Science.gov

Sample records for electrical power sources

  1. POWER SOURCES FOR ELECTRIC CARS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An extrapolation, based on extensive experience with battery and fuel cell power sources during various Army programs, is made into the future world...of the electric car and speculates on the power sources most suited as the electrical energy source. The conclusion is that both the battery and the

  2. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  3. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Nuclear power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.; Stapfer, G.; Hsieh, T.

    1979-01-01

    A low specific weight (20 to 40 Kg/Kwe), long life (6 to 10 year), 100 to 400 KWe nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system can deliver 2,000 to 10,000 Kg payloads for intensive study of our solar system. The nuclear power source is about 80% of the NEP system mass, thus the NASA program is focused on developing the power source technology. Because of the long life requirements, direct thermal to electric energy conversion technology (thermionic and thermoelectric) is being pursued. In order to meet the low specific weight it is necessary to develop a 10 to 15% conversion module with a 875 K minimum heat rejection temperature and a 1675 K maximum input temperature. The thermoionic converter is about 9% efficient at these temperatures. The thermoelectric converter is limited to a 1300 K input temperature. So, the thermionic program is focused on improving the efficiency while the thermoelectric program is focused on increasing the temperature.

  5. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  6. 46 CFR 28.375 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.375 Section 28... power. (a) Each vessel must have an emergency source of electrical power which is independent of the main sources of electrical power and which is located outside the main machinery space. (b)...

  7. 46 CFR 28.375 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.375 Section 28... power. (a) Each vessel must have an emergency source of electrical power which is independent of the main sources of electrical power and which is located outside the main machinery space. (b)...

  8. 46 CFR 28.375 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.375 Section 28... power. (a) Each vessel must have an emergency source of electrical power which is independent of the main sources of electrical power and which is located outside the main machinery space. (b)...

  9. 77 FR 18872 - Availability of Electric Power Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Availability of Electric Power Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory... 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.93, ``Availability of Electric Power Sources.'' This guide describes actions the NRC staff considers acceptable when available electric power sources are less than the number...

  10. 46 CFR 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.870 Section 28... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.870 Emergency source of electrical power. (a) The following electrical loads must be connected to an independent emergency source of power...

  11. 46 CFR 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.870 Section 28... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.870 Emergency source of electrical power. (a) The following electrical loads must be connected to an independent emergency source of power...

  12. Restrictive loads powered by separate or by common electrical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    In designing a multiple load electrical system, the designer may wish to compare the performance of two setups: a common electrical source powering all loads, or separate electrical sources powering individual loads. Three types of electrical sources: an ideal voltage source, an ideal current source, and solar cell source powering resistive loads were analyzed for their performances in separate and common source systems. A mathematical proof is given, for each case, indicating the merit of the separate or common source system. The main conclusions are: (1) identical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (2) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (3) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal current sources have higher performance in separate source systems, and (4) nonidentical resistive loads powered by solar cells have higher performance in a common source system for a wide range of load resistances.

  13. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  14. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  15. 46 CFR 28.355 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.355 Section 28.355... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.355 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability. Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have at...

  16. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  17. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  18. 46 CFR 28.355 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.355 Section 28.355... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.355 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability. Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have at...

  19. 46 CFR 28.355 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.355 Section 28.355... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.355 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability. Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have at...

  20. 46 CFR 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.870 Section 28.870 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.870 Emergency source of electrical power...

  1. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a...

  2. Economic Comparison of Four Electric Power Sources for Forklift Trucks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this project is twofold. First, it is to provide a general method of comparing electric power sources (EPS). Secondly, it is to...compare two power sources , the lithium chloride storage battery and a hybrid system of a storage battery and a fuel cell, currently under development at...between power sources . The results show that the lithium chloride battery is the most cost effective EPS considered.

  3. Scoping Calculations of Power Sources for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  4. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  5. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  6. Power Sources 18: Research and Development in Non-Mechanical Electrical Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Power Sources 18 is an edited record of the papers and posters submitted for presentation at the 22nd International Power Sources Symposium that was...session concentrating on power sources for communications equipment ranging from military manpack radios to remote telemetry.

  7. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.

    1999-02-12

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

  8. Inertial electrostatic confinement as a power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satsangi, A.; Gu, Y.; Heck, P.; Nebel, R.; Schulze, N.; Christensen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The potential use of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, in the present study, we consider an alternate approach, using the IEC to drive a conventional electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Present experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (less than 60-cm. dia.) have demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing approximately 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status will be presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.

  9. Inertial electrostatic confinement as a power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.; Burton, R.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satsangi, A; Gu, Y.; Heck, P.; Nebel, R.; Schulze, N.; Christensen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The potential use of an INERTIAL ELECTROSTATIC CONFINEMENT (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, an alternate approach is considered, using the IEC to drive a 'conventional' electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (is less than 60 cm. dia.) demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status are presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.

  10. Inertial electrostatic confinement as a power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satsangi, A.; Gu, Y.; Heck, P.; Nebel, R.; Schulze, N.; Christensen, J.

    1993-12-01

    The potential use of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, in the present study, we consider an alternate approach, using the IEC to drive a conventional electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Present experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (less than 60-cm. dia.) have demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing approximately 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status will be presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.

  11. 46 CFR 190.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electric power. 190.05-15 Section 190.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing either the...

  12. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  13. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  14. 46 CFR 190.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electric power. 190.05-15 Section 190.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing either the...

  15. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  16. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  17. Milliwatt Electric Power Sources Would Last For Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur; Borshchevsky, Alexander; Vining, Cronin

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses design of proposed radioisotope thermoelectric generators, each of which produces about 30 mW of electric power for decades, fits in package about the size of D cell, and would have mass of only 70 g.

  18. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  19. Reliable compact electrical power source systems for space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Described herein are several key technologies utilized in the design of a family of direct-drive turboalternator systems for space launch vehicles. These systems automatically provide conditioned and regulated electrical power at various voltages, powering actuators, valves, and avionics throughout the vehicle. The simple and robust ring-wound two-pole toothless alternator operates at peripheral speeds, making it suitable to be driven directly by a turbine, thereby eliminating the weight, reliability, zero ``g`` lubrication, and cooling issues of a speed-reducing gearbox, while allowing the turbine to operate at reasonable efficiency. Additionally, the use of self-aligning foil bearing and catalytic combustors or cold gas propellants enhance the reliability. The power conditioner and electronic controller provide hands-off regulated ac or dc power on demand, maintaining critical parameters within established limits and performance while reporting on built-in health-monitoring tests.

  20. Wind power as an electrical energy source in Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, W. M.

    1982-03-01

    A preliminary estimate of the total wind power available in Illinois was made using available historical data, and projections of cost savings due to the presence of wind-generated electricity were attempted. Wind data at 10 m height were considered from nine different sites in the state, with three years data nominally being included. Wind-speed frequency histograms were developed for day and night periods, using a power law function to extrapolate the 10 m readings to 20 m. Wind speeds over the whole state were found to average over 8 mph, the cut-in point for most wind turbines, for from 40-63% of the time. A maximum of 75% run-time was determined for daylight hours in April-May. A reference 1.8 kW windpowered generator was used in annual demand projections for a reference one family home, using the frequency histograms. The small generator was projected to fulfill from 25-53% of the annual load, and, based on various cost assumptions, exhibited paybacks taking from 14-27 yr.

  1. Mobile Electric Power Technologies for the Army of the Future: Engines, Power Source, and Electrical Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    engine design . The second level of systems integration is that of the engine -generator set and its load. Military standards on power quality for... power despite variations in engine speed. The introduction of one or more storage batteries into the design makes it possible for such a system to...1,500 to 3,000 psi. The major components of the modern Stirling engine are (Figure E-1): 1. Power piston 2. Displacer 3. Compression space in

  2. 46 CFR 32.60-45 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electric power-TB/ALL. 32.60-45 Section 32.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... October 1, 1958. (b) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital... source of electric power, or vital components thereof, for a period of at least one hour in the event...

  3. 46 CFR 32.60-45 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electric power-TB/ALL. 32.60-45 Section 32.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... October 1, 1958. (b) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital... source of electric power, or vital components thereof, for a period of at least one hour in the event...

  4. 46 CFR 32.60-45 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electric power-TB/ALL. 32.60-45 Section 32.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... October 1, 1958. (b) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital... source of electric power, or vital components thereof, for a period of at least one hour in the event...

  5. 46 CFR 32.60-45 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electric power-TB/ALL. 32.60-45 Section 32.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... October 1, 1958. (b) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital... source of electric power, or vital components thereof, for a period of at least one hour in the event...

  6. 46 CFR 32.60-45 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... electric power-TB/ALL. 32.60-45 Section 32.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... October 1, 1958. (b) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital... source of electric power, or vital components thereof, for a period of at least one hour in the event...

  7. Science and Technology Text Mining: Electric Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    indices are employed to quantify the strength of this relationship. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are performed by the topical expert for each...Components, and Systems. Processes include COMBUSTION, PYROLYSIS, CATALYSIS, and INCINERATION. Products generated include EMISSIONS, CHAR , POWER, HEAT...AGGREGATION, COMPRESSION , DIFFRACTION, DISTILLATION, DEMINERALIZATION, DESORPTION, INHIBITION, LATENT HEAT STORAGE, PRECIPITATION, CHEMISORPTION

  8. Fuel cell/battery passive hybrid power source for electric powertrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Jérôme; Hofer, Marcel; Hannesen, Uwe; Toth, Antoine; Tsukada, Akinori; Büchi, Félix N.; Dietrich, Philipp

    The concept of passive hybrid, i.e. the direct electrical coupling between a fuel cell system and a battery without using a power converter, is presented as a feasible solution for powertrain applications. As there are no DC/DC converters, the passive hybrid is a cheap and simple solution and the power losses in the electronic hardware are eliminated. In such a powertrain topology where the two devices always have the same voltage, the active power sharing between the two energy sources can not be done in the conventional way. As an alternative, control of the fuel cell power by adjusting its operating pressure is elaborated. Only pure H 2/O 2 fuel cell systems are considered in this approach. Simulation and hardware in the loop (HIL) results for the powertrain show that this hybrid power source is able to satisfy the power demand of an electric vehicle while sustaining the battery state of charge.

  9. Electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, M.

    1988-01-01

    This text examines the critical problems faced by the electric power industry, shown in the context of a detailed description of the history and development of the industry. A new industry initiative is proposed that will allow for a more effective response to industry fluctuations. Topics covered include developments in power technology federal nuclear power regulation and legislation, environmentalism and conservationism, industry financial problems, capital minimization, and responses to utility responsibility.

  10. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; Tesche, F.M.; Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  11. 46 CFR 190.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. 190.05-15 Section 190.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 190.05-15 Segregation of spaces containing the...

  12. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 92.05-15 Segregation of spaces containing the...

  13. 46 CFR 190.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. 190.05-15 Section 190.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 190.05-15 Segregation of spaces containing the...

  14. 46 CFR 190.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. 190.05-15 Section 190.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 190.05-15 Segregation of spaces containing the...

  15. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  16. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  17. A power-adjustable superconducting terahertz source utilizing electrical triggering phase transitions in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L. Y.; Zhou, X. J.; Yang, Z. B.; Zhang, H. L.; Sun, H. C.; Cao, H. X.; Dai, P. H.; Li, J.; Hatano, T.; Wang, H. B.; Wen, Q. Y.; Wu, P. H.

    2016-12-01

    We report a practical superconducting terahertz (THz) source, comprising a stack of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) and a vanadium dioxide (VO2) tunable attenuator with coplanar interdigital contacts. The electrical triggering phase transitions are observed not only at room temperature, but also at low temperatures, which provides a proof of the electrical triggering. Applying this, the VO2 attenuator is implemented for the independent regulations on the emission powers from the IJJ THz emitter, remaining frequencies and temperatures unchanged. The attenuation can be tuned smoothly and continuously within a couple of volts among which the maximum is, respectively, -5.6 dB at 20 K or -4.3 dB at 25 K. Such a power-adjustable radiation source, including the VO2 attenuator, can further expand its practicability in cryogenic THz systems, like superconducting THz spectrometers.

  18. Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Sources and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Dankanich, John; Colozza, Anthony; Schmitz, Paul; Khan, Omair; Drexler, Jon; Fittje, James

    2011-01-01

    A joint NASA GRC/JPL design study was performed for the NASA Radioisotope Power Systems Office to explore the use of radioisotope electric propulsion for flagship class missions. The Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter is a flagship class mission concept projected for launch in the 2030 timeframe. Due to the large size of a flagship class science mission larger radioisotope power system building blocks were conceptualized to provide the roughly 4 kW of power needed by the NEXT ion propulsion system and the spacecraft. Using REP the spacecraft is able to rendezvous with and orbit a Kuiper Belt object in 16 years using either eleven (no spare) 420 W advanced RTGs or nine (with a spare) 550 W advanced Stirling Radioisotope systems. The design study evaluated integrating either system and estimated impacts on cost as well as required General Purpose Heat Source requirements.

  19. Preliminary Analysis: Am-241 RHU/TEG Electric Power Source for Nanosatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Young, David; Cunningham, Karen; Kim, Tony; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Williams, Hugo R.

    2014-01-01

    The Februay 2013 Space Works Commercial report indicates a strong increase in nano/microsatellite (1-50 kg) launch demand globally in future years. Nanosatellites (NanoSats) are small spacecraft in the 1-10 kg range, which present a simple, low-cost option for developing quickly-deployable satellites. CubeSats, a special category of NanoSats, are even being considered for interplanetary missions. However, the small dimensions of CubeSats and the limited mass of the NanoSat class in general place limits of capability on their electrical power systems (especially where typical power sources such as solar panels are considered) and stored energy reserves; restricting the power budget and overall functionality. For example, leveraging NanoSat clusters for computationally intensive problems that are solved collectively becomes more challenging with power related restrictions on communication and data-processing. Further, interplanetary missions that would take NanoSats far from the sun, make the use of solar panels less effective as a power source as their required area would become quite large. To overcome these limitations, americium 241 (Am-241) has been suggested as a low power source option. The Idaho National Laboratory, Center for Space Nuclear Research reports that: ? (Production) requires small quantities of isotope - 62.5 g of Pu-238; 250 g Am- 241 (for 5 We); Am-241 is available at around 1 kg/yr commercially; Am-241 produces 59 kev gammas which are stopped readily by tungsten so the radiation field is very low. Whereby, an Am-241 source could be placed in among the instruments and the waste heat used to heat the platform; and ? amounts of isotope are so low that launch approval may be easier, especially with tungsten encapsulation. As further reported, Am-241 has a half-life that is approximately five times greater than that of Pu- 238 and it has been determined that the neutron yield of a 241-AmO(sub 2) source is approximately an order of magnitude lower

  20. Source of electrical power for an electric vehicle and other purposes, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2002-11-12

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form corrugated thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries, silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  1. Source of electrical power for an electric vehicle and other purposes, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2000-05-16

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries, silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (j) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and k) high specific capacitance.

  2. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  3. Power sources.

    PubMed

    Luciano, A A

    1995-09-01

    The rapid development of endoscopic surgery has created an ever-increasing demand for new instruments, such as lasers of various wavelengths, and new applications of high-frequency electrosurgery. The technology has advanced rapidly and it is sometimes difficult to understand the different applications of these new instruments and take full advantage of these developments. This article has reviewed the basic principles of the various power sources commonly utilized in gynecologic surgery and described the clinical applications of each of them.

  4. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  5. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel... engine is used as a source of electrical power, a vessel speed change, throttle movement or change...

  6. Miniature Radioisotope Power Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed miniature power source generates electricity for years from heat developed in small radioisotope unit without addition of fuel or dependence on sunlight. Called powerstick, is relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and rugged. Supplies power to small vehicles or scientific instruments in remote locations on Earth or in outer space. Envisioned uses include Mars miniature rovers and monitoring equipment for toxic or nuclear storage sites.

  7. Feasibility of Isolating Vulnerable Equipment of the Electric Power System from Sources of EMP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    generation of skin currents, surface charge densities, and electromagnetic fields, and in coupling mechanisms to internal circuitry. Chadsey, William L., et al...electromagnetic pulse (Wtt) which propagates to the earth’s surface where it induces currents and voltages on conductors over a wide geographical area. The...produce on an electric power system. When a nuclear device is detonated 50 km or more above the earth’s surface , primary gamma rays are produced

  8. Power Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit…

  9. Non-powered Dams: An untapped source of renewable electricity in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Wei, Yaxing; Battey, Hoyt; Smith, Brennan T

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower has been a source of clean, renewable electricity in the USA for more than 100 years. Today, approximately 2500 US dams provide 78 GW of conventional and 22 GW of pumped-storage hydropower. In contrast, another approximately 80 000 dams in the USA do not include hydraulic turbine equipment and provide non-energy related services, such as flood control, water supply, navigation, and recreation.

  10. French wind generator systems. [as auxiliary power sources for electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental design of a wind driven generator with a rated power of 800 kilovolt amperes and capable of being connected to the main electrical network is reported. The rotor is a three bladed propeller; each blade is twisted but the fixed pitch is adjustable. The asynchronous 800-kilovolt ampere generator is driven by the propeller through a gearbox. A dissipating resistor regulates the machine under no-load conditions. The first propeller on the machine lasted 18 months; replacement of the rigid propeller with a flexible structure resulted in breakdown due to flutter effects.

  11. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  12. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  13. Electrical Power Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POWER SUPPLIES, TEST METHODS), ARMY EQUIPMENT, BATTERY COMPONENTS, ELECTRIC BATTERIES, VEHICLES, GENERATORS, FUEL CELLS, SEEBECK EFFECT , TEST EQUIPMENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, DATA PROCESSING

  14. Determining the best source of renewable electricity to power a remote site for the National Park Service

    SciTech Connect

    Azerbegl, R.; Mas, C.; Walker, A.; Morris, R.; Christensen, J.

    1999-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies have economic and environmental advantages in many remote applications. They can provide most of the power to off-grid loads, where batteries and another power source such as a generator or a fuel cell may be required to ensure availability and feasibility. In support of the National Park Service, the Federal Energy Management Program Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has evaluated several methods for providing a renewable source of electricity to a beach campsite at Kirby Cove, Marin County, California. This site requires 2 kWh per day to power a campground host in a motor home five months power year. The existing electricity line to the site is in need of replacement and the NPS is interested in evaluating more cost-effective and environmentally sensitive alternatives. Photovoltaics, tidal current, and wind power systems in combination with a back-up electric system (standard, thermoelectric, and Stirling generator and fuel cell) and an energy storage medium (battery, flywheel, and hydrogen) were analyzed. Multi-objective optimization criteria include initial cost, operating cost, emissions, maintenance requirements, and to be consistent with the NPS requirements, the system must be clean, silent, and sustainable. The best system combination was designed according to these evaluation criteria and a demonstration system is to be constructed. This paper describes the optimization procedure and design. Results indicate that a 800 Watt photovoltaic array with a hydrogen fuel cell best serves the requirements for clean, silent power. Since fuel cells are developmental, a propane generator is recommended as an alternative.

  15. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  16. Electric Power Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Control center for SAMAC (System Automatic Monitor and Control) is a sophisticated dispatch computer system, developed by Rockwell International and operated by Philadelphia Electric Co. SAMAC monitors and controls the generation and distribution of electric power throughout the Philadelphia electric network. With the assistance of NASA's Apollo computer system technology, it enables human operators to isolate and correct power distribution problems more rapidly than was possible with earlier dispatch systems without centralized computer control.

  17. Development of integrated fuel cell hybrid power source for electric forklift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keränen, T. M.; Karimäki, H.; Viitakangas, J.; Vallet, J.; Ihonen, J.; Hyötylä, P.; Uusalo, H.; Tingelöf, T.

    A hybrid drivetrain comprising a 16 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, ultracapacitor modules and a lead-acid battery was constructed and experimentally tested in a real counterweight forklift application. A scaled-down version of the hybrid system was assembled and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using a controllable resistive load. The control loops were operating in an in-house developed embedded system. The software is designed for building generic control applications, and the source code has been released as open source and made available on the internet. The hybrid drivetrain supplied the required 50 kW peak power in a typical forklift work cycle consisting of both loaded and unloaded driving, and lifting of a 2.4 tonne load. Load variations seen by the fuel cell were a fraction of the total current drawn by the forklift, with the average fuel cell power being 55% of nominal rating. A simple fuel cell hybrid model was also developed to further study the effects of energy storage dimensioning. Simulation results indicate that while a battery alone significantly reduces the load variations of the fuel cell, an ultracapacitor reduces them even further. Furthermore, a relatively small ultracapacitor is enough to achieve most of the potential benefit.

  18. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem is formulated to rapidly and efficiently optimize both the control decision and parameters of the home battery energy storage system (BESS). Considering different time horizons of optimization, home BESS prices, types and control modes of PEVs, the parameters of home BESS and electric cost are systematically investigated. Based on the developed CP control law in home to vehicle (H2V) mode and vehicle to home (V2H) mode, the home with BESS does not buy electric energy from the grid during the electric price's peak periods.

  19. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  20. Soldier System Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    capability 21 Photovoltaic Power Sources 23 Maximum Power Tracking in Solar Arrays 23 Optimum Configuration of Solar Array for Enhanced Power Generation...Sources", IEEE Transactions on Power Elec- tronics, vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 244-253, Jan. 2005. 9. S. Liu, R. Dougal, E. Solodovnik, "Maximum Power Tracking and...eguate FRetulat Fig. 5.5. Flow chart of control algorithm. 22 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCES MAXIMUM POWER

  1. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 183.310 Section 183.310 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can...

  2. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  3. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed

  4. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed

  5. Evaluating the value of concentrated solar power in electricity systems with fluctuating energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Stöcker, Philipp; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a method for evaluating the value of CSP in electricity systems in comparison to other technologies. The low parametrization effort of the presented model allows for conducting studies for different electricity systems and scenarios within a manageable time frame. CSP systems in possible German electricity systems in the year 2050 can be used at its best, when the share of fluctuating renewables (FRES) is low. Under these conditions CSP is a cost-effective solution to meet CO2-reduction goals of 90 % in comparison to 1990. With FRES shares above 70 % the utilization of CSP systems would be too low to be competitive.

  6. Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

  7. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity...

  8. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to...

  9. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  10. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  11. Fuel Cell/Electric Double Layer Capacitor Hybrid Power Source Using a Multi-port Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kogoshi, Sumio

    A fuel cell/electric double layer capacitor hybrid power source using a multi-port bidirectional DC-DC converter has been developed to reduce load variations for the purpose of extending fuel cell life. The proposed converter operates to maintain the fuel cell current, load voltage and bus voltage at constant values with a digital signal processor. The effect of the proposed converter is evaluated. The charging or discharging current of the EDLC rapidly changes along with step loading, and the voltage and current of the fuel cell are maintained at the constant values. Short-time transient responses show that the fuel cell current ripples 0.35 A at 1 A load change in 6 ms.

  12. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels of net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  13. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in this EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  15. Lightweight Electric Power Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    8I~ .4 111 162 MICROCi Pi RL’ LUHION TESI CHARI "LIGHTWEIGHT ELECTRIC POWER CABLE" FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT SEPTEMBER 30, 1981 to SEPTEMBER 30, 1982... Vulcanized by heat to crosslink. TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer) - Polymers having elastomeric proper- ties. Used as thermoplastics - melt formed by

  16. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  17. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 129.310 Section 129.310 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least...

  18. 33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical power systems. 127.107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.107 Electrical power systems. (a) The electrical power system must have a power source and a separate emergency power source, so that failure of one...

  19. 33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical power systems. 127.107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.107 Electrical power systems. (a) The electrical power system must have a power source and a separate emergency power source, so that failure of one...

  20. 33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical power systems. 127.107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.107 Electrical power systems. (a) The electrical power system must have a power source and a separate emergency power source, so that failure of one...

  1. 33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical power systems. 127.107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.107 Electrical power systems. (a) The electrical power system must have a power source and a separate emergency power source, so that failure of one...

  2. 33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical power systems. 127.107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.107 Electrical power systems. (a) The electrical power system must have a power source and a separate emergency power source, so that failure of one...

  3. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  4. Electric-bicycle propulsion power

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.; Morchin, W.C.; Jamerson, F.E.

    1995-12-31

    In a human-powered hybrid electric vehicle (HPHEV) the travel distance available from a single battery charge can be lengthened with power from another source, the cyclist`s leg muscles. In a battery-powered electric bicycle the propulsion power goes mostly into overcoming aerodynamic drag. For example, at 18 km per hour (11 miles per hour) this drag represents 200 watts at the tire-to-road interface for a typical cyclist`s shape and clothing. Today`s typical electrical bicycle is propelled by a high-speed dc motor which is powered from a lead-acid battery. The combined efficiency of the motor and its speed-reducing gears is 50 to 65 percent. In this paper we calculate available travel distances, as a function of speed, grade, and the battery energy-content as measured in watt-hours per kg. We show the effect of battery cost and charge/discharge cycle-life on travel cost in terms of cents per kilometer travelled. Designs used in today`s electric bicycles are illustrated.

  5. Electromagnetic pulse and the electric power network

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, K.W.; Barnes, P.R.; Zaininger, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines the nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) - electric power system interaction problem. A description of high altitude EMP (HEMP) characteristics, source region EMP (SREMP) characteristics, and magnetohydrodynamics EMP (MHD-EMP) characteristics are presented. The results of initial calculations of EMP induced surges on electric power transmission and distribution lines are presented and compared with lightning induced surges. Potential EMP impacts on electric power systems are discussed, and an overview of the Department of Energy (DOE) EMP research program is presented.

  6. Source of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Marhanka, F.D.

    1983-06-28

    A source of electricity has a first electrode, a second electrode which is spaced from the first electrode and which is made from a metal that is displaced in the electromotive series from the metal of the first electrode, a first mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the first electrode, a second mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the second electrode and which has at least one particulate that is different from all of the particulates in the first mass, an interface between the confronting surfaces of the first and second masses, a polarity-imparting material in one of the masses, and that polarity-imparting material and the liquids enabling the masses to cause the electrodes to supply a unidirectional flow of current to any load which is connected across them.

  7. Electric power monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units.

  8. Electric power emergency handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  9. Militarized Thermoelectric Power Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Thermoelectric power sources are being developed to provide multifuel, silent, maintenance free tactical power generators for forward area...applications. Recent technology improvements, state of development, and performance characteristics of the 100-Watt and 500-Watt Thermoelectric Power Sources are presented. (Author)

  10. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  11. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  12. Three-dimensional forward modeling and inversion of borehole-to-surface electrical imaging with different power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ze; Tan, Mao-Jin; Zhang, Fu-Lai

    2016-09-01

    Borehole-to-surface electrical imaging (BSEI) uses a line source and a point source to generate a stable electric field in the ground. In order to study the surface potential of anomalies, three-dimensional forward modeling of point and line sources was conducted by using the finite-difference method and the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) method. Then, the damping least square method was used in the 3D inversion of the formation resistivity data. Several geological models were considered in the forward modeling and inversion. The forward modeling results suggest that the potentials generated by the two sources have different surface signatures. The inversion data suggest that the low-resistivity anomaly is outlined better than the high-resistivity anomaly. Moreover, when the point source is under the anomaly, the resistivity anomaly boundaries are better outlined than when using a line source.

  13. Electric Eel-Skin-Inspired Mechanically Durable and Super-Stretchable Nanogenerator for Deformable Power Source and Fully Autonomous Conformable Electronic-Skin Applications.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Chih; Deng, Jianan; Niu, Simiao; Peng, Wenbo; Wu, Changsheng; Liu, Ruiyuan; Wen, Zhen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-01

    Electric eel-skin-inspired mechanically durable and super-stretchable nanogenerator is demonstrated for the first time by using triboelectric effect. This newly designed nanogenerator can produce electricity by touch or tapping despite under various extreme mechanical deformations or even after experiencing damage. This device can be used not only as deformable and wearable power source but also as fully autonomous and self-sufficient adaptive electronic skin system.

  14. Venezuelan energy resources and electric power system

    SciTech Connect

    Altimari, J.

    1994-06-01

    This article discusses the changing energy policy of Venezuela which is intended to make its electric power sector more competitive. The topics of the article include an overview of the power industry (both private and public utilities), energy sources, power system capacity, generation resources, power demand, load management, and energy conservation.

  15. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  16. Mobile electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, V.J.; Bloomfield, D.P.; Johnson, B.Q.

    1992-01-30

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 asf.

  17. Mobile electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Valerie J.; Bloomfield, David P.; Johnson, Bradley Q.

    1992-01-01

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 ASF.

  18. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  19. Thulium heat sources for space power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, C. J.

    1992-10-01

    Reliable electrical power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration activities on planet surfaces. A potential power source is available through the use of thulium, a rare earth metal. Heat sources can be produced by neutron activation of naturally occurring thulium (Tm-169) targets in the base station nuclear power reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications systems located at remote sites. Combined with a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle conversion system, the heat source can power a lightweight electrical source for rovers or other surface transportation systems.

  20. TOPEX electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  1. TOPEX electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  2. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power sources. 129.310 Section 129.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS... by a propulsion engine is used as a source of electrical power, no speed change, throttle...

  3. Earth to space dc to dc power transmission system utilizing a microwave beam as source of energy for electric propelled interorbital vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper contributes to the credibility of an electric propelled interorbital transportation system by introducing a new low-mass source of continuous dc power for electric propulsion and illustrating how the source can be economically tied to an electric utility on earth by an electronically steered microwave beam. The new thin-film rectenna, which functions as the receiving end of an earth-to-space microwave power transmission system is described. It is easily fabricated, is over 80 percent efficient, has a specific mass of no more than 2 kilograms per kilowatt of continuous dc power output, and is well adapted for deployment in space. The paper then describes a complete system consisting of the interorbital vehicle and the microwave power transmission system that supplies it with power. A design scenario is used to obtain performance data from the system in terms of vehicle transfer times, payload fractions, and costs. Electric energy costs are found to be less than $1000 per kilogram of payload delivered to geosynchronous orbit from low-earth orbit.

  4. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  5. Electricity generation by intermittent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2015-08-01

    This paper deals with the production of electricity by wind and photovoltaic (PV) power mostly in Germany. The German data of 2012 are scaled to a 100% supply of the electricity consumption by renewable sources. Wind and PV power are mixed in a ratio which minimises back-up energy. The 100%, optimal mix data are used to identify the powers to be installed, the accumulating backup and surplus energies, the size of storage to replace thermal back-up power, the possibilities of demand-side-management, and the specific CO2 production. The benefits of using an EU-wide field of renewable energies (RES) instead of the national one are quantified and the interconnection capacities specified. Finally, the costs of installing RES are discussed. The conclusion is that a 100% supply by RES may not be meaningful. Large-scale supply by RES alone has deficiencies and it will remain a major task for science and technology to either improve such a system or find a suitable replacement.

  6. Battery-powered electric bicycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morchin, W.C.

    1994-12-31

    Electric bicycles powered with today`s nickel-metal hydride batteries offer a 100 km range between recharges and have a potential of 300 km when polymer batteries become available. The author discusses the development of the electric bicycle, presents a mathematical model, and considers general requirements. The available battery powered electric bicycles are listed and some test comparisons are given. 4 refs.

  7. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  8. A disposable power source in resource-limited environments: A paper-based biobattery generating electricity from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Kwan, Landen; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-11-15

    We report a novel paper-based biobattery which generates power from microorganism-containing liquid derived from renewable and sustainable wastewater which is readily accessible in the local environment. The device fuses the art of origami and the technology of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and has the potential to shift the paradigm for flexible and stackable paper-based batteries by enabling exceptional electrical characteristics and functionalities. 3D, modular, and retractable battery stack is created from (i) 2D paper sheets through high degrees of folding and (ii) multifunctional layers sandwiched for MFC device configuration. The stack is based on ninja star-shaped origami design formed by eight MFC modular blades, which is retractable from sharp shuriken (closed) to round frisbee (opened). The microorganism-containing wastewater is added into an inlet of the closed battery stack and it is transported into each MFC module through patterned fluidic pathways in the paper layers. During operation, the battery stack is transformed into the round frisbee to connect eight MFC modules in series for improving the power output and simultaneously expose all air-cathodes to the air for their cathodic reactions. The device generates desired values of electrical current and potential for powering an LED for more than 20min.

  9. Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

  10. Electric power annual 1996. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1--with a focus on US electric utilities--contains final 1996 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1996 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA. Data published in the Electric Power Annual Volume 1 are compiled from three statistical forms filed monthly and two forms filed annually by electric utilities. These forms are described in detail in the Technical Notes. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Electric-Power System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, R. W.; Grumm, R. L.; Biedebach, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Shows different combinations of generation, storage, and load components: display, video monitor with keyboard input to microprocessor, and video monitor for display of load curves and power generation. Planning tool for electric utilities, regulatory agencies, and laymen in understanding basics of electric-power systems operation.

  12. Load insensitive electrical device. [power converters for supplying direct current at one voltage from a source at another voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A class of power converters is described for supplying direct current at one voltage from a source at another voltage. It includes a simple passive circuit arrangement of solid-state switches, inductors, and capacitors by which the output voltage of the converter tends to remain constant in spite of changes in load. The switches are sensitive to the current flowing in the circuit and are employed to permit the charging of capacitance devices in accordance with the load requirements. Because solid-state switches (such as SCR's) may be used with relatively high voltage and because of the inherent efficiency of the invention that permits relatively high switching frequencies, power supplies built in accordance with the invention, together with their associated cabling, can be substantially lighter in weight for a given output power level and efficiency of operation than systems of the prior art.

  13. Hybrid power source

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  14. Space station electrical power system technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, A.A.

    1984-08-01

    NASA is beginning the development of both a permanently manned space station and of unmanned space platforms. Although the exact requirements have not been defined, the initial space station will likely require a considerable amount of electrical power. There are many options available for the source, storage and distribution of power/energy. Some of these technologies are better developed and more likely to be applied to the initial systems. This paper describes the results of power system technology studies as applied to manned space stations, and includes tradeoffs for power distribution selection. Sizing and cost factors are provided for the more probable combinations of power sources, storage and distribution approaches.

  15. Multivoltage high power electrical power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvarinen, W. E.

    Applications are being identified where the optimum aircraft electrical system may not be the conventional 400 Hz approach. The requirements for a multivoltage high power airborne electrical system are presented. The methodology used to define and evaluate operating parameters, system configuration and control philosophy are presented. The approach recommended for this application is described.

  16. Electric power monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  17. Using solar-powered refrigeration for vaccine storage where other sources of reliable electricity are inadequate or costly.

    PubMed

    McCarney, Steve; Robertson, Joanie; Arnaud, Juliette; Lorenson, Kristina; Lloyd, John

    2013-12-09

    Large areas of many developing countries have no grid electricity. This is a serious challenge that threatens the continuity of the vaccine cold chain. The main alternatives to electrically powered refrigerators available for many years--kerosene- and gas-driven refrigerators--are plagued by problems with gas supply interruptions, low efficiency, poor temperature control, and frequent maintenance needs. There are currently no kerosene- or gas-driven refrigerators that qualify under the minimum standards established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Performance, Quality, and Safety (PQS) system. Solar refrigeration was a promising development in the early 1980s, providing an alternative to absorption technology to meet cold chain needs in remote areas. Devices generally had strong laboratory performance data; however, experience in the field over the years has been mixed. Traditional solar refrigerators relied on relatively expensive battery systems, which have demonstrated short lives compared to the refrigerator. There are now alternatives to the battery-based systems and a clear understanding that solar refrigerator systems need to be designed, installed, and maintained by technicians with the necessary knowledge and training. Thus, the technology is now poised to be the refrigeration method of choice for the cold chain in areas with no electricity or extremely unreliable electricity (less than 4h per average day) and sufficient sunlight. This paper highlights some lessons learned with solar-powered refrigeration, and discusses some critical factors for successful introduction of solar units into immunization programs in the future including: •Sustainable financing mechanisms and incentives for health workers and technicians are in place to support long-term maintenance, repair, and replacement parts. •System design is carried out by qualified solar refrigerator professionals taking into account the conditions at installation sites. •Installation and

  18. Electric power monthly, June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-15

    Total net generation by electric utilities in the United States for the month of June 1988 was 232,183 gigawatthours, 3 percent higher than the amount reported a year ago. Although temperatures (measured by cooling degree days) for June 1988 were 9 percent warmer than normal, they were 3 percent cooler than for June 1987. A large portion of that higher demand for electricity was met by nuclear-powered generation. Net generation from nuclear power during June 1988 (44,079 gigawatthours) was only 1 percent below the record set in January of this year, and 21 percent above that reported in June 1987 (36,560 gigawatthours). The only energy source other than nuclear that reported higher levels of net generation during June 1988 was coal, up 2 percent over the same period last year. Warmer-than-normal temperatures did, however, have an affect on various parts of the country. For example, on Wednesday, June 22, 1988, unseasonably high temperatures forced the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland Interconnection (PJM) into a system-wide 5-percent voltage reduction for 2 hours. Contributing to that reduction in voltage was the shutdown of the Three Mile Island, Unit 1, for refueling and the closing of the Peach Bottom Units 2 and 3 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Three Mile Island, Unit 1, normally provides the PJM system with about 800 megawatts while the two Peach Bottom units, combined, provide approximately 2100 megawatts. 10 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs.

  19. Electric Power Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold.

  20. Shunt regulation electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W. H.; Bless, J. J. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A regulated electric power system having load and return bus lines is described. A plurality of solar cells interconnected in a power supplying relationship and having a power shunt tap point electrically spaced from the bus lines is provided. A power dissipator is connected to the shunt tap point and provides for a controllable dissipation of excess energy supplied by the solar cells. A dissipation driver is coupled to the power dissipator and controls its conductance and dissipation and is also connected to the solar cells in a power taping relationship to derive operating power therefrom. An error signal generator is coupled to the load bus and to a reference signal generator to provide an error output signal which is representative of the difference between the electric parameters existing at the load bus and the reference signal generator. An error amplifier is coupled to the error signal generator and the dissipation driver to provide the driver with controlling signals.

  1. Electric power monthly, July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and retail prices data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison.

  2. Electric Power Monthly, November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  3. Electric power monthly, September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-14

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 10 refs., 37 tabs.

  4. Electric power monthly, August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-14

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption fuel stocks, quantity and quality fuel, and cost of fuel. 10 refs., 1 fig., 40 tabs.

  5. Electric power monthly, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-15

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  6. Electric power monthly, June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  7. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  8. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  9. High Power, High Voltage Electric Power System for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aintablian, Harry; Kirkham, Harold; Timmerman, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the 30 KW, 600 V MRHE power subsystem. Descriptions of the power subsystem elements, the mode of power transfer, and power and mass estimates are presented. A direct-drive architecture for electric propulsion is considered which reduces mass and complexity. Solar arrays with concentrators are used for increased efficiency. Finally, the challenges due to the environment of a hypothetical lunar mission as well as due to the advanced technologies considered are outlined.

  10. Electrical power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

  11. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  12. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  13. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  14. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  15. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-05-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  16. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  17. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Scudiere, Matthew B; McKeever, John W

    2011-01-01

    As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.

  18. Electricity: From Tabletop to Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    While electricity is central to our daily lives, it remains "black box" technology to most students. They know that electricity is produced somewhere and that it costs money, but they do not have personal experience with the operation and scale of the machines that provide it. Fortunately, electricity generation can be added to the more basic circuit topics (series, parallel, current, voltage, etc.) with only a small investment in equipment. Providing students with hands-on experience with small power sources will help them make wise decisions about electricity.

  19. Stand by electrical supply source

    SciTech Connect

    Mucsy, E.; Hoos, K.

    1985-06-25

    A stand-by electrical energy source for equipment to be operated with substantially continuous current supply, comprising three components one of which is at least one electric rotary machine, another of which is a flywheel and the third of which is an auxiliary energy source. Planetary gearing is provided, comprising a central shaft on which is mounted a sun gear, a planet gear and a ring gear, each of the three components being connected with a respective one of these gears. Two of the three components are interconnected by a drive with an infinitely variable transmission. In one embodiment, the electric rotary machine is connected to the planet gear, the flywheel is connected to the sun gear and the auxiliary energy source is connected with the ring gear. In another embodiment, the electric rotary machine is connected to the sun gear, the flywheel is connected to the ring gear, and the auxiliary energy source is connected to the planet gear.

  20. Power Sources for Ultra Low Power Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-12

    DARPA asked JASON to examine the issue of power sources for low power electronics with a specific emphasis on the properties of nuclear batteries and...integrated power sources combining power and electronics. During the 1998 Summer Study a workshop was held to provide background for the study, with

  1. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-9 Independent power... signal. (b) If the independent power source is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger...

  2. STANDARD FAMILY OF POWER SOURCES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A standard family of power sources is proposed which will minimize the number and variety of power sources , prevent the flooding of the supply system...with hardware that only could be used in a single application and provide the user with a family of power sources from which he could select one...new concept in the deployment of power sources . No longer is a single power source developed for each equipment; rather, the selection of a battery

  3. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yan; Garces, Luis Jose

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  4. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  5. Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.

  6. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  7. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  8. Estimating the power-law distribution of Earth electrical conductivity from low-frequency, controlled-source electromagnetic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskardes, G. D.; Weiss, C. J.; Everett, M. E.

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic responses reflect the interaction between applied electromagnetic fields and heterogeneous geoelectrical structures. Quantifying the relationship between multiscale electrical properties and the observed electromagnetic response is therefore important for meaningful geologic interpretation. We present here examples of near-surface electromagnetic responses whose spatial fluctuations appear on all length scales, are repeatable and fractally distributed, supporting the notion of a `rough geology' exhibiting multiscale hierarchical structure. Bounded by end member cases from homogenized isotropic and anisotropic media, we present numerical modelling results of the electromagnetic responses of textured and spatially correlated, stochastic geologic media, demonstrating that the electromagnetic response is a power law distribution, rather than a smooth response polluted with random, incoherent noise as commonly assumed. Our modelling results show that these electromagnetic responses due to spatially correlated geologic textures are examples of fractional Brownian motion. Furthermore, our results suggest that the fractal behaviour of the electromagnetic responses is correlated with degree of the spatial correlation, the contrasts in ground conductivity, and the preferred orientation of small-scale heterogeneity. In addition, the EM responses acquired across a fault zone comprising different lithological units and varying wavelengths of geologic heterogeneity also support our inferences from numerical modelling.

  9. Estimating the power law distribution of Earth electrical conductivity from low-frequency, controlled-source electromagnetic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskardes, G. D.; Weiss, C. J.; Everett, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    Electromagnetic responses reflect the interaction between applied electromagnetic fields and heterogeneous geoelectrical structures. Quantifying the relationship between multiscale electrical properties and the observed electromagnetic response is therefore important for meaningful geologic interpretation. We present here examples of near-surface electromagnetic responses whose spatial fluctuations appear on all length scales, are repeatable and fractally distributed, supporting the notion of a "rough geology" exhibiting multi-scale hierarchical structure. Bounded by end member cases from homogenized isotropic and anisotropic media, we present numerical modeling results of the electromagnetic responses of textured and spatially-correlated, stochastic geologic media, demonstrating that the electromagnetic response is a power law distribution, rather than a smooth response polluted with random, incoherent noise as commonly assumed. Our modeling results show that these electromagnetic responses due to spatially-correlated geologic textures are examples of fractional Brownian motion. Furthermore, our results suggest that the fractal behavior of the electromagnetic responses is correlated with degree of the spatial correlation, the contrasts in ground conductivity, and the preferred orientation of small-scale heterogeneity. In addition, the EM responses acquired across a fault zone comprising different lithological units and varying wavelengths of geologic heterogeneity also support our inferences from numerical modeling.

  10. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to... electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 119.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public address system required under § 121.610...

  11. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least two sources of electricity: (i) Any system identified as a vital system in § 128.130(a) of this subchapter. (ii) Interior lights. (iii) Communication systems. (iv) Navigational equipment and lights. (v)...

  12. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least two sources of electricity: (i) Any system identified as a vital system in § 128.130(a) of this subchapter. (ii) Interior lights. (iii) Communication systems. (iv) Navigational equipment and lights. (v)...

  13. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from two sources of electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 182.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public...

  14. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to... electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 119.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public address system required under § 121.610...

  15. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to... electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 119.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public address system required under § 121.610...

  16. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from two sources of electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 182.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public...

  17. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from two sources of electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 182.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public...

  18. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least two sources of electricity: (i) Any system identified as a vital system in § 128.130(a) of this subchapter. (ii) Interior lights. (iii) Communication systems. (iv) Navigational equipment and lights. (v)...

  19. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  20. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  1. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  2. Electric power monthly, August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-21

    The Electric Power Monthly. (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of coal, Nuclear, Electric and alternate Fuels, Energy information Administration (EIA), Department of energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sold. data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  3. Power unit for electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Masami; Minezawa, Yukihiro.

    1993-07-06

    A power unit for mounting on the body of an electric car is described, comprising: a sensor for detecting a running condition of the car; a first power supply mounted on the electric car body; a second power supply module; means for detachably mounting different, interchangeable types of the second power supply module on the electric car body; a motor control circuit, including a computer, connected to the first power supply and the second power supply module for feeding a current to a motor as commanded by the computer; the computer including control means for determining (1) whether the second power supply module is mounted or not and (2) for determining the type of second power supply module mounted; setting means for connecting the first power supply and the second power supply module with the motor control circuit, in parallel or in series, responsive to the detected running condition; and the computer controlling the motor control circuit according to determinations of the control means.

  4. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  5. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  6. Electric power monthly, May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-14

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and retail prices data by one month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3 must...

  10. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  11. Electric power monthly, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  12. Electric power monthly. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels of net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  13. Electric power monthly. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in this EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Electric Power Monthly, April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  15. Electric power monthly, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  16. Electric power monthly, February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-22

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  17. Electric Power Monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  18. Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

  19. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... power interruption. (e) Vessels with electric propulsion that have two or more constant-voltage... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a...

  1. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOEpatents

    Zuppero, Anthony C.; Krawetz, Barton; Barklund, C. Rodger; Seifert, Gary D.

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  2. Electrical power system WP-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) WP-40 are presented. Topics covered include: key EPS technical requirements; photovoltaic power module systems; solar array assembly; blanket containment box and box positioning subassemblies; solar cell; bypass diode assembly; Kapton with atomic oxygen resistant coating; sequential shunt unit; gimbal assembly; energy storage subsystem; thermal control subsystem; direct current switching unit; integrated equipment assembly; PV cargo element; PMAD system; and PMC and AC architecture.

  3. Collapsible four wheel electric powered vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Enix, C.

    1980-06-24

    A collapsible four wheel vehicle is disclosed that is powered by an electrical source , including a storage battery, an electric motor, rear wheels driven by the electric motor, a pair of front wheels having a diameter nearly as great as the diameter of the rear wheels, a resistance bank connected between said battery and said electric motor, a switch means to control the operation of said electric motor, a steering mechanism to steer the front wheels, passenger seat, and a chassis frame on which all of said component parts are mounted and which frame is collapsible in the sense that it may be disassembled easily and quickly into two main sections each of which are foldable into a flat compact unit.

  4. 49 CFR 193.2445 - Sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of power. 193.2445 Section 193.2445...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Equipment Vaporization Equipment § 193.2445 Sources of power. (a) Electrical... two sources of power which function so that failure of one source does not affect the capability...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2445 - Sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sources of power. 193.2445 Section 193.2445...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Equipment Vaporization Equipment § 193.2445 Sources of power. (a) Electrical... two sources of power which function so that failure of one source does not affect the capability of...

  6. Electric power monthly, August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-10

    The /ital Electric Power Monthly (EPM)/ focuses on the electric utility industry in the United States. Detailed, plant-level data are contained in the /ital Electric Power Quarterly/. More information can be obtained by writing or calling the National Energy Information Center, EI-231, Forrestal Building, Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-8800. The data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. Year-to-date 1987 data for sales and prices in previously published issues of the /ital EPM/ were preliminary. The 1987 values in this issue are revised Form EIA-826, ''Monthly Electric Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions,'' data. Final 1987 sales data will be available from the Form EIA-861,'' Annual Electric Utility Report.'' 10 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs.

  7. Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Druxman, Lee Daniel

    2007-09-01

    As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

  8. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  9. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  10. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  11. Electric power monthly, February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publications provides monthly statistics at the national. Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  12. Electric power monthly, April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-18

    This report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generating, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the most net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and retail prices data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and state level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  13. Electric power monthly, October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Estimating the power-law distribution of Earth electrical conductivity from low-frequency, controlled-source electromagnetic responses

    SciTech Connect

    Beskardes, G. D.; Weiss, Chester J.; Everett, M. E.

    2016-11-30

    Electromagnetic responses reflect the interaction between applied electromagnetic fields and heterogeneous geoelectrical structures. Here by quantifying the relationship between multi-scale electrical properties and the observed electromagnetic response is therefore important for meaningful geologic interpretation. Furthermore, we present here examples of near-surface electromagnetic responses whose spatial fluctuations appear on all length scales, are repeatable and fractally distributed, suggesting that the spatial fluctuations may be considered as “geologic noise”.

  15. Estimating the power-law distribution of Earth electrical conductivity from low-frequency, controlled-source electromagnetic responses

    DOE PAGES

    Beskardes, G. D.; Weiss, Chester J.; Everett, M. E.

    2016-11-30

    Electromagnetic responses reflect the interaction between applied electromagnetic fields and heterogeneous geoelectrical structures. Here by quantifying the relationship between multi-scale electrical properties and the observed electromagnetic response is therefore important for meaningful geologic interpretation. Furthermore, we present here examples of near-surface electromagnetic responses whose spatial fluctuations appear on all length scales, are repeatable and fractally distributed, suggesting that the spatial fluctuations may be considered as “geologic noise”.

  16. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  17. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  18. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  19. Power storage system for electric railway

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to a power storage system for electric railway which comprises a motor-generator connected to a power system for feeding an electric vehicle with electric power, and a flywheel coupled to the motor-generator, and in which the motor-generator is allowed to store the electric power and thereafter discharge it in correspondence with approach of the electric vehicle to a predetermined running section and running thereof in the section.

  20. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  1. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  2. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs....10 of this chapter. (b) If a generator provides electrical power for any system identified as a...

  3. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs....10 of this chapter. (b) If a generator provides electrical power for any system identified as a...

  4. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  5. Electric power monthly, January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag and net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison.

  6. Technologies. [space power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  7. Power processing for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Herron, B. G.; Gant, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The inclusion of electric thruster systems in spacecraft design is considered. The propulsion requirements of such spacecraft dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by lightweight, efficient, and reliable thruster power processing systems. Electron bombardment ion thruster requirements are presented, and the performance characteristics of present power processing systems are reviewed. Design philosophies and alternatives in areas such as inverter type, arc protection, and control methods are discussed along with future performance potentials for meeting goals in the areas of power process or weight (10 kg/kW), efficiency (approaching 92 percent), reliability (0.96 for 15,000 hr), and thermal control capability (0.3 to 5 AU).

  8. How to Integrate Variable Power Source into a Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hiroshi

    This paper discusses how to integrate variable power source such as wind power and photovoltaic generation into a power grid. The intermittent renewable generation is expected to penetrate for less carbon intensive power supply system, but it causes voltage control problem in the distribution system, and supply-demand imbalance problem in a whole power system. Cooperative control of customers' energy storage equipment such as water heater with storage tank for reducing inverse power flow from the roof-top PV system, the operation technique using a battery system and the solar radiation forecast for stabilizing output of variable generation, smart charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for load frequency control (LFC), and other methods to integrate variable power source with improving social benefits are surveyed.

  9. Electric power plant emissions and public health

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, A.B.; Roy, C.

    2008-02-15

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels.

  10. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  11. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities

  12. Energy flow for electric power system deregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung

    Over the past few years, the electric power utility industry in North America and other countries has experienced a strong drive towards deregulation. People have considered the necessity of deregulation of electric utilities for higher energy efficiency and energy saving. The vertically integrated monopolistic industry is being transferred into a horizontally integrated competitive structure in some countries. Wheeling charges are a current high priority problem throughout the power industry, for independent power producers, as well as regulators. Nevertheless the present transmission pricing mechanism fails to be adjusted by a customer loading condition. Customer loading is dynamic, but the present wheeling charge method is fixed, not real-time. A real-time wheeling charge method is developed in this dissertation. This dissertation introduces a concept of a power flow network which can be used for the calculation of power contribution factors in a network. The contribution factor is defined as the ratio of the power contributed by a particular source to a line flow or bus load to the total output of the source. Generation, transmission, and distribution companies can employ contribution factors for the calculation of energy cost, wheeling charges, and loss compensation. Based on the concept of contribution factors, a proposed loss allocation method is developed in this dissertation. Besides, counterflow condition will be given a credit in the proposed loss allocation method. A simple 22-bus example was used for evaluating the contribution factors, proposed wheeling charge method, and loss allocation method.

  13. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500/sup 0/C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370/sup 0/C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs.

  14. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a microgrid

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Wilson, David; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-08-01

    An electric power storage device included in a microgrid is described herein. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for the microgrid. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the microgrid and specified load parameters in the microgrid.

  15. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs. (a) The requirements of...

  16. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  17. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  18. Optical power source control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husbands, C. R.

    1984-05-01

    An optical power source control system having a four port optical coupler, an optical receiver and associated comparator circuits operably connected to the optical transmission line connecting the source to an output connector. When the output connector is mated with another connector, the receiver senses the optical energy reflected from the glass/air and air/glass interfaces of the connectors and provides an appropriate signal. This signal is sufficiently high when compared to a threshold voltage level to permit the power source to operate. When the output connector is in the unmated condition the reflected optical power from the air/glass interface is no longer present and therefore the signal from the receiver falls below the threshold voltage level. With this reduced signal level, power flow to the optical source is removed or reduced thereby controlling the operation of the optical power source.

  19. Closed cycle osmotic power plants for electric power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, M.

    1980-04-01

    The paper deals with closed-cycle osmotic power plants (CCOPPs), which are not meant for the exploitation of natural salinity gradients but, rather, for the exploitation of those abundant heat sources having temperatures slightly higher than ambient temperature, e.g., geothermal fields, ocean temperature gradients, waste heat from power plants, and solar energy. The paper gives a general description of the CCOPP, along with some indications of its potential for energy generation. The concept of the CCOPP lies in producing electric power by means of the osmotic flows of suitable solvents and subsequently in separating them again from their solutes by means of thermal energy obtained from any available heat source. The discussion covers osmotic phenomena and the CCOPP, as well as important features of the CCOPP.

  20. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-20

    aiozoopye stc~i± 9p.D D C ’ SOUCE:Atomizdat, Moscow 1972, p. Mektricheekay gugerLl W AUTiIOR:qv* pe Fradkin and v .M. Kodyukov Z3, LANGUAGE : Russian...and Plectrical fieldq, chemical comoosition of the material, etc. The values of the half- lives may vary from fr.ctions of :i second to millions of...nucleus (first term), the ene:cLv of the T’ -niianta (tnird term), and the enemyV of the Oel -particles ( second term). W.nen there is soortaneous dec.Vy

  1. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  2. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    -phase geological medium. Numerical analysis of generation of mechanical pressure in the geological medium due to action of high-power electric was carried out. It was shown that calculation of impulse of mechanical pressure due to high-power electrical current in the porous two-phase medium may be performed neglecting thermal conductance by solving the non-stationary equation of piezo-conductivity with Joule heat generation. For calculation of heat generation the known solution of the task of current spreading from spherical or elliptic electrode submerged into unbounded medium is used. Pressure increase due to electric current is determined by voltage of the current source and the medium parameters, and it does not depend on the electrode radius. The pressure increase is proportional to viscosity factor, electric conductivity of fluid in the pores, and inverse proportional to squared average radius of capillaries. These parameters may vary for different rocks and fluids in the pores by many orders of magnitude. The pressure increase for water is insignificant. If a high-mineralized fluid (e.g. sludge) is injected into the fault, the pressure may be increased by several orders and may obtain tens kilobars that is sufficient for triggering the seismic event. An estimation of parameters of portable pulsed power system for electric processing of the fault was performed, when the current is injected into the fault through two casing pipes of deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault between the wells. The work is supported by grant No. 09-05-12059-ofim of Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  3. FUSE satellite electrical power subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Roufberg, L.; Noah, K.

    1998-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite will be placed into a low earth orbit to investigate astrophysical processes related to the formation and development of the early universe. The FUSE satellite is considered a pathfinder for NASA's Mid-Class Explorers (MIDEX). To reduce mission cost and development time while delivering quality science, NASA has enforced strict cost caps with a clear definition of high-level science objectives. As a result, a significant design driver for the electrical power subsystem (EPS) was to minimize cost. The FUSE EPS is a direct energy transfer, unregulated bus architecture, with batteries directly on the bus and solar array power limted by pulse-width-modulated shunt regulators. The power subsystem electronics (PSE) contains circuitry to control battery charging, provide power to the loads, and provide fault protection. The electronics is based on the PSE which Orbital (formerly, Fairchild Space) designed and built for NASA/GSFC's XTE spacecraft. However, the FUSE PSE design incorporates a number of unique features to meet the mission requirements. To minimize size of the solar panels due to stowed attachment constraints, GaAs/Ge solar cells were selected. This is the first time this type of large area, thinned solar cell with integral bypass diodes are being used for a NASA LEO mission. The solar panels support a satellite load power of 520W. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries are used which are identical to the RADARSAT-I design, except for different temperature sensors. This is the first mission for which Orbital is using SAFT NiCd batteries. The spacecraft bus, including the EPS, has successfully completed environmental testing and has been delivered for instrument integration. Tradeoffs involved in designing the EPS and selecting components based on the requirements are discussed. Analyses including solar array and battery sizing and energy balance are presented in addition to results from testing the flight

  4. Identification of Alternative Power Sources for Dredged Material Processing Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    This report provides a basis for selecting alternative, renewable power sources specifically for operating dredged material processing systems. A...obtaining power from solid waste (such as incineration of trash), but was discarded. Of all the alternative power sources studied, wind electric generation seems to be the most practical and versatile to apply at this time.

  5. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  6. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  7. High Intensity Tactical Power Sources for the 1990 Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conceptual or physical study which may become feasible as high intensity power sources . These considerations include present state of the art of...requirements, energy and power output capabilities, and fixed costs. From these tables, it may be seen that a variety of electrical power sources would be...required to satisfy diverse requirements, but an attempt is made to categorize possible high intensity power sources into their areas of optimum

  8. High power, electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared laser sources (3-14 μm wavelengths) which have wide spectral coverage and high output power are attractive for many applications. This spectral range contains unique absorption fingerprints of most molecules, including toxins, explosives, and nerve agents. Infrared spectroscopy can also be used to detect important biomarkers, which can be used for medical diagnostics by means of breath analysis. The challenge is to produce a broadband midinfrared source which is small, lightweight, robust, and inexpensive. We are currently investigating monolithic solutions using quantum cascade lasers. A wide gain bandwidth is not sufficient to make an ideal spectroscopy source. Single mode output with rapid tuning is desirable. For dynamic wavelength selection, our group is developing multi-section laser geometries with wide electrical tuning (hundreds of cm-1). These devices are roughly the same size as a traditional quantum cascade lasers, but tuning is accomplished without any external optical components. When combined with suitable amplifiers, these lasers are capable of multi-Watt single mode output powers. This manuscript will describe our current research efforts and the potential for high performance, broadband electrical tuning with the quantum cascade laser.

  9. Wind wheel electric power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.W.

    1980-03-04

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus is disclosed as including a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertically disposed support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixedly mounted upon the housing for capturing wind currents and for conducting the same to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel, all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature , together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  10. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  11. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  12. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  13. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  14. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  15. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  16. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  17. Electric Power: Decisions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Preston, John

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the past 25 years of electricity consumption in the United States and considers the implications for the near future. Discusses strategies for energy conservation and provides a student activity for measuring and conserving electric power. (Author/JOW)

  18. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  19. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  20. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  1. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Annual 1997, Volume 2 contains annual summary statistics at national, regional, and state levels for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; power transactions; and demand-side management. Also included are data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity; gross generation; emissions; and supply and disposition of energy. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. 15 figs., 62 tabs.

  2. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  3. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same.... (f) The source of power for each hydraulically operated watertight door system using an independent...

  4. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same.... (f) The source of power for each hydraulically operated watertight door system using an independent...

  5. Test facilities for high power electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Vetrone, Robert H.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Myers, Roger M.; Parkes, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Electric propulsion has applications for orbit raising, maneuvering of large space systems, and interplanetary missions. These missions involve propulsion power levels from tenths to tens of megawatts, depending upon the application. General facility requirements for testing high power electric propulsion at the component and thrust systems level are defined. The characteristics and pumping capabilities of many large vacuum chambers in the United States are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high power electric propulsion testing.

  6. Electric power annual 1995. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding U.S. electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy. In the private sector, the majority of the users of the Electric Power Annual are researchers and analysts and, ultimately, individuals with policy- and decisionmaking responsibilities in electric utility companies. Financial and investment institutions, economic development organizations interested in new power plant construction, special interest groups, lobbyists, electric power associations, and the news media will find data in the Electric Power Annual useful. In the public sector, users include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals with regulatory, policy, and program responsibilities for Federal, State, and local governments. The Congress and other legislative bodies may also be interested in general trends related to electricity at State and national levels. Much of the data in these reports can be used in analytic studies to evaluate new legislation. Public service commissions and other special government groups share an interest in State-level statistics. These groups can also compare the statistics for their States with those of other jurisdictions.

  7. Power system characteristics for more electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1993-01-01

    It should not be suprising that more electric aircraft must meet significantly more difficult electrical power system requirements than were considereed when today's power distribution systems were being developed. Electric power, no longer a secondary system, will become a critical element of the primary control system. Functional reliability requiirements will be extremely stringent and can only be met by controlling element redundancy within a distributed power system. Existing electrical systems were not developed to have both the power system and the control/sensing elements distributed and yet meet the requirements of lighting tolerance and high intensity radio frequency (HIRF). In addition, the operation of electric actuators involves high transient loading and reverse energy flows. Such phenomena were also not anticipated when power quality was specified for either 270 vdc or 400 Hertz ac power systems. This paper will expand upon the issues and discuss some of the technologies involved in their resolution.

  8. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  10. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  11. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  12. Electric auxiliary power unit for Shuttle evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Doug; Weber, Kent; Scott, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter currently uses three hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units (APUs) to provide hydraulic power for the vehicle aerodynamic surface controls, main engine thrust vector control, landing gear, steering, and brakes. Electric auxiliary power units have been proposed as possible replacements to the hydrazine auxiliary power units. Along with the potential advantages, this paper describes an Electric APU configuration and addresses the technical issues and risks associated with the subsystem components. Additionally, characteristics of an Electric APU compared to the existing APU and the direction of future study with respect to the Electric APU is suggested.

  13. Space Power Architectures for NASA Missions: The Applicability and Benefits of Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.

    2001-01-01

    The relative importance of electrical power systems as compared with other spacecraft bus systems is examined. The quantified benefits of advanced space power architectures for NASA Earth Science, Space Science, and Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions is then presented. Advanced space power technologies highlighted include high specific power solar arrays, regenerative fuel cells, Stirling radioisotope power sources, flywheel energy storage and attitude control, lithium ion polymer energy storage and advanced power management and distribution.

  14. Emissivity Tuned Emitter for RTPV Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carl M. Stoots; Robert C. O'Brien; Troy M. Howe

    2012-03-01

    Every mission launched by NASA to the outer planets has produced unexpected results. The Voyager I and II, Galileo, and Cassini missions produced images and collected scientific data that totally revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and the formation of the planetary systems. These missions were enabled by the use of nuclear power. Because of the distances from the Sun, electrical power was produced using the radioactive decay of a plutonium isotope. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in the past and currently used Multi-Mission RTGs (MMRTGs) provide power for space missions. Unfortunately, RTGs rely on thermocouples to convert heat to electricity and are inherently inefficient ({approx} 3-7% thermal to electric efficiency). A Radioisotope Thermal Photovoltaic (RTPV) power source has the potential to reduce the specific mass of the onboard power supply by increasing the efficiency of thermal to electric conversion. In an RTPV, a radioisotope heats an emitter, which emits light to a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which converts the light into electricity. Developing an emitter tuned to the desired wavelength of the photovoltaic is a key part in increasing overall performance. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have built a Thermal Photovoltaic (TPV) system, that utilizes a simulated General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) from a MMRTG to heat a tantalum emitter. The GPHS is a block of graphite roughly 10 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm. A fully loaded GPHS produces 250 w of thermal power and weighs 1.6 kgs. The GRC system relies on the GPHS unit radiating at 1200 K to a tantalum emitter that, in turn, radiates light to a GaInAs photo-voltaic cell. The GRC claims system efficiency of conversion of 15%. The specific mass is around 167 kg/kWe. A RTPV power source that utilized a ceramic or ceramic-metal (cermet) matrix would allow for the combination of the heat source, canister, and emitter into one compact unit, and allow variation in size

  15. Superconductivity for electric power systems: Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    Largely due to government and private industry partnerships, electric power applications based upon high-temperature superconductivity are now being designed and tested only seven years after the discovery of the high-temperature superconductors. These applications offer many benefits to the national electric system including: increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, reduced emissions, increased stability/reliability, deferred expansion, and flexible electricity dispatch/load management. All of these benefits have a common outcome: lower electricity costs and improved environmental quality. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsors research and development through its Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. This program will help develop the technology needed for U.S. industries to commercialize high-temperature superconductive electric power applications. DOE envisions that by 2010 the U.S. electric power systems equipment industry will regain a major share of the global market by offering superconducting products that outperform the competition.

  16. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  17. Superconducting Materials, Magnets and Electric Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, George

    2011-03-01

    The surprising discovery of superconductivity a century ago launched a chain of convention-shattering innovations and discoveries in superconducting materials and applications that continues to this day. The range of large-scale applications grows with new materials discoveries - low temperature NbTi and Nb3 Sn for liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets, intermediate temperature MgB2 for inexpensive cryocooled applications including MRI magnets, and high temperature YBCO and BSSCO for high current applications cooled with inexpensive liquid nitrogen. Applications based on YBCO address critical emerging challenges for the electricity grid, including high capacity superconducting cables to distribute power in urban areas; transmission of renewable electricity over long distances from source to load; high capacity DC interconnections among the three US grids; fast, self-healing fault current limiters to increase reliability; low-weight, high capacity generators enabling off-shore wind turbines; and superconducting magnetic energy storage for smoothing the variability of renewable sources. In addition to these grid applications, coated conductors based on YBCO deposited on strong Hastelloy substrates enable a new generation of all superconducting high field magnets capable of producing fields above 30 T, approximately 50% higher than the existing all superconducting limit based on Nb3 Sn . The high fields, low power cost and the quiet electromagnetic and mechanical operation of such magnets could change the character of high field basic research on materials, enable a new generation of high-energy colliding beam experiments and extend the reach of high density superconducting magnetic energy storage.

  18. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conducting bodies such as living organisms. The current density vector is used to describe the distribution of current within a body. The surface of the human body is an excellent shield for power-frequency electric fields, but power-frequency magnetic fields penetrate without significant attenuation; the electric fields induced inside the body by either exposure are comparable in magnitude. Electric fields induced inside a human by most environmental electric and magnetic fields appear to be small in magnitude compared to levels naturally occurring in living tissues. Detection of such fields thus would seem to require the existence of unknown biological mechanisms. Complete characterization of a power-frequency field requires measurement of the magnitudes and electrical phases of the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes of its three vector components. Most available instrumentation measures only a small subset, or some weighted average, of these quantities. Hand-held survey meters have been used widely to measure power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Automated data-acquisition systems have come into use more recently to make electric- and magnetic-field recordings, covering periods of hours to days, in residences and other environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206045

  19. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  20. Fault-tolerant electrical power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Ishaque S.; Weimer, Joseph A.

    1987-10-01

    An electrical system that will meet the requirements of a 1990s two-engine fighter is being developed in the Fault-Tolerant Electrical Power System (FTEPS) program, sponsored by the AFWAL Aero Propulsion Laboratory. FTEPS will demonstrate the generation and distribution of fault-tolerant, reliable, electrical power required for future aircraft. The system incorporates MIL-STD-1750A digital processors and MIL-STD-1553B data buses for control and communications. Electrical power is distributed through electrical load management centers by means of solid-state power controllers for fault protection and individual load control. The system will provide uninterruptible power to flight-critical loads such as the flight control and mission computers with sealed lead-acid batteries. Primary power is provided by four 60 kVA variable speed constant frequency generators. Buildup and testing of the FTEPS demonstrator is expected to be complete by May 1988.

  1. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  2. Compact High Power THz Source

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-08-01

    In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes is discussed.

  3. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  4. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  5. Power sources in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sutton, C

    1995-08-01

    The power sources used in endoscopic surgery are varied and numerous, and will continue to improve as technology progresses. Early attempts at operative laparoscopy were crude, limited by the available instrumentation, and tended to be frustrating: scissors that had to be frequently sharpened and endocoagulators that took a seemingly interminable time to achieve their tissue effect. New developements in ultrasonic energy and different wavelengths of laser energy are used alongside increasingly sophisticated electrosurgical tools, employing both monopolar and bipolar systems, and innovative delivery systems such as the argon beam coagulator and the Helica Thermal Coagulator. All of these systems have their advocates and their detractors, but in the end the choice of power source is determined by the type of equipment that the operator feels most comfortable with. The surgeon must have a detailed knowledge of the physical concepts required to generate the power source, and be able to understand the complications that can be created by the energy, how to avoid them, how and to deal with them if they occur. Although there are subtle differences in the reaction of the different energy sources with human tissue, the clinical outcome appears to be much the same, and depends more on the skill of the individual surgeon than the power source employed.

  6. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  7. Future Electric Ship and Power and Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Navy Hybrid Electric Ship S&T Issues/Challenges Power Generation, Energy Storage , Power Distribution & Control, and Thermal Closing Thoughts...development of efficient power systems. 1. Power Generation: • Fuel Cells & Fuel Reforming • Advanced Generators 2. Energy Storage : • Batteries... Storage : •Advanced materials (high purity, high dielectric breakdown) •Increased energy density and high temperature operation Goal: Increased

  8. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  9. Power Transfer Efficiency of Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery

    2004-09-01

    There are many devices to produce gas discharge plasmas. They differ by the method of plasma coupling to the electrical energy source. In order to create self-sustained gas-discharge plasma with given gas pressure and plasma density, a certain amount of power Pp has to be delivered to plasma electrons to compensate for electron energy losses. As shown in this presentation, this power does not depend on the specifics of electron interaction with electromagnetic field and is basically the same for all types of discharges. Some additional power loss Pc associated with power dissipation in the plasma supporting means (like thermionic cathode, cathode fall, rf antenna and matching network) is unavoidable to maintain self-sustained plasma. That is accounted for by the power transfer efficiency η =Pp /(Pp +Pc ). Efficiency analysis of different plasma sources is given in this presentation. It is shown that the largest values of efficiency are found in the plasma sources for lighting and the lowest in the plasma for processing of materials. The presentation explains this disparity and challenges some wide spread mythology about unique efficiency of some plasma sources.

  10. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  11. Electrically driven and electrically tunable quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. P.; Murray, E.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Dangel, C.; Farrer, I.; Spencer, P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots in the neighbouring diode. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission from the neighbouring driven diode is tuned via the quantum confined Stark effect. We also show that we can electrically tune the fine structure splitting.

  12. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  13. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  14. Computer Power. Part 2: Electrical Power Problems and Their Amelioration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes electrical power problems that affect computer users, including spikes, sags, outages, noise, frequency variations, and static electricity. Ways in which these problems may be diagnosed and cured are discussed. Sidebars consider transformers; power distribution units; surge currents/linear and non-linear loads; and sizing the power…

  15. Computer Power. Part 2: Electrical Power Problems and Their Amelioration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes electrical power problems that affect computer users, including spikes, sags, outages, noise, frequency variations, and static electricity. Ways in which these problems may be diagnosed and cured are discussed. Sidebars consider transformers; power distribution units; surge currents/linear and non-linear loads; and sizing the power…

  16. SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.P. McCann

    1999-04-16

    The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side

  17. 75 FR 23823 - Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (Northwest Power and Conservation...

  18. 35. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CONTROL ROOM OF ELECTRIC POWER STATION WITH DIESEL ENGINE POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATION EQUIPMENT IN BACKGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  20. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  1. Electric power monthly, October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-22

    The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 37 tabs.

  2. Power Distribution of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kenta; Morimoto, Masayuki

    In this paper, the fuel consumption of the hybrid electric vehicles is analyzed by the rated power of the engine and the motor. The analysis was based on the published data only. Hybrid ratio and normalized fuel consumption are defined. As the result, the key for the high mileage of hybrid electric vehicle is to use the high power motor and the low power engine.

  3. Optional forward contracts for electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gedra, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of financial options and forward contracts is discussed in the context of electric power markets. Optional forward contracts are proposed as a mechanism for allocating power consumption and generating among market participants, either in conjunction with, or in place of, the so-called [open quotes]spot[close quotes] market. The role of optional forwards in maintaining system security in a decentralized, deregulated electric power market is also discussed.

  4. Electric field of the power terrestrial sources observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere in frequency range 1-60 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, Fedir; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-07-01

    The power line emission (PLE) 50/60 Hz and the Schumann resonance (SR) harmonics were detected by the use of a compact electrical field sensor of length 0.42 m during microsatellite Chibis-M mission in years 2012-2014. The initial orbit of Chibis-M has altitude 500 km and inclination 52°. We present the space distribution of PLE and its connections with the possible overhead power lines. PLE has been recorded both in the shade and sunlit parts of the orbits as opposed to SR which have been recorded only in the nightside of the Earth. The cases of an extra long distance of PLE propagation in the Earth's ionosphere and increased value of SR Q factor have been also observed. These results should stimulate the ionosphere model refinement for ultralow frequency and extremely low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation as well as a study on new possibility of the ionosphere diagnostics.

  5. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  6. Electric power monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  7. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  8. 78 FR 34431 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...EPA is proposing a regulation that would strengthen the controls on discharges from certain steam electric power plants by revising technology-based effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the steam electric power generating point source category. Steam electric power plants alone contribute 50-60 percent of all toxic pollutants discharged to surface waters by all industrial......

  9. Thermionic topping of electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Rasor, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most likely use of thermionic conversion is in the form of a topping cycle combined with a steam-turbogenerator plant. A specific reference system is chosen in which the thermionic topping cycle occurs in thermionic heat exchangers referred to as large, modular thermionic units to which heat is transferred from a separate heat source and which reject their heat to a conventional steam turboelectric system. Results of analysis show that the performance and cost criteria for practical thermionic topping of large electric power plants are well within the reach of demonstrated and foreseeable converter capabilities. Thermionic topping has many significant advantages over unconventional cycles proposed for topping applications, including level of demonstrated and projected performance and lifetime, development time, and design simplicity.

  10. Thermionic topping of electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Rasor, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most likely use of thermionic conversion is in the form of a topping cycle combined with a steam-turbogenerator plant. A specific reference system is chosen in which the thermionic topping cycle occurs in thermionic heat exchangers referred to as large, modular thermionic units to which heat is transferred from a separate heat source and which reject their heat to a conventional steam turboelectric system. Results of analysis show that the performance and cost criteria for practical thermionic topping of large electric power plants are well within the reach of demonstrated and foreseeable converter capabilities. Thermionic topping has many significant advantages over unconventional cycles proposed for topping applications, including level of demonstrated and projected performance and lifetime, development time, and design simplicity.

  11. Seismic reliability assessment of electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.; Bouabid, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a methodology for the seismic risk assessment of electric power systems. In evaluating damage and loss of functionality to the electric power components, fragility curves and restoration functions are used. These vulnerability parameters are extracted from the GIS-based regional loss estimation methodology being developed for the US. Observed damage in electric power components during the Northridge earthquake is used to benchmark the methodology. The damage predicted using these vulnerability parameters is found to be in good agreement with the damage observed during the earthquake.

  12. Electric power monthly, January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-10

    The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  13. Electric power monthly, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-19

    The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Electric power monthly, November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-19

    The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  15. Electric power monthly, December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-16

    The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  16. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  17. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  18. NAFTA opportunities: Electrical equipment and power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provides significant commercial opportunities in Mexico and Canada for the United States electric equipment and power generation industries, through increased goods and services exports to the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and through new U.S. investment in electricity generation facilities in Mexico. Canada and Mexico are the United States' two largest export markets for electrical equipment with exports of $1.53 billion and $1.51 billion, respectively, in 1992. Canadian and Mexican markets represent approximately 47 percent of total U.S. exports of electric equipment. The report presents an economic analysis of the section.

  19. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  20. Electrical Neuroimaging with Irrotational Sources.

    PubMed

    Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Gonzalez Andino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of the modeling of the sources of the EEG (i.e., the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem or source localization problem). Using the Helmholtz decomposition (HD) of the current density vector (CDV) of the primary current into an irrotational (I) and a solenoidal (S) part we show that only the irrotational part can contribute to the EEG measurements. In particular we present for the first time the HD of a dipole and of a pure irrotational source. We show that, for both kinds of sources, I extends all over the space independently of whether the source is spatially concentrated (as the dipole) or not. However, the divergence remains confined to a region coinciding with the expected location of the sources, confirming that it is the divergence rather than the CDV that really defines the spatial extension of the generators, from where it follows that an irrotational source model (ELECTRA) is always physiologically meaningful as long as the divergence remains confined to the brain. Finally we show that the irrotational source model remains valid for the most general electrodynamics model of the EEG in inhomogeneous anisotropic dispersive media and thus far beyond the (quasi) static approximation.

  1. Electrical Neuroimaging with Irrotational Sources

    PubMed Central

    Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Gonzalez Andino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of the modeling of the sources of the EEG (i.e., the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem or source localization problem). Using the Helmholtz decomposition (HD) of the current density vector (CDV) of the primary current into an irrotational (I) and a solenoidal (S) part we show that only the irrotational part can contribute to the EEG measurements. In particular we present for the first time the HD of a dipole and of a pure irrotational source. We show that, for both kinds of sources, I extends all over the space independently of whether the source is spatially concentrated (as the dipole) or not. However, the divergence remains confined to a region coinciding with the expected location of the sources, confirming that it is the divergence rather than the CDV that really defines the spatial extension of the generators, from where it follows that an irrotational source model (ELECTRA) is always physiologically meaningful as long as the divergence remains confined to the brain. Finally we show that the irrotational source model remains valid for the most general electrodynamics model of the EEG in inhomogeneous anisotropic dispersive media and thus far beyond the (quasi) static approximation. PMID:26113873

  2. Electric power monthly, February 1998 with data for November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  3. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of −1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50Ω load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  4. Electric power annual 1989. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-17

    This publication presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and state levels. The Industry At A Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. 24 figs., 57 tabs.

  5. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  6. Using coal inside California for electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    In a detailed analysis performed at Southern California Edison on a wide variety of technologies, the direct combustion of coal and medium BTU gas from coal were ranked just below nuclear power for future nonpetroleum based electric power generation. As a result, engineering studies were performed for demonstration projects for the direct combustion of coal and medium BTU gas from coal. Graphs are presented for power demand, and power cost. Direct coal combustion and coal gasification processes are presented.

  7. Electric power monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisiommakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuel, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  8. Electric power monthly, December 1997 with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  9. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent power source. 161.013-9 Section 161.013-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-9 Independent...

  10. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent power source. 161.013-9 Section 161.013-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-9 Independent...

  11. General Electric Unattended Power System Study. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Only minor, inexpensive changes in the fuel panel, portions of the electrical control panel, and type of burner are required to convert from one type of... converts chemical energy into electrical energy. The capacity of the fuel cell is limited only by the supply of fuel, commonly referred to as the...ESD-TR-80-124 MTR- 3844 GENERAL ELECTRIC UNATTENDED POWER SYSTEM STUDY ADDENDUM BY D.D. BREGENZER MAY 1980 dg:C Prepared for DEPUTY FOR SURVEILLANCE

  12. Analysis of Hydrogen Production from Renewable Electricity Sources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Levene, J. I.; Mann, M. K.; Margolis, R.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-09-01

    To determine the potential for hydrogen production via renewable electricity sources, three aspects of the system are analyzed: a renewable hydrogen resource assessment, a cost analysis of hydrogen production via electrolysis, and the annual energy requirements of producing hydrogen for refueling. The results indicate that ample resources exist to produce transportation fuel from wind and solar power. However, hydrogen prices are highly dependent on electricity prices.

  13. Concepts for central solar electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintigh, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to select the best conceptual design of a power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar heat to electricity. Conversion of thermal energy to electricity was to be an accomplished with conventional turbomachinery. Questions of site selection are discussed along with solar energy collection systems, aspects of candidate system definition, and reference systems.

  14. Concepts for central solar electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintigh, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to select the best conceptual design of a power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar heat to electricity. Conversion of thermal energy to electricity was to be an accomplished with conventional turbomachinery. Questions of site selection are discussed along with solar energy collection systems, aspects of candidate system definition, and reference systems.

  15. 76 FR 10353 - Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Energy... locational exchanges of electric power should be permitted generically and circumstances under which the... seeks comment regarding circumstances in which locational exchanges of electric power should be...

  16. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  17. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Kwok, P.

    2017-04-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices, such as emergency devices or remote sensors that need to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries sometimes require more than 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources are needed to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper, the development of a hybrid reserve power source that is constructed by integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery to provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  18. Electrical Power Generation by Mechanically Modulating Electrical Double Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu; Moon, Jong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system and for understanding the interfacial charge distribution in solid-liquid interfaces in the near future. This work was supported by Center for Soft and Living Matter through IBS prgram in Korea.

  19. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  20. Backup power sources for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This standard establishes fundamental requirements and guidance for backup power sources at DOE facilities. Purpose is to document good engineering practices for installation, testing, and maintenance of these backup power sources, which also covers emergency power sources. Examples are those which supply power to nuclear safety systems, radiation monitors and alarms, fire protection systems, security systems, and emergency lighting.

  1. DC/DC Power Converter for Super-Capacitor Supplied by Electric Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubert, T.; Mindl, P.

    The aim of the article is design of DC/DC converter and discussing of problematic supply using electric power splitter. The electric power splitter with AC/DC converter is source for the DC/DC converter, which is dedicated for charging and discharging of hybrid car drive super-capacitor energy storage. The electric power splitter is synchronous machine with two rotating parts. First rotor contains permanent magnet and the second rotor contains three-phase windings. The amplitude of output voltage depends on difference between first and second rotor speed. The main role of the DC/DC converter is to optimize energy content in super-capacitor storage used to acceleration and deceleration driving period of the passenger car with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive system using electric power splitter.

  2. Spacecraft Power Source Installation at Launch Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytal, Paul; Hoffman, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For certain space missions, an assembly must be integrated onto the spacecraft as late as possible in the launch vehicle processing flow. 12This late integration can be driven for a variety of reasons including thermal or hazardous materials constraints. This paper discusses the process of integrating an assembly onto a spacecraft as late as one week prior to the opening of the launch window. Consideration is given to achieving sufficient access for hardware integration, methods of remotely securing hardware to the spacecraft, maintaining spacecraft cleanliness throughout the integration process, and electrically integrating the component to the spacecraft. Specific examples are taken from the remote mechanical, electrical, and fluid cooling system integration of the power source onto the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover at the Atlas V Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

  3. Spacecraft Power Source Installation at Launch Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytal, Paul; Hoffman, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For certain space missions, an assembly must be integrated onto the spacecraft as late as possible in the launch vehicle processing flow. 12This late integration can be driven for a variety of reasons including thermal or hazardous materials constraints. This paper discusses the process of integrating an assembly onto a spacecraft as late as one week prior to the opening of the launch window. Consideration is given to achieving sufficient access for hardware integration, methods of remotely securing hardware to the spacecraft, maintaining spacecraft cleanliness throughout the integration process, and electrically integrating the component to the spacecraft. Specific examples are taken from the remote mechanical, electrical, and fluid cooling system integration of the power source onto the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover at the Atlas V Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

  4. Novel Multiple DC-Inputs Direct Electric-Power Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kantaro; Takahashi, Kouji; Okushima, Keiji; Tani, Kazuhiko

    A new multiple dc-inputs direct electric-power converter (D-EPC) has been developed. It is placed between multiple dc power sources and an ac motor, thereby eliminating the need for a dc/dc converter that is generally used in conventional converter/inverter systems. D-PEC can improve the efficiency of a motor drive system with a more compact size. Its power distribution control is carried out by allotting voltage ratios to each of the two different dc power sources on a time average basis. A new pulse width modulation (PWM) generation technique to drive the switching devices in D-EPC has also been developed. Tests have verified that the three-phase ac motor can be operated by controlling the power distribution between the two power sources.

  5. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  6. History of power sources in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Christopher; Abbott, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The history of energy sources used in surgery is inextricably linked to the history of electricity. Milestones include identification of safe electrical waveforms that can be used in the human body, patient isolation to prevent alternate-site burns, bipolar energy sources to negate capacitance injuries, laser energy, and the combination vessel sealing devices commonly used today. Engineering efforts to eliminate many of the hazards of electrosurgery are critical to how we practice modern gynecologic surgery. The introduction of bipolar instruments, increasing the safety of monopolar electrosurgery by not using hybrid trocars, and introduction of active shielding of the instruments from stray radiofrequency energy using intelligent secondary conductors have led to the re-emergence of electrosurgery as the universal surgical energy source. The low ongoing costs and the presence of electrosurgical generators in all hospitals readily enables electrosurgery to be the mainstay. Expensive lasers are confined to specialized centers, where they continue to be used, but for a long while filled a gap created by complications of electrosurgery. Sophisticated power sources continue to be introduced and include the ultrasonic scalpel, plasma surgery, and various devices for sealing vessels, all of which have advantages and disadvantages that are recognized as they begin to be subjected to scientific validation in randomized trials.

  7. Electric and magnetic fields at power frequencies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anthony B; Green, Lois M

    2010-01-01

    Exposures to electric and magnetic fields are among the most ubiquitous exposures that the Canadian population experiences. Sources of electric and magnetic field exposures may be occupational or residential and include proximity to certain types of electrical equipment, transmission and distribution power lines as well as appliance use. The early studies of children tended toward a consistent association between risks for leukemia and brain cancer and residential proximity to power lines having high wire configuration. More recent studies-and studies which have attempted to improve upon the measurement of exposure by using calculated fields, point-in-time or personal monitoring-have been inconsistent, with some suggesting increased risk and others not. Occupational exposures have suggested an increase in risk for leukemia, and to a lesser extent brain cancer and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, studies of residential exposures and cancer in adults generally have suggested no effect. Laboratory work has been unable to demonstrate a biological mechanism which might explain the epidemiological findings. In spite of extensive efforts over the past 20 years and many expert reviews, it has been difficult to reach consensus regarding the carcinogenic effects of electric and magnetic fields. Exposure assessment has proven to be complex, and agreement on the relevant exposure metric has not yet been obtained. There is justification to question whether point-in-time measures in homes are appropriate indices of the relevant etiological exposure, as they fail to account for changes over time, peak exposures or time-varying fields. Nevertheless, it is probably desirable to err on the side of caution in not placing too much weight on the inconsistencies. The IARC has classified EMF as a "possible carcinogen" which refers to the circumstances where there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate evidence in experimental animals. The IARC review indicated

  8. Conventional power sources for colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    At SLAC we are developing high peak-power klystrons to explore the limits of use of conventional power sources in future linear colliders. In an experimental tube we have achieved 150 MW at 1 ..mu..sec pulse width at 2856 MHz. In production tubes for SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) we routinely achieve 67 MW at 3.5 ..mu..sec pulse width and 180 pps. Over 200 of the klystrons are in routine operation in SLC. An experimental klystron at 8.568 GHz is presently under construction with a design objective of 30 MW at 1 ..mu..sec. A program is starting on the relativistic klystron whose performance will be analyzed in the exploration of the limits of klystrons at very short pulse widths.

  9. The dilemma of future electric power demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-C.

    1976-01-01

    Dim prospects are held out for continued exponential growth rates in the generation and use of electric power worldwide and in many local areas, extrapolating from current trends and common projections. While acknowledging the unique advantages of electric power use, the article points out the 30% level of efficiency in conversion of other forms of energy to electrical energy, with huge volumes of wasted energy plus thermal pollution. Even growth at a fixed rate is found problematical, with future needs exhausting water and land resources and fossil fuels in time. Alleviation of the situation by shifting much of the load to still unproven technologies is considered cautiously

  10. Electric power monthly, August 1992. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-21

    The Electric Power Monthly. (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of coal, Nuclear, Electric and alternate Fuels, Energy information Administration (EIA), Department of energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sold. data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  11. Equilibrium pricing in electricity markets with wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Ofir David

    Estimates from the World Wind Energy Association assert that world total wind power installed capacity climbed from 18 Gigawatt (GW) to 152 GW from 2000 to 2009. Moreover, according to their predictions, by the end of 2010 global wind power capacity will reach 190 GW. Since electricity is a unique commodity, this remarkable expansion brings forward several key economic questions regarding the integration of significant amount of wind power capacity into deregulated electricity markets. The overall dissertation objective is to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework that enables the modeling of the performance and outcome of wind-integrated electricity markets. This is relevant because the state of knowledge of modeling electricity markets is insufficient for the purpose of wind power considerations. First, there is a need to decide about a consistent representation of deregulated electricity markets. Surprisingly, the related body of literature does not agree on the very economic basics of modeling electricity markets. That is important since we need to capture the fundamentals of electricity markets before we introduce wind power to our study. For example, the structure of the electric industry is a key. If market power is present, the integration of wind power has large consequences on welfare distribution. Since wind power uncertainty changes the dynamics of information it also impacts the ability to manipulate market prices. This is because the quantity supplied by wind energy is not a decision variable. Second, the intermittent spatial nature of wind over a geographical region is important because the market value of wind power capacity is derived from its statistical properties. Once integrated into the market, the distribution of wind will impact the price of electricity produced from conventional sources of energy. Third, although wind power forecasting has improved in recent years, at the time of trading short-term electricity forwards, forecasting

  12. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  13. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  14. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  15. Generation of Electrical Power from Stimulated Muscle Contractions Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Kilgore, Kevin; Ercegovic, David B.

    2004-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) Project, part of the NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program of the Aerospace Technology Enterprise, and Case Western Reserve University's Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Center. The RAC Project foresees implantable power requirements for future applications such as organically based sensor platforms and robotics that can interface with the human senses. One of the goals of the FES Center is to develop a totally implantable neural prosthesis. This goal is based on feedback from patients who would prefer a system with an internal power source over the currently used system with an external power source. The conversion system under investigation would transform the energy produced from a stimulated muscle contraction into electrical energy. We hypothesize that the output power of the system will be greater than the input power necessary to initiate, sustain, and control the electrical conversion system because of the stored potential energy of the muscle. If the system can be made biocompatible, durable, and with the potential for sustained use, then the biological power source will be a viable solution.

  16. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instruments using a power source. 23.1331... where it enters the instrument. For electric and vacuum/pressure instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage or the vacuum/pressure, respectively, is within approved limits. (b)...

  17. Electrical Power Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanommering, Gerrit; Myers, Ira T.

    1986-01-01

    The status of and need for power technologies for Spacecraft 2000 were assessed and development programs required to establish an achievable and competitive technology base for spacecraft of the 21st century were identified. The results are summarized, including the recommendations and the underlying rationale.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggett, Randy; Miller, Jim; Leisgang, Tom

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes one of the most comprehensive models ever developed for a spacecraft electrical power system (EPS). The model was developed for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to evaluate vehicle power system performance and to assist in scheduling maintenance and refurbishment missions by providing data needed to forecast EPS power and energy margins for the mission phases being planned. The EPS model requires a specific mission phase description as the input driver and uses a high granularity database to produce a multi-orbit power system performance report. The EPS model accurately predicts the power system response to various mission timelines over the entire operational life of the spacecraft.

  19. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    DOEpatents

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  20. World electric power plants database

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This global database provides records for 104,000 generating units in over 220 countries. These units include installed and projected facilities, central stations and distributed plants operated by utilities, independent power companies and commercial and self-generators. Each record includes information on: geographic location and operating company; technology, fuel and boiler; generator manufacturers; steam conditions; unit capacity and age; turbine/engine; architect/engineer and constructor; and pollution control equipment. The database is issued quarterly.

  1. A comparative study of electric power distribution systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; King, Roger J.

    1990-01-01

    The electric power distribution systems for spacecraft are compared concentrating on two interrelated issues: the choice between dc and high frequency ac, and the converter/inverter topology to be used at the power source. The relative merits of dc and ac distribution are discussed. Specific converter and inverter topologies are identified and analyzed in detail for the purpose of detailed comparison. Finally, specific topologies are recommended for use in dc and ac systems.

  2. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  3. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-02-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  4. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  5. Fuel cell electric power production

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Herng-Shinn; Heck, Ronald M.; Yarrington, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  6. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  7. Power conversion in electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Aspects of dc to dc conversion were studied in terms of a class of switching voltage regulators from a stability viewpoint. Background concepts of nonlinear system theory were considered, including the problem of obtaining suitable realizations for a class of positive operators. It is shown that the state evolution equations for a power conversion network are in general of bilinear form, and that the theory of lie groups and lie algebras is useful in analyzing such systems. The feedback stabilization of a class of bilinear systems whose state space is a manifold is also discussed.

  8. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  9. Galena Electric Power A Situational Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Chaney; Stephen G. Colt; Ronald A. Johnson; Richard W. Wiles; Gregory J. White

    2008-12-31

    The purpose of the investigation is to compare the economics of various electrical power generation options for the City of Galena. Options were assessed over a 30-year project period, beginning in 2010, and the final results were compared on the basis of residential customer electric rates ($/kWh). Galena's electric utility currently generates power using internal combustion diesel engines and generator sets. Nearby, there is an exposed coal seam, which might provide fuel for a power plant. Contributions to the energy mix might come from solar, municipal solid waste, or wood. The City has also been approached by Toshiba, Inc., as a demonstration site for a small (Model 4S) nuclear reactor power plant. The Yukon River is possibly a site for in-river turbines for hydroelectric power. This report summarizes the comparative economics of various energy supply options. This report covers: (1) thermal and electric load profiles for Galena; (2) technologies and resources available to meet or exceed those loads; (3) uses for any extra power produced by these options; (4) environmental and permitting issues and then; and (5) the overall economics of each of the primary energy options.

  10. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  11. Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di

    This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

  12. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on...

  13. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on...

  14. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done...

  15. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done...

  16. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done...

  17. Electric power monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  18. Electric power monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  19. Electric power monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, April 1999 with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  1. Electric power monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  2. The Exploitation of the Electric Contributions in Infrared Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    establishes a method to harvest infrared radiation and transform it into usable energy . We have identified an electrical contribution to the energy ...radiation harvesting, renewable and sustainable energy source 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF...radiation as a sustainable and renewable source of energy . These two goals are achieved by illuminating a power generator (PG) device, shown in Fig

  3. Method of assembling an electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-05-03

    A method of assembling and providing an electric power apparatus. The method uses a heat resistant housing having a structure adapted to accommodate and retain a power circuit card and also including a bracket adapted to accommodate and constrain a rigid conductive member. A power circuit card having an electrical terminal is placed into the housing and a rigid conductive member into the bracket. The rigid conductive member is flow soldered to the electrical terminal, thereby exposing the heat resistant housing to heat and creating a solder bond. Finally, the rigid conductive member is affirmatively connected to the housing. The bracket constrains the rigid conductive member so that the act of affirmatively connecting does not weaken the solder bond.

  4. The inevitable commoditization of electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, B.; Woodley, J.A.C.

    1994-11-01

    As competition grows between electric suppliers it is inevitable that a spot market in electricity will evolve. The impetus is the market demand for greater asset productivity. With prices revealed, a commodity market will follow. With spot and commodity markets will come the power to reallocate risk and make capital investment more productive. Given price volatility, separate markets will develop for near- and long-term hedging instruments.

  5. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  6. Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

  7. Electric power annual 1998. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this report, Electric Power Annual 1998 Volume 1 (EPAVI), is to provide a comprehensive overview of the electric power industry during the most recent year for which data have been collected, with an emphasis on the major changes that occurred. In response to the changes of 1998, this report has been expanded in scope. It begins with a general review of the year and incorporates new data on nonutility capacity and generation, transmission information, futures prices from the Commodity futures Trading commission, and wholesale spot market prices from the pennsylvania-new Jersey-Maryland Independent System Operator and the California Power Exchange. Electric utility statistics at the Census division and State levels on generation, fuel consumption, stocks, delivered cost of fossil fuels, sales to ultimate customers, average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold, and revenues from those retail sales can be found in Appendix A. The EPAVI is intended for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public.

  8. Electric power monthly, December 1991. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  9. Electric Power Monthly, April 1992. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  10. Electric power monthly, February 1993. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-22

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  11. Electric power monthly, March 1993. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  12. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection, where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.

  13. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoesung

    1994-12-31

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market.

  14. Engineering manual and electric powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A

    1999-01-01

    The sophistication required to develop and properly configure a wheelchair is illustrated by the amount and complexity of the research being conducted. At this time there appears to be between 1.5 and 2.0 million full-time wheelchair users within the United States. The reliance of the user on the wheelchair and the amount of time in the wheelchair provide significant challenges for the wheelchair design engineer. Currently there are a wide variety of wheelchair designs that are commercially available. These wheelchairs accommodate a variety of people's needs, and represent significant progress. The current trend among manufacturers of manual wheelchairs seems to be cost-reduction engineering. The ergonomics of long-term wheelchair use are critical to the advancement of wheelchair design and to the clinical selection of wheelchairs. Electric powered wheelchairs appear to be progressing faster than nearly all other types of wheelchairs. This is due to the availability of computing power with low cost microcontrollers and associated peripherals. The greater range and availability of sensors are also making changes into the design of electric powered wheelchairs. The interaction between an electric powered wheelchair and the user can be extremely complex. In many cases, individual solutions are necessary. One of the more challenging questions is determining the abilities of the user required to drive an electric powered wheelchair effectively. There have been substantial improvements in the engineering of all wheelchairs. However, there remain significant issues to be addressed.

  15. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  16. Using structural power sources to increase influence.

    PubMed

    Hoezel, C B

    1989-11-01

    To be more effective in the health care system of the 1990s, nursing administrators must understand organizational sources of structural power. After analyzing structural power sources, the nursing administrator must develop a plan to use them and, finally, must be willing to acquire that power which is available. The author explores three sources of structural power: centrality, control of uncertainty and control over resources, and analyzes their relevance for nursing administrators.

  17. Resonating models for the electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucheroni, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the economic phenomenon of price spiking in electric power markets and introduces an alternative way to model it. A stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamics in a special regime is proposed as a basic model for the power market, and an extension of the FitzHugh-Nagumo system is introduced to improve the statistical features of the basic model. Ideas from stochastic and coherence resonance are used to discuss the models.

  18. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized.

  19. Resonating models for the electric power market.

    PubMed

    Lucheroni, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the economic phenomenon of price spiking in electric power markets and introduces an alternative way to model it. A stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamics in a special regime is proposed as a basic model for the power market, and an extension of the FitzHugh-Nagumo system is introduced to improve the statistical features of the basic model. Ideas from stochastic and coherence resonance are used to discuss the models.

  20. Potential for increased use of anthracite by electric utilities: implications of the exemption from the EPA new source performance standards for power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The prospect for expanded utility use of anthracite by the year 2000 appears promising. It has been generally considered that anthracite can meet the ambient SO/sub 2/ standard of 1.2 lbs. SO/sub 2/ per million Btu without the use of scrubbers. In that event, the results of the engineering economic analysis show that an anthracite-based electric generating unit can be competitive with a comparable bituminous coal-fired unit. The logical competitive utility market area for anthracite is the Northeastern United States and the Middle Atlantic States because of the proximity of these areas to the anthracite region. Transport costs would be lower for anthracite (versus western Pennsylvania bituminous coal) to destinations in the areas of states immediately north, east and southeast of the eastern Pennsylvania anthracite region - upstate New York, New Jersey and Delaware, in particular. The analyses of the impact of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) exemption, and of future base load plant expansions, indicates that the potential additional utility use of anthracite over the next two decades is within a range of 1.5 to 15 million tons per year. One means of enhancing the competitive posture of anthracite versus bituminous, the analysis concludes, could be a more intense examination of anthracite resources to determine the best locations of large quantities of low sulfur recoverable reserves. Similarly, a more detailed investigation of a stockpile program would be warranted to determine its feasibility as a means of providing reserve potential, primarily during initial expansion, to allay supply reliability concerns.

  1. ROSET. Solar Thermal Electric Power Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    O`Doherty, R.

    1982-01-01

    ROSET consists of five programs to calculate the energy output of a solar thermal electric power system. The ROSET programs provide two distinct functions. The first four (WTPREAD, FIELD, POWERT, and POWERE) use hourly weather data for a year to calculate hourly electric energy output for a solar thermal system. The last program (HISTO) uses one or more electric energy output files created by the first four programs to provide an energy distribution for each hour of a typical day. The output of ROSET is a set of energy distributions that can be used by program ULMOD as part of the overall utility value determination process. While ROSET is set up to simulate one system at a time, its constituent programs are also capable of performing parametric trade studies in a stand-alone mode. The trade studies can yield valuable information on sizing a solar thermal electric power system. Only when a single system is simulated, however, are the outputs of the various programs compatible and able to produce input for ULMOD. Auxiliary program FINAM performs an economic analysis to determine the value of solar thermal energy systems to electric utilities.

  2. Role of pump hydro in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, R.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.; Filipe, J.; Fulgêncio, N.

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the expected role that variable speed hydro power plants can have in future electric power systems characterized by a massive integration of highly variable sources. Therefore, it is discussed the development of a methodology for optimising the operation of hydropower plants under increasing contribution from new renewable energy sources, addressing the participation of a hydropower plant with variable speed pumping in reserve markets. Complementarily, it is also discussed the active role variable speed generators can have in the provision of advanced frequency regulation services.

  3. Laser energy converted into electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus verifies concepts of converting laser energy directly into electric energy. Mirror, placed in beam and inclined at angle to it, directs small amount of incident radiation to monitor which establishes precise power levels and other beam characteristics. Second mirror and condensing lens direct bulk of laser energy into laser plasmadynamic converter.

  4. Power Processing, Part 1. Electric Machinery Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Howard B.

    This publication was developed as a portion of a two-semester sequence commencing at either the sixth or seventh term of the undergraduate program in electrical engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. The materials of the two courses, produced by a National Science Foundation grant, are concerned with power conversion systems comprising power…

  5. Processing of thermionic power on an electrically propelled spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macie, T. W.

    1973-01-01

    A study to define the power processing equipment required between a thermionic reactor and an array of mercury-ion thrusters for a nuclear electric propulsion system is reported. Observations and recommendations that resulted from this study were: (1) the preferred thermionic-fuel-element source voltages are 23 V or higher; (2) transistor characteristics exert a strong effect on power processor mass; (3) the power processor mass could be considerably reduced should the magnetic materials that exhibit low losses at high frequencies, that have a high Curie point, and that can operate at 15 to 20 kG become avaliable; (4) electrical component packaging on the radiator could reduce the area that is sensitive to meteoroid penetration, thereby reducing the meteoroid shielding mass requirement; (5) an experimental model of the power processor design should be built and tested to verify the efficiencies, masses, and all the automatic operational aspects of the design.

  6. The Tucson Electric Power Solar Test Yard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonij, Vincent; Orsburn, Sean; Salhab, Anas; Kopp, Emily; Brooks, Adria; Jayadevan, Vijai; Greenberg, James; St. Germaine, Michael; Allen, Nate; Jones, Sarah; Hardesty, Garrett; Cronin, Alex

    2011-10-01

    In collaboration with Tucson Electric Power we studied the performance of twenty different grid-tied photovoltaic systems, consisting of over 600 PV modules in all. We added data acquisition hardware to monitor DC power from the modules, AC power from the inverters, PV module temperatures, and meteorological data such as the irradiance incident on the PV systems. We report measurements of PV system yields and efficiencies over periods of minutes, days, and years. We also report temperature and irradiance coefficients of efficiency and measurements of long-term degradation. We also use our data to validate models that predict the output from PV systems.

  7. ONE WATT 30-DAY PLUS POWER SOURCES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Four alternative power sources are considered as replacements for the mercury cells which are currently used. Of these, silver-zinc batteries can...percent. Hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells offer no advantage over present power sources . Solar cell-battery power systems are advisable for some applications. (Author)

  8. Flex-gear electrical power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an alternative way of transferring electricity across a continuously rotating joint, with little wear and the potential for low electrical noise. The problems with wires, slip rings, electromagnetic couplings, and recently invented roll-rings are discussed. Flex-gears, an improvement of roll-rings, are described. An entire class of flexgear devices is developed. Finally, the preferred flex-gear device is optimized for maximum electrical contact and analyzed for average mechanical power loss and maximum stress. For a device diameter of six inches, the preferred device is predicted to have a total electrical contact area of 0.066 square inches. In the preferred device, a small amount of internal sliding produces a 0.003 inch-pound torque that resists the motion of the device.

  9. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  10. Development of a linear piston-type pulse power electric generator for powering electric guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerfield, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The development of a linear piston-type electric pulse-power generator capable of powering electric guns and EM (rail and coil) guns and ET guns, presently under development, is discussed. The pulse-power generator consists of a cylindrical armature pushed by gases from the combustion of fuel or propellant through an externally produced magnetic field. An arrangement of electrodes and connecting straps serves to extract current from the moving armature and to send it to an external load (the electric gun).

  11. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits and...

  12. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits and...

  13. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits...

  14. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits...

  15. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits...

  16. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  17. Electric power monthly, February 1992. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publications provides monthly statistics at the national. Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  18. Electric power monthly, October 1992. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  19. Electric power monthly: October 1995, with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-19

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  20. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  1. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  2. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; hide

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  3. MSFC Skylab electrical power systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of the Skylab electrical power system are discussed. The electrical systems for the airlock module of the orbital workshop and the Apollo telescope mount are described. Skylab is considered an integral laboratory, however, both cluster and module hardware distinct sections are included. Significant concept and requirement evolution, testing, and modifications resulting from tests are briefly summarized to aid in understanding the launch configuration description and the procedures and performance discussed for in-orbit operation. Specific problems encountered during Skylab orbital missions are analyzed.

  4. Improving Electrical Efficiency of Edm Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Emanoil; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    This paper briefly presents the principal types of Pulse Generators for Electrical Discharge Machining and ways to improve electrical efficiency. A resonant converter with series-parallel LCC circuit, for EDM applications, was analyzed by PSpice simulation. The performances of EDM Power Supply were improved by adding an energy recovering - voltage limiter circuit. The shape of current pulse was changed by adding a supplementary MOSFET Switch in parallel with the gap. Two or more converters can be parallelized, in this way output current can be changed. A bloc-schema was conceived for EDM experimental set up

  5. Electric Power monthly, November 1995 with data for August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    This report presents monthly electricity statistics, with the purpose of providing energy decisionmakers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities; the information are from six data sources: forms EIA-759, FERC Form 423, EIA-826, EIA-861, EIA-860, and Form OE-417R. An article on reclicensing and environmental issues affecting hydropower is included. Then the statistics are presented in: US electric power at a glance, utility net generation, utility consumption of fossil fuels, fossil-fuel stocks at utilities, fossil fuel receipts and costs, utility sales/revenue/average revenue per kWh, and monthly plant aggregates. Finally, nonutility power producer statistics, bibliography, technical notes, and a glossary are presented.

  6. Remote Electric Power Transfer Between Spacecrafts by Infrared Beamed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, Boris E.; Evdokimov, Roman A.; Legostaev, Victor P.; Lopota, Vitaliy A.; Sokolov, Boris A.; Tugaenko, Vjacheslav Yu.

    2011-11-01

    High efficient wireless electric energy transmission (WET) technology between spacecrafts by laser channel is proposed. WET systems could be used for remote power supplying of different consumers in space. First of all, there are autonomous technology modules for microgravity experiments, micro and nano satellites, different equipment for explorations of planetary surfaces, space transport vehicles with electric rocket propulsion systems. The main components of the WET technology consist of radiation sources on the base of semiconductor IR laser diodes; systems for narrow laser beam creation; special photovoltaic receivers for conversion of monochromatic IR radiation with high energy density to electric power. The multistage space experiment for WET technology testing is described. During this experiment energy will be transmitted from International Space Station to another spacecrafts like cargo transport vehicles (Progress or/and ATV) and micro satellites.

  7. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  8. High power millimeter wave source development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. V.

    1989-01-01

    High power millimeter wave sources for fusion program; ECH source development program strategy; and 1 MW, 140 GHz gyrotron experiment design philosophy are briefly outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  9. Optically-electrically pumped THz source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Khoury, Jed; Buchwald, Walter; Woods, Charles; Wentzell, Sandra; Krejca, Brian; Kierstead, John

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a design for a widely tunable solid-state optically and electrically pumped THz source based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. Our design consists of a thin dielectric layer sandwiched between an upper corrugated structure and a lower layer of thin metal, semiconductor, or high electron mobility material. The lower layer is for current streaming, which replaces the electron beam in the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser design. The upper layer consists of two micro-gratings for optical pumping, and a nano-grating to couple with electrical pumping in the lower layer. The optically generated surface plasmon waves from the upper layer and the electrically induced surface plasmon waves from the lower layer are then coupled. Emission enhancement occurs when the plasmonic waves in both layers are resonantly coupled.

  10. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and...

  11. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and...

  12. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  13. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  14. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  15. Special Application Thermoelectric Micro Isotope Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, Ben; Lieberman, Al; Khayat, Mo; Leanna, Andrew; Dobry, Ted

    2008-01-21

    Promising design concepts for milliwatt (mW) size micro isotope power sources (MIPS) are being sought for use in various space and terrestrial applications, including a multitude of future NASA scientific missions and a range of military applications. To date, the radioisotope power sources (RPS) used on various space and terrestrial programs have provided power levels ranging from one-half to several hundred watts. In recent years, the increased use of smaller spacecraft and planned new scientific space missions by NASA, special terrestrial and military applications suggest the need for lower power, including mW level, radioisotope power sources. These power sources have the potential to enable such applications as long-lived meteorological or seismological stations distributed across planetary surfaces, surface probes, deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites, terrestrial sensors, transmitters, and micro-electromechanical systems. The power requirements are in the range of 1 mW to several hundred mW. The primary technical requirements for space applications are long life, high reliability, high specific power, and high power density, and those for some special military uses are very high power density, specific power, reliability, low radiological induced degradation, and very low radiation leakage. Thermoelectric conversion is of particular interest because of its technological maturity and proven reliability. This paper summarizes the thermoelectric, thermal, and radioisotope heat source designs and presents the corresponding performance for a number of mW size thermoelectric micro isotope power sources.

  16. A solar electric power system for charging an electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, A.; Patten, J.A.; McInnis, T.; Hartgen, D.T.

    1996-11-01

    This paper addresses the design and installation of a solar photovoltaic system used to charge an electric vehicle. The solar system design, instrumentation design, along with the data collection and data analysis procedures will be outlined. While the components used were off the shelf items commonly used in solar photovoltaic systems, this was a unique project due to the large number of variables involved. The design intent was to collect enough solar energy to completely power an electric vehicle, independent of commercial power. Some of the design considerations included: (a) hours of availability of the vehicle, (b) amount of vehicle use, (c) vehicle charging requirements, (d) availability of sunlight, and (e) system efficiencies. System efficiencies included the solar panels, the charge controller and associated batteries, the DC-to-AC inverter used to provide power to the electric vehicle and finally the vehicle charging system and vehicle batteries (twenty 6 volt batteries). The design goal was to provide a system that would fully charge the vehicle during daylight hours in one day, providing sufficient power for the estimated full range of the vehicle (on the order of 75 miles). The system chosen had a cost of approximately $20,000 and was designed to provide 2.4 kilowatts continuously during full sunlight. The energy consumption of the vehicle has been estimated to be 2750 kWh/year, using a .5 kWh/mile figure. A PC-based, networked data acquisition system was designed, providing data collection and data availability over an Ethernet local area network (LAN). Lessons learned and possible areas for improvement and cost reduction will be discussed.

  17. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Nygren, Richard E.; Ulrickson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  18. Electrical power generation from insect flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissman, Timothy; MacCurdy, Robert B.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-03-01

    This article presents an implementation of a miniature energy harvester (weighing 0.292 grams) on an insect (hawkmoth Manduca sexta) in un-tethered flight. The harvester utilizes a piezoelectric transducer which converts the vibratory motion induced by the insect's flight into electrical power (generating up to 59 μWRMS). By attaching a low-power management circuit (weighing 0.200 grams) to the energy harvester and accumulating the converted energy onboard the flying insect, we are able to visually demonstrate pulsed power delivery (averaging 196 mW) by intermittently flashing a light emitting diode. This self-recharging system offers biologists a new means for powering onboard electronics used to study small flying animals. Using this approach, the lifetime of the electronics would be limited only by the lifetime of the individuals, a vast improvement over current methods.

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power requirements, generating sources. 111.10-4 Section 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... services include cooking, heating, air conditioning (where installed), domestic refrigeration, mechanical...

  20. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  1. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  2. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  3. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  4. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  5. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  6. Power source considerations for Grand Tour missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, O. S.; Weber, W. B.; Leonard, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    At the present time, there exists no known power source that will satisfy the power, weight, lifetime, and other stringent requirements of an extended outer-planet mission. Exploratory studies indicate the need for a solar-independent power source capable of supplying approximately 500 W of power over mission lifetimes of up to 12 years. The only known power source which can possibly meet these requirements, in the 1975 to 1979 time period, is a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). In 1969 a program began to develop a long-life, plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric power system. Aspects of spacecraft configuration are discussed together with power source requirements, RTG/spacecraft integration, operational details, and problems of safety.

  7. Configuration management; Operating power station electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, R.R.; Sumiec, K.F. )

    1989-01-01

    Increasing regulatory and industry attention has been focused on properly controlling electrical design changes. These changes can be controlled by using configuration management techniques. Typically, there are ongoing modifications to various process systems or additions due to new requirements at every power plant. Proper control of these changes requires that an organized method be used to ensure that all important parameters of the electrical auxiliary systems are analyzed and that these parameters are evaluated accurately. This process, commonly referred to as configuration management, is becoming more important on both fossil and nuclear plants. Recent NRC- and utility-initiated inspections have identified problems due to incomplete analysis of changes to electrical auxiliary systems at nuclear stations.

  8. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; ...

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection,more » where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.« less

  9. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. Restructuring the electric power sector in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Dussan, M.I.

    1994-06-01

    A major restructuring of the Colombian electric power sector is being implemented based on the improvement of sector efficiency through the promotion of a competitive energy market and the participation of private investment. This short presentation highlights major events and difficulties in the restructuring process. The national interconnected power system has an installed generation capacity of about 10,000 MW, of which 80% is hydro and 20% is fuel-fired thermal. The current generation expansion plan calls for the installation of about 4,000 MW during the next 10 years, of which 60% is in thermal plants.

  12. Space nuclear power applied to electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, F. A.; Karras, T.; Darooka, D.; Isenberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Space reactor power systems with characteristics ideal for advanced spacecraft systems applications are discussed. These characteristics are: high power-to-weight ratio (15 to 33 W/kg); high volume density (high ballistic coefficient); no preferential orientation in orbit; long operational life; high reliability; and total launch and operational safety. These characteristics allow the use of electric propulsion to raise spacecraft from low earth parking orbits to operational orbits, greatly increasing the useful orbit payload for a given launch vehicle by eliminating the need for a separation injection stage. A proposed demonstration mission is described.

  13. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  14. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  15. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  16. DESIGN OF AN ELECTRICALLY POWERED PROSTHETIC ELBOW.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The electrically powered elbow design effort was initiated to develop a useful prosthetic component for severely handicapped persons. Preliminary...minimum static capacity of 300 pound-inches, and a no-load lifting velocity of ten revolutions per minute. In addition, the elbow was to provide continuous...the design criteria were not fulfilled but several elbow units were built for clinical evaluation. Recommendations for future design efforts are given. (Author)

  17. TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-05-30

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

  18. Development and Demonstration of a 25 Watt Thermophotovoltaic Power Source for a Hybrid Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Edward; Shukla, Kailash; Metcalfe, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The development of a propane-fueled, 25 W thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power source for use in a hybrid power system is described. The TPV power source uses a platinum emitting surface with an anti-reflective coating to radiate to gallium antimonide photocells, which converts the radiation to electric power. The development program started with the design and fabrication of an engineering prototype system. This was used as a component development vehicle to develop the technologies for the various components. A 25 W demonstration prototype was then designed and fabricated using the most advanced component approaches. The designs and test results from this development program are discussed.

  19. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  20. 75 FR 2564 - Virginia Electric and Power Company D/B/A Dominion Virginia Power and Old Dominion Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company D/B/A Dominion Virginia Power and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; Combined License Application for North Anna Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Virginia Electric and Power Company, doing business as Dominion Virginia Power (Dominion), acting on its own behalf and...

  1. Electric power supplying well head assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, L. T.

    1985-01-01

    A well head assembly that terminates on the upper end in a horizontal mounting flange on which the flange of a christmas tree array of valves may be sealingly mounted to control the flow of fluid from the well associated therewith, and the well head assembly including slidably engageable first and second electrical conducting cartridges below the mounting flange for supplying electric power to a number of insulated electrical conductors that extend downwardly in the well to an electric motor driven down hole pump or other electrical apparatus. The positioning of the christmas tree array of valves at a minimum height relative to the well head is most desirable in those situations where a number of wells are drilled close together, such as on an off shore island, and equipment must be periodically moved over the array of valves for maintenance or drilling purposes. The well head assembly also includes means for pressurizing a normally open pressure actuated valve in communication with a tubing string operatively associated with the assembly to place the valve in a closed position. closing of the valve eliminates the possibility of continued undesired fluid discharge from the well in the event of a catastrophe or malfunctioning of the well.

  2. Space station electrical power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.; Twombly, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    ARINC Research Corporation performed a preliminary reliability, and maintainability (RAM) anlaysis of the NASA space station Electric Power Station (EPS). The analysis was performed using the ARINC Research developed UNIRAM RAM assessment methodology and software program. The analysis was performed in two phases: EPS modeling and EPS RAM assessment. The EPS was modeled in four parts: the insolar power generation system, the eclipse power generation system, the power management and distribution system (both ring and radial power distribution control unit (PDCU) architectures), and the power distribution to the inner keel PDCUs. The EPS RAM assessment was conducted in five steps: the use of UNIRAM to perform baseline EPS model analyses and to determine the orbital replacement unit (ORU) criticalities; the determination of EPS sensitivity to on-orbit spared of ORUs and the provision of an indication of which ORUs may need to be spared on-orbit; the determination of EPS sensitivity to changes in ORU reliability; the determination of the expected annual number of ORU failures; and the integration of the power generator system model results with the distribution system model results to assess the full EPS. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

  3. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.; DeVoto, D.; Moreno, G.; Rugh, J.; Waye, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  4. Very High Power THz Radiation Sources.

    PubMed

    Carr, G L; Martin, M C; McKinney, W R; Jordan, K; Neil, G R; Williams, G P

    2003-06-01

    We report the production of high power (20watts average, ∼ 1 Megawatt peak) broadbandTHz light based on coherent emission fromrelativistic electrons. Such sources areideal for imaging, for high power damagestudies and for studies of non-linearphenomena in this spectral range. Wedescribe the source, presenting theoreticalcalculations and their experimentalverification. For clarity we compare thissource with one based on ultrafast lasertechniques.

  5. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  6. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  7. Stability analysis of large electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elwood, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern electric power systems are large and complicated, and, in many regions of the world, the generation and transmission systems are operating near their limits. Ensuring the reliable operation of the power system requires engineers to study the response of the system to various disturbances. The responses to large disturbances are examined by numerically solving the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations describing the power system. The response to small disturbances is typically studied via eigenanalysis. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently developed the Extended Transient/Mid-term Stability Program (ETMSP) to study large disturbance stability and the Small Signal Stability Program Package (SSSP) to study small signal stability. The primary objectives of the work described in this report were to (1) explore ways of speeding up ETMSP, especially on mid-term voltage stability problems, (2) explore ways of speeding up the Multi-Area Small-Signal Stability program (MASS), one of the codes in SSSP, and (3) explore ways of increasing the size of problem that can be solved by the Cray version of MASS.

  8. High Pressure Microwave Powered UV Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cekic, M.; Frank, J. D.; Popovic, S.; Wood, C. H.

    1997-10-01

    Industrial microwave powered (*electrodeless*) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of 300 Torr of buffer gas and metal- halide fills. Recently developed multi-atmospheric electronegative bu lb fills (noble gas-halide excimers, metal halide) require electric field s for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. For these fills an auxiliary ignition system is necessary. The most successful scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to it's operating poin t Standard diagnostic techniques of high density discharges are inapplicable to the excimer bulbs, because of the ionic molecular exci ted state structure and absence of self-absorption. The method for temperature determination is based on the equilibrium population of certain vibrational levels of excimer ionic excited states. Electron d ensity was determined from the measurements of Stark profiles of H_β radiation from a small amount of hydrogen mixed with noble gas and halogens. At the present time, high pressure (Te 0.5eV, ne 3 x 10^17 cm-3) production bulbs produce over 900W of radiation in a 30nm band, centered at 30nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce 1 kW of radiation in 30nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  9. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro Kalyan Perumalla, James Joseph

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flow data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.

  10. Federal electric power Bonneville's residential exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This report states that the disparity in electric power rates paid by residential and small farm customers in the Northwest has decreased over the past decade. The $1.37 billion in exchange program benefits that Bonneville provided to Northwest utilities through fiscal year 1988 has contributed to this decrease. However, a more significant factor in reducing the rate disparity was the fact that Bonneville's costs - and, consequently, its power rates - increased significantly more than did those of the regional utilities. Bonneville has not been conducting the reviews needed to ensure that utilities are passing program benefits through to their residential and small farm customers, although the Northwest Power Act specifically directs Bonneville to do so. Given the dollar value of the benefits that have been provided to regional utilities, GAO believes Bonneville should do such reviews.

  11. Optimization and Control of Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Molzahn, Daniel K.

    2014-10-17

    The analysis and optimization needs for planning and operation of the electric power system are challenging due to the scale and the form of model representations. The connected network spans the continent and the mathematical models are inherently nonlinear. Traditionally, computational limits have necessitated the use of very simplified models for grid analysis, and this has resulted in either less secure operation, or less efficient operation, or both. The research conducted in this project advances techniques for power system optimization problems that will enhance reliable and efficient operation. The results of this work appear in numerous publications and address different application problems include optimal power flow (OPF), unit commitment, demand response, reliability margins, planning, transmission expansion, as well as general tools and algorithms.

  12. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  13. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

  14. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western... Office, 314 6th Avenue, Brookings, SD. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's proposed Project is to...

  15. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric...: (202) 690-0649, or e-mail: lauren.mcgee @wdc.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's...

  16. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for...://www.usda.gov/rus/water/ees/eis.htm . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's proposed Project is...

  17. Very high power THz radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Jordan, K.; Neil, George R.; Williams, G.P.

    2002-10-31

    We report the production of high power (20 watts average, {approx} 1 Megawatt peak) broadband THz light based on coherent emission from relativistic electrons. Such sources are ideal for imaging, for high power damage studies and for studies of non-linear phenomena in this spectral range. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. For clarity we compare this source to one based on ultrafast laser techniques.

  18. Very High Power THz Radiation Sources

    SciTech Connect

    G.L. Carr; Michael C. Martin; Wayne R. McKinney; Kevin Jordan; George R. Neil; Gwyn P. Williams

    2002-10-01

    We report the production of high power (20 watts average, {approx}1 Megawatt peak) broadband THz light based on coherent emission from relativistic electrons. Such sources are ideal for imaging, for high power damage studies and for studies of non-linear phenomena in this spectral range. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. For clarity, we compare this sources with one based on ultrafast laser techniques.

  19. Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (ADEPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caroline; Zeanah, Hugh; Anderson, Audie; Patrick, Clint; Brady, Mike; Ford, Donnie

    1988-11-01

    Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (A DEPT) is an expert system that integrates knowledge from three different suppliers to offer an advanced fault-detection system. It is designed for two modes of operation: real time fault isolation and simulated modeling. Real time fault isolation of components is accomplished on a power system breadboard through the Fault Isolation Expert System (FIES II) interface with a rule system developed in-house. Faults are quickly detected and displayed and the rules and chain of reasoning optionally provided on a laser printer. This system consists of a simulated space station power module using direct-current power supplies for solar arrays on three power buses. For tests of the system's ablilty to locate faults inserted via switches, loads are configured by an INTEL microcomputer and the Symbolics artificial intelligence development system. As these loads are resistive in nature, Ohm's Law is used as the basis for rules by which faults are located. The three-bus system can correct faults automatically where there is a surplus of power available on any of the three buses. Techniques developed and used can be applied readily to other control systems requiring rapid intelligent decisions. Simulated modeling, used for theoretical studies, is implemented using a modified version of Kennedy Space Center's KATE (Knowledge-Based Automatic Test Equipment), FIES II windowing, and an ADEPT knowledge base.

  20. Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (ADEPT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline; Zeanah, Hugh; Anderson, Audie; Patrick, Clint; Brady, Mike; Ford, Donnie

    1988-01-01

    Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (A DEPT) is an expert system that integrates knowledge from three different suppliers to offer an advanced fault-detection system. It is designed for two modes of operation: real time fault isolation and simulated modeling. Real time fault isolation of components is accomplished on a power system breadboard through the Fault Isolation Expert System (FIES II) interface with a rule system developed in-house. Faults are quickly detected and displayed and the rules and chain of reasoning optionally provided on a laser printer. This system consists of a simulated space station power module using direct-current power supplies for solar arrays on three power buses. For tests of the system's ablilty to locate faults inserted via switches, loads are configured by an INTEL microcomputer and the Symbolics artificial intelligence development system. As these loads are resistive in nature, Ohm's Law is used as the basis for rules by which faults are located. The three-bus system can correct faults automatically where there is a surplus of power available on any of the three buses. Techniques developed and used can be applied readily to other control systems requiring rapid intelligent decisions. Simulated modeling, used for theoretical studies, is implemented using a modified version of Kennedy Space Center's KATE (Knowledge-Based Automatic Test Equipment), FIES II windowing, and an ADEPT knowledge base.

  1. Natural gas and electric power in nontechnical language

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing interdependence between the natural gas and electric power industries. This convergence is forming a whole new energy business. This new book by bestselling author Ann Chambers provides a basic introduction to both natural gas and electric power and explains their reliance on each other. The contents include: Natural gas: a history for the electric power industry; Exploration, drilling and production; Transportation and trading; Chemistry and Btu conversion; Electricity: a history for the natural gas industry; Deregulation and convergence; Power generation; Advantages of generating electric power with natural gas; Merchant power, distributed generation, cogeneration; and Glossary.

  2. Electric power monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 64 tabs.

  3. Electric power monthly: October 1996, with data for July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. This report contains approximately 60 tables.

  4. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  5. Contamination effects on Space Station Freedom electric power system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1991-01-01

    One design issue for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is the potential performance decrease of the electric power system (EPS) solar arrays and radiators as a result of contamination on sensitive surfaces. The authors discuss SSF potential contamination sources and contamination effects on the solar array and radiator performance due to these sources. With these contamination consideration, the SSF EPS is designed for the induced contamination environment at an optimal cost. The efforts on contamination protection and control are undergoing continual update because of the changes in the SSF configuration and in the contamination requirements, and observations from recent flight and laboratory test data are continuously being incorporated into the design.

  6. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  7. Low Power Polysilicon Sources for IR Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, N. C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1998-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated polysilicon thin film infrared (IR) sources by micromachining technology. These sources are made with a lightly doped middle region for light emission and heavy doping of the supporting legs. The sources are fabricated on a 10 mm thick, low temperature process parameters in the fabrication of these silicon dioxide layer. Different doping levels were used to achieve various source resistances. From the power requirement to reach the required light emission versus source resistance curve it is seen that there exists a resistance value which minimizes the necessary input power.

  8. Robust distribution and use of electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalan Izquierdo, Saturnino

    2001-07-01

    One of the major problems related to the simultaneous operation of electrical converters in a wide open power system is the concordance between the characteristics of the feeder itself and the load. Nowadays we usually call Electric Power Quality or Electromagnetic Compatibility to this Concordance Degree. Currently, the most important non concordance are voltage sag (voltage dip) and short time interruptions, that is: decreasings in voltage RMS value lasting from some tenths of a second to several seconds. Current analysis usually study this problem from the feeder side, by means of morphological or stadistical approaches, or from the load side in order to evaluate immunity, emission or specific solutions. This line of research, undoubtly needed provided we need to know the current state of the power system and to increase the concordance degree, is not enough because of the huge variability between power lines and from one instant to another. Moreover, the legal boundaries that can support business decisions are not developed yet. The proposed new theory is widely contrasted by field and laboratory measurement. Detailed analysis include instant voltage, instant current, power system and load effects from many places inside the power system of Spain. This theory is a novel approach to the determination of Concordance Degree (CG) of a whole system (be it a distribution line or a single machine) and to the corrective steps needed to increase it. In addition, the proposed model allow a quantitative evaluation of corrective actions like the increase of energy system storage (in a mechanical to electrical convertible form) or/and the increase of the supplied reactive power. Profitability of corrective actions is mainly a function of the number of voltage dips (sags) and short time interruptions that happen in a given period of time. To reduce this number we have studied and developed new fault characterization and location algorithms designed specifically for medium

  9. 77 FR 65419 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339; NRC-2012-0258; License Nos.: NPF-4 and NPF-7] Virginia Electric... Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna 1 and 2), by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or... August 23, 2011, Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee) should be required to obtain a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5710 - Electrically powered oxygen tent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrically powered oxygen tent. 868.5710 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5710 Electrically powered oxygen tent. (a) Identification. An electrically powered oxygen tent is a device that encloses a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5710 - Electrically powered oxygen tent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrically powered oxygen tent. 868.5710 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5710 Electrically powered oxygen tent. (a) Identification. An electrically powered oxygen tent is a device that encloses a...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5710 - Electrically powered oxygen tent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrically powered oxygen tent. 868.5710 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5710 Electrically powered oxygen tent. (a) Identification. An electrically powered oxygen tent is a device that encloses a...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5710 - Electrically powered oxygen tent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrically powered oxygen tent. 868.5710 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5710 Electrically powered oxygen tent. (a) Identification. An electrically powered oxygen tent is a device that encloses a...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5710 - Electrically powered oxygen tent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrically powered oxygen tent. 868.5710 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5710 Electrically powered oxygen tent. (a) Identification. An electrically powered oxygen tent is a device that encloses a...

  15. Electric power sector in Mexico: Past, present, and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Arriola, E. )

    1994-06-01

    This article reviews electric power sector development in Mexico. The topics of the article include the historic aspects of the development of a national interconnected system, current power demand and system capacity, electric energy exports and imports, expected growth and generation projects under construction, and future development of the electric power sector under the new law.

  16. Multimegawatt potassium Rankine power for nuclear electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovang, Richard D.; Mills, Joseph C.; Baumeister, Ernie B.

    1991-01-01

    A cermet fueled potassium rankine power system concept has been developed for various power ranges and operating lifetimes. This concept utilizes a single primary lithium loop to transport thermal energy from the reactor to the boiler. Multiple, independent potassium loops are employed to achieve the required reliability of 99 percent. The potassium loops are two phase systems which expand heated potassium vapor through multistage turboalternators to produce a 10-kV dc electrical output. Condensation occurs by-way-of a shear-flow condenser, producing a 100 percent liquid potassium stream which is pumped back to the boiler. Waste heat is rejected by an advanced carbon-carbon radiator at approximately 1000 K. Overall system efficiencies of 19.3 percent to 20.5 percent were calculated depending on mission life and power level.

  17. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS. PMID:24351643

  18. Events as power source: wireless sustainable corrosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-12-17

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  19. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Nam Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-03

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  20. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.