emilie; Krainik, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant childhood brain tumors arising in the posterior fossa. Treatment improvements for these tumors have meant that there are a greater number of survivors, but this long-term patient survival has increased the awareness of resulting neurocognitive deficits. Impairments in attention, memory, executive functions, and intelligence quotient demonstrate that the cerebellum likely plays a significant role in numerous higher cognitive functions such as language, cognitive, and emotional functions. In addition, children with medulloblastoma not only have cerebellar lesions but also brain white matter damages due to radiation and chemotherapy. Functional neuroimaging, a noninvasive method with many advantages, has become the standard tool in clinical and cognitive neuroscience research. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies, this review aims to clarify the role of the cerebellum in cognitive function and explain more clearly cognitive sequelae due to polytherapy in children with medulloblastoma. This review suggests that the posterior cerebellar lobes are crucial to maintaining cognitive performance. Clinical investigations could help to better assess the involvement of these lobes in cognitive functions.

  13. Molecular neuroimaging in rodents: assessing receptor expression and function.

    PubMed

    Mueggler, Thomas; Baltes, Christof; Rudin, Markus

    2009-11-01

    Multimodal non-invasive neuroimaging in rodents constitutes an attractive tool for studying neurobiological processes in vivo. At present, imaging studies of brain anatomy and function as well as the investigation of structure-function relationships belong to the standard repertoire of neuroscientists. Molecular imaging adds a new perspective. The mapping of the receptor distribution and receptor occupancy can nowadays be complemented by specific readouts of receptor function either by visualizing the activity of signaling pathways or mapping the physiological consequences of receptor stimulation. Molecular information is obtained through the use of imaging probes that combine a target-specific ligand with a reporter moiety that generates a signal that can be detected from outside the body. For imaging probes targeting the central nervous system, penetration of the intact blood-brain barrier constitutes a major hurdle. Molecular imaging generates specific information and therefore has a large potential for disease phenotyping (diagnostics), therapy development and monitoring of treatment response. Molecular imaging is still in its infancy and major developments in imaging technology, probe design and data analysis are required in order to make an impact. Rodent molecular neuroimaging will play an important role in the development of these tools.

  14. What have we learned about cognitive development from neuroimaging?

    PubMed

    Durston, Sarah; Casey, B J

    2006-01-01

    Changes in many domains of cognition occur with development. In this paper, we discuss neuroimaging approaches to understanding these changes at a neural level. We highlight how modern imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are being used to examine how cognitive development is supported by the maturation of the brain. Some reports suggest developmental changes in patterns of brain activity appear to involve a shift from diffuse to more focal activation, likely representing a fine-tuning of relevant neural systems with experience. One of the challenges in investigating the interplay between cognitive development and maturation of the brain is to separate the contributions of neural changes specific to development and learning. Examples are given from the developmental neuroimaging literature. The focus is on the development of cognitive control, as the protracted developmental course of this ability into adolescence raises key issues. Finally, the relevance of normative studies for understanding neural and cognitive changes in developmental disorders is discussed.

  15. Brain images, babies, and bathwater: critiquing critiques of functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, psychologists and neuroscientists have used brain imaging to test hypotheses about human thought processes and their neural instantiation. In just three decades, functional neuroimaging has been transformed from a crude clinical tool to a widely used research method for understanding the human brain and mind. Such rapidly achieved success is bound to evoke skepticism. A degree of skepticism toward new methods and ideas is both inevitable and useful in any field. It is especially valuable in a science as young as cognitive neuroscience and its even younger siblings, social and affective neuroscience. Healthy skepticism encourages us to check our assumptions, recognize the limitations of our methods, and proceed thoughtfully. Skepticism itself, however, also must be examined. In this article, I review the most commonly voiced criticisms of functional neuroimaging. In the spirit of healthy skepticism, I will critically examine these criticisms themselves. Each contains at least a kernel of truth, although I will argue that in some cases the kernel has been over extended in ways that are inaccurate or misleading.

  16. Self-development: integrating cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Peake, Shannon J

    2012-01-01

    This review integrates cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives on self-development. Neural correlates of key processes implicated in personal and social identity are reported from studies of children, adolescents, and adults, including autobiographical memory, direct and reflected self-appraisals, and social exclusion. While cortical midline structures of medial prefrontal cortex and medial posterior parietal cortex are consistently identified in neuroimaging studies considering personal identity from a primarily cognitive perspective ("who am I?"), additional regions are implicated by studies considering personal and social identity from a more socioemotional perspective ("what do others think about me, where do I fit in?"), especially in child or adolescent samples. The involvement of these additional regions (including tempo-parietal junction and posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporal poles, anterior insula, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, middle cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) suggests mentalizing, emotion, and emotion regulation are central to self-development. In addition, these regions appear to function atypically during personal and social identity tasks in autism and depression, exhibiting a broad pattern of hypoactivation and hyperactivation, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of effective dose in region-of-interest neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Kamaljit K.

    We used small field-of-view (FOV) region-of-interest (ROI) imaging for integral dose reduction and to improve image quality by reducing scatter and providing increased resolution. We quantify the reduction of effective dose (ED) realized when using ROI techniques in neuroimaging. Microangiographic fluoroscopic (MAF) detector being used to provide improved visualization of fine detail in the treatment volume during neurointerventional procedures and in ROI cone-beam CT. Using PCXMC (STUK, Helsinki, Finland), the ED was calculated for the 3.6x3.6-cm FOV of the MAF, for the 20x20-cm FOV of the Varian PaxScan 2020 FPD and for a 20x3.6-cm FOV as used in dual detector ROI CBCT for circle of Willis. Substantial reduction in effective dose per detector exposure is realized using ROI techniques in neuroimaging. This reduction would allow the dose in the ROI to be increased over an order of magnitude to provide increased contrast resolution without increasing the stochastic risk to the patient compared to full-FOV imaging.

  18. Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimated the right hemisphere superiority. Findings in these studies have also been taken as supporting a hierarchical view of face perception, according to which a face is decomposed into parts in early face-selective areas, these parts being subsequently integrated into a whole representation in higher-order areas. This review takes a historical and current perspective on the study of acquired prosopagnosia and neuroimaging that challenges this latter view. It argues for a combination of these methods, an approach suggesting a coarse-to-fine emergence of the holistic face percept in a non-hierarchical network of cortical face-selective areas.

  19. Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Makarand; Kulkami, Makarand

    2011-04-01

    High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, particularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve pathologies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.

  20. Insights from neuroenergetics into the interpretation of functional neuroimaging: an alternative empirical model for studying the brain's support of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Robert G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging measures quantitative changes in neurophysiological parameters coupled to neuronal activity during observable behavior. These results have usually been interpreted by assuming that mental causation of behavior arises from the simultaneous actions of distinct psychological mechanisms or modules. However, reproducible localization of these modules in the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been elusive other than for sensory systems. In this paper, we show that neuroenergetic studies using PET, calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrical recordings do not support the standard approach, which identifies the location of mental modules from changes in brain activity. Of importance in reaching this conclusion is that changes in neuronal activities underlying the fMRI signal are many times smaller than the high ubiquitous, baseline neuronal activity, or energy in resting, awake humans. Furthermore, the incremental signal depends on the baseline activity contradicting theoretical assumptions about linearity and insertion of mental modules. To avoid these problems, while making use of these valuable results, we propose that neuroimaging should be used to identify observable brain activities that are necessary for a person's observable behavior rather than being used to seek hypothesized mental processes. PMID:25160670

  1. Non-invasive access to the vagus nerve central projections via electrical stimulation of the external ear: fMRI evidence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Frangos, Eleni; Ellrich, Jens; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tract-tracing studies in cats and rats demonstrated that the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) projects to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS); it has remained unclear as to whether or not the ABVN projects to the NTS in humans. Objective To ascertain whether non-invasive electrical stimulation of the cymba conchae, a region of the external ear exclusively innervated by the ABVN, activates the NTS and the “classical” central vagal projections in humans. Methods Twelve healthy adults underwent two fMRI scans in the same session. Electrical stimulation (continuous 0.25ms pulses, 25Hz) was applied to the earlobe (control, scan #1) and left cymba conchae (scan #2). Statistical analyses were performed with FSL. Two region-of-interest analyses were performed to test the effects of cymba conchae stimulation (compared to baseline and control, earlobe, stimulation) on the central vagal projections (corrected; brainstem p<0.01, forebrain p<0.05), followed by a whole-brain analysis (corrected, p< 0.05). Results Cymba conchae stimulation, compared to earlobe (control) stimulation, produced significant activation of the “classical” central vagal projections, e.g., widespread activity in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract, bilateral spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus, and contralateral parabrachial area, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Bilateral activation of the paracentral lobule was also observed. Deactivations were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Conclusion These findings provide evidence in humans that the central projections of the ABVN are consistent with the “classical” central vagal projections and can be accessed non-invasively via the external ear. PMID:25573069

  2. The Utility of Neuroimaging Studies for Informing Educational Practice and Policy in Reading Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jessica M.; Myers, Chelsea A.; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers from neuroscience, psychology, and education to explore the neurocognitive processes underlying educational practice and theory. In this brief article, we take reading disorder (RD, also known as developmental dyslexia) as an example, and explore trends in neuroimaging research, which may have future implications for educational practice and policy. Specifically, we present two examples that have been central to research efforts in our laboratory: (a) utilizing multimodal neuroimaging to optimize criteria to diagnose RD, and (b) identifying neuroimaging markers that predict future academic outcomes. Such research is faced with important challenges, and rigorous validation is necessary before any claims of the widespread practical utility of neuroimaging can be made. Nevertheless, we contend that neuroimaging studies offer opportunities for providing critical information that could lead to advancing theory of reading and RD. This could in turn lead to better diagnostic criteria and more accurate and earlier identification of RD. PMID:25732015

  3. The Status of the Quality Control in Acupuncture-Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ke; Jing, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Gao, Feifei; Liang, Fanrong; Zeng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Using neuroimaging techniques to explore the central mechanism of acupuncture gains increasing attention, but the quality control of acupuncture-neuroimaging study remains to be improved. We searched the PubMed Database during 1995 to 2014. The original English articles with neuroimaging scan performed on human beings were included. The data involved quality control including the author, sample size, characteristics of the participant, neuroimaging technology, and acupuncture intervention were extracted and analyzed. The rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria are important guaranty for the participants' homogeneity. The standard operation process of acupuncture and the stricter requirement for acupuncturist play significant role in quality control. More attention should be paid to the quality control in future studies to improve the reproducibility and reliability of the acupuncture-neuroimaging studies. PMID:27242911

  4. NeuroDebian Virtual Machine Deployment Facilitates Trainee-Driven Bedside Neuroimaging Research.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander; Kenney-Jung, Daniel; Botha, Hugo; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt

    2017-01-01

    Freely available software, derived from the past 2 decades of neuroimaging research, is significantly more flexible for research purposes than presently available clinical tools. Here, we describe and demonstrate the utility of rapidly deployable analysis software to facilitate trainee-driven translational neuroimaging research. A recipe and video tutorial were created to guide the creation of a NeuroDebian-based virtual computer that conforms to current neuroimaging research standards and can exist within a HIPAA-compliant system. This allows for retrieval of clinical imaging data, conversion to standard file formats, and rapid visualization and quantification of individual patients' cortical and subcortical anatomy. As an example, we apply this pipeline to a pediatric patient's data to illustrate the advantages of research-derived neuroimaging tools in asking quantitative questions "at the bedside." Our goal is to provide a path of entry for trainees to become familiar with common neuroimaging tools and foster an increased interest in translational research.

  5. Neural convergence and divergence in the mammalian cerebral cortex: from experimental neuroanatomy to functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Man, Kingson; Kaplan, Jonas; Damasio, Hanna; Damasio, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    A development essential for understanding the neural basis of complex behavior and cognition is the description, during the last quarter of the twentieth century, of detailed patterns of neuronal circuitry in the mammalian cerebral cortex. This effort established that sensory pathways exhibit successive levels of convergence, from the early sensory cortices to sensory-specific and multisensory association cortices, culminating in maximally integrative regions. It was also established that this convergence is reciprocated by successive levels of divergence, from the maximally integrative areas all the way back to the early sensory cortices. This article first provides a brief historical review of these neuroanatomical findings, which were relevant to the study of brain and mind-behavior relationships and to the proposal of heuristic anatomofunctional frameworks. In a second part, the article reviews new evidence that has accumulated from studies of functional neuroimaging, employing both univariate and multivariate analyses, as well as electrophysiology, in humans and other mammals, that the integration of information across the auditory, visual, and somatosensory-motor modalities proceeds in a content-rich manner. Behaviorally and cognitively relevant information is extracted from and conserved across the different modalities, both in higher order association cortices and in early sensory cortices. Such stimulus-specific information is plausibly relayed along the neuroanatomical pathways alluded to above. The evidence reviewed here suggests the need for further in-depth exploration of the intricate connectivity of the mammalian cerebral cortex in experimental neuroanatomical studies.

  6. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources

    PubMed Central

    Keator, D.B.; Helmer, K.; Steffener, J.; Turner, J.A.; Van Erp, T.G.M.; Gadde, S.; Ashish, N.; Burns, G.A.; Nichols, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) and the International Neuroimaging Coordinating Facility (INCF) focused on practical tools for distributed access to neuroimaging data. The working group develops models and tools facilitating the structured interchange of neuroimaging meta-data and is making progress towards a unified set of tools for such data and meta-data exchange. We report on the key components required for integrated access to raw and derived neuroimaging data as well as associated meta-data and provenance across neuroimaging resources. The components include (1) a structured terminology that provides semantic context to data, (2) a formal data model for neuroimaging with robust tracking of data provenance, (3) a web service-based application programming interface (API) that provides a consistent mechanism to access and query the data model, and (4) a provenance library that can be used for the extraction of provenance data by image analysts and imaging software developers. We believe that the framework and set of tools outlined in this manuscript have great potential for solving many of the issues the neuroimaging community faces when sharing raw and derived neuroimaging data across the various existing database systems for the purpose of accelerating scientific discovery. PMID:23727024

  7. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources.

    PubMed

    Keator, D B; Helmer, K; Steffener, J; Turner, J A; Van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G A; Nichols, B N

    2013-11-15

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) and the International Neuroimaging Coordinating Facility (INCF) focused on practical tools for distributed access to neuroimaging data. The working group develops models and tools facilitating the structured interchange of neuroimaging meta-data and is making progress towards a unified set of tools for such data and meta-data exchange. We report on the key components required for integrated access to raw and derived neuroimaging data as well as associated meta-data and provenance across neuroimaging resources. The components include (1) a structured terminology that provides semantic context to data, (2) a formal data model for neuroimaging with robust tracking of data provenance, (3) a web service-based application programming interface (API) that provides a consistent mechanism to access and query the data model, and (4) a provenance library that can be used for the extraction of provenance data by image analysts and imaging software developers. We believe that the framework and set of tools outlined in this manuscript have great potential for solving many of the issues the neuroimaging community faces when sharing raw and derived neuroimaging data across the various existing database systems for the purpose of accelerating scientific discovery.

  8. A review of longitudinal electroconvulsive therapy: neuroimaging investigations.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Christopher C; Gallegos, Patrick; Rediske, Nathan; Lemke, Nicholas T; Quinn, Davin K

    2014-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for a depressive episode but the mechanism of action and neural correlates of response are poorly understood. Different theories have suggested that anticonvulsant properties or neurotrophic effects are related to the unique mechanism of action of ECT. This review assessed longitudinal imaging investigations (both structural and functional) associated with ECT response published from 2002 to August 2013. We identified 26 investigations that used a variety of different imaging modalities and data analysis methods. Despite these methodological differences, we summarized the major findings of each investigation and identified common patterns that exist across multiple investigations. The ECT response is associated with decreased frontal perfusion, metabolism, and functional connectivity and increased volume and neuronal chemical metabolites. The general collective of longitudinal neuroimaging investigations support both the anticonvulsant and the neurotrophic effects of ECT. We propose a conceptual framework that integrates these seemingly contradictory hypotheses.

  9. On Aims and Methods in the Neuroimaging of Derived Relations

    PubMed Central

    Dickins, David W

    2005-01-01

    Ingenious and seemingly powerful technologies have been developed recently that enable the visualization in some detail of events in the brain concomitant upon the ongoing behavioral performance of a human participant. Measurement of such brain events offers at the very least a new set of dependent variables in relation to which the independent variables familiarly manipulated in the operant laboratory may be explored. Two related paradigms in which a start has been made in such research concern the derivation of novel or emergent relations from a baseline set of trained relations, and include the phenomenon of transitive inference (TI), observed in studies of stimulus equivalence (SE) and serial learning (SL) or seriation. This paper reviews some published and forthcoming neuroimaging studies of these and related phenomena, and considers how this line of research both demands and represents a welcome synthesis between types of question and levels of explanation in behavioral science that often have been seen as antithetical. PMID:16596975

  10. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  11. Neuroimaging studies of striatum in cognition part II: Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a gradual shift in the definition of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been established, from a classical akinetic-rigid movement disorder to a multi-system neurodegenerative disease. While the pathophysiology of PD is complex and goes much beyond the nigro-striatal degeneration, the striatum has been shown to be responsible for many cognitive functions. Patients with PD develop impairments in multiple cognitive domains and the PD model is probably the most extensively studied regarding striatum dysfunction and its influence on cognition. Up to 40% of PD patients present cognitive impairment even in the early stages of disease development. Thus, understanding the key patterns of striatum and connecting regions' influence on cognition will help develop more specific approaches to alleviate cognitive impairment and slow down its decline. This review focuses on the contribution of neuroimaging studies in understanding how striatum impairment affects cognition in PD. PMID:26500512

  12. Manganese-Enhanced MRI: An Exceptional Tool in Translational Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Afonso C.; Bock, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    The metal manganese is a potent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent that is essential in cell biology. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is providing unique information in an ever-growing number of applications aimed at understanding the anatomy, the integration, and the function of neural circuits both in normal brain physiology as well as in translational models of brain disease. A major drawback to the use of manganese as a contrast agent, however, is its cellular toxicity. Therefore, paramount to the successful application of MEMRI is the ability to deliver Mn2+ to the site of interest using as low a dose as possible while preserving detectability by MRI. In the present work, the different approaches to MEMRI in translational neuroimaging are reviewed and challenges for future identified from a practical standpoint. PMID:18550591

  13. Neuroimaging: a story of physicians and basic scientists.

    PubMed

    Lucignani, Giovanni; Bastianello, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Until just a few decades ago, it was very difficult to detect, non invasively, physiological signals from the brain. However, the discoveries in physics, the evolution of information technology, and the invention of non-invasive biomedical technologies in the last decades of the twentieth century transformed this scenario and created numerous opportunities for studying the brain in living subjects. The authors trace the extraordinary evolution of brain imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, emission tomography, and ?functional neuroimaging?) in the second part of the twentieth century. Not only have these methods had a remarkable clinical impact, they have also been outstanding research tools in the field of the neurosciences. In their most recent applications, they are employed in the quest to uncover the neuronal substrate of the human mind.

  14. [A review of the neuroimaging studies of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we reviewed brain damage seen in patients with alcohol dependence briefly focusing on neuroimaging studies. In uncomplicated alcoholic patients, a high incidence of cortical shrinkage and ventricular dilatation were reported using brain CT scans. In older alcoholics, prefrontal gray matter deficits were especially marked when compared with younger alcoholics. Reversibility of brain shrinkage is a common neuroimaging finding in patients with alcohol dependence and a study by Gazdinski et al. reported more rapid brain tissue gain during the first month of sobriety than in the following months. Another MRI study using deformation-based morphometry revealed significant shrinkage in the frontal and temporal lobes within 1 week of abstinence of alcoholic patients. This study followed participants for 8 months longitudinally and revealed that abstaining alcoholics recovered tissue volumes significantly faster than nonalcoholic controls in the parietal and frontal lobes and this study also revealed that when abstaining alcoholics were compared with relapsed alcoholics, additional regions with significantly greater recovery in abstainers were the temporal lobes, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, corpus callosum, anterior cingulate, insula, and subcortical white matter. Finally we introduced a MR spectroscopy (MRS) study on alcoholic patients. This study using proton MRS indicated that with short-term abstinence, cerebellar choline and frontomesial N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly increased. Findings showing that a cerebellar choline increase and a frontomesial NAA increase were detected at stable water integrals and creatine concentrations, serum electrolytes and red blood cell indices suggest that early brain recovery through abstinence does not simply reflect rehydration. This might indicate that even the adult brain has capacities for regrowth and further understanding of the mechanisms of recovery of alcoholics' brains may result in a valuable

  15. Source Localization of Brain States Associated with Canonical Neuroimaging Postures.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Michael; Thibault, Robert T; Roth, Raquel R; Raz, Amir

    2017-02-14

    Cognitive neuroscientists rarely consider the influence that body position exerts on brain activity; yet, postural variation holds important implications for the acquisition and interpretation of neuroimaging data. Whereas participants in most behavioral and EEG experiments sit upright, many prominent brain imaging techniques (e.g., fMRI) require participants to lie supine. Here we demonstrate that physical comportment profoundly alters baseline brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)-an imaging modality that permits multipostural acquisition. We collected resting-state MEG data from 12 healthy participants in three postures (lying supine, reclining at 45°, and sitting upright). Source-modeling analysis revealed a broadly distributed influence of posture on resting brain function. Sitting upright versus lying supine was associated with greater high-frequency (i.e., beta and gamma) activity in widespread parieto-occipital cortex. Moreover, sitting upright and reclined postures correlated with dampened activity in prefrontal regions across a range of bandwidths (i.e., from alpha to low gamma). The observed effects were large, with a mean Cohen's d of 0.95 (SD = 0.23). In addition to neural activity, physiological parameters such as muscle tension and eye blinks may have contributed to these posture-dependent changes in brain signal. Regardless of the underlying mechanisms, however, the present results have important implications for the acquisition and interpretation of multimodal imaging data (e.g., studies combining fMRI or PET with EEG or MEG). More broadly, our findings indicate that generalizing results-from supine neuroimaging measurements to erect positions typical of ecological human behavior-would call for considering the influence that posture wields on brain dynamics.

  16. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  17. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E.; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I.; Nichols, David; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D.; Wise, Richard G.; Curran, H. Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD’s marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug’s other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of “ego-dissolution” and “altered meaning,” implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of “self” or “ego” and its processing of “meaning.” Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others. PMID:27071089

  18. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology.

  19. In vivo evidences of nanosecond pulsed electric fields for melanoma malignancy treatment on tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Yao, C; Li, C; Mi, Y; Peng, Q; Tang, J

    2014-08-01

    In order to get in vivo evidences of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) for skin tumor treatment, tumor models in 10 female BALB/c nude mice were established by inoculating them with human melanoma cells A375. These mice were randomly divided into treated group (exposed to nsPEF with intensity of 20 kV/cm and duration of 300 ns) and control group equally. Five days post-nsPEF treatment, tumor growth in the treated group was effectively inhibited (P < 0.01 compared with that in control group), typical apoptotic characteristics (DNA damage and fragmentation) were observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and significant increases in Bax and decreases in Bcl-2, micro-vessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were observed by immunohistochemistry (P < 0.01). These experimental results indicate that in vivo tumor growth can be effectively inhibited by nsPEF, which activate two targets, apoptosis initiation and angiogenesis inhibition.

  20. Development of PowerMap: a software package for statistical power calculation in neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru

    2012-10-01

    Although there are a number of statistical software tools for voxel-based massively univariate analysis of neuroimaging data, such as fMRI (functional MRI), PET (positron emission tomography), and VBM (voxel-based morphometry), very few software tools exist for power and sample size calculation for neuroimaging studies. Unlike typical biomedical studies, outcomes from neuroimaging studies are 3D images of correlated voxels, requiring a correction for massive multiple comparisons. Thus, a specialized power calculation tool is needed for planning neuroimaging studies. To facilitate this process, we developed a software tool specifically designed for neuroimaging data. The software tool, called PowerMap, implements theoretical power calculation algorithms based on non-central random field theory. It can also calculate power for statistical analyses with FDR (false discovery rate) corrections. This GUI (graphical user interface)-based tool enables neuroimaging researchers without advanced knowledge in imaging statistics to calculate power and sample size in the form of 3D images. In this paper, we provide an overview of the statistical framework behind the PowerMap tool. Three worked examples are also provided, a regression analysis, an ANOVA (analysis of variance), and a two-sample T-test, in order to demonstrate the study planning process with PowerMap. We envision that PowerMap will be a great aide for future neuroimaging research.

  1. The role(s) of astrocytes and astrocyte activity in neurometabolism, neurovascular coupling, and the production of functional neuroimaging signals.

    PubMed

    Figley, Chase R; Stroman, Patrick W

    2011-02-01

    Data acquired with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are often interpreted in terms of the underlying neuronal activity, despite mounting evidence that these signals do not always correlate with electrophysiological recordings. Therefore, considering the increasing popularity of functional neuroimaging, it is clear that a more comprehensive theory is needed to reconcile these apparent disparities and more accurately explain the mechanisms through which various PET and fMRI signals arise. In the present article, we have turned our attention to astrocytes, which vastly outnumber neurons and are known to serve a number of functions throughout the central nervous system (CNS). For example, astrocytes are known to be critically involved in neurotransmitter uptake and recycling, and empirical data suggests that brain activation increases both oxidative and glycolytic astrocyte metabolism. Furthermore, a number of recent studies imply that astrocytes are likely to play a key role in regulating cerebral blood delivery. Therefore, we propose that, by mediating neurometabolic and neurovascular processes throughout the CNS, astrocytes could provide a common physiological basis for fMRI and PET signals. Such a theory has significant implications for the interpretation of functional neuroimaging signals, because astrocytic changes reflect subthreshold neuronal activity, simultaneous excitatory/inhibitory synaptic inputs, and other transient metabolic demands that may not elicit electrophysiological changes. It also suggests that fMRI and PET signals may have inherently less sensitivity to decreases in synaptic input (i.e. 'negative activity') and/or inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmission.

  2. Ways toward an early diagnosis in Alzheimer’s disease: The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Susanne G.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thal, Leon J.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowski, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing life expectancy in developed countries, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and thus its socioeconomic impact are growing. Increasing knowledge over the last years about the pathomechanisms involved in AD allow for the development of specific treatment strategies aimed at slowing down or even preventing neuronal death in AD. However, this requires also that (1) AD can be diagnosed with high accuracy, because non-AD dementias would not benefit from an AD-specific treatment; (2) AD can be diagnosed in very early stages when any intervention would be most effective; and (3) treatment efficacy can be reliably and meaningfully monitored. Although there currently is no ideal biomarker that would fulfill all these requirements, there is increasing evidence that a combination of currently existing neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood biomarkers can provide important complementary information and thus contribute to a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of AD. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is exploring which combinations of these biomarkers are the most powerful for diagnosis of AD and monitoring of treatment effects. PMID:17476317

  3. Neuroimaging and Neuromonitoring Effects of Electro and Manual Acupuncture on the Central Nervous System: A Literature Review and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scheffold, Brigitte Elisabeth; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Litscher, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different effects of manual and electroacupuncture on the central nervous system in studies with different neuroimaging interventions. The Database PubMed was searched from 1/1/2000 to 1/6/2014 with restriction to human studies in English language. Data collection for functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies was restricted to the period from 1/1/2010 to 1/6/2014 due to a recently published review which included all published randomized and nonrandomized controlled clinical studies as well as observational studies with control groups, no blinding required. Only studies comparing manual or electroacupuncture with sham acupuncture were eligible. All participants were healthy adult men and women. A majority of 25 studies compared manual versus sham, a minority of 7 trials compared electro versus sham and only 1 study compared electro versus manual acupuncture. In 29 out of 33 studies verum acupuncture results were found to present either more or different modulation effects on neurological components measured by neuroimaging and neuromonitoring methods than sham acupuncture. Only four studies reported no effects of verum in comparison to sham acupuncture. Evaluation of the very heterogeneous results shows evidence that verum acupuncture elicits more modulation effects on neurological components than sham acupuncture. PMID:26339269

  4. The impact of the 1991 Gulf War on the mind and brain: findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Vasterling, Jennifer J; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have complained of somatic and cognitive symptoms that may be neurological in nature. However, whether or not changes in brain function are associated with GW service continues to be debated. Studies of GW veterans using objective, performance-based neuropsychological measures have yielded inconsistent findings, with those indicating deficits among GW veterans typically revealing only relatively mild levels of neuropsychological impairment. Further, performances on objective neuropsychological tasks show little correspondence to subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. Although preliminary magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies demonstrate reduced N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio in select brain regions among GW veterans who report health concerns, this work requires further replication with larger, more representative samples. There is no evidence from neuroimaging studies of a non-specific effect of GW service or of changes in brain structure or function related to health status when conventional radiological methods are used. Owing to the paucity of objective exposure, baseline health data, and the now significant time elapsed since the GW, aetiological issues may never be fully resolved. Therefore, research addressing clinical management of GW veterans with neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities may prove more fruitful than exclusive focus on aetiology. PMID:16687264

  5. Executive and semantic processes in reappraisal of negative stimuli: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Simone; Sambin, Marco; Viviani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled processes, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS) and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT). We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought. PMID:26217277

  6. Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have produced seemingly contradictory findings in regards to the pathophysiology of insomnia. Although most study results are interpreted from the perspective of a “hyperarousal” model, the aggregate findings from neuroimaging studies suggest a more complex model is needed. We provide a review of the major findings from neuroimaging studies, then discuss them in relation to a heuristic model of sleep-wake states that involves three major factors: wake drive, sleep drive, and level of conscious awareness. We propose that insomnia involves dysregulation in these factors, resulting in subtle dysregulation of sleep-wake states throughout the 24 h light/dark cycle. PMID:28241468

  7. Identification of neural targets for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: the role of functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Epstein, Jane; Catenaccio, Eva; Stern, Emily

    2011-04-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of psychiatric disorders has been influenced by evolving neurobiological models of symptom generation. The advent of functional neuroimaging and advances in the neurosciences have revolutionized understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews neuroimaging studies of depression from the last 3 decades and describes an emerging neurocircuitry model of mood disorders, focusing on critical circuits of cognition and emotion, particularly those networks involved in the regulation of evaluative, expressive and experiential aspects of emotion. The relevance of this model for neurotherapeutics is discussed, as well as the role of functional neuroimaging of psychiatric disorders.

  8. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W.; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557–582.]. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, ten neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria and in each study, bilinguals switched between languages in response to cues. We isolated regions involved in voluntary language switching, by including reported contrasts between the switching conditions and high level baseline conditions involving similar tasks but requiring the use of only one language. Eight brain regions showed significant and reliable activation: left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, midline pre-SMA and bilateral caudate nuclei. This quantitative result is consistent with bilingual aphasia studies that report switching deficits associated with lesions to the caudate nuclei or prefrontal cortex. It also extends the previously reported qualitative model. We discuss the implications of the findings for accounts of bilingual cognitive control. PMID:24795491

  9. MR-Based PET Motion Correction Procedure for Simultaneous MR-PET Neuroimaging of Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Christoph; Rota Kops, Elena; Celik, Abdullah; Tellmann, Lutz; Stöcker, Tony; Herzog, Hans; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are prone to motion artefacts due to the long acquisition time of PET measurements. Recently, simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET have become available in the first generation of Hybrid MR-PET scanners. In this work, the elimination of artefacts due to head motion in PET neuroimages is achieved by a new approach utilising MR-based motion tracking in combination with PET list mode data motion correction for simultaneous MR-PET acquisitions. The method comprises accurate MR-based motion measurements, an intra-frame motion minimising and reconstruction time reducing temporal framing algorithm, and a list mode based PET reconstruction which utilises the Ordinary Poisson Algorithm and avoids axial and transaxial compression. Compared to images uncorrected for motion, an increased image quality is shown in phantom as well as in vivo images. In vivo motion corrected images show an evident increase of contrast at the basal ganglia and a good visibility of uptake in tiny structures such as superior colliculi. PMID:23189127

  10. MR-based PET motion correction procedure for simultaneous MR-PET neuroimaging of human brain.

    PubMed

    Ullisch, Marcus Görge; Scheins, Jürgen Johann; Weirich, Christoph; Rota Kops, Elena; Celik, Abdullah; Tellmann, Lutz; Stöcker, Tony; Herzog, Hans; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are prone to motion artefacts due to the long acquisition time of PET measurements. Recently, simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET have become available in the first generation of Hybrid MR-PET scanners. In this work, the elimination of artefacts due to head motion in PET neuroimages is achieved by a new approach utilising MR-based motion tracking in combination with PET list mode data motion correction for simultaneous MR-PET acquisitions. The method comprises accurate MR-based motion measurements, an intra-frame motion minimising and reconstruction time reducing temporal framing algorithm, and a list mode based PET reconstruction which utilises the Ordinary Poisson Algorithm and avoids axial and transaxial compression. Compared to images uncorrected for motion, an increased image quality is shown in phantom as well as in vivo images. In vivo motion corrected images show an evident increase of contrast at the basal ganglia and a good visibility of uptake in tiny structures such as superior colliculi.

  11. Neuroimaging of the Dopamine/Reward System in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking, including substance misuse. These behavioral patterns are influenced by ontogenic changes in neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system, which is fundamentally involved in the neural coding of reward and motivated approach behavior. During adolescence, this system evidences a peak in activity. At the same time, the dopamine system is neuroplastically altered by substance abuse, impacting subsequent function. Here, we describe properties of the dopamine system that change with typical adolescent development and that are altered with substance abuse. Much of this work has been gleaned from animal models due to limitations in measuring dopamine in pediatric samples. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to examine structures that are heavily DA-innervated; they measure morphological and functional changes with age and with drug exposure. Presenting marijuana abuse as an exemplar, we consider recent findings that support an adolescent peak in DA-driven reward-seeking behavior and related deviations in motivational systems that are associated with marijuana abuse/dependence. Clinicians are advised that (1) chronic adolescent marijuana use may lead to deficiencies in incentive motivation, (2) that this state is due to marijuana’s interactions with the developing DA system, and (3) that treatment strategies should be directed to remediating resultant deficiencies in goal-directed activity. PMID:26095977

  12. Relating Translational Neuroimaging and Amperometric Endpoints: Utility for Neuropsychiatric Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Jennifer; Schwarz, Adam J; Gilmour, Gary

    Measures of neuronal activation are a natural and parsimonious translational biomarker to consider in the context of neuropsychiatric drug discovery studies. In this regard, functional neuroimaging using the BOLD fMRI technique is becoming more frequently employed to not only probe aberrant brain regions and circuits in disease, but also to assess the effects of novel pharmacological agents on these processes. In the ideal situation, these types of studies would first be conducted pre-clinically in rodents to confirm a measurable functional response on relevant brain circuits before seeking to replicate the findings in an analogous fMRI paradigm in humans. However, the need for animal immobilization during the scanning procedure precludes all but the simplest behavioural task-based paradigms in rodent BOLD fMRI. This chapter considers how in vivo oxygen amperometry may represent a viable and valid proxy for BOLD fMRI in freely moving rodents engaged in behavioural tasks. The amperometric technique and several examples of emerging evidence are described to show how the technique can deliver results that translate to pharmacological, event-related and functional connectivity variants of fMRI. In vivo oxygen amperometry holds great promise as a technique that may help to bridge the gap between basic drug discovery research in rodents and applied efficacy testing in humans.

  13. Emotion and cognition interactions in PTSD: a review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Jasmeet P.; VanElzakker, Michael B.; Shin, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric syndrome that develops after exposure to terrifying and life-threatening events including warfare, motor-vehicle accidents, and physical and sexual assault. The emotional experience of psychological trauma can have long-term cognitive effects. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD involve alterations to cognitive processes such as memory, attention, planning, and problem solving, underscoring the detrimental impact that negative emotionality has on cognitive functioning. As such, an important challenge for PTSD researchers and treatment providers is to understand the dynamic interplay between emotion and cognition. Contemporary cognitive models of PTSD theorize that a preponderance of information processing resources are allocated toward threat detection and interpretation of innocuous stimuli as threatening, narrowing one's attentional focus at the expense of other cognitive operations. Decades of research have shown support for these cognitive models of PTSD using a variety of tasks and methodological approaches. The primary goal of this review is to summarize the latest neurocognitive and neuroimaging research of emotion-cognition interactions in PTSD. To directly assess the influence of emotion on cognition and vice versa, the studies reviewed employed challenge tasks that included both cognitive and emotional components. The findings provide evidence for memory and attention deficits in PTSD that are often associated with changes in functional brain activity. The results are reviewed to provide future directions for research that may direct better and more effective treatments for PTSD. PMID:23087624

  14. Effects of Cannabis on Impulsivity: A Systematic Review of Neuroimaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wrege, Johannes; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Smieskova, Renata; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E.; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted. PMID:23829358

  15. Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome: selective cognitive impairment, longitudinal effects, and neuroimaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, C.; Lewis, T.; D'Esposito, M.; Freundlich, B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify the specific nature of the neurocognitive impairments of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) in an unselected population, and to present longitudinal patterns.
METHODS—A consecutive sample of 23 patients with EMS and 18 age and education matched control subjects were assessed on a comprehensive neuropsycho- logical battery. Longitudinal results were gathered from six patients.
RESULTS—Neurocognitive impairments were found which represent a subset of deficits reported in previous group and case study reports. Deficits were limited to complex visual memory, conceptual set shifting, and attention, which suggest a selective dysexecutive syndrome. The motor slowing and verbal memory deficits previously reported were not found. Although depression, fatigue, sleep deprivation, and pain were significant symptoms, they were unassociated with deficits with the exception of an association of depression with one deficit. There was no pattern of overall decline over time in a subset of the group, although considerable heterogeneity in the longitudinal patterns of neurocognitive tests was found. Abnormalities of white matter appeared in the MRI of eight of 12patients.
CONCLUSIONS—The neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings contribute to the evidence which indicates that the neural substrate of EMS is white matter damage.

 PMID:9408106

  16. Neuroimaging the short- and long-term effects of repeated picture naming in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Anna D; Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony J; van Hees, Sophia; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A

    2015-08-01

    Repeated attempts to name pictures can improve subsequent naming for aphasic individuals with anomia, however, the neurocognitive mechanisms responsible for such improvements are unknown. This study investigated repeated picture naming in healthy older adults over a period of minutes (short-term) after one repetition and a period of days (long-term) after multiple repetitions. Compared to unprimed pictures, both repeated conditions showed faster naming latencies with the fastest latencies evident for the short-term condition. Neuroimaging results identified repetition suppression effects across three left inferior frontal gyrus regions of interest: for both the short- and long-term conditions in the pars orbitalis, and for long-term items in the pars triangularis and pars opercularis regions. The whole brain analysis also showed a repetition suppression effect in bilateral pars triangularis regions for the long-term condition. These findings within the inferior frontal gyrus suggest that effects of repeated naming may be driven by a mapping mechanism across multiple levels of representation, possibly reflecting different levels of learning, and lend support to the idea that processing may be hierarchically organised in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The whole brain analysis also revealed repetition suppression for the long-term condition within the posterior portion of bilateral inferior temporal gyri, which may reflect attenuation of integration processes within this region following the learning of task-relevant information.

  17. Mechanisms of action of estrogen in the brain: insights from human neuroimaging and psychopharmacologic studies.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M; Dumas, Julie

    2009-05-01

    Use of estrogen therapy in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods has been shown in several clinical trials to help women maintain a premenopausal level of cognitive function. What is not yet fully understood is how the neurobiological effects of estrogen contribute to these cognitive effects. This review explores data from two related bodies of human literature that provide compelling evidence in support of the biological plausibility that estrogen treatment can benefit cognition. The first half of the literature review focuses on studies from the estrogen neuroimaging literature, and the second half focuses on pharmacologic challenge studies assessing estrogen-neurotransmitter interactions. We integrate these two bodies of literature by focusing on the neurophysiologic underpinnings of estrogen effects on cognition and linking these clinical studies to preclinical studies. The focus on verbal memory is important because it is a cognitive function that has been shown to change with estrogen treatment and predict Alzheimer's disease risk but is not addressed by preclinical studies. Overall, we conclude that estrogen interacts with cholinergic and serotonergic systems to affect hippocampal and frontal cortical brain areas and thereby enhance memory, particularly at the retrieval stage.

  18. Effects of cannabis on impulsivity: a systematic review of neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wrege, Johannes; Schmidt, Andre; Walter, Anna; Smieskova, Renata; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted.

  19. Noninvasive Electrical Neuroimaging of the Human Brain during Mobile Tasks including Walking and Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    imaging during mobile activities could have far reaching scientific, clinical, and technological benefits . Electroencephalography (EEG) is the only...performing knee and ankle exercises . ............................................ 74 Figure 5-2: AMICA model probabilities for ankle trials (left...dipoles for knee and ankle exercises . ....................... 82 Figure 5-4: Grand average spectrograms for contralateral medial sensorimotor

  20. How Negative Social Bias Affects Memory for Faces: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; La Mastra, Francesca; Zani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    During social interactions, we make inferences about people’s personal characteristics based on their appearance. These inferences form a potential prejudice that can positively or negatively bias our interaction with them. Not much is known about the effects of negative bias on face perception and the ability to recognize people faces. This ability was investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) from 128 sites in 16 volunteers. In the first session (encoding), they viewed 200 faces associated with a short fictional story that described anecdotal positive or negative characteristics about each person. In the second session (recognition), they underwent an old/new memory test, in which they had to distinguish 100 new faces from the previously shown faces. ERP data relative to the encoding phase showed a larger anterior negativity in response to negatively (vs. positively) biased faces, indicating an additional processing of faces with unpleasant social traits. In the recognition task, ERPs recorded in response to new faces elicited a larger FN400 than to old faces, and to positive than negative faces. Additionally, old faces elicited a larger Old-New parietal response than new faces, in the form of an enlarged late positive (LPC) component. An inverse solution SwLORETA (450–550 ms) indicated that remembering old faces was associated with the activation of right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left medial temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus. Only negatively connoted faces strongly activated the limbic and parahippocampal areas and the left SFG. A dissociation was found between familiarity (modulated by negative bias) and recollection (distinguishing old from new faces). PMID:27655327

  1. The Impact of Disappointment in Decision Making: Inter-Individual Differences and Electrical Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Tzieropoulos, Hélène; de Peralta, Rolando Grave; Bossaerts, Peter; Andino, Sara L. Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Disappointment, the emotion experienced when faced to reward prediction errors (RPEs), considerably impacts decision making (DM). Individuals tend to modify their behavior in an often unpredictable way just to avoid experiencing negative emotions. Despite its importance, disappointment remains much less studied than regret and its impact on upcoming decisions largely unexplored. Here, we adapted the Trust Game to effectively elicit, quantify, and isolate disappointment by relying on the formal definition provided by Bell's in economics. We evaluated the effects of experienced disappointment and elation on future cooperation and trust as well as the rationality and utility of the different behavioral and neural mechanisms used to cope with disappointment. All participants in our game trusted less and particularly expected less from unknown opponents as a result of disappointing outcomes in the previous trial but not necessarily after elation indicating that behavioral consequences of positive and negative RPEs are not the same. A large variance in the tolerance to disappointment was observed across subjects, with some participants needing only a small disappointment to impulsively bias their subsequent decisions. As revealed by high-density EEG recordings the most tolerant individuals – who thought twice before making a decision and earned more money – relied on different neural generators to contend with neutral and unexpected outcomes. This study thus provides some support to the idea that different neural systems underlie reflexive and reflective decisions within the same individuals as predicted by the dual-system theory of social judgment and DM. PMID:21258645

  2. Proactive Control Strategies for Overt and Covert Go/NoGo Tasks: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Monica; Calbi, Marta; Ferrari, Annachiara; Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Franca, Michele; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Proactive and reactive inhibition are generally intended as mechanisms allowing the withholding or suppression of overt movements. Nonetheless, inhibition could also play a pivotal role during covert actions (i.e., potential motor acts not overtly performed, despite the activation of the motor system), such as Motor Imagery (MI). In a previous EEG study, we analyzed cerebral activities reactively triggered during two cued Go/NoGo tasks, requiring execution or withholding of overt or covert imagined actions, respectively. This study revealed activation of pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), key nodes of the network underpinning reactive inhibition of overt responses in NoGo trials, also during MI enactment, enabling the covert nature of the imagined motor response. Taking into account possible proactive engagement of inhibitory mechanisms by cue signals, for an exhaustive interpretation of these previous findings in the present study we analyzed EEG activities elicited during the preparatory phase of our cued overt and covert Go/NoGo tasks. Our results demonstrate a substantial overlap of cerebral areas activated during proactive recruitment and subsequent reactive implementation of motor inhibition in both overt and covert actions; also, different involvement of pre-SMA and rIFG emerged, in accord with the intended type (covert or overt) of incoming motor responses. During preparation of the overt Go/NoGo task, the cue is encoded in a pragmatic mode, as it primes the possible overt motor response programs in motor and premotor cortex and, through preactivation of a pre-SMA-related decisional mechanism, it triggers a parallel preparation for successful response selection and/or inhibition during the response phase. Conversely, the preparatory strategy for the covert Go/NoGo task is centered on priming of an inhibitory mechanism in rIFG, tuned to the instructed covert modality of motor performance and instantiated during subsequent MI, which allows the imagined response to remain a potential motor act. PMID:27010832

  3. Semantic brain areas are involved in gesture comprehension: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Gabaro, Veronica; Orlandi, Andrea; Zani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    While the mechanism of sign language comprehension in deaf people has been widely investigated, little is known about the neural underpinnings of spontaneous gesture comprehension in healthy speakers. Bioelectrical responses to 800 pictures of actors showing common Italian gestures (e.g., emblems, deictic or iconic gestures) were recorded in 14 persons. Stimuli were selected from a wider corpus of 1122 gestures. Half of the pictures were preceded by an incongruent description. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites while participants decided whether the stimulus was congruent. Congruent pictures elicited a posterior P300 followed by late positivity, while incongruent gestures elicited an anterior N400 response. N400 generators were investigated with swLORETA reconstruction. Processing of congruent gestures activated face- and body-related visual areas (e.g., BA19, BA37, BA22), the left angular gyrus, mirror fronto/parietal areas. The incongruent-congruent contrast particularly stimulated linguistic and semantic brain areas, such as the left medial and the superior temporal lobe.

  4. Random forests on Hadoop for genome-wide association studies of multivariate neuroimaging phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Multivariate quantitative traits arise naturally in recent neuroimaging genetics studies, in which both structural and functional variability of the human brain is measured non-invasively through techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is growing interest in detecting genetic variants associated with such multivariate traits, especially in genome-wide studies. Random forests (RFs) classifiers, which are ensembles of decision trees, are amongst the best performing machine learning algorithms and have been successfully employed for the prioritisation of genetic variants in case-control studies. RFs can also be applied to produce gene rankings in association studies with multivariate quantitative traits, and to estimate genetic similarities measures that are predictive of the trait. However, in studies involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs and high-dimensional traits, a very large ensemble of trees must be inferred from the data in order to obtain reliable rankings, which makes the application of these algorithms computationally prohibitive. Results We have developed a parallel version of the RF algorithm for regression and genetic similarity learning tasks in large-scale population genetic association studies involving multivariate traits, called PaRFR (Parallel Random Forest Regression). Our implementation takes advantage of the MapReduce programming model and is deployed on Hadoop, an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. Notable speed-ups are obtained by introducing a distance-based criterion for node splitting in the tree estimation process. PaRFR has been applied to a genome-wide association study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which the quantitative trait consists of a high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotype describing longitudinal changes in the human brain structure. PaRFR provides a ranking of SNPs associated to this trait, and produces pair-wise measures of genetic proximity

  5. Prediction of children's reading skills using behavioral, functional, and structural neuroimaging measures.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Ueno, Takefumi; Reiss, Allan L; Meyler, Ann; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H; Keller, Timothy A; Kobayashi, Nobuhisa; Mazaika, Paul; Jo, Booil; Just, Marcel Adam; Gabrieli, John D E

    2007-06-01

    The ability to decode letters into language sounds is essential for reading success, and accurate identification of children at high risk for decoding impairment is critical for reducing the frequency and severity of reading impairment. We examined the utility of behavioral (standardized tests), and functional and structural neuroimaging measures taken with children at the beginning of a school year for predicting their decoding ability at the end of that school year. Specific patterns of brain activation during phonological processing and morphology, as revealed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray and white matter densities, predicted later decoding ability. Further, a model combining behavioral and neuroimaging measures predicted decoding outcome significantly better than either behavioral or neuroimaging models alone. Results were validated using cross-validation methods. These findings suggest that neuroimaging methods may be useful in enhancing the early identification of children at risk for poor decoding and reading skills.

  6. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  7. Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse and Corticostriatal Deficits Revealed by Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    London, Edythe D.; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica; Ballard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25451127

  8. Neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease: preclinical challenges toward clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dustin, Derek; Hall, Benjamin M; Annapragada, Ananth; Pautler, Robia G

    2016-09-01

    The scope of this review focuses on recent applications in preclinical and clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) toward accomplishing the goals of early detection and responses to therapy in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Driven by the outstanding efforts of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a truly invaluable resource, the initial use of MRI in AD imaging has been to assess changes in brain anatomy, specifically assessing brain shrinkage and regional changes in white matter tractography using diffusion tensor imaging. However, advances in MRI have led to multiple efforts toward imaging amyloid beta plaques first without and then with the use of MRI contrast agents. These technological advancements have met with limited success and are not yet appropriate for the clinic. Recent developments in molecular imaging inclusive of high-power liposomal-based MRI contrast agents as well as fluorine 19 ((19)F) MRI and manganese enhanced MRI have begun to propel promising advances toward not only plaque imaging but also using MRI to detect perturbations in subcellular processes occurring within the neuron. This review concludes with a discussion about the necessity for the development of novel preclinical models of AD that better recapitulate human AD for the imaging to truly be meaningful and for substantive progress to be made toward understanding and effectively treating AD. Furthermore, the continued support of outstanding programs such as ADNI as well as the development of novel molecular imaging agents and MRI fast scanning sequences will also be requisite to effectively translate preclinical findings to the clinic.

  9. Bootstrap Enhanced Penalized Regression for Variable Selection with Neuroimaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Samantha V.; Helwig, Nathaniel E.; Moodie, Craig A.; DeYoung, Colin G.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Waller, Niels G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in fMRI research highlight the use of multivariate methods for examining whole-brain connectivity. Complementary data-driven methods are needed for determining the subset of predictors related to individual differences. Although commonly used for this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression may not be ideal due to multi-collinearity and over-fitting issues. Penalized regression is a promising and underutilized alternative to OLS regression. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric bootstrap quantile (QNT) approach for variable selection with neuroimaging data. We use real and simulated data, as well as annotated R code, to demonstrate the benefits of our proposed method. Our results illustrate the practical potential of our proposed bootstrap QNT approach. Our real data example demonstrates how our method can be used to relate individual differences in neural network connectivity with an externalizing personality measure. Also, our simulation results reveal that the QNT method is effective under a variety of data conditions. Penalized regression yields more stable estimates and sparser models than OLS regression in situations with large numbers of highly correlated neural predictors. Our results demonstrate that penalized regression is a promising method for examining associations between neural predictors and clinically relevant traits or behaviors. These findings have important implications for the growing field of functional connectivity research, where multivariate methods produce numerous, highly correlated brain networks. PMID:27516732

  10. Chronic methamphetamine abuse and corticostriatal deficits revealed by neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    London, Edythe D; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica M; Ballard, Michael E

    2015-12-02

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets.

  11. Multi-Class Sparse Bayesian Regression for Neuroimaging Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Vincent; Eger, Evelyn; Keribin, Christine; Thirion, Bertrand

    The use of machine learning tools is gaining popularity in neuroimaging, as it provides a sensitive assessment of the information conveyed by brain images. In particular, finding regions of the brain whose functional signal reliably predicts some behavioral information makes it possible to better understand how this information is encoded or processed in the brain. However, such a prediction is performed through regression or classification algorithms that suffer from the curse of dimensionality, because a huge number of features (i.e. voxels) are available to fit some target, with very few samples (i.e. scans) to learn the informative regions. A commonly used solution is to regularize the weights of the parametric prediction function. However, model specification needs a careful design to balance adaptiveness and sparsity. In this paper, we introduce a novel method, Multi - Class Sparse Bayesian Regression(MCBR), that generalizes classical approaches such as Ridge regression and Automatic Relevance Determination. Our approach is based on a grouping of the features into several classes, where each class is regularized with specific parameters. We apply our algorithm to the prediction of a behavioral variable from brain activation images. The method presented here achieves similar prediction accuracies than reference methods, and yields more interpretable feature loadings.

  12. On the role of general system theory for functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important goals of neuroscience is to establish precise structure–function relationships in the brain. Since the 19th century, a major scientific endeavour has been to associate structurally distinct cortical regions with specific cognitive functions. This was traditionally accomplished by correlating microstructurally defined areas with lesion sites found in patients with specific neuropsychological symptoms. Modern neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution have promised an alternative approach, enabling non-invasive measurements of regionally specific changes of brain activity that are correlated with certain components of a cognitive process. Reviewing classic approaches towards brain structure–function relationships that are based on correlational approaches, this article argues that these approaches are not sufficient to provide an understanding of the operational principles of a dynamic system such as the brain but must be complemented by models based on general system theory. These models reflect the connectional structure of the system under investigation and emphasize context-dependent couplings between the system elements in terms of effective connectivity. The usefulness of system models whose parameters are fitted to measured functional imaging data for testing hypotheses about structure–function relationships in the brain and their potential for clinical applications is demonstrated by several empirical examples. PMID:15610393

  13. Neuroimaging predictors of AED resistance in new-onset epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Cendes, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The best prognostic factors in early-onset epilepsies are the response to the first antiepileptic drug (AED) trial, age at seizure onset, number of seizures prior to treatment, and the presence of a lesion or abnormal neurologic examination. However, early and adequate response to AED is most likely an epiphenomenon reflecting the nature of underlying epileptogenicity, which may be defined as a complex interaction of underlying pathology, genetics, and environment. Patients with the same type of epileptogenic lesion, for example, hippocampal sclerosis, may have a varying response to AED. Modern neuroimaging, in particular quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may be helpful to better understand this complex interaction of factors leading to refractoriness. Patients who respond well to AEDs have no or minor MRI abnormalities, and among those with underlying lesions there is an inverse correlation between outcome and the extent of MRI-defined neuronal damage outside the main lesion, which may be undetectable by visual analyses of routine MRI. The extent of neuronal damage appears to be related to the severity of initial precipitating injuries, probably interacts with genetic factors, and may progress over time when seizures are uncontrolled. The presence and extent of abnormalities detected by quantitative MRI may also be helpful to guide AED withdrawal in those patients who are seizure free for >2 years. Combined MRI measures may have potential clinical value for predicting AED response in near future.

  14. Clinical phenomenology and neuroimaging correlates in ALS-FTD.

    PubMed

    Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    The overlap of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been well documented in FTD patients with co-morbid motor neuron degeneration and in ALS patients with frontotemporal dysfunction. Up to 15% of FTD patients and 30% of ALS patients experience the overlap syndrome. The syndrome may be difficult to identify since patients often present either to a neuromuscular clinic or a memory disorder's center, each which may have limited expertise in the other specialty. Survival is greatly impacted for both disorders in the co-morbid condition, making identification of this syndrome critical. The clinical characteristics of the overlap syndrome with new diagnostic criteria will be discussed along with screening strategies, including the UCSF Screening battery and clinical neurophysiology techniques. Treatable mimics of this disorder will also be described and management techniques. Neuroimaging findings will be summarized, which show that the frontotemporal impairment in ALS patients lies on a continuum. Identification of the overlap syndrome also provides a unique opportunity to study very early signs of FTD and conversely, very early signs of ALS, to gain greater insight into both disorders.

  15. Spatially Varying Coefficient Model for Neuroimaging Data with Jump Discontinuities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongtu; Fan, Jianqing; Kong, Linglong

    2014-07-01

    Motivated by recent work on studying massive imaging data in various neuroimaging studies, we propose a novel spatially varying coefficient model (SVCM) to capture the varying association between imaging measures in a three-dimensional (3D) volume (or 2D surface) with a set of covariates. Two stylized features of neuorimaging data are the presence of multiple piecewise smooth regions with unknown edges and jumps and substantial spatial correlations. To specifically account for these two features, SVCM includes a measurement model with multiple varying coefficient functions, a jumping surface model for each varying coefficient function, and a functional principal component model. We develop a three-stage estimation procedure to simultaneously estimate the varying coefficient functions and the spatial correlations. The estimation procedure includes a fast multiscale adaptive estimation and testing procedure to independently estimate each varying coefficient function, while preserving its edges among different piecewise-smooth regions. We systematically investigate the asymptotic properties (e.g., consistency and asymptotic normality) of the multiscale adaptive parameter estimates. We also establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated spatial covariance function and its associated eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Our Monte Carlo simulation and real data analysis have confirmed the excellent performance of SVCM.

  16. Applications of Epsilon Radial Networks in Neuroimage Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K.; Lange, Nicholas T.; Lainhart, Janet E.; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    “Is the brain ’wiring’ different between groups of populations?” is an increasingly important question with advances in diffusion MRI and abundance of network analytic tools. Recently, automatic, data-driven and computationally efficient framework for extracting brain networks using tractography and epsilon neighborhoods were proposed in the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) literature [1]. In this paper we propose new extensions to that framework and show potential applications of such epsilon radial networks (ERN) in performing various types of neuroimage analyses. These extensions allow us to use ERNs not only to mine for topo-physical properties of the structural brain networks but also to perform classical region-of-interest (ROI) analyses in a very efficient way. Thus we demonstrate the use of ERNs as a novel image processing lens for statistical and machine learning based analyses. We demonstrate its application in an autism study for identifying topological and quantitative group differences, as well as performing classification. Finally, these views are not restricted to ERNs but can be effective for population studies using any computationally efficient network-extraction procedures. PMID:28251191

  17. Developing High-Density Diffuse Optical Tomography for Neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Brian Richard

    Clinicians who care for brain-injured patients and premature infants desire a bedside monitor of brain function. A decade ago, there was hope that optical imaging would be able to fill this role, as it combined fMRI's ability to construct cortical maps with EEG's portable, cap-based systems. However, early optical systems had poor imaging performance, and the momentum for the technique slowed. In our lab, we develop diffuse optical tomography (DOT), which is a more advanced method of performing optical imaging. My research has been to pioneer the in vivo use of DOT for advanced neuroimaging by (1) quantifying the advantages of DOT through both in silico simulation and in vivo performance metrics, (2) restoring confidence in the technique with the first retinotopic mapping of the visual cortex (a benchmark for fMRI and PET), and (3) creating concepts and methods for the clinical translation of DOT. Hospitalized patients are unable to perform complicated neurological tasks, which has motivated us to develop the first DOT methods for resting-state brain mapping with functional connectivity. Finally, in collaboration with neonatologists, I have extended these methods with proof-of-principle imaging of brain-injured premature infants. This work establishes DOT's improvements in imaging performance and readies it for multiple clinical and research roles.

  18. Hemimegalencephaly: Clinical, EEG, neuroimaging, and IMP-SPECT correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Konkol, R.J.; Maister, B.H.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Iofetamine-single photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) was performed on 2 girls (5 1/2 and 6 years of age) with histories of intractable seizures, developmental delay, and unilateral hemiparesis secondary to hemimegalencephaly. Electroencephalography (EEG) revealed frequent focal discharges in 1 patient, while a nearly continuous burst suppression pattern over the malformed hemisphere was recorded in the other. IMP-SPECT demonstrated a good correlation with neuroimaging studies. In spite of the different EEG patterns, which had been proposed to predict contrasting clinical outcomes, both IMP-SPECT scans disclosed a similar decrease in tracer uptake in the malformed hemisphere. These results are consistent with the pattern of decreased tracer uptake found in other interictal studies of focal seizures without cerebral malformations. In view of recent recommendations for hemispherectomy in these patients, we suggest that the IMP-SPECT scan be used to compliment EEG as a method to define the extent of abnormality which may be more relevant to long-term prognosis than EEG alone.

  19. Neuroimaging and Neurocognitive Correlates of Aggression and Violence in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Elisabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders such as schizophrenia are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. Although aggressive acts can have numerous causes, research about the underlying neurobiology of violence and aggression in schizophrenia can lead to a better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior and can assist in developing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and discuss some of the neurobiological correlates of aggression and violence. The focus will be on schizophrenia, and the results of neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies that have directly investigated brain functioning and/or structure in aggressive and violent samples will be discussed as well as other domains that might predispose to aggression and violence such as deficits in responding to the emotional expressions of others, impulsivity, and psychopathological symptoms. Finally gender differences regarding aggression and violence are discussed. In this context several methodological and conceptional issues that limited the comparison of these studies will be addressed. PMID:24278673

  20. Three brain collections for comparative neuroanatomy and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2011-05-01

    In the context of increasing extinction rates and the potential loss of essential evolutionary biological and anthropological information, it is an important task to support efforts to prepare, preserve, and curate collections of histological brain sections; to disseminate information on such collections in the neuroscience community; and to make the collections publicly available. This review emphasizes the importance of complete, serially sectioned human brains of different ontogenetic stages as well as those of adult and old human individuals for neurobiological and medical research. Such histological sections enable microstructural analyses and anatomical evaluations of functional and structural neuroimaging data, for example, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Here, this review provides the first detailed and updated account of the content of the Stephan, Zilles, and Zilles-Amunts collections, which consist of serially sectioned and cell body- and myelin-stained histological preparations. Finally, this review will give an overview of past and recent research using these collections to increase our understanding of the detailed patterns of divergent brain evolution in primates as well as of the structural organization of the human brain.

  1. Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: Etiological insights from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Bianca; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the elucidation of neurobehavioral endophenotypes associated with drug addiction made possible by the translational neuroimaging techniques magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Increasingly, these non-invasive imaging approaches have been the catalyst for advancing our understanding of the etiology of drug addiction as a brain disorder involving complex interactions between pre-disposing behavioral traits, environmental influences and neural perturbations arising from the chronic abuse of licit and illicit drugs. In this article we discuss the causal role of trait markers associated with impulsivity and novelty-/sensation-seeking in speeding the development of compulsive drug administration and in facilitating relapse. We also discuss the striking convergence of imaging findings from these behavioural traits and addiction in rats, monkeys and humans with a focus on biomarkers of dopamine neurotransmission, and highlight areas where further research is needed to disambiguate underlying causal mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  2. Neuroimaging enrichment strategy for secondary prevention trials in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Linda K; Edland, Steven D; Holland, Dominic; Hagler, Donald J; Roddey, J Cooper; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Salmon, David P; Koyama, Alain K; Aisen, Paul S; Brewer, James B; Dale, Anders M

    2010-01-01

    We examined the improvement in statistical power that could be obtained in therapeutic trials for early (predementia) Alzheimer disease by constraining enrollment to individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and an atrophy pattern on a screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan previously found to be predictive of clinical decline, or to individuals with MCI and the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Treatable effects were defined as absolute change versus change relative to healthy controls (HCs). Data from 168 HC and 299 MCI participants were analyzed to determine sample sizes required to detect 25% slowing in mean rate of decline using global function, cognitive function, and structural measures as outcome variables. Reductions in estimated sample sizes of 10% to 43% were observed using the genetic enrichment strategy; reductions of 43% to 60% were observed with the neuroimaging enrichment strategy. Sample sizes needed to detect slowing in rate of atrophy in MCI relative to HC were dramatically larger than those needed to detect absolute change in atrophy rates. Constraining enrollment to MCI subjects with predictive atrophy on a screening MRI scan could improve the efficiency of clinical trials. Failure to take into account normal age-related changes risks under-powering trials designed to test disease-modifying properties of potential treatments.

  3. The Virtual Brain Integrates Computational Modeling and Multimodal Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Schirner, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Brain function is thought to emerge from the interactions among neuronal populations. Apart from traditional efforts to reproduce brain dynamics from the micro- to macroscopic scales, complementary approaches develop phenomenological models of lower complexity. Such macroscopic models typically generate only a few selected—ideally functionally relevant—aspects of the brain dynamics. Importantly, they often allow an understanding of the underlying mechanisms beyond computational reproduction. Adding detail to these models will widen their ability to reproduce a broader range of dynamic features of the brain. For instance, such models allow for the exploration of consequences of focal and distributed pathological changes in the system, enabling us to identify and develop approaches to counteract those unfavorable processes. Toward this end, The Virtual Brain (TVB) (www.thevirtualbrain.org), a neuroinformatics platform with a brain simulator that incorporates a range of neuronal models and dynamics at its core, has been developed. This integrated framework allows the model-based simulation, analysis, and inference of neurophysiological mechanisms over several brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals. In this article, we describe how TVB works, and we present the first proof of concept. PMID:23442172

  4. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings. PMID:26229677

  5. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers.

    PubMed

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-06-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  6. Multi-scale non-local denoising method in neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Liansheng

    2016-03-17

    Non-local means algorithm can remove image noise in a unique way that is contrary to traditional techniques. This is because it not only smooths the image but it also preserves the information details of the image. However, this method suffers from high computational complexity. We propose a multi-scale non-local means method in which adaptive multi-scale technique is implemented. In practice, based on each selected scale, the input image is divided into small blocks. Then, we remove the noise in the given pixel by using only one block. This can overcome the low efficiency problem caused by the original non-local means method. Our proposed method also benefits from the local average gradient orientation. In order to perform evaluation, we compared the processed images based on our technique with the ones by the original and the improved non-local means denoising method. Extensive experiments are conducted and results shows that our method is faster than the original and the improved non-local means method. It is also proven that our implemented method is robust enough to remove noise in the application of neuroimaging.

  7. Understanding the minds of others: A neuroimaging meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Johnson, Halle; Henry, Julie D; Mattingley, Jason B

    2016-06-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is an important skill that refers broadly to the capacity to understand the mental states of others. A large number of neuroimaging studies have focused on identifying the functional brain regions involved in ToM, but many important questions remain with respect to the neural networks implicated in specific types of ToM tasks. In the present study, we conducted a series of activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses on 144 datasets (involving 3150 participants) to address these questions. The ALE results revealed common regions shared across all ToM tasks and broader task parameters, but also some important dissociations. In terms of commonalities, consistent activation was identified in the medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral temporoparietal junction. On the other hand, ALE contrast analyses on our dataset, as well as meta-analytic connectivity modelling (MACM) analyses on the BrainMap database, indicated that different types of ToM tasks reliably elicit activity in unique brain areas. Our findings provide the most accurate picture to date of the neural networks that underpin ToM function.

  8. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  9. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  10. Neuroimaging and obesity: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Carnell, S; Gibson, C; Benson, L; Ochner, C N; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging is becoming increasingly common in obesity research as investigators try to understand the neurological underpinnings of appetite and body weight in humans. Positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies examining responses to food intake and food cues, dopamine function and brain volume in lean vs. obese individuals are now beginning to coalesce in identifying irregularities in a range of regions implicated in reward (e.g. striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus), homeostatic regulation of intake (e.g. hypothalamus), sensory and motor processing (e.g. insula, precentral gyrus), and cognitive control and attention (e.g. prefrontal cortex, cingulate). Studies of weight change in children and adolescents, and those at high genetic risk for obesity, promise to illuminate causal processes. Studies examining specific eating behaviours (e.g. external eating, emotional eating, dietary restraint) are teaching us about the distinct neural networks that drive components of appetite, and contribute to the phenotype of body weight. Finally, innovative investigations of appetite-related hormones, including studies of abnormalities (e.g. leptin deficiency) and interventions (e.g. leptin replacement, bariatric surgery), are shedding light on the interactive relationship between gut and brain. The dynamic distributed vulnerability model of eating behaviour in obesity that we propose has scientific and practical implications.

  11. Neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Werner, Heron; Keshavarz, Elham; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses. Postnatal (acquired) ZIKV infection usually has an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic course, while prenatal (congenital) ZIKV infection has a more severe course and may cause severe brain anomalies that are described as congenital Zika syndrome. In this pictorial essay, we aim to illustrate the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging findings that may be seen in fetuses and neonates with congenital Zika syndrome, and will discuss possible radiological differential diagnoses. A detailed knowledge of these findings is paramount for an early correct diagnosis, prognosis determination, and counseling of the affected children and families.

  12. Yield of Emergent Neuroimaging in Children with New-Onset Seizure and Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Todd W.; Johnson, Kara B.; Michelson, Kenneth A.; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Kimia MD, Amir A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the yield of emergent neuroimaging among children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus. METHOD We performed a cross-sectional study of children seen at a single ED between 1995–2012 with new-onset seizure presenting with status epilepticus. We defined status epilepticus as a single seizure or multiple seizures without regaining consciousness lasting 30 minutes or longer. Our primary outcome was urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. We categorized neuroimaging results as emergent if they would have changed acute management as assessed by a blinded neuroradiologist and neurologist. To ensure abnormalities were not missed, we review neuroimaging results for 30 days following the initial episode of SE. RESULTS We included 177 children presenting with new-onset seizure with status epilepticus, of whom 170 (96%) had neuroimaging performed. Abnormal findings were identified on neuroimaging in 64/177 (36%, 95% confidence interval 29–43%) children with 15 (8.5%, 95% confidence interval 5.2–14%) children having urgent or emergent pathology. Four (27%) of the 15 children with urgent or emergent findings had a normal non-contrast computed tomography scan and a subsequently abnormal magnetic resonance image. Longer seizure duration and older age were associated with urgent or emergent intracranial pathology. CONCLUSION A substantial minority of children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus have urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. Clinicians should strongly consider emergent neuroimaging in these children. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging modality when available and safe. PMID:26773658

  13. Best practices in data analysis and sharing in neuroimaging using MRI.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Thomas E; Das, Samir; Eickhoff, Simon B; Evans, Alan C; Glatard, Tristan; Hanke, Michael; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Milham, Michael P; Poldrack, Russell A; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Proal, Erika; Thirion, Bertrand; Van Essen, David C; White, Tonya; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2017-02-23

    Given concerns about the reproducibility of scientific findings, neuroimaging must define best practices for data analysis, results reporting, and algorithm and data sharing to promote transparency, reliability and collaboration. We describe insights from developing a set of recommendations on behalf of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping and identify barriers that impede these practices, including how the discipline must change to fully exploit the potential of the world's neuroimaging data.

  14. Visual systems for interactive exploration and mining of large-scale neuroimaging data archives.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Ian; Joshi, Shantanu H; Van Horn, John D

    2012-01-01

    While technological advancements in neuroimaging scanner engineering have improved the efficiency of data acquisition, electronic data capture methods will likewise significantly expedite the populating of large-scale neuroimaging databases. As they do and these archives grow in size, a particular challenge lies in examining and interacting with the information that these resources contain through the development of compelling, user-driven approaches for data exploration and mining. In this article, we introduce the informatics visualization for neuroimaging (INVIZIAN) framework for the graphical rendering of, and dynamic interaction with the contents of large-scale neuroimaging data sets. We describe the rationale behind INVIZIAN, detail its development, and demonstrate its usage in examining a collection of over 900 T1-anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image volumes from across a diverse set of clinical neuroimaging studies drawn from a leading neuroimaging database. Using a collection of cortical surface metrics and means for examining brain similarity, INVIZIAN graphically displays brain surfaces as points in a coordinate space and enables classification of clusters of neuroanatomically similar MRI images and data mining. As an initial step toward addressing the need for such user-friendly tools, INVIZIAN provides a highly unique means to interact with large quantities of electronic brain imaging archives in ways suitable for hypothesis generation and data mining.

  15. Neuroimaging studies in the evaluation of developmental delay/mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Agatino

    2003-02-15

    The employment of neuroimaging studies in the evaluation of individuals with developmental delay/mental retardation (DD/MR) is still highly debated. The Consensus Conference of the American College of Medical Genetics has suggested that "neuroimaging appears to have an especially important role in patients with microcephaly or macrocephaly, seizures, loss of psychomotor skills and neurologic signs," whereas the value of neuroimaging investigations "in the normocephalic patient without focal neurological signs is unclear" [Curry et al., 1997]. However, recent literature reports show how the latest neuroimaging techniques (in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy [H-MRS]) may prove to be useful in the diagnostic process of those individuals with DD/MR and no neurological signs/symptoms. The use of these techniques can, in addition, help in monitoring treatment in distinct metabolic disorders. This review will focus on the usefulness of neuroimaging studies in some of the newer metabolic disorders. This paper will also cover those recognizable patterns of human malformation where neuroimaging findings seem to be relevant both toward diagnosis and management, and add to our understanding of the related behavior phenotype. The essential role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the progress in the diagnostic recognition of malformations of cerebral cortical development is stressed.

  16. Visual Systems for Interactive Exploration and Mining of Large-Scale Neuroimaging Data Archives

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Ian; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Van Horn, John D.

    2012-01-01

    While technological advancements in neuroimaging scanner engineering have improved the efficiency of data acquisition, electronic data capture methods will likewise significantly expedite the populating of large-scale neuroimaging databases. As they do and these archives grow in size, a particular challenge lies in examining and interacting with the information that these resources contain through the development of compelling, user-driven approaches for data exploration and mining. In this article, we introduce the informatics visualization for neuroimaging (INVIZIAN) framework for the graphical rendering of, and dynamic interaction with the contents of large-scale neuroimaging data sets. We describe the rationale behind INVIZIAN, detail its development, and demonstrate its usage in examining a collection of over 900 T1-anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image volumes from across a diverse set of clinical neuroimaging studies drawn from a leading neuroimaging database. Using a collection of cortical surface metrics and means for examining brain similarity, INVIZIAN graphically displays brain surfaces as points in a coordinate space and enables classification of clusters of neuroanatomically similar MRI images and data mining. As an initial step toward addressing the need for such user-friendly tools, INVIZIAN provides a highly unique means to interact with large quantities of electronic brain imaging archives in ways suitable for hypothesis generation and data mining. PMID:22536181

  17. Structural brain network constrained neuroimaging marker identification for predicting cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    De, Wang; Nie, Feiping; Huang, Heng; Yan, Jingwen; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging markers have been widely used to predict the cognitive functions relevant to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most previous studies identify the imaging markers without considering the brain structural correlations between neuroimaging measures. However, many neuroimaging markers interrelate and work together to reveal the cognitive functions, such that these relevant markers should be selected together as the phenotypic markers. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel network constrained feature selection (NCFS) model to identify the neuroimaging markers guided by the structural brain network, which is constructed by the sparse representation method such that the interrelations between neuroimaging features are encoded into probabilities. Our new methods are evaluated by the MRI and AV45-PET data from ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative). In all cognitive function prediction tasks, our new NCFS method outperforms other state-of-the-art regression approaches. Meanwhile, we show that the new method can select the correlated imaging markers, which are ignored by the competing approaches.

  18. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Anwar S.; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R.

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications. PMID:27279746

  19. The case for pain neuroimaging in the courtroom: lessons from deception detection

    PubMed Central

    Salmanowitz, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    From an observer's perspective, pain is a fairly nebulous concept—it is not externally visible, its cause is not obvious, and perceptions of its intensity are mainly subjective. If difficulties in understanding the source and degree of pain are troublesome in contexts requiring social empathy, they are especially problematic in the legal setting. Tort law applies to both acute and chronic pain cases, but the lack of objective measures demands high thresholds of proof. However, recent developments in pain neuroimaging may clarify some of these inherent uncertainties, as studies purport detection of pain on an individual level. In analyzing the scientific and legal barriers of utilizing pain neuroimaging in court, it is prudent to discuss neuroimaging for deception, a topic that has garnered significant controversy due to premature attempts at introduction in the courtroom. Through comparing and contrasting the two applications of neuroimaging to the legal setting, this paper argues that the nature of tort law, the distinct features of pain, and the reduced vulnerability to countermeasures distinguish pain neuroimaging in a promising way. This paper further contends that the mistakes and lessons involving deception detection are essential to consider for pain neuroimaging to have a meaningful future in court. PMID:27774191

  20. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing.

    PubMed

    Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  1. Evidence of a permanent electric polarisation in highly strained Cr2O3 clusters measured by a second harmonic generation technique.

    PubMed

    Hamieh, Mohamad; Dorkenoo, Kokoo; Taupier, Gregory; Henry, Yves; Halley, David

    2017-03-24

    We investigate the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal in strained Cr2O3 clusters. We show that the SHG signal generated by nanometric Cr2O3 clusters embedded in MgO varies under an applied electric field, at room temperature. The variation of the intensity follows a Langevin law as a function of the electric field, which is consistent with a super-paraelectric clusters assembly. This reveals the presence of a weak spontaneous electric dipole in Cr2O3 when in the shape of highly strained epitaxial clusters, whereas this material does not posses any permanent electric dipole in the bulk phase. These results indicate that the multiferroic state recently observed at low temperature in those clusters, which was associated to a giant magneto-electric effect, might still exist at room temperature: this opens the way to new applications based on chromium oxide strained nanoparticles.

  2. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity. PMID:26500513

  3. Autopsy validation of 123I-FP-CIT dopaminergic neuroimaging for the diagnosis of DLB

    PubMed Central

    Attems, Johannes; Colloby, Sean J.; O'Brien, John T.; McKeith, Ian; Walker, Rodney; Lee, Lean; Burn, David; Lett, Debra J.; Walker, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a validation study of 123I-N-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (123I-FP-CIT) SPECT dopaminergic imaging in the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with autopsy as the gold standard. Methods: Patients >60 years of age with dementia who had undergone 123I-FP-CIT imaging in research studies and who had donated their brain tissue to the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource were included. All had structured clinical research assessments, and clinical diagnoses were applied by consensus panels using international diagnostic criteria. All underwent 123I-FP-CIT imaging at baseline, and scans were rated as normal or abnormal by blinded raters. Patients were reviewed in prospective studies and after death underwent detailed autopsy assessment, and neuropathologic diagnoses were applied with the use of standard international criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients (33 with DLB and 22 with Alzheimer disease) were included. Against autopsy diagnosis, 123I-FP-CIT had a balanced diagnostic accuracy of 86% (sensitivity 80%, specificity 92%) compared with clinical diagnosis, which had an accuracy of 79% (sensitivity 87%, specificity 72%). Among patients with DLB, 10% (3 patients) met pathologic criteria for Lewy body disease but had normal 123I-FP-CIT imaging. Conclusions: This large autopsy analysis of 123I-FP-CIT imaging in dementia demonstrates that it is a valid and accurate biomarker for DLB, and the high specificity compared with clinical diagnosis (20% higher) is clinically important. The results need to be replicated with patients recruited from a wider range of settings, including movement disorder clinics and general practice. While an abnormal 123I-FP-CIT scan strongly supports Lewy body disease, a normal scan does not exclude DLB with minimal brainstem involvement. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that 123I-FP-CIT dopaminergic neuroimaging accurately identifies patients with DLB

  4. Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for impaired executive function in "cognitively normal" older HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiong; Barasky, Rebecca; Olsen, Halli; Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Magnus, Manya

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of HIV among adults >50 years underscores the importance of improving our understanding of mechanisms causing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Identifying novel and noninvasive diagnostic predictors of HAND prior to clinical manifestation is critical to ultimately identifying means of preventing progression to symptomatic HAND. Here, using a task-switching paradigm, in which subjects were cued (unpredictably) to perform a face-gender or a word-semantic task on superimposed face and word images, we examined the behavioral and neural profile of impaired cognitive control in older HIV + adults (N = 14, 9 HIV+). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral data were acquired while subjects were performing the face-gender or word-semantic task. We found that, despite comparable performance in standard neuropsychology tests that are designed to probe executive deficits, HIV-infected participants were significantly slower than uninfected controls in adapting to change in task demand, and the behavioral impairments can be quantitatively related to difference in fMRI signal at the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Due to the limited sample size of this hypothesis-generating study, we should take caution with these findings and future studies with a large and better matched sample size are needed. However, these rather novel findings in this study have a few important implications: first, the prevalence of cognitive impairments in HIV+ older adults might be even higher than previously proposed; second, ACC (in particularly its dorsal region) might be one of the key regions underlying cognitive impairments (in particularly executive functions) in HIV; and third, it might be beneficial to adopt paradigms developed and validated in cognitive neuroscience to study HAND, as these techniques might be more sensitive to some aspects of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairments than standard neuropsychology tests.

  5. Effects of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies on Brain Development: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the…

  6. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  7. Enhanced Left Frontal Involvement during Novel Metaphor Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Functional Neuroimaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, N.; Vishne, T.; Laor, N.; Titone, D.

    2013-01-01

    The neural basis involved in novel metaphor comprehension in schizophrenia is relatively unknown. Fourteen people with schizophrenia and fourteen controls were scanned while they silently read novel metaphors, conventional metaphors, literal expressions, and meaningless word-pairs. People with schizophrenia showed reduced comprehension of both…

  8. Sensation seeking predicts brain responses in the old-new task: converging multimodal neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Adam L; Liu, Xun; Joseph, Jane; Vagnini, Victoria L; Kelly, Thomas H; Jiang, Yang

    2012-06-01

    Novel images and message content enhance visual attention and memory for high sensation seekers, but the neural mechanisms associated with this effect are unclear. To investigate the individual differences in brain responses to new and old (studied) visual stimuli, we utilized event-related potentials (ERP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measures to examine brain reactivity among high and low sensation seekers during a classic old-new memory recognition task. Twenty low and 20 high sensation seekers completed separate, but parallel, ERP and fMRI sessions. For each session, participants initially studied drawings of common images, and then performed an old-new recognition task during scanning. High sensation seekers showed greater ERP responses to new objects at the frontal N2 ERP component, compared to low sensation seekers. The ERP Novelty-N2 responses were correlated with fMRI responses in the orbitofrontal gyrus. Sensation seeking status also modulated the FN400 ERP component indexing familiarity and conceptual learning, along with fMRI responses in the caudate nucleus, which correlated with FN400 activity. No group differences were found in the late ERP positive components indexing classic old-new amplitude effects. Our combined ERP and fMRI results suggest that sensation-seeking personality affects the early brain responses to visual processing, but not the later stage of memory recognition.

  9. Remembering the Specific Visual Details of Presented Objects: Neuroimaging Evidence for Effects of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Memories can be retrieved with varied amounts of visual detail, and the emotional content of information can influence the likelihood that visual detail is remembered. In the present fMRI experiment (conducted with 19 adults scanned using a 3T magnet), we examined the neural processes that correspond with recognition of the visual details of…

  10. Experimental Evidence for Improved Neuroimaging Interpretation Using Three-Dimensional Graphic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruisoto, Pablo; Juanes, Juan Antonio; Contador, Israel; Mayoral, Paula; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) or volumetric visualization is a useful resource for learning about the anatomy of the human brain. However, the effectiveness of 3D spatial visualization has not yet been assessed systematically. This report analyzes whether 3D volumetric visualization helps learners to identify and locate subcortical structures more…

  11. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  12. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: The role of ancillary activation

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Matthew J.; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W. Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Methods Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. Results All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p < .05) when stimulation was applied to the anesthetic body part compared to the contralateral sensate mirror region. They included right paralimbic cortices (anterior cingulate cortex and insula), right temporoparietal junction (angular gyrus and inferior parietal lobule), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (middle frontal gyri), right orbital frontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus), right caudate, right ventral-anterior thalamus and left angular gyrus. There was a trend for activation of the somatosensory cortex contralateral to the anesthetic region to be decreased relative to the sensate side. Conclusions Sensory conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder. PMID:25379447

  13. Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    As radiologists, our role in the workup of the dementia patient has long been limited by the sensitivity of our imaging tools and lack of effective treatment options. Over the past 30 years, we have made tremendous strides in understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). We now know that the pathologic features of AD are present 1 to 2 decades prior to development of symptoms, though currently approved symptomatic therapies are administered much later in the disease course. The search for true disease-modifying therapy continues and many clinical trials are underway. Current outcome measures, based on cognitive tests, are relatively insensitive to pathologic disease progression, requiring long, expensive trials with large numbers of participants. Biomarkers, including neuroimaging, have great potential to increase the power of trials by matching imaging methodology with therapeutic mechanism. One of the most important advances over the past decade has been the development of in vivo imaging probes targeted to amyloid beta protein, and one agent is already available for clinical use. Additional advances include automated volumetric imaging methods to quantitate cerebral volume loss. Use of such techniques in small, early phase trials are expected to significantly increase the number and quality of candidate drugs for testing in larger trials. In addition to a critical role in trials, structural, molecular, and functional imaging techniques can give us a window on the etiology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. This combination of developments has potential to bring diagnostic radiology to the forefront in AD research, therapeutic trials, and patient care.

  14. Functional neuroimaging insights into the physiology of human sleep.

    PubMed

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the sleeping brain is still able to process external information and even detect the pertinence of its content. The relationship between sleep and memory has also been refined using neuroimaging, demonstrating post-learning reactivation during sleep, as well as the reorganization of memory representation on the systems level, sometimes with long-lasting effects on subsequent memory performance. Further imaging studies should focus on clarifying the role of specific sleep patterns for the processing of external stimuli, as well as the consolidation of freshly encoded information during sleep.

  15. The child with a cephalocele: etiology, neuroimaging, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, J F; Poza, M; Sola, J; Soler, C L; Montalvo, C G; Domingo, R; Puche, A; Ramón, F H; Azorín, P; Lasso, R

    1996-09-01

    We report a series of 46 children who were treated for one of the diverse forms of cranium bifidum during a period of 22 years. The purpose of the survey was to investigate pathogenetic factors involved in the development of cranial dysraphism and to analyze clinical and pathological factors that influence the patients' outcome. We also investigated the existence of associated intracranial anomalies, in a systematic way, using modern methods of neuroimaging, and related the findings to the patients' final results. The lesions were classified as encephalocele (n = 15), cranial meningocele (n = 3), atretic cephalocele (n = 26), cranium bifidum occultum (n = 1), and exencephaly (n = 1). There was an excess of the atretic form of cephaloceles in our series, a fact that probably reflects geographical variations described for cephaloceles in general. The location of the lesions was occipital in 29 children, parietal in 16, and temporal and frontobasal in one case each. In seven cases there was parental consanguinity. A familial history of malformations of the central nervous system was encountered in eight instances. Associated systemic abnormalities were present in 23 patients, while central nervous system anomalies were found in 36 children. Cephalocele repair was undertaken on 35 occasions. There were no surgical fatalities in the series. The mean follow-up time was of 7 years. Overall mortality for the whole group was of 17/46 or 36%. Twenty of the 29 survivors had no neurological sequelae, but only 18 children exhibited a competitive intelligence level. A good outcome was found to correlate well with: an average head size at birth, a normal initial neurological condition, operability of the lesions, and an absence of disorders of the neuronal migration. Neurological outcome depended also on the occurrence or not of hydrocephalus, while the intelligence level was mainly related to the absence of cerebral tissue within the sac of the malformation.

  16. The Appropriate Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Work-Up of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of dementia is challenging and requires both ruling out potentially treatable underlying causes and ruling in a diagnosis of dementia subtype to manage patients and suitably plan for the future. Objectives This analysis sought to determine the appropriate use of neuroimaging during the diagnostic work-up of dementia, including indications for neuroimaging and comparative accuracy of alternative technologies. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published between 2000 and 2013. Review Methods Data on diagnostic accuracy and impact on clinical decision making were abstracted from included studies. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Results The search yielded 5,374 citations and 15 studies were included. Approximately 10% of dementia cases are potentially treatable, though less than 1% reverse partially or fully. Neither prediction rules nor clinical indications reliably select the subset of patients who will likely benefit from neuroimaging. Clinical utility is highest in ambiguous cases or where dementia may be mixed, and lowest for clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease or clinically excluded vascular dementia. There is a lack of evidence that MRI is superior to CT in detecting a vascular component to dementia. Accuracy of structural imaging is moderate to high for discriminating different types of dementia. Limitations There was significant heterogeneity in estimates of diagnostic accuracy, which often prohibited a statistical summary of findings. The quality of data reported by studies prohibited calculation of likelihood ratios in the present analysis. No studies from primary care were found; thus, generalizability beyond tertiary care settings may be limited. Conclusions A diagnosis of reversible dementia is rare. Imaging has the most

  17. Neuroimaging Insights into the Role of Cortical GABA Systems and the Influence of Nicotine on the Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Esterlis, Irina; Mason, Graeme F.; Bois, Frederic; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Krystal, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence suggesting that nicotine and tobacco smoke profoundly modulate the effects of alcohol on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuronal function, specifically at the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor (GABAA-BZR). The focus of this paper is on recent neuroimaging evidence in preclinical models as well as clinical experiments. First, we review findings implicating the role of alcohol at the GABAA-BZR and discuss the changes in GABAA-BZR availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. Second, we discuss preclinical evidence that suggests nicotine affects GABA neuronal function indirectly by a primary action at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Third, we show how this evidence converges in studies that examine GABA levels and GABAA-BZRs in alcohol-dependent smokers and nonsmokers, suggesting that tobacco smoking attenuates the chemical changes that occur during alcohol withdrawal. Based on a comprehensive review of literature, we hypothesize that tobacco smoking minimizes the changes in GABA levels that typically occur during the acute cycles of drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. Thus, during alcohol withdrawal, the continued tobacco smoking decreases the severity of the withdrawal-related changes in GABA chemistry. PMID:21276806

  18. Nipype: A Flexible, Lightweight and Extensible Neuroimaging Data Processing Framework in Python

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Burns, Christopher D.; Madison, Cindee; Clark, Dav; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Waskom, Michael L.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2011-01-01

    Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM) are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional) data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient, and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: (1) No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; (2) No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; (3) Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; (4) Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and (5) Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype), an open-source, community-developed, software package, and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is Berkeley Software Distribution licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for

  19. Nipype: a flexible, lightweight and extensible neuroimaging data processing framework in python.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Burns, Christopher D; Madison, Cindee; Clark, Dav; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Waskom, Michael L; Ghosh, Satrajit S

    2011-01-01

    Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM) are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional) data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient, and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: (1) No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; (2) No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; (3) Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; (4) Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and (5) Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype), an open-source, community-developed, software package, and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is Berkeley Software Distribution licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for

  20. Calcium signaling in lymphocytes and ELF fields. Evidence for an electric field metric and a site of interaction involving the calcium ion channel.

    PubMed

    Liburdy, R P

    1992-04-13

    Calcium influx increased during mitogen-activated signal transduction in thymic lymphocytes exposed to a 22 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field (E induced = 1.7 mV/cm, 37 degrees C, 60 min). To distinguish between an electric or a magnetic field dependence a special multi-ring annular cell culture plate based on Faraday's Law of Induction was employed. Studies show a dependence on the strength of the induced electric field at constant magnetic flux density. Moreover, exposure to a pure 60 Hz electric field or to a magnetically-induced electric field of identical strength resulted in similar changes in calcium transport. The first real-time monitoring of [Ca2+]i during application of a 60 Hz electric field revealed an increase in [Ca2+]i observed 100 s after mitogen stimulation; this suggests that the plateau phase rather than the early phase of calcium signaling was influenced. The hypothesis was tested by separating, in time, the early release of calcium from intracellular stores from the influx of extracellular calcium. In calcium-free buffer, 60 Hz field exerted little influence on the early release of calcium from intracellular stores. In contrast, addition of extracellular calcium during exposure enhanced calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Alteration of the plateau phase of calcium signaling implicates the calcium channel as a site of field interaction. In addition, an electric field exposure metric is mechanistically consistent with a cell-surface interaction site.

  1. Understanding Actions of Others: The Electrodynamics of the Left and Right Hemispheres. A High-Density EEG Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Grafton, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Background When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping) and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking). Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0) showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1) showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs) were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1). The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1) bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2) a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3) a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4) a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network mediates the

  2. Vulnerability of Welders to Manganese Exposure – A Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaiyang, Long; Yue-Ming, Jiang; Xiang-Rong, Li; William, Fadel; Jun, Xu; Chien-Lin, Yeh; Li-Ling, Long; Hai-Lan, Luo; Jaroslaw, Harezlak; James B, Murdoch; Wei, Zheng; Ulrike, Dydak

    2014-01-01

    Increased manganese (Mn) exposure is known to cause cognitive, psychiatric and motor deficits. Mn exposure occurs in different occupational settings, where the airborne Mn level and the size of respirable particulates may vary considerably. Recently the importance of the role of the cerebral cortex in Mn toxicity has been highlighted, especially in Mn-induced neuropsychological effects. In this study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate brain Mn accumulation using T1 signal intensity indices and to examine changes in brain iron content using T2* contrast, as well as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure exposure-induced metabolite changes non-invasively in cortical and deep brain regions in Mn-exposed welders, Mn-exposed smelter workers and control factory workers with no measurable exposure to Mn. MRS data as well as T1 signal intensity indices and T2* values were acquired from the frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. Smelters were exposed to higher air Mn levels and had a longer duration of exposure, which was reflected in higher Mn levels in erythrocytes and urine than in welders. Nonetheless, welders had more significant metabolic differences compared to controls than did the smelter workers, especially in the frontal cortex. T1 hyperintensities in the globus pallidus were observed in both Mn-exposed groups, but only welders showed significantly higher thalamic and hippocampal T1 hyperintensities, as well as significantly reduced T2* values in the frontal cortex. Our results indicate that (1) the cerebral cortex, in particular the frontal cortex, is clearly involved in Mn neurotoxic effects and (2) in spite of the lower air Mn levels and shorter duration of exposure, welders exhibit more extensive neuroimaging changes compared to controls than smelters, including measurable deposition of Mn in more brain areas. These results indicate that the type of exposure (particulate sizes, dust versus fume) and

  3. Toward a Neuroimaging Treatment Selection Biomarker for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Callie L.; Kelley, Mary E.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Craighead, W. Edward; Franco, Alexandre R.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Mayberg, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Currently, fewer than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder achieve remission with initial treatment. Identification of a biological marker that might improve these odds could have significant health and economic impact. OBJECTIVE To identify a candidate neuroimaging “treatment-specific biomarker” that predicts differential outcome to either medication or psychotherapy. DESIGN Brain glucose metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography prior to treatment randomization to either escitalopram oxalate or cognitive behavior therapy for 12 weeks. Patients who did not remit on completion of their phase 1 treatment were offered enrollment in phase 2 comprising an additional 12 weeks of treatment with combination escitalopram and cognitive behavior therapy. SETTING Mood and anxiety disorders research program at an academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS Men and women aged 18 to 60 years with currently untreated major depressive disorder. INTERVENTION Randomized assignment to 12 weeks of treatment with either escitalopram oxalate (10–20 mg/d) or 16 sessions of manual-based cognitive behavior therapy. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Remission, defined as a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 7 or less at both weeks 10 and 12, as assessed by raters blinded to treatment. RESULTS Positive and negative predictors of remission were identified with a 2-way analysis of variance treatment (escitalopram or cognitive behavior therapy) × outcome (remission or nonresponse) interaction. Of 65 protocol completers, 38 patients with clear outcomes and usable positron emission tomography scans were included in the primary analysis: 12 remitters to cognitive behavior therapy, 11 remitters to escitalopram, 9 nonresponders to cognitive behavior therapy, and 6 nonresponders to escitalopram. Six limbic and cortical regions were identified, with the right anterior insula showing the most robust discriminant properties across groups (effect size

  4. Detecting Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Psychiatric Disorders: Sample Size Matters

    PubMed Central

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent review, it was suggested that much larger cohorts are needed to prove the diagnostic value of neuroimaging biomarkers in psychiatry. While within a sample, an increase of diagnostic accuracy of schizophrenia (SZ) with number of subjects (N) has been shown, the relationship between N and accuracy is completely different between studies. Using data from a recent meta-analysis of machine learning (ML) in imaging SZ, we found that while low-N studies can reach 90% and higher accuracy, above N/2 = 50 the maximum accuracy achieved steadily drops to below 70% for N/2 > 150. We investigate the role N plays in the wide variability in accuracy results in SZ studies (63–97%). We hypothesize that the underlying cause of the decrease in accuracy with increasing N is sample heterogeneity. While smaller studies more easily include a homogeneous group of subjects (strict inclusion criteria are easily met; subjects live close to study site), larger studies inevitably need to relax the criteria/recruit from large geographic areas. A SZ prediction model based on a heterogeneous group of patients with presumably a heterogeneous pattern of structural or functional brain changes will not be able to capture the whole variety of changes, thus being limited to patterns shared by most patients. In addition to heterogeneity (sample size), we investigate other factors influencing accuracy and introduce a ML effect size. We derive a simple model of how the different factors, such as sample heterogeneity and study setup determine this ML effect size, and explain the variation in prediction accuracies found from the literature, both in cross-validation and independent sample testing. From this, we argue that smaller-N studies may reach high prediction accuracy at the cost of lower generalizability to other samples. Higher-N studies, on the other hand, will have more generalization power, but at the cost of lower accuracy. In conclusion, when comparing results from different

  5. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging: A bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Kwanseop; Bae, Jong Seok; Lee, Ju-Hun

    2016-06-18

    The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging. Based on the database of Journal Citation Reports, we selected 669 journals that were considered as potential outlets for neuroimaging articles. The Web of Science search tools were used to identify the 100 most-cited articles relevant to neuroimaging within the selected journals. The following information was recorded for each article: publication year, journal, category and impact factor of journal, number of citations, number of annual citations, authorship, department, institution, country, article type, imaging technique used, and topic. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging were published between 1980 and 2012, with 1995-2004 producing 69 articles. Citations ranged from 4384 to 673 and annual citations ranged from 313.1 to 24.9. The majority of articles were published in radiology/imaging journals (n=75), originated in the United States (n=58), were original articles (n=63), used MRI as imaging modality (n=85), and dealt with imaging technique (n=45). The Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain at John Radcliffe Hospital (n=10) was the leading institutions and Karl J. Friston (n=11) was the most prolific author. Our study presents a detailed list and an analysis of the 100 most-cited articles in the field of neuroimaging, which provides an insight into historical developments and allows for recognition of the important advances in this field.

  6. Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stoléru, Serge

    2014-01-01

    One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal (SA) have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentially consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective, sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of SA. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character. Finally, based on functional neuroimaging results, some possible improvements to the psychoanalytic theory of sexual drives are suggested. PMID:24672467

  7. Integration of a neuroimaging processing pipeline into a pan-canadian computing grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie-Courchesne, S.; Rioux, P.; Chouinard-Decorte, F.; Sherif, T.; Rousseau, M.-E.; Das, S.; Adalat, R.; Doyon, J.; Craddock, C.; Margulies, D.; Chu, C.; Lyttelton, O.; Evans, A. C.; Bellec, P.

    2012-02-01

    The ethos of the neuroimaging field is quickly moving towards the open sharing of resources, including both imaging databases and processing tools. As a neuroimaging database represents a large volume of datasets and as neuroimaging processing pipelines are composed of heterogeneous, computationally intensive tools, such open sharing raises specific computational challenges. This motivates the design of novel dedicated computing infrastructures. This paper describes an interface between PSOM, a code-oriented pipeline development framework, and CBRAIN, a web-oriented platform for grid computing. This interface was used to integrate a PSOM-compliant pipeline for preprocessing of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging into CBRAIN. We further tested the capacity of our infrastructure to handle a real large-scale project. A neuroimaging database including close to 1000 subjects was preprocessed using our interface and publicly released to help the participants of the ADHD-200 international competition. This successful experiment demonstrated that our integrated grid-computing platform is a powerful solution for high-throughput pipeline analysis in the field of neuroimaging.

  8. PET Neuroimaging: Insights on Dystonia and Tourette Syndrome and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Alongi, Pierpaolo; Iaccarino, Leonardo; Perani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Primary dystonia (pD) is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric developmental disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics, which could progress to behavioral changes. GTS and obsessive–compulsive disorders are often seen in comorbidity, also suggesting that a possible overlap in the pathophysiological bases of these two conditions. PET techniques are of considerable value in detecting functional and molecular abnormalities in vivo, according to the adopted radioligands. For example, PET is the unique technique that allows in vivo investigation of neurotransmitter systems, providing evidence of changes in GTS or pD. For example, presynaptic and post-synaptic dopaminergic studies with PET have shown alterations compatible with dysfunction or loss of D2-receptors bearing neurons, increased synaptic dopamine levels, or both. Measures of cerebral glucose metabolism with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (18F-FDG PET) are very sensitive in showing brain functional alterations as well. 18F-FDG PET data have shown metabolic changes within the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical and cerebello-thalamo-cortical networks, revealing possible involvement of brain circuits not limited to basal ganglia in pD and GTS. The aim of this work is to overview PET consistent neuroimaging literature on pD and GTS that has provided functional and molecular knowledge of the underlying neural dysfunction. Furthermore, we suggest potential applications of these techniques in monitoring treatments. PMID:25295029

  9. A clinical case study of a psychoanalytic psychotherapy monitored with functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Anna; Labek, Karin; Walter, Steffen; Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes 1 year of the psychoanalytic psychotherapy using clinical data, a standardized instrument of the psychotherapeutic process (Psychotherapy process Q-Set, PQS), and functional neuroimaging (fMRI). A female dysthymic patient with narcissistic traits was assessed at monthly intervals (12 sessions). In the fMRI scans, which took place immediately after therapy hours, the patient looked at pictures of attachment-relevant scenes (from the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, AAP) divided into two groups: those accompanied by a neutral description, and those accompanied by a description tailored to core conflicts of the patient as assessed in the AAP. Clinically, this patient presented defense mechanisms that influenced the relationship with the therapist and that was characterized by fluctuations of mood that lasted whole days, following a pattern that remained stable during the year of the study. The two modes of functioning associated with the mood shifts strongly affected the interaction with the therapist, whose quality varied accordingly (“easy” and “difficult” hours). The PQS analysis showed the association of “easy” hours with the topic of the involvement in significant relationships and of “difficult hours” with self-distancing, a defensive maneuver common in narcissistic personality structures. In the fMRI data, the modes of functioning visible in the therapy hours were significantly associated with modulation of the signal elicited by personalized attachment-related scenes in the posterior cingulate (p = 0.017 cluster-level, whole-volume corrected). This region has been associated in previous studies to self-distancing from negatively valenced pictures presented during the scan. The present study may provide evidence of the possible involvement of this brain area in spontaneously enacted self-distancing defensive strategies, which may be of relevance in resistant reactions in the course of a psychoanalytic

  10. Multiple tasks and neuroimaging modalities increase the likelihood of detecting covert awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Raechelle M.; Fernández-Espejo, Davinia; Gonzalez-Lara, Laura E.; Kwan, Benjamin Y.; Lee, Donald H.; Owen, Adrian M.; Cruse, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Minimal or inconsistent behavioral responses to command make it challenging to accurately diagnose the level of awareness of a patient with a Disorder of consciousness (DOC). By identifying markers of mental imagery being covertly performed to command, functional neuroimaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) has shown that some of these patients are aware despite their lack of behavioral responsiveness. We report the findings of behavioral, fMRI, and EEG approaches to detecting command-following in a group of patients with DOC. From an initial sample of 14 patients, complete data across all tasks was obtained in six cases. Behavioral evaluations were performed with the Coma Recovery Scale—Revised. Both fMRI and EEG evaluations involved the completion of previously validated mental imagery tasks—i.e., motor imagery (EEG and fMRI) and spatial navigation imagery (fMRI). One patient exhibited statistically significant evidence of motor imagery in both the fMRI and EEG tasks, despite being unable to follow commands behaviorally. Two behaviorally non-responsive patients produced appropriate activation during the spatial navigation fMRI task. However, neither of these patients successfully completed the motor imagery tasks, likely due to specific motor area damage in at least one of these cases. A further patient demonstrated command following only in the EEG motor imagery task, and two patients did not demonstrate command following in any of the behavioral, EEG, or fMRI assessments. Due to the heterogeneity of etiology and pathology in this group, DOC patients vary in terms of their suitability for some forms of neuroimaging, the preservation of specific neural structures, and the cognitive resources that may be available to them. Assessments of a range of cognitive abilities supported by spatially-distinct brain regions and indexed by multiple neural signatures are therefore required in order to accurately characterize a patient's level of residual cognition and

  11. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  12. Sparse kernel entropy component analysis for dimensionality reduction of neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qikun; Shi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The neuroimaging data typically has extremely high dimensions. Therefore, dimensionality reduction is commonly used to extract discriminative features. Kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) is a newly developed data transformation method, where the key idea is to preserve the most estimated Renyi entropy of the input space data set via a kernel-based estimator. Despite its good performance, KECA still suffers from the problem of low computational efficiency for large-scale data. In this paper, we proposed a sparse KECA (SKECA) algorithm with the recursive divide-and-conquer based solution, and then applied it to perform dimensionality reduction of neuroimaging data for classification of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared the SKECA with KECA, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel PCA (KPCA) and sparse KPCA. The experimental results indicate that the proposed SKECA has most superior performance to all other algorithms when extracting discriminative features from neuroimaging data for AD classification.

  13. Neuroimaging and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and addiction-related degenerative brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Roussotte, Florence F; Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Leonardo, Cassandra D; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-06-01

    Neuroimaging offers a powerful means to assess the trajectory of brain degeneration in a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we describe how multi-modal imaging can be used to study the changing brain during the different stages of AD. We integrate findings from a range of studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Neuroimaging reveals how risk genes for degenerative disorders affect the brain, including several recently discovered genetic variants that may disrupt brain connectivity. We review some recent neuroimaging studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Some genetic variants that increase risk for drug addiction may overlap with those associated with degenerative brain disorders. These common associations offer new insight into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and addictive behaviors, and may offer new leads for treating them before severe and irreversible neurological symptoms appear.

  14. Functional neuroimaging: a brief overview and feasibility for use in chiropractic research

    PubMed Central

    Lystad, Reidar P; Pollard, Henry

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to further our understanding of the neurophysiological effects of chiropractic spinal manipulation on brain activity as it pertains to both musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal complaints. This paper aims to provide a basic overview of the most commonly utilised techniques in the neurosciences for functional imaging the brain (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computerised tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and magnetoencephalography), and discuss their applicability in future chiropractic research. Functional neuroimaging modalities are used in a wide range of different research and clinical settings, and are powerful tools in the investigation of neuronal activity in the human brain. There are many potential applications for functional neuroimaging in future chiropractic research, but there are some feasibility issues, mainly pertaining to access and funding. We strongly encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in future investigations of the effects of chiropractic spinal manipulation on brain function. PMID:19421353

  15. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Gilman, Jodi M

    2014-09-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  16. Neuroimaging chronic pain: what have we learned and where are we going?

    PubMed Central

    Martucci, Katherine T; Ng, Pamela; Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging have helped illuminate our understanding of how the brain works in the presence of chronic pain, which often persists with unknown etiology or after the painful stimulus has been removed and any wounds have healed. Neuroimaging has enabled us to make great progress in identifying many of the neural mechanisms that contribute to chronic pain, and to pinpoint the specific regions of the brain that are activated in the presence of chronic pain. It has provided us with a new perception of the nature of chronic pain in general, leading researchers to move toward a whole-brain approach to the study and treatment of chronic pain, and to develop novel technologies and analysis techniques, with real potential for developing new diagnostics and more effective therapies. We review the use of neuroimaging in the study of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:28163658

  17. Using neuroimaging to understand the cortical mechanisms of auditory selective attention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Adrian KC; Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2013-01-01

    Over the last four decades, a range of different neuroimaging tools have been used to study human auditory attention, spanning from classic event-related potential studies using electroencephalography to modern multimodal imaging approaches (e.g., combining anatomical information based on magnetic resonance imaging with magneto- and electroencephalography). This review begins by exploring the different strengths and limitations inherent to different neuroimaging methods, and then outlines some common behavioral paradigms that have been adopted to study auditory attention. We argue that in order to design a neuroimaging experiment that produces interpretable, unambiguous results, the experimenter must not only have a deep appreciation of the imaging technique employed, but also a sophisticated understanding of perception and behavior. Only with the proper caveats in mind can one begin to infer how the cortex supports a human in solving the “cocktail party” problem. PMID:23850664

  18. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    Background Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Method This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Results Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation. PMID:27347478

  19. Inferring mental states from neuroimaging data: From reverse inference to large-scale decoding

    PubMed Central

    Poldrack, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    A common goal of neuroimaging research is to use imaging data to identify the mental processes that are engaged when a subject performs a mental task. The use of reasoning from activation to mental functions, known as “reverse inference”, has been previously criticized on the basis that it does not take into account how selectively the area is activated by the mental process in question. In this Perspective, I outline the critique of informal reverse inference, and describe a number of new developments that provide the ability to more formally test the predictive power of neuroimaging data. PMID:22153367

  20. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  1. Brain morphometry and the neurobiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: current knowledge and future potential for translational pre-clinical neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Clare J; Duty, Susan; Vernon, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy in the form of levodopa results in a significant proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease developing debilitating dyskinesia. This significantly complicates further treatment and negatively impacts patient quality of life. A greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is therefore crucial to develop new treatments to prevent or mitigate LID. Such investigations in humans are largely confined to assessment of neurochemical and cerebrovascular blood flow changes using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, recent evidence suggests that LID is associated with specific morphological changes in the frontal cortex and midbrain, detectable by structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Current human neuroimaging methods however lack sufficient resolution to reveal the biological mechanism driving these morphological changes at the cellular level. In contrast, there is a wealth of literature from well-established rodent models of LID documenting detailed post-mortem cellular and molecular measurements. The combination therefore of advanced neuroimaging methods and rodent LID models offers an exciting opportunity to bridge these currently disparate areas of research. To highlight this opportunity, in this mini-review, we provide an overview of the current clinical evidence for morphological changes in the brain associated with LID and identify potential cellular mechanisms as suggested from human and animal studies. We then suggest a framework for combining small animal MRI imaging with rodent models of LID, which may provide important mechanistic insights into the neurobiology of LID.

  2. Predictors of diagnostic neuroimaging delays among adults presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute stroke in Ontario: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Kirsteen R.; Kapral, Moira K.; Li, Shudong; Fang, Jiming; Moody, Alan R.; Krahn, Murray; Laupacis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have examined the timeliness of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, but less is known about door-to-imaging time. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the timing of neuroimaging among patients with suspected acute stroke in the province of Ontario, Canada, and to examine factors associated with delays in neuroimaging. Methods: We included all patients 18 years and older with suspected acute stroke seen at hospitals with neuroimaging capacity within the Ontario Stroke Registry between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2011. We used a hierarchical, multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between patient and hospital factors and the likelihood of receiving timely neuroimaging (≤ 25 min) after arrival in the emergency department. Results: A total of 13 250 patients presented to an emergency department with stroke-like symptoms during the study period. Of the 3984 who arrived within 4 hours after symptom onset, 1087 (27.3%) had timely neuroimaging. The factors independently associated with an increased likelihood of timely neuroimaging were less time from symptom onset to presentation, more severe stroke, male sex, no history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, arrival to hospital from a setting other than home and presentation to a designated stroke centre or an urban hospital. Interpretation: A minority of patients with stroke-like symptoms who presented within the 4-hour thrombolytic treatment window received timely neuroimaging. Neuroimaging delays were influenced by various patient and hospital factors, some of which are modifiable. PMID:27398382

  3. An automated pipeline for constructing personalized virtual brains from multimodal neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Schirner, Michael; Rothmeier, Simon; Jirsa, Viktor K; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Ritter, Petra

    2015-08-15

    Large amounts of multimodal neuroimaging data are acquired every year worldwide. In order to extract high-dimensional information for computational neuroscience applications standardized data fusion and efficient reduction into integrative data structures are required. Such self-consistent multimodal data sets can be used for computational brain modeling to constrain models with individual measurable features of the brain, such as done with The Virtual Brain (TVB). TVB is a simulation platform that uses empirical structural and functional data to build full brain models of individual humans. For convenient model construction, we developed a processing pipeline for structural, functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optionally electroencephalography (EEG) data. The pipeline combines several state-of-the-art neuroinformatics tools to generate subject-specific cortical and subcortical parcellations, surface-tessellations, structural and functional connectomes, lead field matrices, electrical source activity estimates and region-wise aggregated blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) time-series. The output files of the pipeline can be directly uploaded to TVB to create and simulate individualized large-scale network models that incorporate intra- and intercortical interaction on the basis of cortical surface triangulations and white matter tractograpy. We detail the pitfalls of the individual processing streams and discuss ways of validation. With the pipeline we also introduce novel ways of estimating the transmission strengths of fiber tracts in whole-brain structural connectivity (SC) networks and compare the outcomes of different tractography or parcellation approaches. We tested the functionality of the pipeline on 50 multimodal data sets. In order to quantify the robustness of the connectome extraction part of the pipeline we computed several metrics that quantify its rescan reliability and compared them to other

  4. Cognitive and Neuroimaging Findings in Physically Abused Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, M. R.; Kramer, L. A.; Ewing-Cobbs, L.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To characterise the cognitive, motor, and language skills of toddlers and preschoolers who had been physically abused and to obtain concurrent MRIs of the brain. Methods: A between groups design was used to compare of sample of 19 children, aged 14-77 months, who had been hospitalised for physical abuse with no evidence of neurological…

  5. Evidence by a voltage clamp study of an electrically mediated block to polyspermy in the egg of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata.

    PubMed

    Goudeau, H; Depresle, Y; Rosa, A; Goudeau, M

    1994-12-01

    Eggs of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata were voltage clamped (from -100 to +60 mV) and inseminated with a low or heavy sperm concentration. From inseminations with low sperm concentration (1 x 10(6) sp/ml), we found that fertilization currents occurred between -100 and +40 mV: they were always inward and displayed an analogous pattern whatever the clamped voltage. We established that the percentages of inseminated eggs that produced a fertilization current varied as a function of the clamped voltage. These percentages were not statistically different from 100% at clamped voltages between -100 and -30 mV, they decreased to 68 and 56% at clamped Vm of -10 and 0 mV, respectively, but were not statistically different from 0% at clamped Vm between +10 and +40 mV. We never obtained any egg electrical response at a clamped voltage of +50 mV. Almost all eggs (96%) which responded electrically were penetrated by one or several spermatozoa. These eggs were resuming meiosis (81 to 50%) at values of clamped Vm between -100 and 0 mV, respectively. At clamped Vm between +10 and +50 mV, the percentages of eggs resuming meiosis were not statistically different from 0. These results indicate that in P. mammillata eggs, the occurrence of an electrical response is voltage dependent and consequently that the initial depolarizing shift of the fertilization potential constitutes a fast block to polyspermy. However, in this species, the sperm penetration is not voltage dependent, since it occurred at clamped Vm from -100 to +40 mV. On the other hand, when eggs were clamped from -100 to +60 mV and inseminated with a heavy sperm concentration (2 x 10(7) sp/ml), the curves expressing, respectively, the percentages of eggs which responded electrically, the percentages of eggs which were penetrated by one or several spermatozoa, and the percentages of eggs resuming meiosis, as functions of the clamped Vm, were shifted by approximately 35 mV toward more positive voltages, compared to the

  6. Usefulness of Stereotactic biopsy and neuroimaging in management of HIV-1 clade C associated focal brain lesions with special focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Shyam Babu, C; Satishchandra, P; Mahadevan, A; Shibu Pillai, V; Ravishankar, S; Sidappa, N; Udaykumar, Ranga; Ravi, V; Shankar, SK

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal brain lesions (FBL) in HIV/AIDS frequently pose a diagnostic dilemma as the etiology varies from infective (tuberculoma, toxoplasmosis and tuberculous abscesses) to neoplastic lesions like lymphoma. For determining etiology, advanced neuroimaging techniques, serological and molecular biological tests have been evolved with varying sensitivities/specificities. Stereotactic biopsy (STB) of the lesions is reserved for lesions unresponsive to appropriate therapy. Objective & Methods In this study, the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging [Cranial CT (n=25), MRI (n=24), and Th 201/99 Tc SPECT scan (n=18)] is compared with histopathological diagnosis obtained by STB (n=21) or autopsy (n=4) in 25 HIV-1 subtype C seropositive individuals with FBL identified by neuroimaging with special reference to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an eighteen month study period (2006–2007). Results & conclusion Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the most frequent cause of FBL (21/25, 84%), followed by one case each of tuberculoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), the last two diagnosed at autopsy. Of the 21 cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, definitive diagnosis with histopathological confirmation was available in 14/21 (66.6%), with indirect evidence suggesting probable toxoplasmosis in seven, all of whom responded to antitoxoplasma therapy. CT and MRI had comparable specificities (75%), while MRI had marginally higher sensitivity (85% versus 80.9%) in detecting multiple lesions. The positive predictive value of both CT and MRI were identical (94.4%), suggesting that CT maybe a cost effective screening tool in resource restricted settings, for evaluating FBL. Sensitivity of 99Tc SPECT scan for diagnosing inflammatory lesions was 75% but failed to differentiate PCNSL from toxoplasmosis. This study is the first of its kind from India analysing FBL with specific focus on cerebral

  7. Neuroimaging in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Current and Future Predictors of Functional Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskauer, Stacy J.; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although neuroimaging has long played a role in the acute management of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), until recently, its use as a tool for understanding and predicting long-term brain-behavior relationships after TBI has been limited by the relatively poor sensitivity of routine clinical imaging for detecting diffuse axonal injury…

  8. Localization of function in anterior cingulate cortex: from psychosurgery to functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Early localizationists linked anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: Brodmann's area 24 and adjacent regions) with emotional behavior, paving the way for bilateral cingulotomy psychosurgery in severe, treatment resistant, cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder, chronic pain, depression, and substance abuse. Neuropsychological follow-up of such cases demonstrated executive function impairment. Abnormal neuroimaged activity in ACC has been found in many psychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, chronic pain, substance abuse, and schizophrenia. With healthy participants, increased neuroimaged activity in ACC has been linked with challenging executive function tasks, homeostatically incongruous physical states, and the encoding of the pleasant/averseness of stimuli. There is disagreement on the cortical substrate subsumed by the term ACC, the existence of functionally distinct ACC subregions (e.g., dorsal: cognitive vs. ventral: emotion), and the interpretation of functional neuroimaging studies. Synthesis of neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies suggests ACC contributes to behavior by modifying responses especially in reaction to challenging cognitive and physical states that require additional effortful cognitive control. This is accomplished by monitoring the emotional salience of stimuli, exerting control over the autonomic nervous system, and modulating cognitive activity.

  9. Offering to Share: How to Put Heads Together in Autism Neuroimaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Mazziotta, John C.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Evans, Alan C.; Courchesne, Eric; Dager, Stephen R.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Amaral, David G.; Cantor, Rita M.; Chugani, Diane C.; Dale, Anders M.; Davatzikos, Christos; Gerig, Guido; Herbert, Martha R.; Lainhart, Janet E.; Murphy, Declan G.; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.; Schultz, Robert T.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Levi-Pearl, Susan; Lajonchere, Clara; Colamarino, Sophia A.

    2008-01-01

    Data sharing in autism neuroimaging presents scientific, technical, and social obstacles. We outline the desiderata for a data-sharing scheme that combines imaging with other measures of phenotype and with genetics, defines requirements for comparability of derived data and recommendations for raw data, outlines a core protocol including…

  10. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  11. Examining Reading Development and Reading Disability in English Language Learners: Potential Contributions from Functional Neuroimaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kenneth R.; Sandak, Rebecca; Frost, Stephen J.; Moore, Dina; Mencl, W. Einar

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have suggested that across different written languages, skilled reading behavior is supported by similar, largely left hemisphere (LH), networks. In addition, recent studies of reading disability (RD) in monolingual readers, conducted in several languages, suggest a common neurobiological signature for this syndrome…

  12. Systematic Review of Structural and Functional Neuroimaging Findings in Children and Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Kathryn A.; Detre, John A.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herrington, John D.; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J.; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD. PMID:23723341

  13. Systematic review of structural and functional neuroimaging findings in children and adults with CKD.

    PubMed

    Moodalbail, Divya G; Reiser, Kathryn A; Detre, John A; Schultz, Robert T; Herrington, John D; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L; Hooper, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD.

  14. Digging Deeper Using Neuroimaging Tools Reveals Important Clues to Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the use of structural neuroimaging to understand the psychopathology of childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results showed an increase in lateral volumes, reduced total and regional volumes of gray matter in the cortex and increased basal ganglia volumes as in adult-onset schizophrenia in comparison with healthy subjects.

  15. Neuroimaging Study Designs, Computational Analyses and Data Provenance Using the LONI Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo; Lozev, Kamen; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Pierce, Jonathan; Zamanyan, Alen; Chakrapani, Shruthi; Van Horn, John; Parker, D. Stott; Magsipoc, Rico; Leung, Kelvin; Gutman, Boris; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Modern computational neuroscience employs diverse software tools and multidisciplinary expertise to analyze heterogeneous brain data. The classical problems of gathering meaningful data, fitting specific models, and discovering appropriate analysis and visualization tools give way to a new class of computational challenges—management of large and incongruous data, integration and interoperability of computational resources, and data provenance. We designed, implemented and validated a new paradigm for addressing these challenges in the neuroimaging field. Our solution is based on the LONI Pipeline environment [3], [4], a graphical workflow environment for constructing and executing complex data processing protocols. We developed study-design, database and visual language programming functionalities within the LONI Pipeline that enable the construction of complete, elaborate and robust graphical workflows for analyzing neuroimaging and other data. These workflows facilitate open sharing and communication of data and metadata, concrete processing protocols, result validation, and study replication among different investigators and research groups. The LONI Pipeline features include distributed grid-enabled infrastructure, virtualized execution environment, efficient integration, data provenance, validation and distribution of new computational tools, automated data format conversion, and an intuitive graphical user interface. We demonstrate the new LONI Pipeline features using large scale neuroimaging studies based on data from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping [5] and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [6]. User guides, forums, instructions and downloads of the LONI Pipeline environment are available at http://pipeline.loni.ucla.edu. PMID:20927408

  16. What Is Self-Specific? Theoretical Investigation and Critical Review of Neuroimaging Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Dorothee; Ruby, Perrine

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a paradigm shift in the investigation of the self. Synthesizing neuroimaging results from studies investigating the self, the authors first demonstrate that self-relatedness evaluation involves a wide cerebral network, labeled E-network, comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction, and temporal…

  17. Integrative Bayesian Analysis of Neuroimaging-Genetic Data with Application to Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Shabnam; Hobbs, Brian P.; Ma, Liangsuo; Nielsen, David A.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging and genetic studies provide distinct and complementary information about the structural and biological aspects of a disease. Integrating the two sources of data facilitates the investigation of the links between genetic variability and brain mechanisms among different individuals for various medical disorders. This article presents a general statistical framework for integrative Bayesian analysis of neuroimaging-genetic (iBANG) data, which is motivated by a neuroimaging-genetic study in cocaine dependence. Statistical inference necessitated the integration of spatially dependent voxel-level measurements with various patient-level genetic and demographic characteristics under an appropriate probability model to account for the multiple inherent sources of variation. Our framework uses Bayesian model averaging to integrate genetic information into the analysis of voxel-wise neuroimaging data, accounting for spatial correlations in the voxels. Using multiplicity controls based on the false discovery rate, we delineate voxels associated with genetic and demographic features that may impact diffusion as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) obtained from DTI images. We demonstrate the benefits of accounting for model uncertainties in both model fit and prediction. Our results suggest that cocaine consumption is associated with FA reduction in most white matter regions of interest in the brain. Additionally, gene polymorphisms associated with GABAergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitters and receptors were associated with FA. PMID:26484829

  18. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Informatics Core: A Decade in Review

    PubMed Central

    Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The Informatics Core of the Alzheimer’s Diseases Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has coordinated data integration and dissemination for a continually growing and complex dataset in which both data contributors and recipients span institutions, scientific disciplines and geographic boundaries. This article provides an update on the accomplishments and future plans. PMID:26194316

  19. The Relationship Between Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor: Review of Clinical, Epidemiologic, Genetic, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Data, and Data on the Presence of Cardinal Signs of Parkinsonism in Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The possible relationship between essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been controversial since the first description of PD. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting an overlap between these two disorders. The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between PD and ET, focusing on clinical, epidemiologic, genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropathological data, and the presence of cardinal parkinsonism symptoms in ET. Methods We conducted a PubMed search for articles published between 1966 and November 2011 regarding the relationship between ET and PD and the presence of postural tremor in PD patients; the presence of rest tremor, rigidity, and slowed movements in ET patients is reviewed. Results Clinical series, follow-up studies of ET patients, and case–control and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that ET is associated with increased risk for PD. Some neuroimaging studies and neuropathological reports suggest an association between the two diseases. ET patients show high prevalence of rest tremor, and at least seven studies described slowed movements (possibly related to cerebellar dysfunction and/or bradykinesia) in patients with ET. Discussion There is reasonable epidemiological and clinical evidence to support a link between ET and PD, although it is not clear what factors predict ET patient risk for developing PD or, more rarely, of PD patients developing ET. Future multicentric and multidisciplinary studies including epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging, genetic, and neuropathological assessments are required to understand these associations. PMID:23439992

  20. Connexin36 expression in major centers of the auditory system in the CNS of mouse and rat: Evidence for neurons forming purely electrical synapses and morphologically mixed synapses

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, M.E.; Nagy, J.I.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical synapses formed by gap junctions composed of connexin36 (Cx36) are widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Here, we used immunofluorescence methods to document the expression of Cx36 in the cochlear nucleus and in various structures of the auditory pathway of rat and mouse. Labelling of Cx36 visualized exclusively as Cx36-puncta was densely distributed primarily on the somata and initial dendrites of neuronal populations in the ventral cochlear nucleus, and was abundant in superficial layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Other auditory centers displaying Cx36-puncta included the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), regions surrounding the lateral superior olivary nucleus, the dorsal nucleus of the medial lemniscus, the nucleus sagulum, all subnuclei of the inferior colliculus, and the auditory cerebral cortex. In EGFP-Cx36 transgenic mice, EGFP reporter was detected in neurons located in each of auditory centers that harboured Cx36-puncta. In the ventral cochlear nuclei and the MNTB, many neuronal somata were heavily innervated by nerve terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (vglut1) and Cx36 was frequently localized at these terminals. Cochlear ablation caused a near total depletion of vglut1-positive terminals in the ventral cochlear nuclei, with a commensurate loss of labelling for Cx36 around most neuronal somata, but preserved Cx36-puncta at somatic neuronal appositions. The results suggest that electrical synapses formed by Cx36-containing gap junctions occur in most of the widely distributed centers of the auditory system. Further, it appears that morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses formed by nerve terminals are abundant in the ventral cochlear nucleus, including those at endbulbs of Held formed by cochlear primary afferent fibers, and those at calyx of Held synapses on MNTB neurons. PMID:26188286

  1. The effects of neuroimaging and brain injury on insanity defenses.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Jessica R; Marcus, David K

    2008-01-01

    Although neurological evidence is used with increasing frequency in criminal trials, there is limited research examining the effects that this evidence has on juror decision-making in insanity trials. Participants (396) were presented with a case summary and psychological testimony and asked to render either a verdict of guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity in a 2 (psychosis or psychopathy) x (presence or absence of an MRI indicating a brain lesion) x (presence or absence of testimony describing a car accident that caused injury to the brain) factorial design. Defendants diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, defendants who could demonstrate the existence of a brain lesion via MRI, and defendants who had a history of brain injury were more likely to be found not guilty by reason of insanity than those defendants who did not present any neurological testimony. Participants who reported they were more influenced by the psychological and neurological testimony were almost six times more likely to render a verdict of NGRI than those participants who reported that the psychological and neurological testimony and evidence did not influence their decision regarding verdict.

  2. Order Information in Working Memory: An Integrative Review of Evidence From Brain and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshuetz, Christy

    2005-01-01

    Evidence about memory for order information comes from a number of different methodologies: human cognition, patient studies, neuroimaging studies, and animal lesion and behavioral studies. The present article discusses (a) evidence that order and item memory are separable; (b) proposed mechanisms for order memory (interitem associations, direct…

  3. Pain as a fact and heuristic: how pain neuroimaging illuminates moral dimensions of law.

    PubMed

    Pustilnik, Amanda C

    2012-05-01

    In legal domains ranging from tort to torture, pain and its degree do important definitional work by delimiting boundaries of lawfulness and of entitlements. Yet, for all the work done by pain as a term in legal texts and practice, it has a confounding lack of external verifiability. Now, neuroimaging is rendering pain and myriad other subjective states at least partly ascertainable. This emerging ability to ascertain and quantify subjective states is prompting a "hedonic" or a "subjectivist" turn in legal scholarship, which has sparked a vigorous debate as to whether the quantification of subjective states might affect legal theory and practice. Subjectivists contend that much values-talk in law has been a necessary but poor substitute for quantitative determinations of subjective states--determinations that will be possible in the law's "experiential future." This Article argues the converse: that pain discourse in law frequently is a heuristic for values. Drawing on interviews and laboratory visits with neuroimaging researchers, this Article shows current and in-principle limitations of pain quantification through neuroimaging. It then presents case studies on torture-murder, torture, the death penalty, and abortion to show the largely heuristic role of pain discourse in law. Introducing the theory of "embodied morality," the Article describes how moral conceptions of rights and duties are informed by human physicality and constrained by the limits of empathic identification. Pain neuroimaging helps reveal this dual factual and heuristic nature of pain in the law, and thus itself points to the translational work required for neuroimaging to influence, much less transform, legal practice and doctrine.

  4. Neural Circuit Modulation During Deep Brain Stimulation at the Subthalamic Nucleus for Parkinson's Disease: What Have We Learned from Neuroimaging Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) represents a powerful clinical tool for the alleviation of many motor symptoms that are associated with Parkinson's disease. Despite its extensive use, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of STN-DBS remain poorly understood. In the present review, we integrate and discuss recent literature examining the network effects of STN-DBS for Parkinson's disease, placing emphasis on neuroimaging findings, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography. These techniques enable the noninvasive detection of brain regions that are modulated by DBS on a whole-brain scale, representing a key experimental strength given the diffuse and far-reaching effects of electrical field stimulation. By examining these data in the context of multiple hypotheses of DBS action, generally developed through clinical and physiological observations, we define a multitude of consistencies and inconsistencies in the developing literature of this rapidly moving field. PMID:24147633

  5. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  6. Electricity Customers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  7. Neuroimaging in alcoholism: CT and MRI results and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Mann, K; Mundle, G; Strayle, M; Wakat, P

    1995-01-01

    For more than a century we have known the deleterious effects of alcohol on the brain regions surrounding the third ventricle and on the cerebellum. But it was only recently that we gained clearer evidence that the cortex is affected as well. Our imaging studies show that brain shrinkage is at least partially reversible once abstinence is maintained. They confirm results obtained in different laboratories from all over the world. Although our data contradict the rehydration hypothesis and thus lend credence to the idea of regeneration and neuroplasticity, the nature of reversibility is still a matter of debate.

  8. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  9. Venus Express Measurement of ULF and ELF Signals in the Venus Ionosphere: Evidence for Extensive Electrical Activity in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, R.; Russell, C. T.; Leinweber, H.; Zhang, T.

    2013-05-01

    Even though the surface of Venus is currently very dry, the atmosphere has extensive cloud cover. These clouds contain sulfuric acid particles that have properties sufficiently similar to water-ice that they would be expected to become charged, as in terrestrial clouds. Also the nitric oxide content of the Venus atmosphere, which is formed by lightning on Earth is similar to the terrestrial values. Thus it is not surprising that numerous manifestations of lightning on Venus have been reported. In this paper we use the Venus Express magnetic measurements to extend our understanding of Venus lightning. The gradiometer magnetometer configuration installed on Venus Express allows the cleaning of the data up to 6 KHz. We exploit these data in the second year of operation to add statistics to our existing data base. We show how ULF and ELF signals appear to reach the spacecraft via different paths but could have the same physical cause: electrical discharges in the Venus ionosphere.

  10. The Perfect Neuroimaging-Genetics-Computation Storm: Collision of Petabytes of Data, Millions of Hardware Devices and Thousands of Software Tools

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Zamanyan, Alen; Torri, Federica; Macciardi, Fabio; Hobel, Sam; Moon, Seok Woo; Sung, Young Hee; Jiang, Zhiguo; Labus, Jennifer; Kurth, Florian; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Mayer, Emeran; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    The volume, diversity and velocity of biomedical data are exponentially increasing providing petabytes of new neuroimaging and genetics data every year. At the same time, tens-of-thousands of computational algorithms are developed and reported in the literature along with thousands of software tools and services. Users demand intuitive, quick and platform-agnostic access to data, software tools, and infrastructure from millions of hardware devices. This explosion of information, scientific techniques, computational models, and technological advances leads to enormous challenges in data analysis, evidence-based biomedical inference and reproducibility of findings. The Pipeline workflow environment provides a crowd-based distributed solution for consistent management of these heterogeneous resources. The Pipeline allows multiple (local) clients and (remote) servers to connect, exchange protocols, control the execution, monitor the states of different tools or hardware, and share complete protocols as portable XML workflows. In this paper, we demonstrate several advanced computational neuroimaging and genetics case-studies, and end-to-end pipeline solutions. These are implemented as graphical workflow protocols in the context of analyzing imaging (sMRI, fMRI, DTI), phenotypic (demographic, clinical), and genetic (SNP) data. PMID:23975276

  11. The perfect neuroimaging-genetics-computation storm: collision of petabytes of data, millions of hardware devices and thousands of software tools.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Ivo D; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Zamanyan, Alen; Torri, Federica; Macciardi, Fabio; Hobel, Sam; Moon, Seok Woo; Sung, Young Hee; Jiang, Zhiguo; Labus, Jennifer; Kurth, Florian; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Mayer, Emeran; Vespa, Paul M; Van Horn, John D; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-06-01

    The volume, diversity and velocity of biomedical data are exponentially increasing providing petabytes of new neuroimaging and genetics data every year. At the same time, tens-of-thousands of computational algorithms are developed and reported in the literature along with thousands of software tools and services. Users demand intuitive, quick and platform-agnostic access to data, software tools, and infrastructure from millions of hardware devices. This explosion of information, scientific techniques, computational models, and technological advances leads to enormous challenges in data analysis, evidence-based biomedical inference and reproducibility of findings. The Pipeline workflow environment provides a crowd-based distributed solution for consistent management of these heterogeneous resources. The Pipeline allows multiple (local) clients and (remote) servers to connect, exchange protocols, control the execution, monitor the states of different tools or hardware, and share complete protocols as portable XML workflows. In this paper, we demonstrate several advanced computational neuroimaging and genetics case-studies, and end-to-end pipeline solutions. These are implemented as graphical workflow protocols in the context of analyzing imaging (sMRI, fMRI, DTI), phenotypic (demographic, clinical), and genetic (SNP) data.

  12. Legal and ethical issues in neuroimaging research: human subjects protection, medical privacy, and the public communication of research results.

    PubMed

    Kulynych, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Humans subjects research entails significant legal and ethical obligations. Neuroimaging researchers must be familiar with the requirements of human subjects protection, including evolving standards for the protection of privacy and the disclosure of risk in "non-therapeutic" research. Techniques for creating veridical surface renderings from volumetric anatomical imaging data raise new privacy concerns, particularly under the federal medical privacy regulation. Additionally, neuroimaging researchers must consider their obligation to communicate research results responsibly. The emerging field of neuroethics should strive to raise awareness of these issues and to involve neuroimaging researchers in the legal, ethical, and policy debates that currently surround human subjects research.

  13. The Appropriate Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Work-Up of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, SL

    2014-01-01

    Background Structural brain imaging is often performed to establish the underlying causes of dementia. However, recommendations differ as to who should receive neuroimaging and whether computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used. Objectives This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness in Ontario of offering structural imaging to all patients with mild to moderate dementia compared with offering it selectively according to guidelines from the Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCC). We compared the cost-effectiveness of CT and MRI as first-line strategies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search (2000 to 2013) to identify cost-effectiveness studies of clinical prediction rules and structural imaging modalities. Studies were assessed for quality and applicability to Ontario. We also developed a model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of clinical guidelines (image all versus according to CCC) and modalities (CT versus MRI). Transition probabilities, utilities, and costs were obtained from published literature or expert opinion. Results were expressed in terms of costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Results No relevant cost-effectiveness analyses were identified in the published literature. According to the base-case results of our model, the most effective and cost-effective strategy is to image patients who meet CCC criteria with CT and to follow-up with MRI for suspected cases of space-occupying lesions (SOL). However, the results were sensitive to the specificity of MRI for detecting vascular causes of dementia. At a specificity of 64%, the most cost-effective strategy is CCC followed by MRI. Limitations Studies used to estimate diagnostic accuracy were limited by a lack of a gold standard test for establishing the cause of dementia. The model does not include costs to patients and their families, nor does it account for patient preferences about diagnostic

  14. Nystagmus induced by electrical stimulation of the vestibular and prepositus hypoglossi nuclei in the monkey: evidence for site of induction of velocity storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, J.; Reisine, H.; Cohen, B.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the vestibular nuclei (VN) and prepositus hypoglossi nuclei (PPH) of alert cynomolgus monkeys evoked nystagmus and eye deviation while they were in darkness. At some sites in VN, nystagmus and after-nystagmus were induced with characteristics suggesting that velocity storage had been excited. We analyzed these responses and compared them to the slow component of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and to optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN). We then recorded unit activity in VN and determined which types of nystagmus would be evoked from the sites of recording. Nystagmus and eye deviations were also elicited by electrical stimulation of PPH, and we characterized the responses where unit activity was recorded in PPH. Horizontal slow phase velocity of the VN "storage" responses was contralateral to the side of stimulation. The rising time constants and peak steady-state velocities were similar to those of OKN, and the falling time constants of the after-nystagmus and of OKAN were approximately equal. Both the induced after-nystagmus and OKAN were habituated by stimulation of the VN. When horizontal after-nystagmus was evoked with animals on their sides, it developed yaw and pitch components that tended to shift the vector of the slow phase velocity toward the spatial vertical. Similar "cross-coupling" occurs for horizontal OKAN or for vestibular post-rotatory nystagmus elicited in tilted positions. Thus, the storage component of nystagmus induced by VN stimulation had the same characteristics as the slow component of OKN and the VOR. Positive stimulus sites for inducing nystagmus with typical storage components were located in rostral portions of VN. They lay in caudal ventral superior vestibular nucleus (SVN), dorsal portions of central medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) caudal to the abducens nuclei and in adjacent lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). More complex stimulus responses, but with contralateral after-nystagmus, were induced from surrounding

  15. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paula; Fernandez Suarez, Marcos; Surace, Ezequiel I; Chrem Méndez, Patricio; Martín, María Eugenia; Clarens, María Florencia; Tapajóz, Fernanda; Russo, Maria Julieta; Campos, Jorge; Guinjoan, Salvador M; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ), and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA) as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve) have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. PMID:26504392

  16. Is creative insight task-specific? A coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on insightful problem solving.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wangbing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Luo, Jing; Gong, Zhe

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether creative insight varies across problem types has recently come to the forefront of studies of creative cognition. In the present study, to address the nature of creative insight, the coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique was utilized to individually conduct three quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging experiments that used the compound remote associate (CRA) task, the prototype heuristic (PH) task and the Chinese character chunk decomposition (CCD) task. These tasks were chosen because they are frequently used to uncover the neurocognitive correlates of insight. Our results demonstrated that creative insight reliably activates largely non-overlapping brain regions across task types, with the exception of some shared regions: the CRA task mainly relied on the right parahippocampal gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus; the PH task primarily depended on the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG), the bilateral superior parietal lobule/precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the left lingual gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus; and the CCD task activated a broad cerebral network consisting of most dorsolateral and medial prefrontal regions, frontoparietal regions and the right MOG. These results provide the first neural evidence of the task dependence of creative insight. The implications of these findings for resolving conflict surrounding the different theories of creative cognition and for defining insight as a set of heterogeneous processes are discussed.

  17. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    PubMed

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  18. Did Geomagnetic Activity Challenge Electric Power Reliability During Solar Cycle 23? Evidence from the PJM Regional Transmission Organization in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; Cyr, Chris St

    2012-01-01

    During solar cycle 22, a very intense geomagnetic storm on 13 March 1989 contributed to the collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada. This event clearly demonstrated that geomagnetic storms have the potential to lead to blackouts. This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged power system reliability during solar cycle 23. Operations by PJM Interconnection, LLC (hereafter PJM), a regional transmission organization in North America, are examined over the period 1 April 2002 through 30 April 2004. During this time PJM coordinated the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia in the United States. We examine the relationship between a proxy of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and a metric of challenged reliability. In this study, GICs are proxied using magnetometer data from a geomagnetic observatory located just outside the PJM control area. The metric of challenged reliability is the incidence of out-of-economic-merit order dispatching due to adverse reactive power conditions. The statistical methods employed make it possible to disentangle the effects of GICs on power system operations from purely terrestrial factors. The results of the analysis indicate that geomagnetic activity can significantly increase the likelihood that the system operator will dispatch generating units based on system stability considerations rather than economic merit.

  19. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market

    PubMed Central

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg− 1, which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs. PMID:25599136

  20. Electrical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    The purpose of this electrical program is to prepare students for service, repair, and assembly of electrically driven or controlled devices. The program theory and application includes mechanical assemblies, electrical circuitry, and electronic principles including basic digital circuitry. The electrical program manual includes the following…

  1. Writing epilepsy: a neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Pedro; Ribeiro, Mendes; Forni, Alessandra; Pires, Isabel; Sousa, Georgina

    2005-05-01

    Writing epilepsy is a rare reflex syndrome in which seizures are triggered by writing. We describe a 33-year-old, right-handed man, with a history of juvenile absence epilepsy in remission and a family history of epilepsy, in whom myoclonic jerks precipitated exclusively by writing started at the age of 30. Intensive video/EEG monitoring during neuropsychological tests revealed, at about 1 minute after starting to write, a dystonic posture, followed by myoclonic jerks involving the right hand that shortly after became generalized. Concomitantly, the ictal EEG documented generalized hypersynchronous polyspike-wave discharges, maximal over the right parietocentral area. SPECT revealed an ictal hyperperfusion and interictal hypoperfusion over right parietofrontal regions, and fMRI showed extensive and intense left frontal, supplementary motor area activation, induced by writing. This case study provides some evidence supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism underlying writing-triggered seizures may be a generalized seizure process, with a focal cortical trigger zone, presumed to be the left frontal lobe as suggested by clinical and fMRI data. A relevant role played by the right hemisphere (right parietofrontal region) is postulated in the full-blown expression of reflex epileptogenesis, as supported by EEG and SPECT findings.

  2. Novel Neuroimaging Methods to Understand How HIV Affects the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In much of the developed world, the HIV epidemic has largely been controlled by anti-retroviral treatment. Even so, there is growing concern that HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for accelerated brain aging, and a range of cognitive impairments. What promotes or resists these changes is largely unknown. There is also interest in discovering factors that promote resilience to HIV, and combat its adverse effects in children. Here we review recent developments in brain imaging that reveal how the virus affects the brain. We relate these brain changes to changes in blood markers, cognitive function, and other patient outcomes or symptoms, such as apathy or neuropathic pain. We focus on new and emerging techniques, including new variants of brain MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging, for example, can map the brain’s structural connections while fMRI can uncover functional connections. Finally, we suggest how large-scale global research alliances, such as ENIGMA, may resolve controversies over effects where evidence is now lacking. These efforts pool scans from tens of thousands of individuals, and offer a source of power not previously imaginable for brain imaging studies. PMID:25902966

  3. The self in autism: An emerging view from neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2011-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is difficulty with social interaction and communication with others, or interpersonal interaction. Accordingly, the majority of research efforts to date have focused on understanding the brain mechanisms underlying the deficits in social cognition and language associated with ASD. However, recent empirical and theoretical work has begun to reveal increasing evidence for altered self-representation, or intrapersonal cognition in ASD. Here we review recent studies of the self in ASD, focusing on paradigms examining ‘physical’ aspects of the self, including self-recognition, agency and perspective taking, and ‘psychological’ aspects of the self, including self-knowledge and autobiographical memory. A review of the existing literature suggests that psychological, but not physical, aspects of self-representation are altered in ASD. One key brain region that has emerged as a potential locus of self-related deficits in ASD is the medial prefrontal cortex, part of a larger ‘default mode network’. Collectively, the findings from these studies provide a more comprehensive framework for understanding the complex social, cognitive, and affective symptomatology of ASD. PMID:21207316

  4. Coma and consciousness: paradigms (re)framed by neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Laureys, Steven; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2012-06-01

    The past 15 years have provided an unprecedented col