Science.gov

Sample records for electrical storms basic

  1. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.; Rust, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful ground truth support of U-2 overflights was been accomplished. Data have been reduced for 4 June 1984 and some of the results have been integrated into some of MSFC's efforts. Staccato lightning (multiply branched, single stroke flash with no continuing current) is prevalent within the rainfree region around the main storm updraft and this is believed to be important, i.e., staccato flashes might be an important indicator of severe storm electrification. Results from data analysis from two stations appear to indicate that charge center heights can be estimated from a combination of intercept data with data from the fixed laboratory at NSSL. An excellent data base has been provided for determining the sight errors and efficiency of NSSL's LLP system. Cloud structures, observable in a low radar reflectivity region and on a scale smaller than is currently resolved by radar, which appear to be related to electrical activity are studied.

  2. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Taylor, W.; Arnold, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Severe storms and lightning were measured with a NASA U2 and ground based facilities, both fixed base and mobile. Aspects of this program are reported. The following results are presented: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2. These measurements include flash type identification, electric field changes, optical waveforms, and ground strike location; (2) simultaneous extremely low frequency (ELF) waveforms for cloud to ground (CG) flashes; (3) the CG strike location system (LLP) using a combination of mobile laboratory and television video data are assessed; (4) continued development of analog-to-digital conversion techniques for processing lightning data from the U2, mobile laboratory, and NSSL sensors; (5) completion of an all azimuth TV system for CG ground truth; (6) a preliminary analysis of both IC and CG lightning in a mesocyclone; and (7) the finding of a bimodal peak in altitude lightning activity in some storms in the Great Plains and on the east coast. In the forms on the Great Plains, there was a distinct class of flash what forms the upper mode of the distribution. These flashes are smaller horizontal extent, but occur more frequently than flashes in the lower mode of the distribution.

  3. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    During FY-85, Researchers conducted a field program and analyzed data. The field program incorporated coordinated measurements made with a NASA U2. Results include the following: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2; (2) analysis of dual-Doppler radar and dual-VHF lightning mapping data from a supercell storm; (3) analysis of synoptic conditions during three simultaneous storm systems on 13 May 1983 when unusually large numbers of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) flashes occurred; (4) analysis of extremely low frequency (ELF) wave forms; and (5) an assessment of a cloud -ground strike location system using a combination of mobile laboratory and fixed-base TV video data.

  4. A study of severe storm electricity via storm intercept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Roy T.; Horsburgh, Steven D.; Rust, W. David; Burgess, Don

    1985-01-01

    Storm electricity data, radar data, and visual observations were used both to present a case study for a supercell thunderstorm that occurred in the Texas Panhandle on 19 June 1980 and to search for insight into how lightning to ground might be related to storm dynamics in the updraft/downdraft couplet in supercell storms. It was observed that two-thirds of the lightning ground-strike points in the developing and maturing stages of a supercell thunderstorm occurred within the region surrounding the wall cloud (a cloud feature often characteristic of a supercell updraft) and on the southern flank of the precipitation. Electrical activity in the 19 June 1980 storm was atypical in that it was a right-mover. Lightning to ground reached a peak rate of 18/min and intracloud flashes were as frequent as 176/min in the final stages of the storm's life.

  5. The evaluation and management of electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Eifling, Michael; Razavi, Mehdi; Massumi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Electrical storm is an increasingly common and life-threatening syndrome that is defined by 3 or more sustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate shocks from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator within 24 hours. The clinical presentation can be dramatic. Electrical storm can manifest itself during acute myocardial infarction and in patients who have structural heart disease, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or an inherited arrhythmic syndrome. The presence or absence of structural heart disease and the electrocardiographic morphology of the presenting arrhythmia can provide important diagnostic clues into the mechanism of electrical storm. Electrical storm typically has a poor outcome.The effective management of electrical storm requires an understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms, therapeutic options, device programming, and indications for radiofrequency catheter ablation. Initial management involves determining and correcting the underlying ischemia, electrolyte imbalances, or other causative factors. Amiodarone and β-blockers, especially propranolol, effectively resolve arrhythmias in most patients. Nonpharmacologic treatment, including radiofrequency ablation, can control electrical storm in drug-refractory patients. Patients who have implantable cardioverter-defibrillators can present with multiple shocks and may require drug therapy and device reprogramming. After the acute phase of electrical storm, the treatment focus should shift toward maximizing heart-failure therapy, performing revascularization, and preventing subsequent ventricular arrhythmias. Herein, we present an organized approach for effectively evaluating and managing electrical storm.

  6. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  7. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  8. Optimal antiarrhythmic drug therapy for electrical storm

    PubMed Central

    Sorajja, Dan; Munger, Thomas M.; Shen, Win-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Electrical storm, defined as 3 or more separate episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours, carries significant morbidity and mortality. These unstable ventricular arrhythmias have been described with a variety of conditions including ischemic heart disease, structural heart disease, and genetic conditions. While implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and ablation may be indicated and required, antiarrhythmic medication remains an important adjunctive therapy for these persons. PMID:25745472

  9. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  10. Basic Electricity. Part 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

  11. Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, W.

    2015-12-01

    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. Such electrical activity poses serious risks to any Human exploration of the planet and the lack of sufficient data to characterize any such activity has been identified by NASA's MEPAG as a key human safety knowledge gap. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, frequency of occurrence, and the strength of the generated electric fields. We will describe a proposed program using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to carry out a long term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The resulting knowledge of Mars electrical activity would allow NASA to plan risk mitigation measures to ensure human safety during Mars exploration. In addition, these measurements will also allow us to place limits on presence of oxidants such as H2O2 that may be produced by such discharges, providing another measurement point for models describing Martian atmospheric chemistry and habitability. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the DSN is the only instrument in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity at Mars from the ground.

  12. Geomagnetic storms: Potential economic impacts on electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1991-03-20

    Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of power over long distance to meet the electricity demands of this region. A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Electrical storm: A clinical and electrophysiological overview

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Sergio; Pala, Salvatore; Biagioli, Viviana; Del Giorno, Giuseppe; Zucchetti, Martina; Russo, Eleonora; Marino, Vittoria; Dello Russo, Antonio; Casella, Michela; Pizzamiglio, Francesca; Catto, Valentina; Tondo, Claudio; Carbucicchio, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Electrical storm (ES) is a clinical condition characterized by three or more ventricular arrhythmia episodes leading to appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies in a 24 h period. Mostly, arrhythmias responsible of ES are multiple morphologies of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), but polymorphic VT and ventricular fibrillation can also result in ES. Clinical presentation is very dramatic in most cases, strictly related to the cardiac disease that may worsen electrical and hemodynamic decompensation. Therefore ES management is challenging in the majority of cases and a high mortality is the rule both in the acute and in the long-term phases. Different underlying cardiomyopathies provide significant clues into the mechanism of ES, which can arise in the setting of structural arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies or rarely in patients with inherited arrhythmic syndrome, impacting on pharmacological treatment, on ICD programming, and on the opportunity to apply strategies of catheter ablation. This latter has become a pivotal form of treatment due to its high efficacy in modifying the arrhythmogenic substrate and in achieving rhythm stability, aiming at reducing recurrences of ventricular arrhythmia and at improving overall survival. In this review, the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects of ES, with regard to the acute and long-term follow-up implications, were evaluated, focusing on these novel therapeutic strategies of treatment. PMID:26413232

  14. Electrical storm after CRT implantation treated by AV delay optimization.

    PubMed

    Combes, Nicolas; Marijon, Eloi; Boveda, Serge; Albenque, Jean-Paul

    2010-02-01

    We present a case of symptomatic ischemic heart failure with an indication for cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy in primary prevention. After implantation, the patient developed a severe electrical storm with multiple shocks. Hemodynamic improvement based only on AV delay, guided by echocardiography and ECG, brought about a dramatic improvement in the situation. We discuss the pathophysiology of electrical storm occurring immediately after LV pacing.

  15. Reducing uncertainty - responses for electricity utilities to severe solar storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunt, Charles Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, electricity utilities in mid- and low-latitude regions believed that solar storms had no (or only insignificant) effect on their power systems. Then it was noticed that the onset of damage in several large transformers, leading to their failure, correlated very closely with the Halloween storm of 2003. Since then engineers have started to appreciate that a very severe storm could have serious consequences outside the high-latitude regions. There are many uncertainties in predicting the effects of solar storms on electrical systems. The severity and time of arrival of a storm are difficult to model; so are the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) expected to flow in the power networks. Published information about the responses of different types of transformers to GICs is contradictory. Measurements of the abnormal power flows in networks during solar storms generally do not take into account the effects of the current distortion and unbalance, potentially giving misleading signals to the operators. The normal requirement for optimum system management, while allowing for the possibility of faults caused by lightning, birds and other causes, limits the capacity of system operators to respond to the threats of GICs, which are not assessed easily by the N - 1 reliability criterion. A utility's response to the threat of damage by GICs depends on the expected frequency and magnitude of solar storms. Approaches to formulating a response are located in a system model incorporating space physics, network analysis, transformer engineering, network reliability and decision support and the benefits are identified. Approaches adopted in high-latitude regions might not be appropriate where fewer storms are expected to reach damaging levels. The risks of an extreme storm cannot be ignored, and understanding the response mechanisms suitable for low-latitude regions has the capacity to inform and reduce the uncertainty for power systems planners and operators

  16. [Cardiac resynchronisation therapy as a cause of the electrical storm].

    PubMed

    Krupa, Wojciech; Lackowski, Jacek; Sielski, Sławomir; Dobosiewicz, Ryszard; Kubica, Jacek

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of young patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and implanted cardioverter-defibrillator in which resynchronisation therapy (CRT-D) induced an electrical storm. One month after implantation of a cardiac resynchronisation pacemaker (CRT-P) the patient suffered from ventricular tachycardia with poor haemodynamic status and was treated by implantation of a CRT-D with a Y adaptor. After replacement of the CRT-D due to Y adaptor damage (new device without a Y adaptor) we observed an electrical storm during ventricular pacing (biventricular, right and left ventricular pacing respectively). Changing pacing mode from DDDR to AAIR resolved ventricular tachycardias in that patient.

  17. Oxidant enhancement in martian dust devils and storms: storm electric fields and electron dissociative attachment.

    PubMed

    Delory, Gregory T; Farrell, William M; Atreya, Sushil K; Renno, Nilton O; Wong, Ah-San; Cummer, Steven A; Sentman, Davis D; Marshall, John R; Rafkin, Scot C R; Catling, David C

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory studies, numerical simulations, and desert field tests indicate that aeolian dust transport can generate atmospheric electricity via contact electrification or "triboelectricity." In convective structures such as dust devils and dust storms, grain stratification leads to macroscopic charge separations and gives rise to an overall electric dipole moment in the aeolian feature, similar in nature to the dipolar electric field generated in terrestrial thunderstorms. Previous numerical simulations indicate that these storm electric fields on Mars can approach the ambient breakdown field strength of approximately 25 kV/m. In terrestrial dust phenomena, potentials ranging from approximately 20 to 160 kV/m have been directly measured. The large electrostatic fields predicted in martian dust devils and storms can energize electrons in the low pressure martian atmosphere to values exceeding the electron dissociative attachment energy of both CO2 and H2O, which results in the formation of the new chemical products CO/O- and OH/H-, respectively. Using a collisional plasma physics model, we present calculations of the CO/O- and OH/H- reaction and production rates. We demonstrate that these rates vary geometrically with the ambient electric field, with substantial production of dissociative products when fields approach the breakdown value of approximately 25 kV/m. The dissociation of H2O into OH/H- provides a key ingredient for the generation of oxidants; thus electrically charged dust may significantly impact the habitability of Mars. PMID:16805701

  18. Exploratory Meeting on Atmospheric Electricity and Severe Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The meeting was arranged to discuss atmospheric electricity and its relationship to severe storms, the feasibility of developing a set of instruments for either a Space Shuttle or an unmanned satellite, and the scientific rationale which would warrant further in-depth assessment, involvement and development of supporting activities by NASA.

  19. On the Variations of Electricity, Lightning and Storm Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, M. J.; Deierling, W.; Liu, C.; Mach, D. M.; Kalb, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Electrified clouds -thunderstorms if lightning is detected, and electrified shower clouds otherwise - produce various currents that contribute to the Global Electric Circuit (GEC). This study aims to use observations of storm properties and lightning characteristics, as well as passive microwave estimates of above-cloud electric fields to compare possible current contributions from a wide variety of storms including isolated thunderstorms, Mesoscale Convective Systems, and otherwise similar storms that occur over land or over the ocean. Variations in Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) optical flash properties are also considered in the context of how they relate to the properties of the parent storm and why they differ substantially between land and ocean. This study relies on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite that include radar profiles from the Precipitation Radar (PR), passive microwave observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), infrared imagery from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS), and optical lightning observations from LIS. Observations and derived parameters such as rain rates and electric field estimates are integrated into two databases: a Precipitation Feature (PF) database that summarizes the properties of storms defined by near surface rainfall, and an Illuminated Cloud Feature (ICF) database that summarizes the properties of the storm region illuminated by LIS lightning flashes. The ICF database is built to examine factors that are related to how optical energy can be distributed across the flash footprint in different types of clouds and different viewing conditions that will have consequences for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard the upcoming GOES-R satellite.

  20. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  1. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  2. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  3. Basic Electricity--a Novel Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Uses the analogy of water flow to introduce concepts in basic electricity. Presents a demonstration that uses this analogy to help students grasp the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. (JRH)

  4. Equatorial spread F/plasma bubble irregularities under storm time disturbance electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is responsible for storm time disturbance electric field propagation to equatorial latitudes, by processes of direct penetration and disturbance wind dynamo. New results have been forthcoming in recent years from satellite and ground based observations and modeling studies on the important characteristics of these electric fields as well their effects on the electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere and thermosphere, especially, in terms of their impact on the equatorial spread F (ESF) plasma bubble irregularity development conditions that is in focus here. The disturbance zonal electric fields, when superimposed on equatorial evening pre-reversal enhancement electric field, PRE, can drastically modify the post-sunset, and night time, F layer heights, a basic control factor for the instability growth by Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism leading to plasma bubble development. Based on published results and some new data we present here a comprehensive, but brief, analysis and discussion of the processes of ESF development, suppression or disruption under different phases of a storm activity sequence. Consequences for ESF occurrence from under-shielding and over-shielding penetration electric fields as well as from the disturbance winds and wind dynamo electric field occurring in different local time sectors of the night, as also the irregularity dynamics and longitude extension, etc., are highlighted in this paper. Some outstanding problems for further research are also presented.

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  8. Electrical Trades. Suggested Basic Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline is intended to assist vocational instructors in developing and teaching a course in the electrical trades. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: orientation (a course overview, job orientation, safety, first aid, and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America); basic skills (mathematics,…

  9. Intractable Electrical Storm After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Originating in Abnormal Purkinje Fibers.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Chiho; Tsukada, Toru; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Naruse, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Kentaro; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Imai, Akito; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Electrical storm is a rare but critical complication following revascularization in patients with ischemic heart disease. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who developed drug refractory intractable electrical storm after emergent coronary artery bypass grafting for ischemic cardiomyopathy. The electrical storm was successfully eliminated by percutaneous endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation targeting the abnormal Purkinje-related triggering ventricular premature contractions in a low-voltage zone.

  10. Left ventricular assist device in the management of refractory electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Pourdjabbar, A; Maze, R; Hibbert, B; Ruel, M; Haddad, H

    2015-05-01

    Electrical storm refers to a state of cardiac electrical instability characterized by multiple episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) within a relatively short period of time and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The management of electrical storm involves a variety of strategies, including sedation, anti-arrhythmic and electrolyte replacement as well as revascularization and electrical ablation. However, the management strategy in patients with refractory storm is less clear and may require more invasive approaches. We present a case of severe ventricular tachycardia storm refractory to conservative management that was managed with a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device.

  11. Electrical Discharges in the Overshooting Tops of Five Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGorman, D. R.; Elliott, M.

    2013-12-01

    Individual electrical discharges detected by VHF Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMAs) in the overshooting tops of strong storms typically occur continually at rates of roughly 1 - 10 per second and do not appear to cluster systematically in time or space as flashes. This study analyzed discharges relative to S-band polarimetric radar data and to GOES infrared imagery in the overshooting tops of five storms ranging from moderately strong multicell storms to supercell storms. Although the density of VHF sources in overshooting tops was much less than the maximum densities below the level of neutral bouyancy, the overshooting top typically contained a secondary maximum of density. The onset of discharges in an overshooting top corresponded to an increase in the maximum magnitude and height of reflectivity as the top substantially penetrated the level of neutral bouyancy. Once the discharges began, most were within reflectivities of at least 18 dBZ and formed a dome having geometry similar to that of the dome in reflectivity. Discharges persisted for approximately as long as the reflectivity dome persisted and could last anywhere from a few minutes for short-lived overshooting tops to a few hours for cases with an overlapping series of overshooting tops produced by a succession of updraft pulses. The 99.99th percentile in the height of VHF sources was well correlated (correlation coefficient of at least 0.8) with the height of 18 and 30 dBZ, and the timing of variations in height of these parameters agreed well. We suggest the discharges are caused by turbulent cells bringing negative screening layer charge close to positive charge in the updraft core. The onset of discharges in an overshooting top preceded the detection of overshooting tops in satellite imagery. The poorer performance probably was the result of the poorer spatiotemporal resolution of infrared cloud-top imagery in the present GOES constellation. Severe weather was either imminent or occurring when

  12. Empirical models of storm time equatorial zonal electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, Bela G.; Scherliess, Ludger

    1997-10-01

    Ionospheric plasma drifts often show highly complex and variable signatures during geomagnetically active periods due to the effects of different disturbance processes. We describe initially a methodology for the study of storm time dependent ionospheric electric fields. We present empirical models of equatorial disturbance zonal electric fields obtained using extensive F region vertical plasma drift measurements from the Jicamarca Observatory and auroral electrojet indices. These models determine the plasma drift perturbations due to the combined effects of short-lived prompt penetration and longer lasting disturbance dynamo electric fields. We show that the prompt penetration drifts obtained from a high time resolution empirical model are in excellent agreement with results from the Rice Convection Model for comparable changes in the polar cap potential drop. We also present several case studies comparing observations with results obtained by adding model disturbance drifts and season and solar cycle dependent average quiet time drift patterns. When the disturbance drifts are largely due to changes in magnetospheric convection and to disturbance dynamo effects, the measured and modeled drift velocities are generally in good agreement. However, our results indicate that the equatorial disturbance electric field pattern can be strongly affected by variations in the shielding efficiency, and in the high-latitude potential and energy deposition patterns which are not accounted for in the model. These case studies and earlier results also suggest the possible importance of additional sources of plasmaspheric disturbance electric fields.

  13. Atmospheric Electricity Effects of Eastern Mediterranean Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Shai; Yair, Yoav; Yaniv, Roy; Price, Colin

    2016-04-01

    We present atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) and Mt. Hermon (30024'N, 35051'E), Israel, during two massive and unique dust storms that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on February 10-11 and September 08-12, 2015. The first event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of a warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. In the second event, dust particles were transported from the Syrian desert, which dominates the north-east border with Iraq, through flow associated with a shallow Persian trough system. In both events the concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 2200 μg m-3. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) obtained from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker reached values up to 4.0. The gradual intensification of the first event reached peak values on the February 11th > 1200 μg m-3 and an AOT ~ 1.8, while the second dust storm commenced on September 8th with a sharp increase reaching peak values of 2225 μg m-3 and AOT of 4.0. Measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and of the vertical current density (Jz) were conducted continuously with a 1 minute temporal resolution. During the February event, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were measured at the WO. The Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 and +20 pA m-2 (this is an order of magnitude larger compared to the fair weather current density of ~2 pA m-2. In contrast, during the September event, Ez values registered at WO were between -430 and +10 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -6 and +3 pA m2. For the September event the Hermon site showed Ez and Jz values fluctuating between -460 and +570 V m-1 and -14.5 and +18 pA m-2 respectively. The electric field and current variability, amplitude and the

  14. A less aggressive therapeutic option for electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Bertero, G; Agosti, S; Brunelli, C

    2013-01-01

    Electrical storm (ES) describes the rapidly clustering ventricular fibrillation (VF) that requires multiple cardioversions. Emerging evidence suggests that Purkinje arborization and sympathetic nerve regeneration play a major role in initiating malignant arrhythmias. We report the case of two patients who, after having survived an acute myocardial infarction (MI), developed repetitive episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and VF one week after percutaneous revascularization, triggered by monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Owing to repetitive and drug-refractory VF episodes, temporary atrial overdrive pacing was attempted with complete suppression of VF. In the following month, recurrence of ventricular arrhythmia was inversely related to the atrial pacing rate. Although antiarrhythmic drugs other than beta-blockers had been discontinued, neither PVCs nor ventricular arrhythmias recurred at one-month follow-up when the lower pacing rate was set at 60 bpm. In conclusion in these patients, ES was likely related to nerve sprouting after ischemic injury. This chaotic phenomenon occurs early after tissue damage and shows a peak seven days after acute MI with degeneration of superfluous axon branches. High pacing rates can reduce early after depolarizations and suppress PVCs, thus preventing ES. On these grounds, ES patients may be treated with temporary overdrive pacing rather than early radiofrequency ablation.

  15. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  16. Electrical Storm Simulation to Improve the Learning Physics Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…

  17. Progress in utilization of a mobile laboratory for making storm electricity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. David

    1988-01-01

    A mobile atmospheric science laboratory has been used to intercept and track storms on the Great Plains region of the U.S., with the intention of combining the data obtained with those from Doppler and conventional radars, NASA U-2 aircraft overflights, balloon soundings, and fixed-base storm electricity measurements. The mobile lab has proven to be valuable in the gathering of ground truth verifications for the two commercially operated lightning ground-strike locating systems. Data acquisition has recently been expanded by means of mobile ballooning before and during storms.

  18. Toast, Anyone? Project Teaches Electricity Basics and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliana, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an electrical technology experiment that shows students how to determine the cost of using an electrical appliance. The experiment also provides good math practice and teaches basic electricity terms and concepts, such as volt, ampere, watt, kilowatt, and kilowatt-hour. This experiment could be expanded to calculate the cost…

  19. Lightning Mapping and Electric Field Change Observations of a Stationary New Mexico Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Hunyady, S. J.; Edens, H. E.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Aulich, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    On August 23, 2010 a classic airmass thunderstorm occurred over high plains immediately east of the Langmuir Laboratory mountaintop observatory in central New Mexico. The energetic storm developed around 2:30 pm MDT (2030 UTC) and remained essentially stationary over its complete lifetime of about 2 hours. The complete sequence of lightning was recorded both by the 16-station Langmuir Laboratory Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and by several electrostatic field change stations around and beneath the storm. The LMA and Delta-E data are both of very high quality and sensitivity. In this initial study we report on the lightning-inferred electrical structure of the storm and on estimated charging currents determined from a simple electrodynamic model of the storm. The electric field change measurements, in combination with the detailed 3-D mapping results, can be used to determine the amounts of charge involved in individual strokes and parts of flashes for comparison and improvement of the modeling. The LMA data regularly detected isolated attempted breakdown events at repeated locations at mid- to high altitudes in the storm that were clearly indicative of localized high-field regions. The attempted breakdown events were often exact pre-cursors of the initial breakdown of full-fledged IC flashes typically several seconds up to several tens of seconds later, but also often did not precurse a subsequent discharge. During both IC and CG flashes, numerous recoil-type, fast negative breakdown events were detected along otherwise undetected positive leader channels in the main, mid-level negative charge region. The localized fast events during IC flashes often repeatedly intensified in strength and number prior to upward negative leader K-events, and then temporarily ceased before starting up again prior to the next K-event. Many of the negative CG flashes in the storm produced strokes with long continuing currents (CCs). The overall electric field changes and hence total

  20. Modeling of the Storm time Electric Fields and the Response of the Ionosphere- Plasmasphere-Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, N.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Codrescu, M.; Anderson, D.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Sazykin, S.; Toffoletto, F.; Spiro, R.; Wolf, R.; Millward, G.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed a self-consistent first-principles model of the coupled inner magnetosphere- thermosphere- ionosphere- plasmasphere system in order to understand the storm time electrodynamic coupling of the magnetosphere and ionosphere and its consequences for the ionosphere, plasmasphere, and thermosphere. The model involves electrodynamic coupling of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) and the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe) model: RCM provides the region 2 field aligned currents resulting from pressure gradients in the inner magnetosphere, which are important for modeling electric-field penetration and the shielding processes, while CTIPe provides time-dependent conductivity and neutral wind fields that are key to modeling the disturbance dynamo. A newly developed potential solver takes into account all these inputs to derive the global pattern of ionospheric electric fields. We found that the storm time vertical ExB drifts from the coupled model provided a better agreement with those from the observations for the March 2001 storm as compared to the predictions from the stand-alone RCM and CTIPe. Our simulation results suggest that the temporal variation of the magnetospheric magnetic field plays a significant role in the storm time variation of the drifts, especially for super storms such as March 2001 and November 2004 storm events. As responses of the ionosphere, plasmasphere and thermosphere to the storm time disturbance drifts, we found that daytime and evening upward enhancement of the ExB drift caused by the penetration electric field modifies the electron density and zonal neutral wind, leading to the zonal drift disturbances near the terminator through the F-region dynamo process. In this paper, we will address the role of the combined effect of the vertical and zonal drift disturbances as possible drivers to reproduce the massive restructuring of TEC.

  1. Basic Electricity/Electronics. Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggett, A. J.

    This packet consists of 22 student learning guides for high school vocational education students in Illinois. The guides contain tasks for a course in electricity/electronics. Each task guide identifies the task and its purpose and provides a learning contract for the student and teacher to sign. Information on the learning contract consists of a…

  2. Successful management of a case of electrical storm due to invasive endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Hottkowitz, Christoph; Ammann, Peter; Kleger, Gian Reto; Künzli, Andreas; Hack, Dietrich; Rickli, Hans; Maeder, Micha T

    2012-01-01

    We present a 44-year-old man with invasive aortic and tricuspid valve endocarditis complicated by electrical storm, which was immediately diagnosed and successfully treated due to the patient's telemetry electrocardiogram (ECG). This case highlights a rare but potentially fatal complication in patients with invasive endocarditis and the need for very careful clinical evaluation and monitoring of these patients.

  3. Massive Electrical Storm at Disease Onset in a Patient with Brugada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pallisgaard, Jannik L.; Gang, Uffe; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Hansen, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: — Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a genetic arrhythmogenic disease characterized by ST-segment elevations in the right precordial leads of the electrocardiogram (ECG). These ECG changes may be concealed and BrS may present with electrical storm characterized by recurrent ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Case Report: A 49-year-old previously healthy man was admitted with electrical storm. The patient received direct current (DC) cardioversion shocks and only after intravenous lidocaine did the electrical storm slowly subside with a total of 255 DC shocks administered during the first 24 h after admission. He fully recovered and received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Subsequent drug challenge with flecainide revealed type 1 BrS. Conclusions: Massive electrical storm can be the first symptom of BrS and the diagnostic ECG changes may be concealed at presentation. Although hundreds of DC shocks may be required during initial treatment, full recovery can be achieved. PMID:25528772

  4. Section I: Basic Electricity. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    This section describes the first of a three part curriculum in trade electricity-electronics (each part is described in a separate volume). It presents a unit of 6 to 10 weeks duration which develops only those competencies necessary to all electricity or electronics employment. A flow chart indicates how an individual student's program can be…

  5. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  6. Satellite observations of penetration electric fields during a severe magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. S.; Yeh, H.

    2004-12-01

    During the severe magnetic storm of July 15, 2000, the ROCSAT-1 low earth orbiting satellite detected an unusually large region of density depletion at low latitudes (<35o) in the nightside ionosphere in co-rotation with the Southern Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Adjacent to the region of density dropout was a region of density enhancement with irregularities. We deduced convective electric fields during the storm from measurements of drift meters and retarding potential analyzer (RPA) on board ROCSAT-1. Large eastward zonal and outward radial electric fields were detected at apex height below 5000 km. The magnitude of the radial electric field was about 10 mV/m in the beginning of storm main phase and decayed to about 1-2 mV/m during the recovery phase. The zonal electric field followed the similar variation with a smaller magnitude. Electric fields were perturbed with distinct localized features in association with density depletion and enhancement structures in the SAA region. The mean magnitude of electric fields increased as density decreased in the density depletion region. The zonal and radial electric fields were generally reduced in the density enhancement region, suggesting an appreciable enhancement of ionospheric conductivities. Interestingly electric fields in the density enhancement region contained distinct wavy structures with wave length about 100 km. Both electric field components peaked at the apex height of discontinuity separating the density depletion and enhancement. These results suggest that feedback effects in the SAA region are important for the electric field penetration to the low latitude nightside ionosphere.

  7. In situ measurements and radar observations of a severe storm - Electricity, kinematics, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Few, A. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Conrad, A. C.; Torczon, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements made inside a multicell severe storm in Oklahoma in 1983 with a balloon-borne instrument are presented. The properties of the electric charge regions, such as altitude, thickness, and charge concentrations, are studied. These measurements are analzyed with meteorological measurements of temperature and humidity, and balloon tracking and radar observations. The relation between the electric charge structure and the precipitation and kinematic features of the storm is examined. The data reveal that the cell exhibits a bipolar charge structure with negative charge below positive charge. The average charge concentrations of the two regions are estimated as -1.2 and 0.15 nC/cu m, respectively; the upper positive charge is about 6 km in vertical extent, and the lower negative charge is less than 1 km in vertical extent.

  8. Tests of Convection Electric Field Models For The January 10, 1997, Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, V.; Boonsiriseth, A.; Thorne, R.; Dotan, Y.

    The January 10-11, 1997, geomagnetic storm was caused by the passage at Earth of a magnetic cloud with a negative to positive Bz variation extending for 1 day. The ge- omagnetic indices had values of minimum Dst=-83 nT and maximum Kp=6 during the period of southward IMF within the cloud. We simulate ring current development during this storm using our kinetic drift-loss model and compare the results inferred from Volland-Stern type, Weimer, and AMIE convection electric field models. A pen- etration electric field is added to the AMIE model [Boonsiriseth et al., 2001] in order to improve the agreement with measurements from the electric field instrument on Po- lar spacecraft. The ionospheric electric potentials are mapped to the equatorial plane using the Tsyganenko 1996 magnetic field model and the resulting equatorial poten- tial models are coupled with our ring current model. While the temporal evolution of the large-scale features is similar in all three convection models, detailed comparison indicates that AMIE model shows highly variable small-scale features not present in the Volland-Stern or Weimer convection models. Results from our kinetic ring current model are compared with energetic particle data from the HYDRA, TIMAS, IPS, and CAMMICE instruments on Polar to test the applicability of the convection electric field models for this storm period.

  9. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 2; Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory and "pitch down method" developed in Part I of this study are applied to complete the calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m and a 5 V/m error in the mean fair weather field function, the 3-D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m, the method retrieves the 3-D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair weather field estimate is typically within 1 V/m of the true fair weather field. Using this side constraint and data from fair weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. The resulting calibration matrix was then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably with the results obtained from earlier calibration analyses that were based on iterative techniques.

  10. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircrfaft Field Mill Data: Part II: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William; Mach, D. M.; Christian H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman M. G.

    2006-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory developed in Part I of this study is applied to complete a relative calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the Lagrange multiplier method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -1) and a 5 V m(sup -1) error in the mean fair-weather field function, the 3D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair-weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -l), the method retrieves the 3D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair-weather field estimate is typically within 1 V m(sup -1) of the true fair-weather field. Using this type of side constraint and data from fair-weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. Absolute calibration was completed using the pitch down method developed in Part I, and conventional analyses. The resulting calibration matrices were then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably in many respects with results derived from earlier (iterative) techniques of calibration.

  11. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  12. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  13. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  14. Electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: can it be forecast?

    PubMed

    Emkanjoo, Zahra; Alihasani, Narges; Alizadeh, Abolfath; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Hamid; Barakpour, Hamid; Sadr-Ameli, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of electrical storm in 227 patients who had received implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and had been monitored for 31.7 +/- 15.6 months. Of these, 174 (77%) were men. The mean age was 55.8 +/- 15.5 years (range, 20-85 yr), and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 0.30 +/- 0.14. One hundred forty-six of the patients (64%) had underlying coronary artery disease. Cardioverter-defibrillators were implanted for secondary (80%) and primary (20%) prevention. Of the 227 patients, 117 (52%) experienced events that required ICD therapy. Thirty patients (mean age, 57.26 +/- 14.3 yr) had > or = 3 episodes requiring ICD therapy in a 24-hour period and were considered to have electrical storm. The mean number of events was 12.75 +/- 15 per patient. Arrhythmia-clustering occurred an average of 6.1 +/- 6.7 months after ICD implantation. Clinical variables with the most significant association with electrical storm were low LVEF (P = 0.04; hazard ratio of 0.261, and 95% confidence interval of 0.08-0.86) and higher use of class IA antiarrhythmic drugs (P = 0.018, hazard ratio of 3.84, and 95% confidence interval of 1.47-10.05). Amiodarone treatment and use of beta-blockers were not significant predictors when subjected to multivariate analysis. We conclude that electrical storm is most likely to occur in patients with lower LVEF and that the use of Class IA antiarrhythmic drugs is a risk factor.

  15. Time causal operational estimation of electric fields induced in the Earth's lithosphere during magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Swidinsky, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    In support of projects for monitoring geomagnetic hazards for electric power grids, we develop a simple mathematical formalism, consistent with the time causality of deterministic physics, for estimating electric fields that are induced in the Earth's lithosphere during magnetic storms. For an idealized model of the lithosphere, an infinite half-space having uniform electrical conductivity properties described by a galvanic tensor, we work in the Laplace-transformed frequency domain to obtain a transfer function which, when convolved with measured magnetic field time series, gives an estimated electric field time series. Using data collected at the Kakioka, Japan observatory, we optimize lithospheric conductivity parameters by minimizing the discrepancy between model-estimated electric field variation and that actually measured. With our simple model, we can estimate 87% of the variance in storm time Kakioka electric field data; a more complicated model of lithospheric conductivity would be required to estimate the remaining 13% of the variance. We discuss how our estimation formalism might be implemented for geographically coordinated real-time monitoring of geoelectric fields.

  16. Summary of the NASA/MSFC FY-79 Severe Storm and Local Weather research review. [cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics reserach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant acomplishments, current focus of work, plans for FY-80, and recommendations for new research are outlined for 36 research projects proposed for technical monitoring by the Atmospheric Sciences Division at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of the investigations, which were reviewed at a two-day meeting, relate to cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics.

  17. Knowledge Retention among Graduates of Basic Electricity and Electronics Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; And Others

    The extent of knowledge decay during the interval between graduation from a basic electricity and electronics (BE/E) school and entry into a construction electrician (CE) "A" school was assessed. A sample consisting of 307 BE/E graduates was retested using a multiple choice test identical to the final examination taken at BE/E school. Prior to the…

  18. BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASSEL, RICHARD

    THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

  19. Basic Electricity. Training Module 3.325.1.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the basic concepts of electricity as applied to water and wastewater treatment. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. This module considers definition of terms, voltage, current…

  20. Relating Performance in Basic Electricity and Electronics and "A" Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; And Others

    Navy recruits who are assigned to class "A" schools based on their performance on aptitude tests must complete training at Basic Electricity and Electronics (BE/E) schools prior to enrolling at the "A" schools. Since high attrition rates at the BE/E level due to recruits' failing to master 100 percent of the training modules in the specified time…

  1. Influence of the Convection Electric Field Models on Predicted Plasmapause Positions During Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrard, V.; Khazanov, G.; Cabrera, J.; Lemaire, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we determine how three well documented models of the magnetospheric electric field, and two different mechanisms proposed for the formation of the plasmapause influence the radial distance, the shape and the evolution of the plasmapause during the geomagnetic storms of 28 October 2001 and of 17 April 2002. The convection electric field models considered are: Mcllwain's E51) electric field model, Volland-Stern's model and Weimer's statistical model compiled from low-Earth orbit satellite data. The mechanisms for the formation of the plasmapause to be tested are: (i) the MHD theory where the plasmapause should correspond to the last-closed- equipotential (LCE) or last-closed-streamline (LCS), if the E-field distribution is stationary or time-dependent respectively; (ii) the interchange mechanism where the plasmapause corresponds to streamlines tangent to a Zero-Parallel-Force surface where the field-aligned plasma distribution becomes convectively unstable during enhancements of the E-field intensity in the nightside local time sector. The results of the different time dependent simulations are compared with concomitant EUV observations when available. The plasmatails or plumes observed after both selected geomagnetic storms are predicted in all simulations and for all E-field models. However, their shapes are quite different depending on the E-field models and the mechanisms that are used. Despite the partial success of the simulations to reproduce plumes during magnetic storms and substorms, there remains a long way to go before the detailed structures observed in the EUV observations during periods of geomagnetic activity can be accounted for very precisely by the existing E-field models. Furthermore, it cannot be excluded that the mechanisms currently identified to explain the formation of "Carpenter's knee" during substorm events, will', have to be revised or complemented in the cases of geomagnetic storms.

  2. Atmospheric Electrical Modeling in Support of the NASA F-106 Storm Hazards Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A recently developed storm electrification model (SEM) is used to investigate the operating environment of the F-106 airplane during the NASA Storm Hazards Project. The model is 2-D, time dependent and uses a bulkwater microphysical parameterization scheme. Electric charges and fields are included, and the model is fully coupled dynamically, microphysically and electrically. One flight showed that a high electric field was developed at the aircraft's operating altitude (28 kft) and that a strong electric field would also be found below 20 kft; however, this low-altitude, high-field region was associated with the presence of small hail, posing a hazard to the aircraft. An operational procedure to increase the frequency of low-altitude lightning strikes was suggested. To further the understanding of lightning within the cloud environment, a parameterization of the lightning process was included in the SEM. It accounted for the initiation, propagation, termination, and charge redistribution associated with an intracloud discharge. Finally, a randomized lightning propagation scheme was developed, and the effects of cloud particles on the initiation of lightning investigated.

  3. Storm-time Magnetospheric Effects on Electric Fields in the Subauroral Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, R. A.; Garner, T. W.; Goldstein, J.; Sazykin, S.; Spiro, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    Although the inner edge of the plasma sheet tends to shield the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere from the full force of magnetospheric convection, the shielding is particularly ineffective during magnetic storms. This talk will review several effects that represent quick responses to magnetospheric drivers, specifically the following: 1. Overshielding and undershielding. The overshielding electric fields, which occur during convection decreases, were predicted theoretically and observed in the post-midnight sector more than twenty years ago. The predicted patterns have been largely confirmed by statistical analysis of radar observations, although it has been necessary to modify the original overshielding idea somewhat to be consistent with the observed strength and duration. Overshielding has also been seen in plasmaspheric observations, most recently by the IMAGE spacecraft. Simulations of the main phase of a large storm predict the sustained presence of an undershielding (direct penetration) eastward electric field in the post-dusk sector, possibly triggering scintillations there. 2. Polarization jets. Simulations indicate that strong ring current injection is accompanied by a several-degree-wide westward-moving jet of plasma in the dusk-midnight quadrant, just equatorward of the auroral zone. These have been observed in recent years from CRRES and Millstone Hill. 3. Interchange-associated electric-field eddies. These are predicted by recent Rice Convection Model simulations and have not, as far as we know, been reported observationally. We predict their occurrence in the early recovery phase of a magnetic storm whose main phase terminates with a strong and sustained northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field. They should occur in a band roughly 5 degrees wide, just equatorward of the auroral zone, in the dusk-midnight sector.

  4. Temporary ventricular overdrive pacing for electrical storm after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshihito; Naito, Yuji; Nishimura, Kuniharu

    2011-11-01

    A 57-year-old man who had been receiving chemotherapy for multiple myeloma complained of chest pain and was diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass was performed smoothly, and extubation was done in the operating room. The next evening, cluster of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation triggered by ventricular premature contractions occurred and required multiple electrical defibrillations. Despite intravenous administration of lidocaine, amiodarone, magnesium, and β-blocker, the storm sustained and was suppressed only by temporary ventricular overdrive pacing. He was discharged on foot.

  5. A case of a short-coupled variant of torsades de Pointes with electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Toshiharu; Sato, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Sato, Motohiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Akasaka, Nobuyuki; Go, Kazutomo; Fujimoto, Kazuhiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2003-02-01

    This case report describes a short-coupled variant of Torsades de Pointes with a characteristic ECG pattern consisting of a prominent J wave in leads V3-V6, in which an electrical storm was evoked with autonomic receptor stimulation and a blockade test. The patient's frequent VF attacks were triggered by short-coupled premature ventricular contractions with a right bundle branch block morphology and left-axis deviation, and were suppressed by deep sedation followed by a combination therapy using verapamil and mexiletine. Interestingly, with the use of those drugs, the prominent J wave diminished. The mechanism underlying this syndrome is discussed.

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON…

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  9. Effect of Precipitating Electrons on Stormtime Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields during the 17 March 2013 Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C. L.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate how scattering of electrons by waves in the plasma sheet and plasmasphere affects precipitating energy flux distributions and how the precipitating electrons modify the ionospheric conductivity and electric potentials during the large 17 March 2013 magnetic storm. Of particular interest is how electron precipitation in the evening sector affects the development of the Sub-auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) electric field that is observed at sub-auroral latitudes in that sector. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to simulate the stormtime precipitating electron distributions and the electric field. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are used. We compare simulated trapped and precipitating electron flux distributions with measurements from Van Allen Probes/MagEIS, POES/TED and MEPED, respectively, to validate the electron loss model. Ground-based (SuperDARN) and in-situ (Van Allen Probes/EFW) observations of electric fields are compared with the simulation results. We discuss the effect of precipitating electrons on the SAPS and inner magnetospheric electric field through the data-model comparisons.

  10. Electrical storm in patients with an implanted defibrillator: a matter of definition.

    PubMed

    Israel, Carsten W; Barold, S Serge

    2007-10-01

    The term "electrical storm" (ES) indicates a state of cardiac electrical instability manifested by several episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTs) within a short time. In patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), ES is best defined as 3 appropriate VT detections in 24 h, treated by antitachycardia pacing, shock or eventually untreated but sustained in a VT monitoring zone. The number of shocks and inappropriate detections are irrelevant for the definition. ES occurs in approximately 25% of ICD patients within 3 years, with typically 5-55 individual VTs within one storm. Potential triggers can be found in approximately 66% of patients and include new/worsened heart failure, changes in antiarrhythmic medication, context with other illness, psychological stress, diarrhea, and hypokalemia. In most patients, ES consists of monomorphic VT indicating the presence of reentry while ventricular fibrillation indicating acute ischemia is rare. ES seems to have a low immediate mortality (1%) but frequently (50-80%) leads to hospitalization. Long-term prognostic implications of ES are unclear. The key intervention in ES is reduction of the elevated sympathetic tone by beta blockers and frequently benzodiazepines. Amiodarone i.v. has also been successful and azimilide seems promising while class I antiarrhythmic drugs are usually unsuccessful. Substrate mapping and VT ablation may be useful in treatment and prevention of ES. Prevention of ES requires ICD programming systematically avoiding unnecessary shocks (long VT detection, antitachycardia pacing where ever possible) which otherwise can fuel the sympathetic tone and prolong ES.

  11. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 1; Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers) and also helps improve absolute calibration. Additionally, this paper introduces an alternate way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has some benefits over conventional analyses. It is accomplished by using the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  12. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part I: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It also allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers). Additionally, this paper introduces a novel way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has several benefits over conventional analyses. In the new approach, absolute calibration is completed by inspecting the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  13. A new method for processing of basic electric values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Predrag B.

    2008-11-01

    This paper proposes a practical new algorithm for the calculation of basic ac (alternate current) electric values: average, rms, active power and energy. Based on the value of the integration of the original input (analogue) signal, a calculation is performed using the definition formulae. The realization avoids the use of a separate circuit for sample and hold, and the analogue signal was directly introduced into the integration circuit, after which its digital equivalent is formed. The suggested measuring system was simulated, realized in a practical set-up and tested. The errors related to the signal processing and errors bound were investigated and provided. A processing precision better than 10 ppm was achieved.

  14. Prophylactic left thoracic sympathectomy to prevent electrical storms in CPVT patients needing ICD placement.

    PubMed

    Moray, Amol; Kirk, Edwin P; Grant, Peter; Camphausen, Christoph

    2011-11-01

    Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT), a life threatening arrhythmia induced by sympathetic stimulation in susceptible individuals is often refractory to antiarrhythmic agents. First line of treatment, beta-blockers can be ineffective in up to 50% with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement for refractory cases. Paradoxically ICD can be arryhthmogenic from shock-associated sympathetic stimulation, initiating more shocks and "electrical storms". This has led to the use of more effective beta blockade offered by left sympathectomy, now performed by minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Sympathectomy has been traditionally performed long after ICD placement, after the patient has experienced multiple shocks, thus necessitating two procedures. We report simultaneous ICD insertion and thoracoscopic sympathectomy in a 10 year-old boy with CPVT, and suggest it as a better approach than sequential procedures. To our knowledge this is first such reported case.

  15. Basics of a Solar Electric System: Better Buildings Series Solar Electric Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-07-01

    Today's solar technologies are more efficient and versatile than ever before, adding to the appeal of an already desirable energy source. This fact sheet provides information on the basics of a solar electric system, including components of a system, how to choose solar modules, and how to choose a solar system.

  16. BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL, AND ELECTRONIC CONTROL. UNIT 1, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.; WYKES, MURRAY L.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC MATHEMATICS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 19 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, DIRECTIONS, AND PROBLEMS. THE LESSONS, KEYED TO THREE…

  17. BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL, AND ELECTRONIC CONTROL. UNIT 1, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.; WYKES, MURRAY L.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC MATHEMATICS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 19 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON SUBJECT, REFERENCES, AND A STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTION OF THE STUDENT ASSIGNMENT SHEET PROBLEMS. THE…

  18. Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

  19. Electrical storm originating from a left ventricular epicardial scar in a patient with completely normal endocardial voltage.

    PubMed

    Sternick, Eduardo Back; Piorkowski, Christopher; Hindricks, Gerhard; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sommer, Philipp

    2011-11-01

    We report a patient with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy presenting with an electrical storm because of a poorly tolerated monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Electroanatomical mapping revealed a scar restricted to the epicardium, whereas the endocardial voltage map was completely normal. Epicardial catheter ablation based on substrate mapping and limited pace and entrainment mapping eliminated the tachycardia.

  20. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  1. Response of the Fair Weather Atmospheric Electrical Current to Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Elhalal, Gal

    2013-04-01

    The Global Electric Circuit (GEC) is a conceptual model that integrates the observed electrical properties of the atmosphere in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. An average potential difference of 250 kV exists between these two conducting layers, leading to a surface electric field (Ez, sometimes also named the Potential Gradient or PG) of ~130 V/m, and a nearly constant downward flowing direct current density (Jz) of ~2 pA m-2. This is known as the DC component of the GEC. The Jz is an extremely sensitive parameter whose magnitude and fluctuations can be used for monitoring local and global conductivity changes due to aerosols, air-pollution and solar activity. The AC part of the circuit is driven by ~50 lightning flashes per second generating the global Schumann resonances (SR) in the ELF range. There are two time-scales for identifying solar effects on the GEC. On the longer scale, an 11-year modulation by solar activity, likely due to changes in ionization, was reported by several authors. For example, Satori et al. (2005) noted a decrease in the frequency of the first 3 modes of the SR band in conjunction with the solar minimum of 1995-6. On shorter time scales typical of solar activity (e.g. CMEs, solar flares and SEP events), observations show marked perturbations in Jz and in the ionospheric potential at the surface. Cobb (1967) observed an increase of Jz by 75% for ~ 6 h in measurements made at Mauna Loa in Hawaii, during a period of multiple solar flares. Reiter (1989) observed an increase in Jz of about 50%-60% following large solar flares, persisting for 4 days (at the Zungspietze station in the Alps). Belova et al. (2001) reported increased Jz for about 2 hours before T=0 (time of minimum in Bx) as well as enhanced average fluctuations. This talk will review the effects of solar storms on the GEC, and present new results from continuous measurements of Jz conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35'N, 34°45'E). During 3 different

  2. Polarization radar and electrical observations of microburst producing storms during Cohmex. [COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Wright, Patrick D.; Rust, W. David; Nielsen, Kurt E.

    1989-01-01

    The life cycles of two electrified, microburst-producing storms that occurred on July 19 and 20, 1986 near Huntsville, Alabama are described and compared. The kinematic and microphysical development of the storm clouds is examined. Lightning activity prior to the onset of the microburst is studied. It is observed that ice phase precipitation particles are important in the electrification of the storm and in the formation of the strong downdraft, and the vertical distribution and movement of mass have a role in determining the total lightning activity and type of flashes.

  3. Acute outcome of treating patients admitted with electrical storm in a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Mukund A.; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Prasad BV, Srinivas; Abhilash, S.P.; Thajudeen, Anees; Ajith, Kumar V.K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Electrical storm (ES) is a life threatening emergency. There is little data available regarding acute outcome of ES. Aims The study aimed to analyze the acute outcome of ES, various treatment modalities used, and the factors associated with mortality. Methods This is a retrospective observational study involving patients admitted with ES at our centre between 1/1/2007 and 31/12/2013. Results 41 patients (mean age 54.61 ± 12.41 years; 86.7% males; mean ejection fraction (EF) 44.51 ± 16.48%) underwent treatment for ES. Hypokalemia (14.63%) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (14.63%) were the commonest identifiable triggers. Only 9 (21.95%) patients already had an ICD implanted. Apart from antiarrhythmic drugs (100%), deep sedation (87.8%), mechanical ventilation (24.39%) and neuraxial modulation using left sympathetic cardiac denervation (21.95%) were the common treatment modalities used. Thirty-three (80.49%) patients could be discharged after a mean duration of 14.2 ± 2.31 days. Eight (19.5%) patients died in hospital. The mortality was significantly higher in those with EF < 35% compared to those with a higher EF (8 (42.11% vs 0 (0%), p = 0.03)). There was no significant difference in mortality between those with versus without a structural heart disease (8 (21.1% vs 0 (0%), p = 0.32)). Comparison of mortality an ACS with ES versus ES of other aetiologies (3 (50%) vs 5 (14.29) %, p = 0.076)) showed a trend towards significance. Conclusion With comprehensive treatment, there is reasonable acute survival rate of ES. Hypokalemia and ACS are the commonest triggers of ES. Patients with low EF and ACS have higher mortality. PMID:27479203

  4. Electrical Power Generation. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Four classroom activities are included in this 8-10 period unit suitable for high school chemistry and physics classes. The first activity is a reading (12th-grade readability level determined by the Fry procedure) which explains electricity conversion, transportation, and efficiency ratings. The second and third activities are electrical energy…

  5. Basic Studies on Chaotic Characteristics of Electric Power Market Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yuya; Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Toshihiro

    Recently, deregulation and reform of electric power utilities have been progressing in many parts of the world. In Japan, partial deregulation has been started from generation sector since 1995 and partial deregulation of retail sector is executed through twice law revisions. Through the deregulation, because electric power is traded in the market and its price is always fluctuated, it is important for the electric power business to analyze and predict the price. Although the price data of the electric power market is time series data, it is not always proper to analyze by the linear model such as ARMA because the price sometimes changes suddenly. Therefore, in this paper, we apply the methods of chaotic time series analysis, one of non-linear analysis methods, and investigate the chaotic characteristics of the system price of JEPX.

  6. Effect of dust storms on the D region of the Martian ionosphere: Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, S. A.; Sheel, V.; Smith, M. D.; Maguire, W. C.; Molina-Cuberos, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have used dust opacity values observed by the Thermal Emission Imaging System onboard Mars Odyssey to estimate the effect of dust aerosols in the D region of the Martian ionosphere. An ion-dust aerosol model has been developed to calculate ion concentrations and conductivity at midlatitudes during a dust storm in the Southern Hemisphere. We report that the concentration of the water cluster ions H+(H2O)n, NO2-(H2O)n, and CO3-(H2O)n are reduced by 2 orders of magnitude in the presence of dust aerosols. This indicates that during a dust storm, when the optical depth changes considerably, a large hole in the ion concentrations may appear until this anomalous condition returns to the normal condition after a period of about a few days. During such dust storms, the total ion conductivity is reduced by an order of magnitude.

  7. A single implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock unmasking an electrical storm of 389 ventricular tachycardia episodes triggering device therapies.

    PubMed

    Arias, Miguel A; Valverde, Irene; Puchol, Alberto; Castellanos, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Sánchez, Ana M; Alvarez-Temiño, María; Palomino, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    We describe the case of a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy who presented the first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock approximately 5 months after implantation. Device interrogation surprisingly revealed the occurrence of 389 ventricular tachyarrhythmia episodes terminated by asymptomatic antitachycardia pacing (ATP) except for the episode requiring shock. The present case of electrical storm highlights how contemporary tiered ATP schemes constitute a valuable but underused form of termination for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ICD patients, reducing the number of painful shocks and their adverse consequences.

  8. [Despite medication, overdrive pacing is required to stabilize the electrical storm associated with acute coronary syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Masanobu; Morimoto, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Kaori; Tateishi, Emi; Makino, Kanako; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nakagawa, Yoko; Fukuhara, Shinya; Takase, Eiji

    2007-10-01

    A 75-year-old female complained of severe chest pain and was emergently admitted to our hospital because of anterior acute myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography was performed and revealed occlusion in segment 7, so a stent was implanted. Lidocaine, carvedilol, amiodarone, magnesium, and nifekalant were administered successively because non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) frequently appeared like an electrical storm. After nifekalant administration, QTc was significantly prolonged and torsades de pointes was induced. Overdrive pacing was performed and finally the NSVT was completely controlled. If fatal arrhythmias such as NSVT show resistance to medication, overdrive pacing should be considered to stabilize the arrhythmia associated with acute coronary syndrome.

  9. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  10. The Elusive Memristor: Properties of Basic Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Wolf, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge "q" and the magnetic flux [phi] in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of…

  11. Module Ten: Transformers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module introduces a very important electrical device, the transformer. The module is divided into six lessons: transformer construction, transformer theory and operation, turns and voltage ratios, power and current, transformer efficiency, and semiconductor rectifiers. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson…

  12. Magnetospheric Convection Electric Field Dynamics and Stormtime Particle Energization: Case Study of the Magnetic Storm of May 4,1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Newman, Tim S.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Ridley, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that narrow channels of high electric field are an effective mechanism for injecting plasma into the inner magnetosphere. Analytical expressions for the electric field cannot produce these channels of intense plasma flow, and thus result in less entry and energization of the plasma sheet into near-Earth space. For the ions, omission of these channels leads to an underprediction of the strength of the stormtime ring current and therefore an underestimation of the geoeffectiveness of the storm event. For the electrons, omission of these channels leads to the inability to create a seed population of 10-100 keV electrons deep in the inner magnetosphere. These electrons can eventually be accelerated into MeV radiation belt particles.

  13. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Wolf, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge q and the magnetic flux phi in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of these three elements and their circuits are a part of the standard curricula. The existence of the memristor as the fourth ideal circuit element was predicted in 1971 based on symmetry arguments, but was clearly experimentally demonstrated just last year. We present the properties of a single memristor, memristors in series and parallel, as well as ideal memristor-capacitor (MC), memristor-inductor (ML) and memristor-capacitor-inductor (MCL) circuits. We find that the memristor has hysteretic current-voltage characteristics. We show that the ideal MC (ML) circuit undergoes non-exponential charge (current) decay with two time scales and that by switching the polarity of the capacitor, an ideal MCL circuit can be tuned from overdamped to underdamped. We present simple models which show that these unusual properties are closely related to the memristor's internal dynamics. This tutorial complements the pedagogy of ideal circuit elements (R, C and L) and the properties of their circuits, and is aimed at undergraduate physics and electrical engineering students.

  14. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... Thyroid storm occurs due to a major stress such as trauma, heart attack , or infection. In rare cases, thyroid ...

  15. Prompt penetration electric fields and the extreme topside ionospheric response to the June 22-23, 2015 geomagnetic storm as seen by the Swarm constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, Elvira; Zakharenkova, Irina; Alken, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Using data from the three Swarm satellites, we study the ionospheric response to the intense geomagnetic storm of June 22-23, 2015. With the minimum SYM-H excursion of -207 nT, this storm is so far the second strongest geomagnetic storm in the current 24th solar cycle. A specific configuration of the Swarm satellites allowed investigation of the evolution of the storm-time ionospheric alterations on the day- and the nightside quasi-simultaneously. With the development of the main phase of the storm, a significant dayside increase of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and electron density Ne was first observed at low latitudes on the dayside. From ~22 UT of 22 June to ~1 UT of 23 June, the dayside experienced a strong negative ionospheric storm, while on the nightside an extreme enhancement of the topside VTEC occurred at mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Our analysis of the equatorial electrojet variations obtained from the magnetic Swarm data indicates that the storm-time penetration electric fields were, most likely, the main driver of the observed ionospheric effects at the initial phase of the storm and at the beginning of the main phase. The dayside ionosphere first responded to the occurrence of the strong eastward equatorial electric fields. Further, penetration of westward electric fields led to gradual but strong decrease of the plasma density on the dayside in the topside ionosphere. At this stage, the disturbance dynamo could have contributed as well. On the nightside, the observed extreme enhancement of the Ne and VTEC in the northern hemisphere (i.e., the summer hemisphere) in the topside ionosphere was most likely due to the combination of the prompt penetration electric fields, disturbance dynamo and the storm-time thermospheric circulation. From ~2.8 UT, the ionospheric measurements from the three Swarm satellites detected the beginning of the second positive storm on the dayside, which was not clearly associated with electrojet

  16. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  17. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  18. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  19. Basic neuron model electrical equivalent circuit: an undergraduate laboratory exercise.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Katie M; Castaño, Diego J; Tartar, Jaime L

    2013-01-01

    We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise for undergraduate students in which they can build and manipulate a neuron equivalent circuit. This exercise uses electrical circuit components that resemble neuron components and are easy to construct. We describe the methods for creating the equivalent circuit and how to observe different neuron properties through altering the structure of the equivalent circuit. We explain how this hands-on laboratory activity allows for the better understanding of this fundamental neuroscience concept. At the conclusion of this laboratory exercise, undergraduate students will be able to apply the principles of Ohm's law, cable theory with regards to neurons, and understand the functions of resistance and capacitance in a neuron.

  20. Basic investigation into the electrical performance of solid electrolyte membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical performance of solid electrolyte membranes was investigated analytically and the results were compared with experimental data. It is concluded that in devices that are used for pumping oxygen the major power losses have to be attributed to the thin film electrodes. Relations were developed by which the effectiveness of tubular solid electrolyte membranes can be determined and the optimum length evaluated. The observed failure of solid electrolyte tube membranes in very localized areas is explained by the highly non-uniform current distribution in the membranes. The analysis points to a possible contact resistance between the electrodes and the solid electrolyte material. This possible contact resistance remains to be investigated experimentally. It is concluded that film electrodes are not appropriate for devices which operate with current flow, i.e., pumps though they can be employed without reservation in devices that measure oxygen pressures if a limited increase in the response time can be tolerated.

  1. Temporary overdriving pacing as an adjunct to antiarrhythmic drug therapy for electrical storm in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Inoue, Ichiro; Kawagoe, Takuji; Ishihara, Masaharu; Shimatani, Yuji; Mitsuba, Naoya; Hata, Takaki; Nakama, Yasuharu; Kisaka, Tomohiko; Kijima, Yasufumi

    2005-05-01

    A-55-year-old man with diabetes mellitus was admitted to hospital because of chest pain. He was diagnosed as anterior acute myocardial infarction and treated with stent placement. After 7 days, ventricular fibrillation occurred because of a subacute reocclusion and balloon angioplasty was performed. Despite reperfusion therapy, intraaortic balloon pumping, antiarrhythmic drugs and beta-blocker, ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation relapsed and cardioversion was performed 29 times during 32 h. Temporary overdrive atrioventricular sequential pacing was initiated and the malignant arrhythmia finally disappeared. Even after stoppage of 25 h overdride pacing, it never recurred. Temporary overdrive pacing is an easy and feasible therapy for a drug-resistant electrical storm associated with AMI and should be performed in the early stage.

  2. Successful bridge to recovery using a microaxial blood pump in a patient with electrical storm and cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Henning, A; Schreieck, J; Riessen, R; Gawaz, M; May, A E

    2011-10-01

    A 59-year-old patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and incessant ventricular tachycardia leading to progressive cardiogenic shock is presented. Due to hemodynamic instability, high dose catecholamines were required in addition to the implantation of an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP), which, however, appeared to further augment the frequency and duration of ventricular tachycardias. The implantation of a microaxial blood pump allowed catecholamine administration to be terminated, thereby, ending this vicious circle of catecholamine-driven electrical storm. Within 5 days, the patient was hemodynamically stabilized and kidney and liver function recovered with the support of intensive antiarrhythmic therapy (amiodarone, mexiletine, sotalol). During a 24-month follow-up, the patient had no further ICD shocks and no rehospitalization was required for treatment of congestive heart failure. PMID:22038638

  3. Storm time equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift reversal due to disturbance Hall electric field over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; Denardini, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles over Brazilian sector during two magnetic storm events are investigated in this work. The observations were made at varying phases of magnetic disturbances when the bubble zonal drift velocity was found to reverse westward from its normally eastward velocity. Calculation of the zonal drift based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere modeled by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model showed on a quantitative basis a clear competition between vertical Hall electric field and disturbance zonal winds on the variations observed in the zonal velocity of the plasma bubble. The Hall electric field arising from enhanced ratio of field line-integrated conductivities, ΣH/ΣP, is most often generated by an increase in the integrated Hall conductivity, arising from enhanced energetic particle precipitation in the South American Magnetic Anomaly region for which evidence is provided from observation of anomalous sporadic E layers over Cachoeira Paulista and Fortaleza. Such sporadic E layers are also by themselves evidence for the development of the Hall electric field that modifies the zonal drift.

  4. Atmospheric electrical modeling in support of the NASA F106 Storm Hazards Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    With the use of composite (non-metallic) and microelectronics becoming more prevalent in the construction of both military and commercial aircraft, the control systems have become more susceptible to damage or failure from electromagnetic transients. One source of such transients is the lightning discharge. In order to study the effects of the lightning discharge on the vital components of an aircraft, NASA Langley Research Center has undertaken a Storm Hazards Program in which a specially instrumented F106B jet aircraft is flown into active thunderstorms with the intention of being struck by lightning. One of the specific purposes of the program is to quantify the environmental conditions which are conductive to aircraft lightning strikes.

  5. Module One: Electrical Current; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The student is introduced in this module to some fundamental concepts of electricity. The module is divided into five lessons: electricity and the electron, electron movement, current flow, measurement of current, and the ammeter. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson narratives, programed materials, and lesson…

  6. Study of Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms with the Deep Space Network antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Tamppari, L. K.; Renno, N. O.; Ruf, C.; Trinh, J. T.

    2012-09-01

    Evidence for non-thermal emission produced by electrostatic discharges in a deep Martian dust storm has been reported by Ruf et al. 2009 [1]. Such discharges had been detected with an innovative kurtosis detector installed in a 34m radio telescope of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in June of 2006. The kurtosis (the fourth central moment of the signal normalized by the square of the second central moment) is extremely sensitive to the presence of non-thermal radiation, but is insensitive to variations in the intensity of the thermal radiation and instrument gain. The non-thermal radiation was detected while a 35 Km deep Martian dust storm was within the field of view of the radio telescope and presented signatures of modulation by the Martian Schumann Resonance. Encouraged by this discovery, several attempts have been made within the DSN to confirm the detection using the R&D antenna (DSS-13) and other antennas in the Madrid and Goldstone complexes, but using a very limited receiver, in terms of recorded data rates, the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receiver (VSR). We are planning to initiate an extensive monitoring of Mars emission in a noninterfering basis while our antennas are tracking various Mars probes, using the Wideband Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receiver (WVSR). The WVSR is a very flexible open-loop digital backend that is used for radio science and spacecraft navigation support in the DSN. This instrument allows us to sample a larger bandwidth than with previously used detectors. The processing to look for the kurtosis signature will be performed in software, limited only by the computer capacity. Additionally there are plans to develop an even more powerful custom-built detector based in CASPER technology and Graphic Processing Units for enhance computational power. This contribution will describe how we plan to select the target Mars tracking passes from the DSN schedule. An automated process will generate

  7. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of...

  8. Basic Electricity/Electronics (Industrial Arts). Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1724.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist industrial arts teachers, counselors, and administrators in improving instruction in the areas of electricity and basic electronics. Included in the first part of the guide are a course flow chart, a course description, a discussion of target grade levels and prerequisites, course goals and objectives,…

  9. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of...

  10. Westward electric field penetration to the dayside equatorial ionosphere during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm on 22 July 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Jose, Lijo; Ravindran, Sudha

    2011-03-01

    The moderate geomagnetic storm (minimum SYM-H = -89 nT) that occurred during the period from 21 to 25 July 2009 is anomalous because the storm main phase developed during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). A reduction (for ˜4 h) in the daytime E region westward drift (eastward electric field) over the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E; dip latitude ˜0.5°N) in India is observed during the storm main phase. This reduction in the drift is also indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region (Esq) echoes on the ionograms. It is suggested that an additional westward prompt penetration electric field characterized by the northward IMF Bz is superposed on the ionosphere during the storm main phase which contributed to the observed reduction in the drift. These are the first observations which indicate the effects of the dusk-to-dawn penetration electric fields on the east-west drifts during northward IMF.

  11. After the storm: the social relations of return to work following electrical injury.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Elizabeth; Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Kirsh, Bonnie; Colantonio, Angela

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we explored the experiences of 13 individuals who had suffered an electrical injury at work and had subsequently returned to work. In this article, we report on the social, institutional, and relational elements that workers perceived to influence return to work experiences and the provision of workplace accommodations. These elements included (a) worker resources, (b) job characteristics, (c) workplace setting, (d) injury elements, (e) workers' compensation context, and (f) supports and advocacy provided. We conclude that the availability and provision of supportive accommodations are influenced by a multiplicity of interrelated factors including the legitimacy of resulting impairments following electrical injury, institutional structures (e.g., compensation and health care systems), the social relations of work, and broader labor market and economic contexts. Those workers who were vulnerable because of factors such as employment circumstances or labor market conditions were often poorly supported when returning to work following electrical injury.

  12. Observation of enhanced ozone in an electrically active storm over Socorro, NM: Implications for ozone production from corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minschwaner, K.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Dubey, M. K.; Avallone, L. M.; Sawaengphokai, P. C.; Edens, H. E.; Winn, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Enhancements in ozone were observed between about 3 and 10 km altitude within an electrically active storm in central New Mexico. Measurements from satellite sensors and ground-based radar show cloud top pressures between 300 and 150 mb in the vicinity of an ozonesonde launched from Socorro, NM, and heavy precipitation with radar reflectivities exceeding 50 dBZ. Data from a lightning mapping array and a surface electric field mill show a large amount of electrical activity within this thunderstorm. The observed ozone enhancements are large (50% above the mean) and could have resulted from a number of possible processes, including the advection of polluted air from the urban environments of El Paso and Juarez, photochemical production by lightning-generated NOx from aged thunderstorm outflow, downward mixing of stratospheric air, or local production from within the thunderstorm. We find that a large fraction of the ozone enhancement is consistent with local production from corona discharges, either from cloud particles or by corona associated with lightning. The implied global source of ozone from thunderstorm corona discharge is estimated to be 110 Tg O3 a-1 with a range between 40 and 180 Tg O3 a-1. This value is about 21% as large as the estimated ozone production rate from lightning NOx, and about 3% as large as the total chemical production rate of tropospheric ozone. Thus while the estimated corona-induced production of ozone may be significant on local scales, it is unlikely to be as important to the global ozone budget as other sources.

  13. A statistical study of the response of the dayside equatorial F2 layer to the main phase of intense geomagnetic storms as an indicator of penetration electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Yamamoto, M.; Sreeja, V.; Batista, I. S.; Lynn, K. J. W.; Abdu, M. A.; Ravindran, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shokawa, K.; Alex, S.

    2011-03-01

    The response of the dayside equatorial F2 layer to the main phases of the 22 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst < -150 nT) in 1998-2008 is investigated using the digital ionosonde data from the equatorial stations in Brazilian, Indian, and Australian longitudes together with equatorial electrojet strength and IMF Bz; the storms include 15 superstorms (Dst < -200 nT). The observations show that there is a period during all MPs when the F2 layer peak rises (and falls) rapidly with large peak electron density (Nmax) reduction, the rise velocity strongly correlates with the intensity (Dst) of the storms, and the duration of the Nmax reduction corresponds to that of strong eastward electrojet when IMF Bz remains highly negative. The observations indicate the occurrence of strong eastward prompt penetration electric fields (PPEF) during the rapid F2 layer response. The PPEF drives the F2 layer peak rapidly upward, which reduces Nmax due to vertical expansion and diffusion. The results therefore suggest that the rapid F2 layer response (rapid rise (and fall) of peak height (hmax) with large Nmax reduction) observed by ionosondes can be used to detect the occurrence of the daytime eastward PPEF during intense geomagnetic storms irrespective of season and level of solar activity. The data also show two rare events of strong daytime westward electric fields due to disturbance dynamo and/or prompt penetration. The results are important when radars are not available to monitor the occurrence of the PPEF.

  14. Convection and overshielding electric fields in the global ionosphere as observed with magnetometers and SuperDARN during the geomagnetic storm on 14-15 December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Hashimoto, K. K.; Kataoka, R.; Hori, T.; Watari, S.; Nishitani, N.

    2008-12-01

    The convection electric field penetrates to the equatorial ionosphere with no significant shielding effects during the DP2 fluctuation event of period of 30 - 60 min (Nishida, 1968) and during the storm main phase continuing over several hours (Huang et al., 2007). On the other hand, shielding becomes effective during the substorm growth phase (Somajajulu et al., 1987; Kikuchi et al., 2000) and even during storm main phase (Kikuchi et al., 2008). The well-developed shielding electric field results in an overshielding at the beginning of the recovery phase of storm/substorms (Kikuchi et al., 2003, 2008). Thus, the electric field manifests complex features at mid-equatorial latitudes, which is not determined only by the solar wind electric field but strongly controlled by magnetospheric processes such as the ring current. To reveal comparative roles of the convection and overshielding electric fields and in what condition the overshielding occurs at mid-equatorial latitudes, we analyzed the geomagnetic storm on 14-15 December, 2006, characterized by the quasi-periodic DP2 fluctuation of 30 min period at the beginning of the storm. We used magnetometer data from mid- equatorial latitudes to detect magnetic signatures due to the electric field originating in the magnetosphere, and used the SuperDARN data to identify electric fields associated with the solar wind dynamo (Region-1 FAC) and the ring current (R2 FAC). We further calculated an electric potential pattern caused by the R1 and R2 FACs with the comprehensive ring current model (CRCM) to better understand the SuperDARN convection pattern. First we show that the DP2 fluctuation was caused by alternating eastward (e-EJ) and westward currents (w-EJ) in the equatorial ionosphere, which were caused by the southward and northward IMF, respectively. We further show that the e-EJ was associated with the large-scale two-cell convection vortices, while the w-EJ accompanied a reverse flow equatorward of the two

  15. Statistical analysis of storm electrical discharges reconstituted from a lightning mapping system, a lightning location system, and an acoustic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallin, Louis-Jonardan; Farges, Thomas; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Defer, Eric; Rison, William; Schulz, Wolfgang; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment project, a field campaign devoted to the study of electrical activity during storms took place in the south of France in 2012. An acoustic station composed of four microphones and four microbarometers was deployed within the coverage of a Lightning Mapping Array network. On the 26 October 2012, a thunderstorm passed just over the acoustic station. Fifty-six natural thunder events, due to cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes, were recorded. This paper studies the acoustic reconstruction, in the low frequency range from 1 to 40 Hz, of the recorded flashes and their comparison with detections from electromagnetic networks. Concurrent detections from the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection lightning location system were also used. Some case studies show clearly that acoustic signal from thunder comes from the return stroke but also from the horizontal discharges which occur inside the clouds. The huge amount of observation data leads to a statistical analysis of lightning discharges acoustically recorded. Especially, the distributions of altitudes of reconstructed acoustic detections are explored in detail. The impact of the distance to the source on these distributions is established. The capacity of the acoustic method to describe precisely the lower part of nearby cloud-to-ground discharges, where the Lightning Mapping Array network is not effective, is also highlighted.

  16. Short-coupled variant of Torsade de Pointes as a cause of electrical storm and aborted sudden cardiac death: insights into mechanism and treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiladakis, John A; Spiroulias, Georgios; Koutsogiannis, Nikolaos; Zagli, Fani; Alexopoulos, Dimritrios

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes a 50-year-old woman with normal repolarization duration who survived multiple electrical storms and cardiac arrest related to recurrent short-coupled torsade de pointes (TdP). Overdrive ventricular pacing could not prevent malignant TdP, but exposed a pause-related TdP initiation pattern. Isoproterenol and atrial pacing completely suppressed TdP, suggesting that ventricular pacing may entail vulnerability to this condition.

  17. Evolution of Storm-time Subauroral Electric Fields: RCM Event Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, S.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Toffoletto, F.; Baker, J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) are regions of strongly-enhanced westward ExB plasma drift (poleward-directed electric fields) located just equatorward of the evening auroral oval. Several recently -installed HF (coherent scatter) radars in the SuperDARN chain at mid-latitudes present a novel opportunity for obtaining two-dimensional maps of ionospheric ExB flows at F-region altitudes that span several hours of the evening and nighttime subauroral ionosphere. These new and exciting observations of SAPS provide an opportunity and a challenge to coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere models. In this paper, we use the Rice Convection Model (RCM) to simulate several events where SAPS were observed by the mid-latitude SuperDARN chain. RCM frequently predicts the occurrence of SAPS in the subauroral evening MLT sector; the mechanism is essentially current closure on the dusk side where downward Birkeland currents (associated with the ion plasma sheet inner edge) map to a region of reduced ionospheric conductance just equatorward of the diffuse auroral precipitation (associated with the electron plasma sheet inner edge). We present detailed comparisons of model-computed ionospheric convection patterns with observations, with two goals in mind: (1) to analyze to what extent the observed appearance and time evolution of SAPS structures are driven by time variations of the cross polar cap potential drop (or, equivalently, the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field), and (2) to evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce the spatial extent and magnitude of SAPS structures.

  18. Direct observations of the role of convection electric field in the formation of a polar tongue of ionization from storm enhanced density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E. G.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Coster, A. J.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.

    2013-03-01

    examine the relationship of convection electric fields to the formation of a polar cap tongue of ionization (TOI) from midlatitude plumes of storm enhanced density (SED). Observations from the geomagnetic storm on 26-27 September 2011 are presented for two distinct SED events. During an hour-long period of geomagnetic activity driven by a coronal mass ejection, a channel of high-density F region plasma was transported from the dayside subauroral ionosphere and into the polar cap by enhanced convection electric fields extending to middle latitudes. This TOI feature was associated with enhanced HF backscatter, indicating that it was the seat of active formation of small-scale irregularities. After the solar wind interplanetary magnetic field conditions quieted and the dayside convection electric fields retreated to higher latitudes, an SED plume was observed extending to, but not entering, the dayside cusp region. This prominent feature in the distribution of total electron content (TEC) persisted for several hours and elongated in magnetic local time with the rotation of the Earth. No ionospheric scatter from SuperDARN radars was observed within this SED region. The source mechanism (enhanced electric fields) previously drawing the plasma from midlatitudes and into the polar cap as a TOI was no longer active, resulting in a fossil feature. We thus demonstrate the controlling role exercised by the convection electric field in generating a TOI from midlatitude SED.

  19. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  20. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    PubMed

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  1. The Behaviour of Laboratory Soil Electrical Resistivity Value under Basic Soil Properties Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Rosli, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical resistivity method (ERM) was a popular indirect geophysical tools adopted in engineering, environmental and archaeological studies. In the past, results of the electrical resistivity value (ERV) were always subjected to a long discussion and debate among the related parties such as an engineers, geophysicists and geologists due to its lack of clarification and evidences in quantitative point of view. Most of the results produced in the past was always been justified using qualitative ways which difficult to be accept by certain parties. In order to reduce the knowledge gap between those parties, this study has performed a laboratory experiment of soil box resistivity test which supported by an additional basic geotechnical test as referred to particle size distribution test (d), moisture content test (w), density test (ρbulk) and Atterberg limit test (LL, PL and PI). The test was performed to establish a series of electrical resistivity value with different quantity of water content for Clayey SILT and Silty SAND soil. It was found that the ERV of Silty SAND (600 - 7300 Ωm) was higher than Clayey SILT (13 - 7700 Ωm) due to the different quantity of basic soil properties value obtained from the basic geotechnical test. This study was successfully demonstrated that the fluctuation of ERV has greatly influenced by the variations of the soil physical properties (d, w, ρbulk, LL, PL and PI). Hence, the confidence level of ERV interpretation will be increasingly meaningful since it able to be proved by others parameter generated by laboratory direct test.

  2. Study of simultaneous presence of DD and PP electric fields during the geomagnetic storm of November 7-8, 2004 and resultant TEC variation over the Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galav, P.; Sharma, Shweta; Rao, S. S.; Veenadhari, B.; Nagatsuma, T.; Pandey, R.

    2014-04-01

    During very intense geomagnetic storm of November 7-8, 2004 simultaneous presence of storm time disturbance dynamo and eastward and westward directed prompt penetration electric fields inferred from the ground based magnetometer data in the 75∘ E sector is presented. Magnetometer observations show that, on the whole, average Δ H variation on 8 November remains below the night time level compared to its quiet day variation. A number of upward and downward excursions have been observed between 0130 UT and 0800 UT in the Δ H variation on 8 November. These excursions in Δ H have been attributed to the episodes of eastward and westward prompt penetrating electric fields. Ionospheric response in the equatorial ionization anomaly region along 75∘ E has also been studied using the total electron content data recorded at five GPS stations, namely Udaipur, Bengaluru (IISC), Hyderabad (HYDE), Maldives (MALD) and Diego Garcia (DGAR). Observation of markedly suppressed EIA, in conjunction with Δ H variation which was m negative during the daytime on 8 November, indicates the presence of an external field of opposite polarity (the disturbance dynamo electric field) that either undermined, or overshadowed the daytime ambient (eastward) electric field to the extent that the equatorial plasma fountain could not become effective.

  3. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  4. How the effects of winds and electric fields in F2-layer storms vary with latitude and longitude - A theoretical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendillo, M.; He, X.-Q.; Rishbeth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of thermospheric winds and electric fields on the ionospheric F2-layer are controlled by the geometry of the magnetic field, and so vary with latitude and longitude. A simple model of the daytime F2-layer is adopted and the effects at midlatitudes (25-65 deg geographic) of three processes that accompany geomagnetic storms: (1) thermospheric changes due to auroral heating; (2) equatorward winds that tend to cancel the quiet-day poleward winds; and (3) the penetration of magnetospheric electric fields are studied. At +/- 65 deg, the effects of heating and electric fields are strongest in the longitudes toward which the geomagnetic dipole is tilted, i.e., the North American and the South Indian Ocean sectors. Because of the proximity of the geomagnetic equator to the East Asian and South American sectors, the reverse is true at +/- 25 deg.

  5. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module One: Electrical Current. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on electrical current is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Five lessons are included in the…

  6. Alternative approach for management of an electrical storm in Brugada syndrome:Importance of primary ablation within a narrow time window.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmed Karim; Yui, Yoshiaki; Kaneshiro, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Nogami, Akihiko; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2016-06-01

    Placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the only powerful treatment modality for Brugada syndrome in patients presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF). For those whose first presentation is an electrical storm, pharmacologic therapy is typically used to control VF followed by ICD implantation. We report an alternative approach whereby, before ICD implantation, emergency catheter ablation of the VF-triggering premature ventricular contraction (PVC) resulted in long-term VF-free survival. The results suggest that, because VF triggers appear in a narrow time window, ablation of the culprit PVCs that initiate VF before the index PVCs subside is a reasonable alternative approach.

  7. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... April 11, 2004 (top panels) contrast strongly with the dust storm that swept across Iraq and Saudi Arabia on May 13, 2004 (bottom panels). ... Apr 11 and May 13, 2004 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Middle East thumbnail:  ...

  8. Rescue peri-operative management of the patient with giant electrical storm and severe left ventricular dysfunction: support by levosimendan and intraaortic balloon counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Vanek, Tomas; Kolesar, Miroslav; Nejedly, Michal; Jirmar, Radovan

    2008-08-01

    We present a case of a 62-year-old male patient (coronary heart disease, and stenosis of aortic valve) with severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction 20%, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 80 mm, end-diastolic volume 329 ml) who developed giant electrical storm (on the whole 115 episodes of pulseless ventricular tachycardia treated by antiarrhythmics and electrical discharges) with low-elevation of cardiac biomarkers. The patient was referred to emergent cardiac surgery (double coronary bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, and implantation of left ventricular epicardial electrode). Levosimendan and intraaortic balloon counterpulsation were used for successful weaning from the cardiopulmonary bypass; no other arrhythmia appeared in the post-bypass period. Postoperatively no arrhythmic events were detected, and repeated echocardiographic examinations of the patient in good general condition showed gradual improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (30-35%), likewise in other parameters (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 72 mm, end-diastolic volume 285 ml).

  9. Mapping and ablation of trigger premature ventricular contractions in a case of electrical storm associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Taro; Yamada, Takumi; Murakami, Yoshimasa; Yoshida, Naoki; Ninomiya, Yuuichi; Toyama, Junji

    2007-03-01

    We report a case of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (PVT/VF) storm associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). The electrocardiogram (ECG) monitor revealed frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) initiated PVT/VF. Electroanatomic mapping revealed the plausible origins of PVCs were located in the scar border zone at the posterior septum of the left ventricle. Purkinje-like potentials (PLPs) always preceded PVCs and a decremental property for the PLPs and infarcted myocardium junction was observed. Ablation at these sites eliminated both PVCs and PVT/VF.

  10. Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine. A few years later, speculation on a causal relationship between flares and storms arose when Carrington reported that a large magnetic storm followed the great September 1859 solar flare. However, it was not until this century that a well-accepted statistical survey on large solar flares and geomagnetic storms was performed, and a significant correlation between flares and geomagnetic storms was noted. Although the two phenomena, one on the Sun and the other on the Earth, were statistically correlated, the exact physical linkage was still an unknown at this time. Various hypotheses were proposed, but it was not until interplanetary spacecraft measurements were available that a high-speed plasma stream rich in helium was associated with an intense solar flare. The velocity of the solar wind increased just prior to and during the helium passage, identifying the solar ejecta for the first time. Space plasma measurements and Skylab's coronagraph images of coronal mass elections (CMES) from the Sun firmly established the plasma link between the Sun and the Earth. One phenomenon associated with magnetic storms is brilliant "blood" red auroras, as shown.

  11. The Influence of Basic Physical Properties of Soil on its Electrical Resistivity Value under Loose and Dense Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, M. H. Z.; Ahmad, F.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Saad, R.

    2014-04-01

    Electrical resistivity technique has become a famous alternative tool in subsurface characterization. In the past, several interpretations of electrical resistivity results were unable to be delivered in a strong justification due to lack of appreciation of soil mechanics. Traditionally, interpreters will come out with different conclusion which commonly from qualitative point of view thus creating some uncertainty regarding the result reliability. Most engineers desire to apply any techniques in their project which are able to provide some clear justification with strong, reliable and meaningful results. In order to reduce the problem, this study presents the influence of basic physical properties of soil due to the electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition. Two different conditions of soil embankment model were tested under electrical resistivity test and basic geotechnical test. It was found that the electrical resistivity value (ERV, ρ) was highly influenced by the variations of soil basic physical properties (BPP) with particular reference to moisture content (w), densities (ρbulk/dry), void ratio (e), porosity (η) and particle grain fraction (d) of soil. Strong relationship between ERV and BPP can be clearly presents such as ρ ∞ 1/w, ρ ∞ 1/ρbulk/dry, ρ ∞ e and ρ ∞ η. This study therefore contributes a means of ERV data interpretation using BPP in order to reduce ambiguity of ERV result and interpretation discussed among related persons such as geophysicist, engineers and geologist who applied these electrical resistivity techniques in subsurface profile assessment.

  12. Groundwater discharge to wetlands driven by storm and flood events: Quantification using continuous Radon-222 and electrical conductivity measurements and dynamic mass-balance modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Frei, S.; Hofmann, H.; Cartwright, I.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic response of groundwater discharge to external influences such as rainfall is an often neglected part of water and solute balances in wetlands. Here we develop a new field platform for long-term continuous 222Rn and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at Sale Wetland, Australia to study the response of groundwater discharge to storm and flood events. The field measurements, combined with dynamic mass-balance modelling, demonstrate that the groundwater flux can increase from 3 to ∼20 mm d-1 following storms and up to 5 mm d-1 on the receding limb of floods. The groundwater pulses are likely produced by activation of local groundwater flow paths by water ponding on the surrounding flood plains. While 222Rn is a sensitive tracer for quantifying transient groundwater discharge, the mass-balance used to estimate fluxes is sensitive to parameterisation of gas exchange (k) with the atmosphere. Comparison of six equations for calculating k showed that, based on parameterisation of k alone, the groundwater flux estimate could vary by 58%. This work shows that neglecting transient processes will lead to errors in water and solute flux estimates based on infrequent point measurements. This could be particularly important for surface waters connected to contaminated or saline groundwater systems.

  13. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  14. Formative Evaluation of an Experimental BE/E [Basic Electricity and Electronics] Program. Report No. 9-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishburne, R. P., Jr.; Mims, Diane M.

    An experimental Basic Electricity and Electronics course (BE/E) utilizing a lock-step, instructor presentation methodology was developed and evaluated at the Service School Command, Great Lakes. The study, directed toward the training of lower mental group, school nonqualified personnel, investigated comparative data on test performance, attitude,…

  15. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 22: Oscillators. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on oscillators is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the module:…

  16. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 23: Multivibrators. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on multivibrators is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Three lessons are included in the…

  17. Instructor's Index to U.S. Navy and Air Force Materials for Teaching Basic Electricity. Final Report, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Alan

    The purpose of this index is to identify U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force transparencies, films, and manuals which can be used by schools and colleges to teach basic electricity. Materials are classified according to 39 major categories including Electron Theory, Batteries and Battery Connections, D.C. Series Circuits, Network Theorems,…

  18. Mathematics Course Requirements and Performance Levels in the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics Schools. Technical Report, March 1980-December 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Meryl S.

    Instructors in the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics (BE/E) schools were presented with a list of 70 mathematical skills and asked to indicate: (1) how important they were to successful BE/E school performance, and (2) whether they were prerequisite, reviewed, or taught in the schools. Also, they were asked to state the number and type of…

  19. Effects of magnetospheric electric fields and neutral winds on the low-middle latitude ionosphere during the March 20-21, 1990, Storm

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsanto, M.J.; Foster, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    During the geomagnetic storm of March 20-21, 1990, substorm activity is clearly evident in magnetometer data collected during the night at the middle- and low-latitude stations Fredericksburg (38.2{degrees}N, 282.6{degrees}E) and San Juan (18.1{degrees}N, 293.8{degrees}E). At the same time, incoherent scatter radars at Millstone Hill (42.6{degrees}N, 288.5{degrees}E) and Arecibo (18.3{degrees}N, 293.25{degrees}E) observed ionospheric storm effects, which included the penetration of magnetospheric electric fields and disturbance neutral winds to the latitude of Arecibo. The eastward electric fields associated with the substorm disturbances result in increases in the F2 peak height (hmF2) at Arecibo. Decreases in hmF2 follow as a result of increased downward diffusion and/or the effects of an ion drag induced poleward wind. During the intervals between the electric field penetration events, equatorward surges in the neutral wind result in westward electric fields by the disturbance dynamo mechanism. At these times the horizontal ionization drifts are not as strong as the neutral winds, apparently because of a partial shorting out of the dynamo electric fields as a result of some E region conductivity. The anticorrelation between the components of ion drift parallel (V{sub {parallel}}) and perpendicular to the magnetic field in the northward direction (V{sub {perpendicular}}N) results in approximately horizontal (constant altitude) ion drift motion throughout the interval. Calculations of spatial gradients in the electron density and in the components of the ion velocity are carried out using the multi-directional incoherent scatter observations at Arecibo. The results show that the variations in electron density during the disturbed interval follow closely the motion term in the F2 region continuity equation, with both advection of spatial gradients and divergence of the ion flow important at times. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Discrimination of Basic Taste Solutions and Soft Drinks on Electrical and Optical Response Patterns of Artificial Lipid Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Keiichi; Misawa, Kenji; Arisawa, Junji

    In this paper, electrical and optical characteristics of artificial lipid membrane for basic taste solutions and tea drinks were examined. The possibility of taste sensing on the electrical and optical response patterns of a single membrane was also discussed. As a result, in case of sour and sweet solutions with different concentration, the patterns of taste response were similar in shape. In case of the tea drinks on some commercial goods, the different shapes among the sample solutions were obtained. Furthermore, the strength of sour taste was reflected in the electrical axis of response pattern and the strength of sweet taste was reflected in the optical axis of response pattern. Therefore, it was found that the possibility of taste sensing using electrical and optical response patterns was obtained from a single membrane.

  1. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  6. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics through a Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not…

  7. Electric versus hydraulic hospital beds: differences in use during basic nursing tasks.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Edda Maria

    2013-01-01

    Biomechanical, postural and ergonomic aspects during real patient-assisting tasks performed by nurses using an electric versus a hydraulic hospital bed were observed. While there were no differences in the flexed postures the nurses adopted, longer performance times were recorded when electric beds were used. Subjective effort, force exertion and lumbar shear forces exceeding safety limits proved electric beds were superior. Patients' dependency level seemed to influence the type of nurses' intervention (duration and force actions), irrespective of the bed used. The nurses greatly appreciated the electric bed. Its use seemed to reduce the level of effort perceived during care giving and the postural load during critical subtasks. Ergonomics and organizational problems related to adopting electric beds in hospital wards should be addressed further to make their use more efficient.

  8. Electrical Trades. COM-LINK. Competency Based Vocational Curricula with Basic Skills and Academic Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannone, Richard

    This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The model demonstrates the relationship of vocational skills to communication, mathematics, and science. The document begins with a philosophy statement; preface; a…

  9. Progress Check Module; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. Progress Check Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Progress Check Booklet is designed to be used by the student working in the programed course to determine if he has mastered the concepts in the course booklets on: electrical current; voltage; resistance; measuring current and voltage in series circuits; relationships of current, voltage, and resistance; parellel circuits; combination…

  10. Making Their Own Connections: Students' Understanding of Multiple Models in Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutwill, Joshua P.; Frederiksen, John R.; White, Barbara Y.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored impact of teaching high schoolers coordinated or uncoordinated models of static electricity. Posttest results showed that students who were taught the uncoordinated models outperformed those in that control group; however, the coordinated model group did not outperform its control group. Process data suggest that the…

  11. Tropical Storm Katrina

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Cloud Spirals and Outflow in Tropical Storm Katrina     View Larger Image ... heights and cloud-tracked wind velocities for Tropical Storm Katrina, as the center of the storm was situated over the Tennessee ...

  12. On the watch for geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Arthur W.; Brown, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms, induced by solar activity, pose significant hazards to satellites, electrical power distribution systems, radio communications, navigation, and geophysical surveys. Strong storms can expose astronauts and crews of high-flying aircraft to dangerous levels of radiation. Economic losses from recent geomagnetic storms have run into hundreds of millions of dollars. With the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the lead agency, an international network of geomagnetic observatories monitors the onset of solar-induced storms and gives warnings that help diminish losses to military and commercial operations and facilities.

  13. Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Y.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Baumjohann, W.; Daglis, I.A.; Grande, M.; Joselyn, J.A.; Singer, H.J.; McPherron, R.L.; Phillips, J.L.; Reeves, E.G.; Rostoker, G.; Sharma, A.S.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1998-08-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the current understanding of the storm/substorm relationship by clearing up a considerable amount of controversy and by addressing the question of how solar wind energy is deposited into and is dissipated in the constituent elements that are critical to magnetospheric and ionospheric processes during magnetic storms. (1) Four mechanisms are identified and discussed as the primary causes of enhanced electric fields in the interplanetary medium responsible for geomagnetic storms. It is pointed out that in reality, these four mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, but interdependent, interact differently from event to event. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are found to be the primary phenomena responsible for the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The other two mechanisms, i.e., HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet activity) and the so-called Russell-McPherron effect, work to make the ICME and CIR phenomena more geoeffective. The solar cycle dependence of the various sources in creating magnetic storms has yet to be quantitatively understood. (2) A serious controversy exists as to whether the successive occurrence of intense substorms plays a direct role in the energization of ring current particles or whether the enhanced electric field associated with southward IMF enhances the effect of substorm expansions. While most of the {ital Dst} variance during magnetic storms can be solely reproduced by changes in the large-scale electric field in the solar wind and the residuals are uncorrelated with substorms, recent satellite observations of the ring current constituents during the main phase of magnetic storms show the importance of ionospheric ions. This implies that ionospheric ions, which are associated with the frequent occurrence of intense substorms, are accelerated upward along magnetic field lines, contributing to the energy density of

  14. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 21: Basic Transistor Theory; Module 21T: Multi-Element Vacuum Tubes. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This set of individualized learning modules on transistor theory is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two modules are included in…

  15. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  20. Nuclear magnetohydrodynamic EMP, solar storms, and substorms

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M. ); Meliopoulous, A.P.S.; Glytsis, E.N. . School of Electrical Engineering); Cokkinides, G.J. )

    1992-10-20

    In addition to a fast electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high altitude nuclear burst produces a relatively slow magnetohydrodynamic EMP (MHD EMP), whose effects are like those from solar storm geomagnetically induced currents (SS-GIC). The MHD EMP electric field E [approx lt] 10[sup [minus] 1] V/m and lasts [approx lt] 10[sup 2] sec, whereas for solar storms E [approx gt] 10[sup [minus] 2] V/m and lasts [approx gt] 10[sup 3] sec. Although the solar storm electric field is lower than MHD EMP, the solar storm effects are generally greater due to their much longer duration. Substorms produce much smaller effects than SS-GIC, but occur much more frequently. This paper describes the physics of such geomagnetic disturbances and analyzes their effects.

  1. Tropical Storm Bud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  A Strengthening Eastern Pacific Storm     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) show then Tropical Storm Bud as it was intensifying toward hurricane status, which it acquired ...

  2. Lightning activity and severe storm structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. L.; Brandes, E. A.; Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Space-time mapping of VHF sources from four severe storms on June 19, 1980 reveals that lightning processes for cloud-to-ground (CG) and large intracloud (IC) flashes are confined to an altitude below about 10 km and closely associated with the central regions of high reflectivity. Another class of IC flashes produces a splattering of sources within the storms' main electrically active volumes and also within the large divergent wind canopy aloft. There is no apparent temporal association between the small high altitude IC flashes that occur almost continuously and the large IC and CG flashes that occur sporadically in the lower portions of storms.

  3. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  4. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 25: Special Devices. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on special devices is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two lessons are included in the module:…

  5. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 33: Special Devices. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on special devices is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…

  6. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 30: Intermediate Power Supplies. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on intermediate power supplies is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included…

  7. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Two: Voltage. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on voltage is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module: (1)…

  8. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 31: RF, IF, and Video Amplifiers. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on radio frequency (RF), intermediate frequency (IF), and video amplifiers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a…

  9. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Six: Parallel Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…

  10. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  11. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Eleven: Capacitance. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on capacitance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Seven lessons are included in the module:…

  12. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Ten: Transformers. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on transformers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module:…

  13. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Eight: Induction. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on induction is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the module: (1)…

  14. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 34: Linear Integrated Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on linear integrated circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two lessons are included in…

  15. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Three: Resistance. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages solicted for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the module: (1)…

  16. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Twelve: Series AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on series alternating current resistive-reactive circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  17. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…

  18. Utilities weather the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Lihach, N.

    1984-11-01

    Utilities must restore power to storm-damaged transmission and distribution systems, even if it means going out in ice storms or during lightning and hurricane conditions. Weather forecasting helps utilities plan for possible damage as well as alerting them to long-term trends. Storm planning includes having trained repair personnel available and adjusting the system so that less power imports are needed. Storm damage response requires teamwork and cooperation between utilities. Utilities can strengthen equipment in storm-prone or vulnerable areas, but good data are necessary to document the incidence of lighning strikes, hurricanes, etc. 2 references, 8 figures.

  19. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  20. Extreme Geoelectric Fields Induced By Magnetic Storm Sudden Impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Rigler, E. J.; Swidinsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large magnetic storms, as quantified by the Dst index, can produce geoelectric fields that are hazardous for the operation of electric power grids. The great storm of March 1989, for example, had the highest -Dst value of the 20th century. During the main phase of this storm, rapid magnetic variation induced geoelectric fields in the Earth's lithosphere that caused the complete collapse of the Canadian Hydro-Québec electric-power grid. In this study, we focus specifically on how sudden impulses in geomagnetic activity, those that occur during large storms, can induce geoelectric fields. These impulses can be seen during storm main phases, but they are most usually recognized as storm sudden commencements corresponding to the arrival, at Earth, of coronal mass ejections. We use a newly developed algorithm for estimating induced geoelectric fields from magnetic field variation recorded at ground-based observatories. We train the algorithm on 1-sec geomagnetic and geoelectric field data collected at Japanese observatories during the October 2003 Halloween storm. We then postdict geoelectric fields that would have been realized (but not directly measured at 1-sec resolution) in Japan during the 1989 Québec storm and during another intense storm that occurred in March 1991. The later storm is noteworthy, not because of its intense main phase, but because it commenced with a sudden impulse of enormous magnitude. For the first half minute of the 1991 storm, induced geoelectric fields far exceeded those realized during the 1989 storm. Recognizing the potential hazard, we also analyze a scenario geomagnetic time series of an extreme event sudden commencement, and we calculate the geoelectric fields that this scenario event might plausibly induce. Results show that substantial geoelectric field induction, possibly hazardous for electric power grids, can occur briefly but very abruptly as soon as a magnetic storm commences.

  1. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  2. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  3. Renal sympathetic denervation as an adjunct to catheter ablation for the treatment of ventricular electrical storm in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Boris A; Steven, Daniel; Willems, Stephan; Sydow, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    We present a case of ventricular storm (VS) in a patient with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). After initial successful thrombus extraction and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, a 63-year-old male patient showed recurrent monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) and fibrillation (VF) episodes refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy. After initial successful VT ablation, fast VT and VF episodes remained an evident problem despite maximum antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Due to an increasing instability, renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) was performed. ICD interrogation and 24-hour Holter monitoring excluded recurrent episodes of VT or VF at a 6-month follow-up (FU) after discharge. This case highlights that RDN was effective and safely performed in a hemodynamically unstable patient with VS after STEMI and adjunct catheter ablation. RDN may open a new avenue for an adjunctive interventional bailout treatment of such highly challenging patients.

  4. Wallops severe storms measurement capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the instrumentation system used in support of NASA'S Storm Hazards Program are described. These systems include the Radar Atmospheric Research Facility (RARF) with its Space Range Radar and a near real time display from the National Weather Service WSR-57 radar, a lightning detection and ranging system (LDAR), and a Ryan Stormscope. The RARF system can detect, track, and quantify the properties of severe storms. Simultaneous measurements in the UHF (70 cm), S (10 cm), and C (5 cm) bands can be made of clouds and precipitation to deduce particle size and characteristics, including quantitive cross sections of individual hailstones and raindrops. Relative attenuation at these wavelenghts can be used to calculate path integrated rainfall and water content. The track of an instrument aircraft can be displayed on S-band reflectivity map of the individual storm cells. The LDAR system can determine the location of lightning discharges in real time and measure and record the electric field waveform for further study. The Ryan Stormscope can detect and range lightning out to 320 kilometers.

  5. Exploring the Basic Principles of Electric Motors and Generators with a Low-Cost Sophomore-Level Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, T. F.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular needs, an electric motor and generator laboratory experience was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum and in that it focuses on modeling electric motors, predicting their performance, and measuring efficiency of energy conversion. While…

  6. Ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Alex T.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Collins, Nancy; Hoar, Timothy J.; Lu, Gang; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Coster, Anthea J.; Paxton, Larry J.; Bust, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionospheric storms can have important effects on radio communications and navigation systems. Storm time ionospheric predictions have the potential to form part of effective mitigation strategies to these problems. Ionospheric storms are caused by strong forcing from the solar wind. Electron density enhancements are driven by penetration electric fields, as well as by thermosphere-ionosphere behavior including Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and changes to the neutral composition. This study assesses the effect on 1 h predictions of specifying initial ionospheric and thermospheric conditions using total electron content (TEC) observations under a fixed set of solar and high-latitude drivers. Prediction performance is assessed against TEC observations, incoherent scatter radar, and in situ electron density observations. Corotated TEC data provide a benchmark of forecast accuracy. The primary case study is the storm of 10 September 2005, while the anomalous storm of 21 January 2005 provides a secondary comparison. The study uses an ensemble Kalman filter constructed with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. Maps of preprocessed, verticalized GPS TEC are assimilated, while high-latitude specifications from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics and solar flux observations from the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment are used to drive the model. The filter adjusts ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, making use of time-evolving covariance estimates. The approach is effective in correcting model biases but does not capture all the behavior of the storms. In particular, a ridge-like enhancement over the continental USA is not predicted, indicating the importance of predicting storm time electric field behavior to the problem of ionospheric forecasting.

  7. Responses of equatorial F region to different geomagnetic storms observed by GPS in the African sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adewale, A. O.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Adeloye, A. B.; Ngwira, C. M.; Athieno, R.

    2011-12-01

    This article presents the first results regarding the investigation of the response of the equatorial ionospheric F region in the African sector during geomagnetic storm periods between April 2000 and November 2007 using GPS-derived vertical total electron content observed at Libreville, Gabon (0.35°N, 9.67°E, dip latitude -8.05°S). We performed a superposed epoch analysis of the storms by defining the start time of the epoch as the storm onset time. During geomagnetic storms, the altered electric fields contribute significantly to the occurrence of negative and positive ionospheric storm effects. Our results showed that the positive storm effects are more prevalent than the negative storm effects and generally last longer irrespective of storm onset times. Also, the positive storm effects are most pronounced in the daytime than in the premidnight and postmidnight periods.

  8. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  9. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  10. Tropical Storm Faxai

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA/JAXA's TRMM Satellite provided data of developing Tropical Storm Faxai to make this 3-D image that showed some towering thunderstorms in the area were reaching altitudes of up to 15.5km/~9.6 m...

  11. Tropical Storm Dolly Develops

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from NOAA's GOES-East satellite from Aug. 31-Sept. 2 shows the movement of a low pressure area from the western Caribbean Sea over the Yucatan Peninsula as it becomes Tropical Storm ...

  12. Powerful Midwest Storm System

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of imagery from NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite shows themovement of storm systems in the south central United States on May 20,2013. Warm, moist gulf air flowing across Texas, Oklahoma...

  13. Tropical Storm Don

    NASA Video Gallery

    GOES-13 data was compiled into an animation by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard that shows the development of Tropical Storm Don in the southern Gulf of Mexico, west of Cuba. The animation run...

  14. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) and NeuroImaging: the state-of-the-art, new insights and prospects in basic and clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Herring, Jim Don; McGonigle, David

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself. At the same time, they also point to the many caveats and specific challenges associated with such studies, which can arise from both technical and biological sources. Besides promising to advance basic neuroscience, combined tES and neuroimaging studies may also substantially change previous conceptions about the methods of action of electric or magnetic stimulation on the brain.

  15. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) and NeuroImaging: the state-of-the-art, new insights and prospects in basic and clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Herring, Jim Don; McGonigle, David

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself. At the same time, they also point to the many caveats and specific challenges associated with such studies, which can arise from both technical and biological sources. Besides promising to advance basic neuroscience, combined tES and neuroimaging studies may also substantially change previous conceptions about the methods of action of electric or magnetic stimulation on the brain. PMID:27633745

  16. Ionospheric Storms in Equatorial Region: Digisonde Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paznukhov, V.; Altadill, D.; Blanch, E.

    2011-12-01

    We present a study of the ionospheric storms observed in the low-latitude and equatorial ionosphere at several digisonde stations: Jicamarca (Geomagnetic Coordinates: 2.0 S, 355.3 E), Kwajalein Island (3.8 N, 238.2 E), Ascension Island (2.5 S, 56.8 E), Fortaleza (4.8 N, 33.7 W), and Ramey (28.6 N, 5.2 E). The strongest geomagnetic storms from years 1995-2009 have been analyzed. The main ionospheric characteristics, hmF2 and foF2 were used in the study, making it possible to investigate the changes in the ionosphere peak density and height during the storms. All digisonde data were manually processed to assure the accuracy of the measurements. Solar wind data, geomagnetic field variations, and auroral activity indices have been used to characterize the geomagnetic environment during the events. It was found in our analysis that the major drivers for the ionospheric storms, electric field and neutral wind have approximately equal importance at the low-latitude and equatorial latitudes. This is noticeably different from the behavior of the ionsphere in the middle latitudes, where the neutral wind is usually a dominant factor. It was found that the auroral index, AE is the best precursor of the ionospheric effects observed during the storms in this region. We analyze the difference between time delays of the storm effects observed at the stations located in different local time sectors. The overall statistics of the time delays of the storms as a function of the local time at the stations is also presented. Several very interesting cases of sudden very strong ionospheric uplifting and their possible relation to the equatorial super fountain effect are investigated in greater details.

  17. Developing Basic Electronics Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeshore Technical Coll., Cleveland, WI.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for basic training in electrical and electronic theory to enable participants to analyze circuits and use test equipment to verify electrical operations and to succeed in the beginning electrical and electronic courses in the Lakeshore Technical College (Wisconsin) electronics programs. The course includes…

  18. Lightning parameterization in a storm electrification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Farley, Richard D.; Wu, Gang

    1988-01-01

    The parameterization of an intracloud lightning discharge has been implemented in our Storm Electrification Model. The initiation, propagation direction, termination and charge redistribution of the discharge are approximated assuming overall charge neutrality. Various simulations involving differing amounts of charge transferred have been done. The effects of the lightning-produced ions on the hydrometeor charges, electric field components and electrical energy depend strongly on the charge transferred. A comparison between the measured electric field change of an actual intracloud flash and the field change due to the simulated discharge show favorable agreement.

  19. Fractal identification of supercell storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féral, Laurent; Sauvageot, Henri

    2002-07-01

    The most intense and violent form of convective storm is the supercell storm, usually associated with heavy rain, hail, and destructive gusty winds, downbursts, and tornadoes. Identifying a storm cell as a supercell storm is not easy. What is shown here, from radar data, is that when an ordinary, or multicell storm evolves towards the supercellular organization, its fractal dimension is modified. Whereas the fractal dimension of the ordinary convective storms, including multicell thunderstorms, is observed around 1.35, in agreement with previous results, the fractal dimension of supercell storms is found close to 1.07. This low value is due to the unicellular character of supercells. The present paper suggests that the fractal dimension is a parameter that should be considered to analyse the dynamical organization of a convective field and to detect and identify the supercell storms, either isolated or among a population of convective storms.

  20. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. A.; Schrag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of modeling the electrical system aspects of a coil and metal target configuration resembling a practical electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) installation, and a simple circuit for providing energy to the coil, was presented. The model was developed in sufficient theoretical detail to allow the generation of computer algorithms for the current in the coil, the magnetic induction on both surfaces of the target, the force between the coil and target, and the impulse delivered to the target. These algorithms were applied to a specific prototype EIDI test system for which the current, magnetic fields near the target surfaces, and impulse were previously measured.

  1. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  2. The relationship of storm severity to directionally resolved radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. L.

    1986-04-01

    The objective was to provide continuous observation of atmospheric electrical activity occurring in association with tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico. The observations were to include the location of all detected intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning activity occurring in the storm. To provide synoptic scale coverage, a phase linear interferometer high frequency direction finder (HFDF) system was constructed and developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This was used in concert with the existing HFDF interferometer at the southwest research institute to provide lightning location data through triangulation. Atmospheric electrical events were synchronized through the use of satellite receivers at each site. The intent of the data analysis was to correlate the location of electrical centers of activity with radar and satellite imagry to identify areas of intense convection within the tropical storm system. Analysis of the hurricane Alicia data indicate a center of atmospheric electrical activity associated with the vortex of the storm. The center appears to rotate from the Northern side of the vortex to the Southern side during the period of observation. An analysis of the atmospheric electrical burst rates associated with hurrican Alicia indicates that the electrical activity appears to maximize at the time of greatest storm intensity, i.e., maximum winds and lowest central pressure.

  3. Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A Huntsville meteorologist of Baron Services, Inc. has formed a commercial weather advisory service. Weather information is based on data from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) collected from antennas in Alabama and Tennessee. Bob Baron refines and enhances MSFC's real time display software. Computer data is changed to audio data for radio transmission, received by clients through an antenna and decoded by computer for display. Using his service, clients can monitor the approach of significant storms and schedule operations accordingly. Utilities and emergency management officials are able to plot a storm's path. A recent agreement with two other companies will promote continued development and marketing.

  4. Tropical Storm near Bermuda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This unnamed tropical storm near Bermuda (26.5N, 59.5W) was the result of a strong mid-latitude low pressure system that formed over the Gulf Stream near Cape Hatteras. It rapidly developed into a spiral gyre with internal wind speeds of up to 50 knots and whipped up the sea surface with swells of 15 to 20 feet creating dangerous boating conditions. These sub-hurricane storms are frequent occurances in this region during the fall, winter and spring.

  5. North Polar Dust Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-334, 18 April 2003

    This composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle daily global images shows a north polar dust storm on March 7, 2003. Similar late summer storms occurred nearly every day from late February well into April 2003; these were also seen in late summer in 1999 and 2001. The white features at the top of the image are the water ice surfaces of the north polar residual cap. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  6. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert A.; Schrag, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of modelling a system consisting of a cylindrical coil with its axis perpendicular to a metal plate of finite thickness, and a simple electrical circuit for producing a transient current in the coil, is discussed in the context of using such a system for de-icing aircraft surfaces. A transmission line model of the coil and metal plate is developed as the heart of the system model. It is shown that this transmission model is central to calculation of the coil impedance, the coil current, the magnetic fields established on the surfaces of the metal plate, and the resultant total force between the coil and the plate. FORTRAN algorithms were developed for numerical calculation of each of these quantities, and the algorithms were applied to an experimental prototype system in which these quantities had been measured. Good agreement is seen to exist between the predicted and measured results.

  7. Ionospheric Response During Four Intense Geomagnetic Storms: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Crowley, G.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2007-05-01

    Large magnitude and hemispheric-scale increases in ionospheric plasma content are observed for daytime local times during intense geomagnetic storms. Ionospheric increases during the main phase of geomagnetic storms were identified many years ago and categorized as the "positive phase" ionospheric response. This talk will explore what we can learn using satellite data and distributed ground-based measurements, to understand the geoeffective processes at work in creating the positive phase for intense storms. The importance of electric fields penetrating to low latitudes on the dayside has received a great deal of attention recently, and is leading to revised theoretical and modeling constructs to account for the observations in a quantitative manner. We will present ground and space-based Global Positioning System (GPS) electron content data for four storms and analyze the data in light of the upstream conditions with a common epoch analysis. Modeling studies of the storm-time ionospheric behavior will be shown, using the ASPEN-TIMEGCM fully-coupled thermosphere- ionosphere (T-I) model with low-latitude electrodynamics. The ASPEN-TIMEGCM model contains storm-time effects such as winds and the resulting dynamo electric fields, but penetration E-fields including shielding are not currently included. The model runs are driven by carefully reconstructed high latitude time-dependent drivers based in part on the AMIE high latitude electrodynamics model. The time history of a modeled storm will be compared with observations. We will highlight outstanding science questions that are revealed in this study.

  8. Tropical Storm Lee to Newfoundland

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Tropical Storm Lee as it made landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi on September 4, 2011. This storm produced flooding and tornadoes to the southern states all the way to flooding ...

  9. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for space and electric vehicle applications: From basic research to technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Parthasarathy, A.; CesarFerreira, A.; Wakizoe, Masanobu; Rho, Yong Woo; Kim, Junbom; Mosdale, Renaut A.; Paetzold, Ronald F.; Lee, James

    1994-01-01

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising electrochemical power sources for space and electric vehicle applications. The wide spectrum of R&D activities on PEMFC's, carried out in our Center from 1988 to date, is as follows (1) Electrode Kinetic and Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction; (2) Optimization of Structures of Electrodes and of Membrane and Electrode Assemblies; (3) Selection and Evaluation of Advanced Proton Conducting Membranes and of Operating Conditions to Attain High Energy Efficiency; (4) Modeling Analysis of Fuel Cell Performance and of Thermal and Water Management; and (5) Engineering Design and Development of Multicell Stacks. The accomplishments on these tasks may be summarized as follows: (1) A microelectrode technique was developed to determine the electrode kinetic parameters for the fuel cell reactions and mass transport parameters for the H2 and O2 reactants in the proton conducting membrane. (2) High energy efficiencies and high power densities were demonstrated in PEMFCs with low platinum loading electrodes (0.4 mg/cm(exp 2) or less), advanced membranes and optimized structures of membrane and electrode assemblies, as well as operating conditions. (3) The modeling analyses revealed methods to minimize mass transport limitations, particularly with air as the cathodic reactant; and for efficient thermal and water management. (4) Work is in progress to develop multi-kilowatt stacks with the electrodes containing low platinum loadings.

  10. Mars Atmospheric Chemistry in Electrified Dust Devils and Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Delory, G. T.; Atreya, S. K.; Wong, A.-S.; Renno, N. O.; Sentmann, D. D.; Marshall, J. G.; Cummer, S. A.; Rafkin, S.; Catling, D.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory studies, simulations and desert field tests all indicate that aeolian mixing dust can generate electricity via contact electrification or "triboelectricity". In convective structures like dust devils or storms, grain stratification (or charge separation) occurs giving rise to an overall electric dipole moment to the aeolian feature, similar in nature to the dipolar electric field generated in terrestrial thunderstorms. Previous simulation studies [1] indicate that this storm electric field on Mars can approach atmospheric breakdown field strength of 20 kV/m. In terrestrial dust devils, coherent dipolar electric fields exceeding 20 kV/m have been measured directly via electric field instrumentation. Given the expected electrostatic fields in Martian dust devils and storms, electrons in the low pressure CO2 gas can be energized via the electric field to values exceeding the electron dissociative attachment energy of both CO2 and H2O, resulting in the formation of new chemical products CO and O- and OH and H- within the storm. Using a collisional plasma physics model we present a calculation of the CO/O- and OH/H- reaction and production rates. We demonstrate that these rates vary geometrically with ambient electric field, with substantial production of dissociative products when fields approach breakdown levels of 20-30 kV/m.

  11. Recovery from major storms

    SciTech Connect

    Holeman, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Public Service Company of Oklahoma's transmission and distribution system is in tornado alley, and it seems the number of tornados hitting some part of the system is increasing each year. In the past 30 years, Tulsa his been hit 7 times, and experienced 3 very wide and destructive tornado storm systems between 1971 and 1975.

  12. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  13. California's Perfect Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  14. Weathering the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1993-02-01

    When Hurricane Andrew struck, thousands were displaced from their homes in Florida and Louisiana. Now, months after the winds ceased blowing, the storm is causing hardship once again. Insurance companies sustaining large losses in recent months from a number of natural disasters - including the hurricane - are now passing those losses on to their customers. Independent power companies are no exception.

  15. Stories from the Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoczynski, Carol

    2007-01-01

    For four months, St. Paul's Episcopal School in the Lakeview neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana remained closed after Hurricane Katrina ravaged the entire city in August 2005. The storm left St. Paul's campus under nine feet of water for two weeks, destroying many buildings and the entire first floor of the campus. As the only remaining art…

  16. Superposed Epoch Analysis of Current Systems During Intense Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Katus, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    A statistical approach to investigating the intensity and timing of storm-time current systems is conducted and presented. The Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model was used to simulate all of the intense storms (Dstmin < -100 nT) from solar cycle 23 (1996-2005). Five different HEIDI input combinations were used to create a large collection of numerical results, varying the plasma outer boundary condition and electric field description in the model. The simulation results are then combined with a normalized superposed epoch analysis, where each phase of each storm is prorated to the average duration of that phase and then all of the storms are averaged together. The azimuthal currents in the HEIDI simulation domain are classified as westward and eastward symmetric ring current, partial ring current, banana current, and tail current. The average behavior of these current systems with respect to the HEIDI plasma and electric field boundary conditions are then presented and discussed. It is found that the Volland-Stern electric field produces an earlier increase in the inner magnetospheric current systems because of the usage of the 3-h Kp index. A self-consistent electric field develops the current systems a few hours later, but produces much stronger asymmetric current systems (partial, banana, and tail currents), especially in the main phase of the storm. Applying a nonuniform local time distribution for the plasma outer boundary condition slightly increases the magnitudes of the current systems, but this effect is smaller than the electric field influence.

  17. Estimation of Observatory Geoelectric Fields Induced during Great Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Swidinsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    In support of a project for monitoring hazards for electric power grids, we present a new method for estimating electric fields that are induced in the Earth's interior at a particular site during magnetic storms. For this, we adopt a model of the electrical conductivity of the lithosphere that is simple but sufficient to model most variation in the induced geoelectric field: two horizontal layers, each with uniform electrical conductivity properties that can be parameterized by a galvanic distortion tensor. After Laplace transformation of the induction equations into the complex frequency domain, we obtain an electromagnetic impedance function. Upon inverse transformation back to the time domain, convolution of the impedance tensor with a geomagnetic time series yields an estimated geoelectric time series. We optimize the model conductivity parameters using 1-sec resolution magnetic and electric field data collected at the Kakioka magnetic observatory during the October 2003 Halloween storm. We validate the algorithm against Kakioka magnetic and electric field data for the July 2000 Bastille-Day storm. Finally, we infer 1-sec geoelectric fields that were realized (but not directly measured) in Japan during the 1989 Quebec storm. Results highlight the need for improved ground-level monitoring of geomagnetic and geoelectric fields. They also reveal the need for accommodating the galvanic distortion of three-dimensional conductivity when predicting geoelectric fields in the lithosphere and geomagnetically induced currents in electric power grids.

  18. Basic Electronics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  19. Historic and Future Ice Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ice storm losses from business interruption as well as transportation and health damages can range into billions of dollars. For instance, the December 2008 New England and Upstate New York ice storm caused four deaths and monetary damages between 2.5 and 3.7 billion, and the 2008 Chinese winter storms resulted in over 130 deaths and over 20 billion in damages. Informal discussions with ice storm experts indicate that due to competing temperature and precipitation effects as well as local topographic effects, it is unclear how exactly climate change will affect ice storms. Here we ask how incident frequencies might change in a future climate at four weather stations prone to ice storms. Using historical atmospheric soundings, we conduct a thought experiment where we perturb the temperatures as might be expected in a future climate. We then discuss changes in monthly frequency of ice storms.

  20. Storm water pollution prevention plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rossmiller, R.L. )

    1993-03-01

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

  1. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  2. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  3. Development in the STORM.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Daichi; Huang, Bo

    2012-12-11

    The recent invention of superresolution microscopy has brought up much excitement in the biological research community. Here, we focus on stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy/photoactivated localization microscopy (STORM/PALM) to discuss the challenges in applying superresolution microscopy to the study of developmental biology, including tissue imaging, sample preparation artifacts, and image interpretation. We also summarize new opportunities that superresolution microscopy could bring to the field of developmental biology. PMID:23237944

  4. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  7. Devastation of aquifers from tsunami-like storm surge by Supertyphoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Bennett, P. C.; Zamora, P. B.; Befus, K. M.; Rodolfo, R. S.; Cabria, H. B.; Lapus, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The northwest Pacific Ocean is a hot spot for sea level rise and increasing frequency of stronger storms. It is where Supertyphoon Haiyan formed, the strongest storm to hit land, which provided a window into the hydrologic impacts of an extreme storm. Through detailed documentation of flood levels, groundwater table elevations and salinity, electrical resistivity, and modeling, we found that Haiyan's storm surge reached 7 m above sea level along Samar Island, Philippines, which led to contamination of crucial aquifers by infiltrating seawater. A contaminated surficial aquifer will take years to recover. Groundwater in an underlying deeper aquifer saw widespread contamination immediately after the storm, but here salinity has decreased significantly after 8 months. However, this deeper aquifer remains vulnerable to seawater slowly percolating through the surficial aquifer. As warmer seas generate more powerful storms, the vulnerability of aquifers to persistent contamination from intense storm surges is a growing concern for coastal communities.

  8. Devastation of aquifers from tsunami-like storm surge by Supertyphoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Bennett, Philip C.; Zamora, Peter B.; Befus, Kevin M.; Rodolfo, Raymond S.; Cabria, Hillel B.; Lapus, Mark R.

    2015-04-01

    The northwest Pacific Ocean is a hot spot for sea level rise and increasing frequency of stronger storms. It is where Supertyphoon Haiyan formed, the strongest storm to hit land, which provided a window into the hydrologic impacts of an extreme storm. Through detailed documentation of flood levels, groundwater table elevations and salinity, electrical resistivity, and modeling, we found that Haiyan's storm surge reached 7 m above sea level along Samar Island, Philippines, which led to contamination of crucial aquifers by infiltrating seawater. A contaminated surficial aquifer will take years to recover. Groundwater in an underlying deeper aquifer saw widespread contamination immediately after the storm, but here salinity has decreased significantly after 8 months. However, this deeper aquifer remains vulnerable to seawater slowly percolating through the surficial aquifer. As warmer seas generate more powerful storms, the vulnerability of aquifers to persistent contamination from intense storm surges is a growing concern for coastal communities.

  9. Defining Coastal Storm and Quantifying Storms Applying Coastal Storm Impulse Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudpour, Nader

    2014-05-01

    What defines a storm condition and what would initiate a "storm" has not been uniquely defined among scientists and engineers. Parameters that have been used to define a storm condition can be mentioned as wind speed, beach erosion and storm hydrodynamics parameters such as wave height and water levels. Some of the parameters are storm consequential such as beach erosion and some are not directly related to the storm hydrodynamics such as wind speed. For the purpose of the presentation, the different storm conditions based on wave height, water levels, wind speed and beach erosion will be discussed and assessed. However, it sounds more scientifically to have the storm definition based on the hydrodynamic parameters such as wave height, water level and storm duration. Once the storm condition is defined and storm has initiated, the severity of the storm would be a question to forecast and evaluate the hazard and analyze the risk in order to determine the appropriate responses. The correlation of storm damages to the meteorological and hydrodynamics parameters can be defined as a storm scale, storm index or storm parameter and it is needed to simplify the complexity of variation involved developing the scale for risk analysis and response management. A newly introduced Coastal Storm Impulse (COSI) parameter quantifies storms into one number for a specific location and storm event. The COSI parameter is based on the conservation of linear, horizontal momentum to combine storm surge, wave dynamics, and currents over the storm duration. The COSI parameter applies the principle of conservation of momentum to physically combine the hydrodynamic variables per unit width of shoreline. This total momentum is then integrated over the duration of the storm to determine the storm's impulse to the coast. The COSI parameter employs the mean, time-averaged nonlinear (Fourier) wave momentum flux, over the wave period added to the horizontal storm surge momentum above the Mean High

  10. Lightning activity observed in upper and lower portions of storms and its relationship to storm structure from VHF mapping and Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. L.; Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Brandes, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    Space time mapping of very high frequencies (VHF) sources reveals lightning processes for cloud to ground (CG) and for large intracloud (IC) flashes are confined to an altitude below about 10 km and closely associated with the central high reflectivity region of a storm. Another class of IC flashes was identified that produces a splattering of small sources within the main electrically active volume of a storm and also within a large divergent wind canopy at the top of a storm. There is no apparent temporal association between the small high altitude IC flashes occurring almost continuously and the large IC and CG flashes sporadically occurring in the lower portions of storms.

  11. How Ionospheric Ions Populate the Magnetosphere during a Magnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, T. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Slinker, S. P.; Fedder, J. A.; Delcourt, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Ionospheric oxygen ions have been observed throughout the magnetosphere, from the plasma sheet to the ring current region. I t has been found that the O+ /H+ density ratio in the magnetosphere increases with geomagnetic activity and varies with storm phases. During the magnetic storm in late September to earIy October 2002, Cluster was orbiting in the plasma sheet and ring current regions. At prestorm time, Cluster observed high H+ density and low O+ density in the plasma sheet and lobes. During the storm main phase, 0+ density has increased by 10 times over the pre-storm level. Strong field-aligned beams of O+ were observed in the lobes. O+ fluxes were significantly reduced in the central plasma sheet during the storm recovery. However, 0+ was still evident on the boundaries of the plasma sheet and in the lobes. In order to interpret the Cluster observations and to understand how O+ ions populate the magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, we model the storm in early October 2002 using our global ion kinetic simulation (GIK). We use the LFN global simulation model to produce electric and magnetic fields in the outer magnetosphere, the Strangeway outflow scaling with Delcourt ion trajectories to include ionospheric outflows, and the Fok inner magnetospheric model for the plasmaspheric and ring current response to all particle populations. We find that the observed composition features are qualitatively reproduced by the simulations, with some quantitative differences that point to future improvements in the models.

  12. Influence of magnetospheric inputs definition on modeling of ionospheric storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchilin, A. V.; Romanova, E. B.; Kurkin, V. I.

    Usually for numerical modeling of ionospheric storms corresponding empirical models specify parameters of neutral atmosphere and magnetosphere. Statistical kind of these models renders them impractical for simulation of the individual storm. Therefore one has to correct the empirical models using various additional speculations. The influence of magnetospheric inputs such as distributions of electric potential, number and energy fluxes of the precipitating electrons on the results of the ionospheric storm simulations has been investigated in this work. With this aim for the strong geomagnetic storm on September 25, 1998 hour global distributions of those magnetospheric inputs from 20 to 27 September were calculated by the magnetogram inversion technique (MIT). Then with the help of 3-D ionospheric model two variants of ionospheric response to this magnetic storm were simulated using MIT data and empirical models of the electric fields (Sojka et al., 1986) and electron precipitations (Hardy et al., 1985). The comparison of the received results showed that for high-latitude and subauroral stations the daily variations of electron density calculated with MIT data are more close to observations than those of empirical models. In addition using of the MIT data allows revealing some peculiarities in the daily variations of electron density during strong geomagnetic storm. References Sojka J.J., Rasmussen C.E., Schunk R.W. J.Geophys.Res., 1986, N10, p.11281. Hardy D.A., Gussenhoven M.S., Holeman E.A. J.Geophys.Res., 1985, N5, p.4229.

  13. Storm-Substorm Relations Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Joe

    2006-06-01

    Magnetic storms in the magnetosphere can cause damage to communication satellites and large-scale power outages. The concept that a magnetic storm is a compilation of a series of substorms was proposed by Akasofu [1968]. However, Kamide [1992] showed that substorms are not a necessary condition for the occurrence of a magnetic storm. This controversy initiated a new era of research on the storm-substorm relation, which was the subject of a recent workshop in Banff, Alberta, Canada. The main topics discussed during the meeting included a brief overview of what a substorm is, how quasiperiodic substorm events and steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) events without substorms contribute to storms, and how plasma flows enhanced by magnetic reconnection in the plasma sheet contribute to substorms and storms.

  14. Lightning location relative to storm structure in a supercell storm and a multicell storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Peter S.; Macgorman, Donald R.; Rust, W. David; Taylor, William L.; Rasmussen, Lisa Walters

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between lightning location and storm structure are examined for one radar volume scan in each of two mature, severe storms. One of these storms had characteristics of a supercell storm, and the other was a multicell storm. Data were analyzed from dual-Doppler radar and dual-VHF lightning-mapping systems. The distributions of VHF impulse sources were compared with radar reflectivity, vertical air velocity, and their respective gradients. In the supercell storm, lightning tended to occur along streamlines above and down-shear of the updraft and reflectivity cores; VHF impulse sources were most concentrated in reflectivities between 30 and 40 dBZ and were distributed uniformly with respect to updraft speed. In the multicell storm, on the other hand, lightning tended to coincide with the vertical reflectivity and updraft core and with the diverging streamlines near the top of the storm. The results suggest that the location of lightning in these severe storms were most directly associated with the wind field structure relative to updraft and reflectivity cores. Since the magnitude and vertical shear of the environmental wind are fundamental in determining the reflectivity and wind field structure of a storm, it is suggested that these environmental parameters are also fundamental in determining lightning location.

  15. Tropical Storm Erin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Location: The Atlantic Ocean 210 miles south of Galveston, Texas Categorization: Tropical Storm Sustained Winds: 40 mph (60 km/hr)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared ImageMicrowave Image

    Infrared Images Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red).

    Microwave Images In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is therefore low. Thus the ocean also appears 'low temperature' in the AIRS microwave images and is assigned the color blue

  16. Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2013-01-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented

  17. Communicating Storm Surge Forecast Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troutman, J. A.; Rhome, J.

    2015-12-01

    When it comes to tropical cyclones, storm surge is often the greatest threat to life and property along the coastal United States. The coastal population density has dramatically increased over the past 20 years, putting more people at risk. Informing emergency managers, decision-makers and the public about the potential for wind driven storm surge, however, has been extremely difficult. Recently, the Storm Surge Unit at the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida has developed a prototype experimental storm surge watch/warning graphic to help communicate this threat more effectively by identifying areas most at risk for life-threatening storm surge. This prototype is the initial step in the transition toward a NWS storm surge watch/warning system and highlights the inundation levels that have a 10% chance of being exceeded. The guidance for this product is the Probabilistic Hurricane Storm Surge (P-Surge) model, which predicts the probability of various storm surge heights by statistically evaluating numerous SLOSH model simulations. Questions remain, however, if exceedance values in addition to the 10% may be of equal importance to forecasters. P-Surge data from 2014 Hurricane Arthur is used to ascertain the practicality of incorporating other exceedance data into storm surge forecasts. Extracting forecast uncertainty information through analyzing P-surge exceedances overlaid with track and wind intensity forecasts proves to be beneficial for forecasters and decision support.

  18. Storm impact for barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale is proposed that categorizes impacts to natural barrier islands resulting from tropical and extra-tropical storms. The proposed scale is fundamentally different than existing storm-related scales in that the coupling between forcing processes and the geometry of the coast is explicitly included. Four regimes, representing different levels of impact, are defined. Within each regime, patterns and relative magnitudes of net erosion and accretion are argued to be unique. The borders between regimes represent thresholds defining where processes and magnitudes of impacts change dramatically. Impact level 1 is the 'swash' regime describing a storm where runup is confined to the foreshore. The foreshore typically erodes during the storm and recovers following the storm; hence, there is no net change. Impact level 2 is the 'collision' regime describing a storm where the wave runup exceeds the threshold of the base of the foredune ridge. Swash impacts the dune forcing net erosion. Impact level 3 is the 'overwash' regime describing a storm where wave runup overtops the berm or, if present, the foredune ridge. The associated net landward sand transport contributes to net migration of the barrier landward. Impact level 4 is the 'inundation' regime describing a storm where the storm surge is sufficient to completely and continuously submerge the barrier island. Sand undergoes net landward transport over the barrier island; limited evidence suggests the quantities and distance of transport are much greater than what occurs during the 'overwash' regime.

  19. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Nine: Relationships of Current, Counter EMF, and Voltage in LR Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, electromotive force, and voltage in inductive-resistive circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and…

  1. Solar radio continuum storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of research on solar radio continuum emissions from metric to hectometric wave frequencies, emphasizing the role of energetic electrons in the 10-100 keV range in these emissions. It is seen that keV-energy electrons generated in active sunspot groups must be the sources of radio continuum storm emissions for wide frequency bands. These electrons excite plasma oscillations in the medium, which in turn are converted to electromagnetic radiation. The radio noise continuum sources are usually associated with type III burst activity observed above these sources. Although the mechanism for the release of the energetic electrons is not known, it seems they are ejected from storm source regions in association with rapid variation of associated sunspot magnetic fields due to their growth into complex types. To explain some of the observed characteristics, the importance of two-stream instability and the scattering of ambient plasma ions on energetic electron streams is pointed out.

  2. Complex Plasma Physics and Rising Above the Gathering Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Truell

    2008-11-01

    Research in complex plasma is prevalent across a variety of regimes ranging from the majority of plasma processing environments to many astrophysical settings. Dust particles suspended within such plasmas acquire a charge from collisions with electrons and ions in the plasma. Depending upon the ratio of their interparticle potential energy to their average kinetic energy, once charged these particles can form a gaseous, liquid or crystalline structure with short to longer range ordering. The field of complex plasmas thus offers research opportunities across a wide range of academic disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, electrical engineering and nanoscience. The field of complex plasmas also offers unique educational research opportunities for combating many of the issues raised in Rising Above the Gathering Storm, recently published by the National Academies Press. CASPER's Educational Outreach programs, supported by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Education and the Department of Labor takes advantage of these opportunities through a variety of avenues including a REU / RET program, a High School Scholars Program, integrated curriculum development and the CASPER Physics Circus. Together, these programs impact thousands of students and parents while providing K-12 teachers with curriculum, supporting hands-on material and support for introducing plasma and basic physical science concepts into the classroom. Both research results and educational outreach concepts from the above will be discussed.

  3. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition.

  4. Inside storm window

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The work effort to design, build, install, and evaluate an inside storm window is presented. The ISW, made of two separated layers of mylar (like a thermopane window) which when not in use can be rolled up in a shade, is described. The work effort included: development of a prototype model; the development of production facilities to turn out a small number (50) of ISW's; the production of the windows; the installation of the windows into buildings; the building of a test chamber to determine the R value of the ISW and the subsequent determination of the R value; and a survey to determine how the residents of the homes in which ISW's were installed felt about the windows. Comments on each of these tasks are presented and some comments on initial steps towards commercialization are offered. (MCW)

  5. Statistical signatures of geomagnetic storms with reference to delay distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, A. M.; Gwal, Ashok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a statistical study on the nature and association of time delay (between IMF Bz and Dst) with various solar wind parameters and Inter planetary Magnetic field components. The study integrally covers all (634 storms) the geomagnetic storms observed during 1996 to 2011. We have calculated the time delay (∆T) between the peak values of IMF Bz and minimum Dst for each event and statistically investigated its relation with various solar wind parameters and IMF. For this analysis we have taken Solar wind parameters; Velocity, Density, Plasma beta and Temperature as well as IMF Bz, into consideration. We have categorized the storms into three categories based on the Dst Index as weak (-30nT ≤ Dst ≤ -50nT), moderate (-50nT ≤ Dst ≤ -100nT) and intense (Dst ≤ -100nT) storms. The relation of delay with solar wind parameters and IMF components were studied separately for different classes of storms and for different delays viz. 0,1,2,3,4 (hours). From our analysis we are able to draw some interesting inferences. The fact, that the characteristic feature describing the geoeffectiveness of the IMF is its z-component; Bz, and the electric field component -V× Bz, stands true for all delay classes of the storms. The time delay (∆T) between peak values of IMF Bz and minimum Dst can vary in a wide range and mostly varies from 0-10 hours. However, it was found that a major percentage (~80 %) of the storms have a 0 - 4 hour delay. Meanwhile Temperature, density and plasma beta seems to have no significant association with the storm intensity.

  6. ARkStorm: A West Coast Storm Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Dettinger, M. D.; Porter, K.; Perry, S. C.; Barnard, P. L.; Hoover, D.; Wills, C. J.; Stock, J. D.; Croyle, W.; Ferris, J. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Miller, M.; Wein, A.; Rose, A.; Done, J.; Topping, K.

    2009-12-01

    The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is preparing a new emergency-preparedness scenario, called ARkStorm, to address massive U.S. West Coast storms analogous to those that devastated California in 1861-62. Storms of this magnitude are projected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. The MHDP has assembled experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USGS, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, the State of California, California Geological Survey, the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and other organizations to design the large, but scientifically plausible, hypothetical scenario storm that would provide emergency responders, resource managers, and the public a realistic assessment of what is historically possible. The ARkStorm patterns the 1861 - 1862 historical events but uses modern modeling methods and data from large storms in 1969 and 1986. The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) that grow in size, gain speed, and with a ferocity equal to hurricanes, slam into the U.S. West Coast for several weeks. Using sophisticated weather models and expert analysis, precipitation, snowlines, wind, and pressure data the modelers will characterize the resulting floods, landslides, and coastal erosion and inundation. These hazards will then be translated into the infrastructural, environmental, agricultural, social, and economic impacts. Consideration will be given to catastrophic disruptions to water supplies resulting from impacts on groundwater pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence. Possible climate-change forces that could exacerbate the problems will also be evaluated. In contrast to the recent U.S. East and Gulf Coast hurricanes, only recently have scientific and technological advances documented the ferocity and strength of possible future

  7. A case study of ionospheric storm effects in the Chinese sector during the October 2013 geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Tian; Sun, Lingfeng; Hu, Lianhuan; Wang, Yungang; Wang, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the ionospheric storm effects in the Chinese sector during 2 October 2013 geomagnetic storm. The TEC map over China sector (1° × 1°) and eight ionosondes data along the longitude of 110°E are used to show significant positive ionospheric phases (enhancements in TEC and ionospheric peak electron density NmF2) in the high-middle latitude region and the negative effects at the low latitude and equatorial region during the storm. A wave structure with periods about 1-2 h and horizontal speed about 680 m/s, propagating from the high latitudes to the low latitudes is observed in electron densities within the height region from 200 to 400 km, which is caused by the combined effects of neutral wind and the large-scale traveling disturbances (LSTIDs). In the low latitude regions, compared with those in the quiet day, the ionospheric peak heights of the F2 layer (hmF2) in the storm day obviously increase accompanying a notably decrease in TEC and NmF2, which might be as a result of the eastward prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) evidenced by the two magnetometers and the subsequent westward disturbance dynamo electric fields (DDEF). The storm-time TEC enhancement mainly occurs in the topside ionosphere, as revealed from the topside TEC, bottomside TEC and GPS TEC.

  8. Thromboembolic complications of thyroid storm

    PubMed Central

    Min, T; Benjamin, S; Cozma, L

    2014-01-01

    Summary Thyroid storm is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential. Atrial fibrillation can occur in up to 40% of patients with thyroid storm. Studies have shown that hyperthyroidism increases the risk of thromboembolic events. There is no consensus with regard to the initiation of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in severe thyrotoxicosis. Anticoagulation is not routinely initiated if the risk is low on a CHADS2 score; however, this should be considered in patients with thyroid storm or severe thyrotoxicosis with impending storm irrespective of the CHADS2 risk, as it appears to increase the risk of thromboembolic episodes. Herein, we describe a case of thyroid storm complicated by massive pulmonary embolism. Learning points Diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical findings. Early recognition and prompt treatment could lead to a favourable outcome.Hypercoagulable state is a recognised complication of thyrotoxicosis.Atrial fibrillation is strongly associated with hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm.Anticoagulation should be considered for patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and atrial fibrillation irrespective of the CHADS2 score.Patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and clinical evidence of thrombosis should be immediately anticoagulated until hyperthyroidism is under control. PMID:24683480

  9. Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A final progress report is presented on the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS). The primary purpose of the CSIS is to demonstrate and evaluate real time interactive computerized data collection, interpretation and display techniques as applied to severe weather forecasting. CSIS objectives pertaining to improved severe storm forecasting and warning systems are outlined. The positive impact that CSIS has had on the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is discussed. The benefits of interactive processing systems on the forecasting ability of the NSSFC are described.

  10. Solar storms can destabilize power grids at midlatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-10-01

    The Sun is capable of disrupting electrical systems on Earth in a variety of ways, from solar flares and coronal mass ejections to proton storms. Typically, it is only objects far above the Earth's surface, or systems at high altitudes at polar latitudes that are considered at risk except during the most powerful storms. Notable recent examples include solar activity during March 1989 and October 2003 (the “Halloween Storms”), which knocked out power in Québec, Canada, and Sweden, respectively. Research by Marshall et al., however, found that even a moderate event can have destructive effects far from the typical regions of concern.

  11. Myriad Genetics: In the eye of the policy storm

    PubMed Central

    Gold, E. Richard; Carbone, Julia

    2011-01-01

    From the late 1980s, a storm surrounding the wisdom, ethics, and economics of human gene patents has been brewing. The various winds of concern in this storm touched on the impact of gene patents on basic and clinical research, on health care delivery, and on the ability of public health care systems to provide equal access when faced with costly patented genetic diagnostic tests. Myriad Genetics, Inc., along with its subsidiary, Myriad Genetic Laboratories, Inc., a small Utah-based biotechnology company, found itself unwittingly in the eye of this storm after a series of decisions it made regarding the commercialization of a hereditary breast cancer diagnostic test. This case study examine the background to Myriad's decisions, the context in which these decisions were made and the policy, research and business response to them. PMID:20393310

  12. Severe Storms Branch research report (April 1984 April 1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubach, L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Research Program is a program of integrated studies which are to achieve an improved understanding of the basic behavior of the atmosphere through the use of remotely sensed data and space technology. The program consist of four elements: (1) special observations and analysis of mesoscale systems; (20 the development of quanitative algorithms to use remotely sensed observations; (3) the development of new observing systems; and (4) numerical modeling. The Severe Storms Branch objectives are the improvement of the understanding, diagnosis, and prediction of a wide range of atmospheric storms, which includes severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, flash floods, tropical cyclones, and winter snowstorms. The research often shed light upon various aspects of local weather, such as fog, sea breezes, air pollution, showers, and other products of nonsevere cumulus cloud clusters. The part of the program devoted to boundary layer processes, gust front interactions, and soil moisture detection from satellites gives insights into storm growth and behavior.

  13. Neonatal thyroid storm accompanied with severe anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu-Ying; Wei, Hong; Wang, Zheng-Li

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal thyroid storm is rare; the diagnostic criteria and management of neonatal thyroid storm have not been well established. In this paper, we report a preterm infant diagnosed with neonatal hyperthyroidism secondary to maternal Graves' disease who was discharged after therapy. Unfortunately, he was rehospitalised for neonatal thyroid storm. We will discuss the diagnosis and general therapy of neonatal thyroid storm.

  14. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  15. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  16. Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...

  17. Cloudsat Dissects Tropical Storm Ileana

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's CloudSat satellite's Cloud Profiling Radar captured a sideways look across Tropical Storm Ileana on Aug. 27 at 20:40 UTC. The colors indicate intensity of reflected radar energy. The blue ar...

  18. Riding the storm out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, Josh

    2009-04-01

    I am standing on a bridge near the North Carolina coast. There is a light breeze, and I am enjoying some hazy sunshine. But this calm is an illusion: in a few minutes winds of up to 45ms-1 (100 mph) will sweep in again. The approaches to my section of the bridge are already drowned under 2.5 m of water, and my companions on this island are an eclectic mix of traumatized animals, including snakes, rats, wounded pelicans and frogs. Earlier, one of the snakes flew through the air past my truck. The animals and I have been drawn to this bridge by Hurricane Isabel, which has just slammed into the coastal islands of North Carolina, and at the moment we are in the calm, sunny eye of the storm. The animals are just trying to survive on the area's only dry ground. But I have come to the bridge with a radar system on a truck and have spent a night and a day on it because I want to know what is happening inside this hurricane.

  19. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  20. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms

    PubMed Central

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-01-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429

  1. Global ionospheric dynamics and electrodynamics during geomagnetic storms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Tsurutani, B.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Komjathy, A.; Butala, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Globally distributed total electron content (TEC) data has become an important tool for exploring the consequences of storm-time electrodynamics. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling during the main phase is responsible for the largest ionospheric effects observed during geomagnetic storms, mediated by global scale electrodynamics. Recent research using case studies reveals a complex picture of M-I coupling and its relationship to interplanetary drivers such as the solar wind electric field. Periods of direct coupling exist where the solar wind electric field is strongly correlated with prompt penetration electric fields, observed as enhanced vertical plasma drifts or an enhanced electrojet in the daytime equatorial ionosphere. Periods of decoupling between low latitude electric fields and the solar wind electric field are also observed, but the factors distinguishing these two types of response have not been clearly identified. Recent studies during superstorms suggest a role for the transverse (y-component) of the interplanetary magnetic field, which affects magnetospheric current systems and therefore may affect M-I coupling, with significant ionospheric consequences. Observations of the global ionospheric response to a range of geomagnetic storm intensities are presented. Scientific understanding of the different factors that affect electrodynamic aspects of M-I coupling are discussed.

  2. Climatic Perspective and Impacts of the 1998 Northern New York and New England Ice Storm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degaetano, Arthur T.

    2000-02-01

    From 4 through 10 January 1998 a severe ice storm impacted northern New York and New England. Liquid-equivalent precipitation totals, which fell exclusively as freezing rain, reached as high as 11 cm at some observing sites in northwestern New York. At the limited number of stations in the region that report hourly meteorological observations, the magnitude of the storm was unprecedented since the beginning of digital records in 1948. The duration of the storm exceeded 115 h at Massena, New York, nearly twice the duration of the second-longest event. In terms of the liquid-equivalent precipitation amount that fell as freezing rain, nearly 9 cm was reported at Massena, New York, and 5.7 cm was observed at Burlington, Vermont, the highest amounts on record. Despite these point estimates of storm severity, it is argued that icing events in 1973, 1969, 1956, and 1921 were of comparable magnitude in New York and New England. However, with the exception of the 1921 storm, it does not appear that the spatial extent of these storms was as broad as that of the 1998 ice storm.The economic impacts associated with the storm were most severe in New York and Maine. Across the region, the greatest icing impacts affected electric and communications utilities, forestry interests, the dairy and maple syrup industries, and property owners. Overall, a conservative estimate of ice storm related damages exceeds $1 billion.

  3. Energy and Mass Transport of Magnetospheric Plasmas during the November 2003 Magnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Chging; Moore, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Intensive energy and mass transport from the solar wind across the magnetosphere boundary is a trigger of magnetic storms. The storm on 20-21 November 2003 was elicited by a high-speed solar wind and strong southward component of interplanetary magnetic field. This storm attained a minimum Dst of -422 nT. During the storm, some of the solar wind particles enter the magnetosphere and eventually become part of the ring current. At the same time, the fierce solar wind powers strong outflow of H+ and O+ from the ionosphere, as well as from the plasmasphere. We examine the contribution of plasmas from the solar wind, ionosphere and plasmasphere to the storm-time ring current. Our simulation shows, for this particular storm, ionospheric O+ and solar wind ions are the major sources of the ring current particles. The polar wind and plasmaspheric H+ have only minor impacts. In the storm main phase, the strong penetration of solar wind electric field pushes ions from the geosynchronous orbit to L shells of 2 and below. Ring current is greatly intensified during the earthward transport and produces a large magnetic depression in the surface field. When the convection subsides, the deep penetrating ions experience strong charge exchange loss, causing rapid decay of the ring current and fast initial storm recovery. Our simulation reproduces very well the storm development indicated by the Dst index.

  4. Schizophrenia Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  5. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  6. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  7. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  8. Status and Future of Dust Storm Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been given to the large amounts of airborne dust derived from the deserts and desertified areas of the world and transported over scales ranging from local to global. This dust can have positive and negative impacts on human activities and the environment, including modifying cloud formation, fertilizing the ocean, degrading air quality, reducing visibility, transporting pathogens, and inducing respiratory problems. The atmospheric radiative forcing by the dust has implications for global climate change and presently is one of the largest unknowns in climate models. These uncertainties have lead to much of the funding for research into the sources, properties, and fate of atmospheric dust. As a result of advances in numerical weather prediction over the past decades and the recent climate research, we are now in a position to produce operational dust storm forecasts. International organizations and national agencies are developing programs for dust forecasting. The approaches and applications of dust detection and forecasting are as varied as the nations that are developing the models. The basic components of a dust forecasting system include atmospheric forcing, dust production, and dust microphysics. The forecasting applications include air and auto traffic safety, shipping, health, national security, climate and weather. This presentation will summarize the methods of dust storm forecasting and illustrate the various applications. The major remaining uncertainties (e.g. sources and initialization) will be discussed as well as approaches for solving those problems.

  9. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  10. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  11. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Empirical Model of Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) During Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) are important electromagnetic phenomena associated with geomagnetic storms that affect the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere. They are characterized by strong sunward plasma flows caused by poleward-directed electric fields in the region of the ionosphere equatorword of the auroral zone. To examine the effects subauroral electric fields have on ITM coupling and magnetospheric-ionospheric convection we are developing an empirical model of SAPS using data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft which have made decades of in-situ measurements of ionospheric ion drifts, composition, and precipitating auroral particles. These measurements are used to characterize the subauroral electric fields relative to the location of the auroral boundary at varying magnetic local times and magnetic activity levels. As a critical component of this model, we have developed a model of the nightside zero energy electron precipitation boundary equatorward of the auroral oval parameterized by AE and MLT, using boundary identifications derived from DMSP data. We will use this model to create a global subauroral potential model and perform a superposed epoch study of SAPS fields in relationship to the auroral boundary during selected geomagnetic storms as a function of storm phase. A global empirical model of SAPS electric fields of this kind is required to realistically model thermosphere-ionosphere coupling and inner-magnetospheric convection.

  13. Intensity of the auroral electrojets during a recovery phase of magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroyev, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the effect of solar wind velocity on the development of magnetospheric and ionospheric disturbances is studied. It is shown that at high velocity of the solar wind during a recovery phase of magnetic storm the strong auroral activity characterized by the AE index is observed. In some cases during a recovery phase of magnetic storm the value of AE index is practically comparable with the value of AE index observed during the main phase of magnetic storm. When comparing time intervals of two magnetic storms during which the values of solar wind electric fields are approximately equal to each other, it is found that auroral electrojet intensity is stronger in that storm in which the solar wind velocity is higher.

  14. On the Variability of Wilson Currents by Storm Type and Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deierling, Wiebke; Kalb, Christina; Mach, Douglas; Liu, Chuntao; Peterson, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Storm total conduction currents from electrified clouds are thought to play a major role in maintaining the potential difference between the earth's surface and the upper atmosphere within the Global Electric Circuit (GEC). However, it is not entirely known how the contributions of these currents vary by cloud type and phase of the clouds life cycle. Estimates of storm total conduction currents were obtained from data collected over two decades during multiple field campaigns involving the NASA ER-2 aircraft. In this study the variability of these currents by cloud type and lifecycle is investigated. We also compared radar derived microphysical storm properties with total storm currents to investigate whether these storm properties can be used to describe the current variability of different electrified clouds. The ultimate goal is to help improve modeling of the GEC via quantification and improved parameterization of the conduction current contribution of different cloud types.

  15. Basic electronics for clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Misulis, K E

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the basic electronics that are important to clinical neurophysiology. It is divided into six sections: basic principles of electronics; filters; transistors and amplifiers; displays; electrodes and the electrode-amplifier interface; and electrical safety. In addition, at the end of the review is a brief electronics glossary (Appendix A) and an annotated bibliography (Appendix B) to guide further reading.

  16. Generation of traveling atmospheric disturbances during pulsating geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Larry; Schunk, Robert

    Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances (TADs) are effective in transporting momentum and en-ergy deposited at high latitudes to the mid and low latitude regions of the thermosphere. They also act to transport momentum and energy from the lower thermosphere into the upper ther-mosphere. Previously, model studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics of isolated, single-pulse TADs, but the generation of multiple TADs excited during pulsating storms have not been considered before. Here, a high-resolution global thermosphere-ionosphere model was used to study the basic characteristic of multiple TADs excited during pulsating storms, including idealized weak and strong pulsating storms, and an approximation of the May 4, 1998 pulsating storm. For all three pulsating storm simulations, multiple TADs were excited that propagated away form the auroral oval both toward the poles and toward the equator at all longitudes, with the maximum amplitudes between midnight and dawn. The TAD amplitudes were a maximum near the poles, diminished towards the equator and were larger on the nightside than on the dayside. The TADs propagated at a slight upward angle to the horizontal, with the result that the lower boundary of the TADs increased with decreas-ing latitude. The TADs crossed the equator and propagated to mid-latitudes in the opposite hemisphere, where wave interference occurred for the strong pulsating storm cases. The TAD wavelengths vary from 2500-3000 km and the phase speeds from 800-1000 m/s. The maximum TAD perturbations are 20% for the mass density 14% for the neutral temperature and 100 m/s for the winds.

  17. Generation of traveling atmospheric disturbances during pulsating geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, L. C.; Schunk, R. W.

    2010-08-01

    Traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) are effective in transporting momentum and energy deposited at high latitudes to the midlatitude and low-latitude regions of the thermosphere. They also act to transport momentum and energy from the lower thermosphere into the upper thermosphere. Previously, model studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics of isolated, single-pulse TADs, but the generation of multiple TADs excited during pulsating storms have not been considered before. Here a high-resolution global thermosphere-ionosphere model was used to study the basic characteristics of multiple TADs excited during pulsating storms, including idealized weak and strong pulsating storms, and an approximation of the 4 May 1998 pulsating storm. For all three pulsating storm simulations, multiple TADs that propagated away from the auroral oval toward both the poles and the equator at all longitudes, with the maximum amplitudes between midnight and dawn, were excited. The TAD amplitudes were at maximum near the poles and diminished toward the equator and were larger on the nightside than on the dayside. The TADs propagated at a slightly upward angle to the horizontal, with the result that the lower boundary of the TADs increased with decreasing latitude. The TADs crossed the equator and propagated to midlatitudes in the opposite hemisphere, where wave interference occurred for the strong pulsating storm cases. The TAD wavelengths vary from 2500 to 3000 km and the phase speeds vary from 800 to 1000 m/s. The maximum TAD perturbations are 20% for the mass density, 14% for the neutral temperature, and 100 m/s for the winds.

  18. Aerosol optical properties affected by a strong dust storm over central and northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Du, Wupeng; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Qingxian; Li, Zhanqing; Wang, Mingxing

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol observational data at 8 ground-based observation sites in the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET) were analyzed to characterize the optical properties of aerosol particles during the strong dust storm of 16-21 April 2005. The observational aerosol optical depth (AOD) increased significantly during this dust storm at sites in Beijing city (86%), Beijing forest (84%), Xianghe (13%), Shapotou (27%), Shenyang (47%), Shanghai (23%), and Jiaozhou Bay (24%). The API (air pollution index) in Beijing and Tianjin also had a similar rise during the dust storm, while the Angström exponent ( α) declined evidently at sites in Beijing city (21%), Beijing forest (39%), Xianghe (19%), Ordos (77%), Shapotou (50%), Shanghai (12%), and Jiaozhou Bay (21%), respectively. Furthermore, The observational AOD and α demonstrated contrary trends during all storm stages (pre-dust storm, dust storm, and post-dust storm), with the AOD indicating an obvious “Valley-Peak-Valley” pattern of variation, while α demonstrated a “Peak-Valley-Peak” pattern. In addition, the dust module in a regional climate model (RegCM3) simulated the dust storm occurrence and track accurately and RegCM3 was able to basically simulate the trends in AOD. The simulation results for the North China stations were the best, and the simulation for dust-source stations was on the high side, while the simulation was on the low side for coastal sites.

  19. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  20. Studying Peculiarities of Ionospheric Response to the 2015 March 17-19 Geomagnetic Storm in East Asia: Observations and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Elena; Zherebtsov, Gelii; Polekh, Nelya; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Zolotukhina, Nina; Shi, Jiankui

    2016-07-01

    latitudes. The prolonged negative disturbances during the recovery storm phase in middle latitudes are attributed to variations in the global wind circulation and to [O]/[N2] reduction; in low latitudes, a prolonged negative disturbance is also conditioned by variations in the global wind circulation and, to a lesser extent, by [O]/[N2] reduction as well as by penetration of electric fields to low latitudes; hence there was no equatorial anomaly on March 18. This is confirmed by total electron content data (http://cdaweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/eval2.cgi). The recovery storm phase lasted until mid-March 25. The work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR grant No. 16-55-53003_DVEH_a).

  1. Bracing for the geomagnetic storms

    SciTech Connect

    Kappenman, J.G. ); Albertson, V.D. )

    1990-03-01

    The authors discuss the impact of geomagnetic storms on utility transmission networks. The effects of a recent storm on the Hydro-Quebec transmission system are described in detail. Research into geomagnetic disturbance prediction is discussed. In coming months, geomagnetic field activity will be high as it builds toward a peak, the 22nd since reliable records of the phenomenon began in the mid-1700s. The peaks come in roughly 11-year cycles, and the next is expected later this year or early in 1991. The solar activity has so far risen at one of the fastest rates ever recorded, and solar forecasters expect cycle 22 to have unusually high activity levels.

  2. National Severe Storms Forecast Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The principal mission of the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is to maintain a continuous watch of weather developments that are capable of producing severe local storms, including tornadoes, and to prepare and issue messages designated as either Weather Outlooks or Tornado or Severe Thunderstorm Watches for dissemination to the public and aviation services. In addition to its assigned responsibility at the national level, the NSSFC is involved in a number of programs at the regional and local levels. Subsequent subsections and paragraphs describe the NSSFC, its users, inputs, outputs, interfaces, capabilities, workload, problem areas, and future plans in more detail.

  3. GPM Sees Powerful Storms in Tropical Storm Hermine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a 3-D animated flyby of Tropical Storm Hermine created using radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Aug. 31 at 4 p.m. EDT GPM found rainfall occurring at a rate of over 9.9 inches (251 ...

  4. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  6. Basic brownfields

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, B.L.

    1997-12-31

    This article is a basic guide to the brownfields problem. It will define the problem and will attempt to identify the various causes thereof. It also will review federal brownfields initiatives and state brownfields reforms in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.

  7. Armchair BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Annie; Fox, David

    1983-01-01

    A first lesson in learning the computer programing language BASIC, this article explains how to give instructions to the computer; the commands PRINT, NEW, LIST, and RUN; and how to do simple line editing. There is a short quiz at the end. (EAO)

  8. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson), emphasizes that the study of…

  9. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  10. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  11. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  12. Templates of Change: Storms and Shoreline Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert; Hayden, Bruce

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of research designed to assess and predict the storm-related hazards of living on the coast. Findings suggest that certain sections of coastline are more vulnerable than others to storm damage. (WB)

  13. Tropical Storm Debby Moves into Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Debby from June 25-27, 2012. The animation shows that Tropical Storm Debby's center move from the northeastern Gulf of...

  14. Satellite View of 2 Trop. Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    System 98L exploded into Tropical Storm Irene on Saturday, August 20. This GOES-13 Video shows Tropical Storm Harvey making landfall in Belize (just beneath the Yucatan Peninsula) and moving into t...

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL POLYSENSORY SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGNED TO HELP STUDENTS ACQUIRE BASIC ELECTRICAL OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES. FINAL REPORT NO. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, EDWIN K.

    AN EXPERIMENTAL POLYSENSORY SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGNED TO ASSIST STUDENTS IN ACQUIRING AND APPLYING KNOWLEDGE OF THE NATURE, CONVERSION, AND TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND OF PRINCIPLES OF SIMPLE EELECTRICAL CIRCUITS WAS DEVELOPED AND TESTED FOR EFFECTIVENESS. RELATED LABORATORY EXERCISES WERE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE SYSTEM WHICH…

  16. ENSO and winter storms in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Bromirski, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of North Pacific winter storms that penetrate the California coast drives the winds, sea level, precipitation and streamflow that are crucial influences on coastal processes. There is considerable variability of these storm characteristics, in large part owing to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO} phenomenon. There is a great contrast of the storm characteristics during the El Nino phase vs. the La Nina phase, with the largest scale, southerly extensive winter storms generated during El Nino.

  17. DE 2 observations of disturbances in the upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Brace, L. H.; Spencer, N. W.; Carignan, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of physical interpretations of a sequence of in situ measurements taken in the midlatitude dusk sector during the geomagnetic storm of November 24, 1982 by instruments on board the DE-2 spacecraft in polar orbit. The results represent the first comparison of nearly simultaneous measurements, obtained at different seasons in a common local time sector, of storm disturbances in dc electric fields, zonal ion convection, zonal winds, gas composition and temperature, and electron density and temperature.

  18. Thyroid storm during beta blockade.

    PubMed

    Strube, P J

    1984-04-01

    A thyrotoxic patient who had received beta-adrenoceptor blockers pre-operatively suffered an episode of severe heart failure immediately following thyroidectomy and required artificial ventilation of the lungs for six hours. The possible causes are discussed and the likelihood of thyroid storm unmitigated by beta adrenergic blockade suggested.

  19. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E...

  20. Rain from Tropical Storm Noel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).

  1. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Age...

  2. NASA Studies Lightning Storms Using High-Flying, Uninhabited Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely-piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. Data obtained through sensors mounted to the aircraft will allow researchers in ACES to gauge elements such as lightning activity and the electrical environment in and around storms. By learning more about individual storms, scientists hope to better understand the global water and energy cycle, as well as climate variability. Contained in one portion of the aircraft is a three-axis magnetic search coil, which measures the AC magnetic field; a three-axis electric field change sensor; an accelerometer; and a three-axis magnetometer, which measures the DC magnetic field. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  3. nuSTORM and A Path to a Muon Collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adey, David; Bayes, Ryan; Bross, Alan; Snopok, Pavel

    2015-05-20

    Our article reviews the current status of the nuSTORM facility and shows how it can be utilized to perform the next step on the path toward the realization of a μ+μ- collider. This review includes the physics motivation behind nuSTORM, a detailed description of the facility and the neutrino beams it can produce, and a summary of the short-baseline neutrino oscillation physics program that can be carried out at the facility. The idea for nuSTORM (the production of neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring) was discussed in the literature more than 30 years agomore » in the context of searching for noninteracting (sterile) neutrinos. However, only in the past 5 years has the concept been fully developed, motivated in large part by the facility's unmatched reach in addressing the evolving data on oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. Finally, this article reviews the basics of the μ+μ-collider concept and describes how nuSTORM provides a platform to test advanced concepts for six-dimensional muon ionization cooling.« less

  4. nuSTORM and A Path to a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Adey, David; Bayes, Ryan; Bross, Alan; Snopok, Pavel

    2015-05-20

    Our article reviews the current status of the nuSTORM facility and shows how it can be utilized to perform the next step on the path toward the realization of a μ+μ- collider. This review includes the physics motivation behind nuSTORM, a detailed description of the facility and the neutrino beams it can produce, and a summary of the short-baseline neutrino oscillation physics program that can be carried out at the facility. The idea for nuSTORM (the production of neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring) was discussed in the literature more than 30 years ago in the context of searching for noninteracting (sterile) neutrinos. However, only in the past 5 years has the concept been fully developed, motivated in large part by the facility's unmatched reach in addressing the evolving data on oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. Finally, this article reviews the basics of the μ+μ-collider concept and describes how nuSTORM provides a platform to test advanced concepts for six-dimensional muon ionization cooling.

  5. Characterizing Times Between Storms in Mountainous Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exploratory investigation was conducted on how two parameters that characterize dry times between storms (average time between storms, ATBS, and minimum dry time between storms, MTBS) vary with elevation, and how these two parameters may be estimated for areas without data. 16 rain gauges with h...

  6. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  7. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  8. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  9. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  10. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  11. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  12. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  13. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  14. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  15. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  16. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  17. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  18. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  19. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  20. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  1. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  2. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  3. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  4. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  5. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  6. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  7. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  8. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  9. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  10. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  11. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  12. The Ring Current Response to Solar and Interplanetary Storm Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Bingham, S.; Kronberg, E. A.; Gkioulidou, M.; Huang, C. L.; Farrugia, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The ring current responds differently to the different solar and interplanetary storm drivers such as coronal mass injections, (CME's), corotating interaction regions (CIR's), high-speed streamers and other structures. The resulting changes in the ring current particle pressure, in turn, change the global magnetic field, controlling the transport of the radiation belts. To quantitatively determine the field changes during a storm throughout the magnetosphere, it is necessary to understand the transport, sources and losses of the particles that contribute to the ring current. Because the measured ring current energy spectra depend not only on local processes, but also on the history of the ions along their entire drift path, measurements of ring current energy spectra at two or more locations can be used to strongly constrain the time dependent magnetic and electric fields. In this study we use data predominantly from the Cluster and the Van Allen Probes, covering more than a full solar cycle (from 2001 to 2014). For the period 2001-2012, the Cluster CODIF and RAPID measurements of the inner magnetosphere are the primary data set used to monitor the storm time ring current variability. After 2012, the Cluster data set complements the data from the Van Allen Probes HOPE and RBSPICE instruments, providing additional measurements from different MLT and L shells. Selected storms from this periods, allow us to study the ring current dynamics and pressure changes, as a function of L shell, magnetic local time, and the type of interplanetary disturbances.

  13. Large Geomagnetic Storms: Introduction to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the accumulation of rich data sets that reveal various aspects of geomagnetic storms in unprecedented detail both at the Sun where the storm causing disturbances originate and in geospace where the effects of the storms are directly felt. During two recent coordinated data analysis workshops (CDAWs) the large geomagnetic storms (Dst < or = -100 nT) of solar cycle 23 were studied in order to understand their solar, interplanetary, and geospace connections. This special section grew out of these CDAWs with additional contributions relevant to these storms. Here I provide a brief summary of the results presented in the special section.

  14. Storm Impacts on Potential Pathogens in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, J. Stephen; Noble, Rachel T.; Kelly, Ginger M.; Hsieh, Jennifer L.

    2007-02-01

    Estuarine and coastal environments are susceptible to a variety of changes driven by tropical storms and hurricanes. The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season impressed upon the public the devastating impacts of storms on coastal populations and the possible social and public health costs. Storm surges and subsequent flooding have the potential to redistribute water and associated contaminants, including a wide range of chemicals and microorganisms. While this impact is difficult to observe through monitoring during larger storms, smaller storms provide opportunities to observe the mechanisms responsible for contaminant and microbial transport.

  15. Solar-Storm/Lunar Atmosphere Model (SSLAM): An Overview of the Effort and Description of the Driving Storm Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delroy, G. T.; Gross, N.; Bleacher, V; Krauss-Varben, D.; Hurley, D; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    On 29 April 1998, a coronal mass ejection (CME) was emitted from the Sun that had a significant impact on bodies located at 1 AU. The terrestrial magnetosphere did indeed become more electrically active during the storm passage but an obvious question is the effect of such a storm on an exposed rocky body like our Moon. The solar-storm/lunar atmosphere modeling effort (SSLAM) brings together surface interactions, exosphere, plasma, and surface charging models all run with a common driver - the solar storm and CME passage occurring from 1-4 May 1998. We present herein an expanded discussion on the solar driver during the 1-4 May 1998 period that included the passage of an intense coronal mass ejection (CME) that had> 10 times the solar wind density and had a compositional component of He++ that exceeded 20%. We also provide a very brief overview oflhe SSLAM system layout and overarching results. One primary result is that the CME driver plasma can greatly increase the exospheric content via sputtering, with total mass loss rates that approach 1 kg/s during the 2-day CME passage. By analogy, we suggest that CME-related sputtering increases might also be expected during a CME passage by a near-earth asteroid or at the Mars exobase, resulting in an enhanced loss of material.

  16. Some physical drivers of changes in the winter storm tracks over the North Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Brayshaw, David James; Hoskins, Brian; Black, Emily

    2010-11-28

    The winter climate of Europe and the Mediterranean is dominated by the weather systems of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The behaviour of the storm tracks is highly variable, particularly in the eastern North Atlantic, and has a profound impact on the hydroclimate of the Mediterranean region. A deeper understanding of the storm tracks and the factors that drive them is therefore crucial for interpreting past changes in Mediterranean climate and the civilizations it has supported over the last 12 000 years (broadly the Holocene period). This paper presents a discussion of how changes in climate forcing (e.g. orbital variations, greenhouse gases, ice sheet cover) may have impacted on the 'basic ingredients' controlling the mid-latitude storm tracks over the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean on intermillennial time scales. Idealized simulations using the HadAM3 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) are used to explore the basic processes, while a series of timeslice simulations from a similar atmospheric GCM coupled to a thermodynamic slab ocean (HadSM3) are examined to identify the impact these drivers have on the storm track during the Holocene. The results suggest that the North Atlantic storm track has moved northward and strengthened with time since the Early to Mid-Holocene. In contrast, the Mediterranean storm track may have weakened over the same period. It is, however, emphasized that much remains still to be understood about the evolution of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks during the Holocene period.

  17. Storms of Mediterranean and Atlantic legends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenenwald, N.; Tabeaud, M.

    2009-09-01

    Weather extremes and notably wind storms are very often the channel ones since they are suspected of being the outward signs of climate change. However, even if audiovisual medias talk about wind storms in a very similar way, tales and legends stories account for the richness of their representations. Coastal and insular regions, whatever Atlantic or Mediterranean, are the ones where wind storms are most mentioned. The comparison between the tales and legends of these two regions, with distinct climatic characteristics, allows to underline the similarities and dissimilarities about the impregnation (or impact) of wind storms on these territories. Winds and storms distinguish spaces through vocabulary which can be peculiar to a region. Nevertheless, they also bring them together because above the local cultures is the human thought upon which wind storms create comparable perceptions, whatever the region. Key words: wind storms, Mediterranean regions, Atlantic regions, perceptions, representations.

  18. [Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid storm].

    PubMed

    Akamizu, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Thyrotoxic storm is a life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment. Neither its epidemiological data nor diagnostic criteria have been fully established. We clarified the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of thyroid storm using nationwide surveys and then formulate diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm. To perform the nationwide survey on thyroid storm, we first developed tentative diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm, mainly based upon the literature (the first edition). We analyzed the relationship of the major features of thyroid storm to mortality and to certain other features. Finally, based upon the findings of these surveys, we revised the diagnostic criteria. Thyrotoxic storm is still a life-threatening disorder with over 10% mortality in Japan.

  19. Thyroid storm precipitated by duodenal ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  20. Uplift of Ionospheric Oxygen Ions During Extreme Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Huba, Joseph; Lakhina, Gurbax S.

    2013-01-01

    Research reported earlier in literature was conducted relating to estimation of the ionospheric electrical field, which may have occurred during the September 1859 Carrington geomagnetic storm event, with regard to modern-day consequences. In this research, the NRL SAMI2 ionospheric code has been modified and applied the estimated electric field to the dayside ionosphere. The modeling was done at 15-minute time increments to track the general ionospheric changes. Although it has been known that magnetospheric electric fields get down into the ionosphere, it has been only in the last ten years that scientists have discovered that intense magnetic storm electric fields do also. On the dayside, these dawn-to-dusk directed electric fields lift the plasma (electrons and ions) up to higher altitudes and latitudes. As plasma is removed from lower altitudes, solar UV creates new plasma, so the total plasma in the ionosphere is increased several-fold. Thus, this complex process creates super-dense plasmas at high altitudes (from 700 to 1,000 km and higher).

  1. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  2. Severe storms observing satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwens, R. P.; Stern, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Payload distribution and the attitude control system for the multi-mission modular spacecraft/StormSat configuration are discussed. The design of the advanced atmospheric sounder and imaging radiometer (AASIR) gimbal drive and its servomechanism is described. Onboard data handling, data downlink communications, and ground data handling systems are developed. Additional topics covered include: magnetic unloading at synchronous altitude, north-south stationkeeping, and the feasibility and impact of flying the microwave atmospheric sounding radiometer (MASR) as an additional payload.

  3. Industrial Electronics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Earl

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 30 terminal objectives for a two-semester (2 hours daily) high school course in basic industrial electronics. The objectives cover instruction in basic electricity including AC-DC theory, magnetism, electrical safety, care and use of hand tools,…

  4. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  5. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  6. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  7. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  8. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  9. Dust Storm in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Along historic Route 66, just southeast of the little town of Amboy, California, lies a dried-up lake. Dry lakebeds are good sources of two things: salt and dust. In this image, the now-parched Bristol Lake offers up both. On April 12, 2007, dust storms menaced the area around Amboy. To the northwest, near Newberry Springs, California, dust hampered visibility and led to a multi-car collision on Interstate 40, killing two people and injuring several others. The same day, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of a dust storm in the dry remains of Bristol Lake. Many small dust clouds boil up from the ground surface, casting their shadows to the northwest. A bright white cloud floating over the dust also throws its shadow onto the ground below. East of the dust storm are salt works that stand out from the surrounding landscape thanks to their straight lines and sharp angles. Dark ground surfaces alternate with mined white salt in a network of stripes. When lakes evaporate, chemicals that had been dissolved in the water stay behind, making dry lake beds an ideal place to find heavy concentrations of minerals, including salt. Besides the salt works, something else appears in stark contrast to this arid place. Lush green fields of irrigated crops appear in the east. Besides their color, their orderly arrangement reveals their human-made origin.

  10. Coordinated incoherent scatter radar study of the January 1997 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonsanto, M. J.; González, S. A.; Lu, G.; Reinisch, B. W.; Thayer, J. P.

    1999-11-01

    We describe many important features of the ionospheric F region as observed by the Sondrestrom, Millstone Hill, and Arecibo incoherent scatter radars (ISRs) and the Millstone Hill and Ramey Digisondes during January 6-10, 1997, with emphasis on the January 10, 1997 storm. Coordinated analysis of the data provides evidence for traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) and for two likely electric field penetration events linking these stations. Large and rapid changes in hmF2 were seen at Arecibo and nearby Ramey which are related to the TADs and penetrating electric fields. Results are compared with simulations by the thermosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIEGCM), which utilizes high-latitude inputs given by the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) technique. An important result of this study is that the TIEGCM is able to predict TADs similar to those observed. Exceptional features observed during this storm at Millstone Hill are a very large nighttime Te enhancement on January 10 and a larger decrease in NmF2 than predicted by the TIEGCM throughout the storm period. The latter appears to be related to an underestimation of the neutral temperature by the model.

  11. NASA Studies Lightning Storms Using High-Flying, Uninhabited Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Radio news media can talk with Dr. Richard Blakeslee, the project's principal investigator, and Tony Kim, project manager at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), about their results and how their work will help improve future weather forecasting ability. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely- piloted aircraft to study a thunderstorm in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West, two storms at the western edge of the Everglades, and a large storm over the northwestern corner of the Everglades. This photograph shows Tony Kim And Dr. Richard Blakeslee of MSFC testing aircraft sensors that would be used to measure the electric fields produced by thunderstorm as part of NASA's ACES. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the MSFC, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  12. An intracloud lightning parameterization scheme for a storm electrification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Wu, Gang; Farley, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The parameterization of an intracloud lightning discharge has been implemented in the present storm electrification model. The initiation, propagation direction, and termination of the discharge are computed using the magnitude and direction of the electric field vector as the determining criteria. The charge redistribution due to the lightning is approximated assuming the channel to be an isolated conductor with zero net charge over its entire length. Various simulations involving differing amounts of charge transferred and distribution of charges have been done. Values of charge transfer, dipole moment change, and electrical energy dissipation computed in the model are consistent with observations. The effects of the lightning-produced ions on the hydrometeor charges and electric field components depend strongly on the amount of charge transferred. A comparison between the measured electric field change of an actual intracloud flash and the field change due to the simulated discharge shows favorable agreement. Limitations of the parameterization scheme are discussed.

  13. Sunspace basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Anyone who lives in a home with a sunspace will tell you that the sunspace is the most enjoyable room in the house. Many times the homeowner`s only regret is that the sunspace is not larger. Although aesthetics often drive the decision to add a sunspace or include one in a new home design, sunspaces can also provide supplemental space heating and a healthy environment for plants and people. In fact, a well-designed sunspace can provide up to 60% of a home`s winter heating requirements. This publication addresses basic elements of sunspace design; design considerations for supplemental space heating, growing plants, and use as a living space; design guidelines including siting, heat distribution, and glazing angles; and major sunspace components including glazing options, thermal mass, insulation, and climate controls. A list of sources for more information is also provided.

  14. Simulation and Twins Observations of the 22 July 2009 Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, M.-C.; Buzulukova, N.; Chen, S.-H.; Valek, P. W.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    TWINS is the first mission to perform stereo imaging of the Earth's ring current. The magnetic storm on 22 July 2009 was at the time the largest storm observed since TWINS began routine stereo imaging in June 2008. On 22 July 2009, the Dst dropped to nearly .80 nT at 0700 and 1000 UT. During the main phase, and at the peak of the storm, TWINS 1 and 2 were near apogee and moving between predawn and postdawn local time. The energetic neutral atom (ENA) imagers on the two spacecraft captured the storm intensification and the formation of the partial ring current. The peak of the high-altitude ENA emissions was seen in the midnight-to-dawn local time sector. The development of this storm has been simulated using the comprehensive ring current model (CRCM) to understand and interpret the observed signatures. We perform CRCM runs with constant and time-varying magnetic field. The model calculations are validated by comparing the simulated ENA and ion flux intensities with TWINS ENA images and in situ ion data from a THEMIS satellite. Simulation with a static magnetic field produces a strong shielding electric field that skews the ion drift trajectories toward dawn. The model's corresponding peak ENA emissions are always more eastward than those in the observed TWINS images. On the other hand, the simulation with a dynamic magnetic field gives better spatial agreement with both ENA and in situ particle data, suggesting that temporal variations of the geomagnetic field exert a significant influence upon global ring current ion dynamics.

  15. Simulation and 'TWINS Observations of the 22 July 2009 Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Buzulukova, Natalia Y.; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Valek, Phil; Goldstein, Jerry; McComas, David

    2010-01-01

    TWINS is the first mission to perform stereo imaging of the Earth's ring current. The magnetic storm on 22 July 2009 is the largest storm observed since TWINS began routine stereo imaging in June 2008. On 22 July 2009, the Dst dropped to nearly -80nT at 7:00 and 10:00 UT. During the main phase and at the peak of the storm, TWINS 1 and 2 were near apogee and moving from pre-dawn to post-dawn local time. The energetic neutral atom (ENA) imagers on the 2 spacecraft captured the storm intensification and the formation of the partial ring current. The peak of the ENA emissions was seen in the midnight-to-dawn local-time sector. The development of this storm has been simulated using the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) to understand and interpret the observed signatures. We perform CRCM runs with constant and time-varying magnetic field. The model calculations are validated by comparing the simulated ENA and ion flux intensities with TWINS ENA images and in-situ ion data from THEMIS satellites. Simulation with static magnetic field produces a strong shielding electric field that skews the ion drift trajectories toward dawn. The model's corresponding peak ENA emissions are always eastward than those in the observed TWINS images. On the other hand, simulation with a dynamic magnetic field gives better spatial agreements with both ENA and insitu particle data, suggesting that temporal variations of the geomagnetic field exert a significant influence upon global ring current ion dynamics.

  16. Investigation of Ionospheric response to Geomagnetic Storms over a Low Latitude Station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimoh, Oluwaseyi E.; Yesufu, Thomas K.; Ariyibi, Emmanuel A.

    2016-05-01

    Due to several complexities associated with the equatorial ionosphere, and the significant role which the total electron content (TEC) variability plays in GPS signal transmission, there is the need to monitor irregularities in TEC during storm events. The GPS SCINDA receiver data at Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was analysed with a view to characterizing the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms on 9 March and 1 October 2012. Presently, positive storm effects, peaks in TEC which were associated with prompt penetration of electric fields and changes in neutral gas composition were observed for the storms. The maximum percentage deviation in TEC of about 120 and 45% were observed for 9 March and 1 October 2012, respectively. An obvious negative percentage TEC deviation subsequent to sudden storm commencement (SSC) was observed and besides a geomagnetic storm does not necessarily suggest a high scintillation intensity (S4) index. The present results show that magnetic storm events at low latitude regions may have an adverse effect on navigation and communication systems.

  17. Using a Solar Sail for a Plasma Storm Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Jean-Yves; Perret, Alain; Pignolet, Guy

    1996-12-01

    It has been already established that geomagnetic storms can provoke a lot of trouble near the Earth, such as the loss of spacecraft or the degradation of GPS signal and even on the ground with the collapse of electricity distribution systems. High energy protons could even be lethal to astronauts performing extravehicular activity. Accurate predictions of such events can be made by monitoring the upcoming solar wind. Such detection can be provided by magnetometers and particle detectors on spacecraft located between the Sun and the Earth. The L1 Lagrangian point of the Sun-Earth system, which is lying at a distance of 1.5 million of kilometers upstream from the Earth, offers a very appreciable opportunity to detect storm triggering conditions about one hour before the corresponding solar wind reaches the Earth. Nevertheless, it would be very useful to extend the horizon of this space weather prediction by placing the detection system farther away from the Earth. This can be done through the utilization of a solar sail facing the Sun: the light radiation pressure would act oppositely to the gravitational attraction of the Sun, enabling to achieve an orbit period identical to the Earth's one but closer to the Sun. It is possible, for instance, to double the warning delay by using a solar sail with an area to mass ratio of 45 (for instance 6400 square meters for less than two hundred kilograms), placed at a distance of 3 million kilometers from the Earth and always facing the Sun. The requested performances to maintain such an orbit are obtainable by using state of the art technologies. In the paper, after reminding the basics of solar sailing and space environment monitoring, the principles of the proposed system are depicted and a mission scenario together with a description of the instrumental payload are proposed. Finally, preliminary mass and link budgets are presented.

  18. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total electron content: A case study from Indian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Monti; Kumar, Sanjay; De, Barin Kumar; Guha, Anirban

    2015-07-01

    The effect of geomagnetic storms on low latitude ionosphere has been investigated with the help of Global Positioning System Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) data. The investigation has been done with the aid of TEC data from the Indian equatorial region, Port Blair (PBR) and equatorial ionization anomaly region, Agartala (AGR). During the geomagnetic storms on 24th April and 15th July 2012, significant enhancement up to 150% and depression up to 72% in VTEC is observed in comparison to the normal day variation. The variations in VTEC observed from equatorial to EIA latitudes during the storm period have been explained with the help of electro-dynamic effects (prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF)) as well as mechanical effects (storm-induced equatorward neutral wind effect and thermospheric composition changes). The current study points to the fact that the electro-dynamic effect of geomagnetic storms around EIA region is more effective than at the lower latitude region. Drastic difference has been observed over equatorial region (positive storm impact) and EIA region (negative storm impact) around same longitude sector, during storm period on 24th April. This drastic change as observed in GPS-TEC on 24th April has been further confirmed by using the O/N2 ratio data from GUVI (Global Ultraviolet Imager) as well as VTEC map constructed from IGS data. The results presented in the paper are important for the application of satellite-based communication and navigational system.

  19. Arrhythmic storm: Short-coupled variant torsade de pointes.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Ana Rita; Frutuoso, Cecília; Vasconcelos, Mariana; Dias, Paula; Garcia, Raquel; Pinho, Teresa; Araújo, Vítor; Maciel, Maria Júlia

    2016-05-01

    A 49-year-old woman, with no relevant family history, was admitted in 1996 for arrhythmic storm with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (torsade de pointes) which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation. Iatrogenic causes were excluded, the electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal and there was no structural heart disease. She refused cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Treatment was begun with amiodarone, which she took irregularly. She remained asymptomatic until 2014 when she was admitted for a new arrhythmic storm with torsade de pointes, refractory to antiarrhythmic therapy and aggravated by ventricular pacing (65 defibrillations). She had frequent ventricular extrasystoles (with short-coupled period <300 ms) preceding the tachycardia. After administration of isoprenaline infusion electric stability was maintained. In this setting and in the absence of structural heart disease or iatrogenic cause, a diagnosis of short-coupled variant torsade de pointes was established. A cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted and she was treated with verapamil, without recurrence of arrhythmias.

  20. The relationship of storm severity to directionally resolved radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. O.; Bushman, M. L.; Sherrill, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Directionally resolved atmospheric radio frequency emission data were acquired from thunderstorms occurring in the central and southwestern United States. In addition, RF sferic tracking data were obtained from hurricanes and tropical depressions occurring in the Gulf of Mexico. The data were acquired using a crossed baseline phase interferometer operating at a frequency of 2.001 MHz. The received atmospherics were tested for phase linearity across the array, and azimuth/elevation angles of arrival were computed in real time. A histogram analysis of sferic burst count versus azimuth provided lines of bearing to centers of intense electrical activity. Analysis indicates a consistent capability of the phase linear direction finder to detect severe meteorological activity to distances of 2000 km from the receiving site. The technique evidences the ability to discriminate severe storms from nonsevere storms coexistent in large regional scale thunderstorm activity.

  1. On the contribution of plasma sheet bubbles to the storm time ring current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Toffoletto, Frank R.; Wolf, Richard A.; Sazykin, Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Particle injections occur frequently inside 10 Re during geomagnetic storms. They are commonly associated with bursty bulk flows or plasma sheet bubbles transported from the tail to the inner magnetosphere. Although observations and theoretical arguments have suggested that they may have an important role in storm time dynamics, this assertion has not been addressed quantitatively. In this paper, we investigate which process is dominant for the storm time ring current buildup: large-scale enhanced convection or localized bubble injections. We use the Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) to model a series of idealized storm main phases. The boundary conditions at 14-15 Re on the nightside are adjusted to randomly inject bubbles to a degree roughly consistent with observed statistical properties. A test particle tracing technique is then used to identify the source of the ring current plasma. We find that the contribution of plasma sheet bubbles to the ring current energy increases from ~20% for weak storms to ~50% for moderate storms and levels off at ~61% for intense storms, while the contribution of trapped particles decreases from ~60% for weak storms to ~30% for moderate and ~21% for intense storms. The contribution of nonbubble plasma sheet flux tubes remains ~20% on average regardless of the storm intensity. Consistent with previous RCM and RCM-E simulations, our results show that the mechanisms for plasma sheet bubbles enhancing the ring current energy are (1) the deep penetration of bubbles and (2) the bulk plasma pushed ahead of bubbles. Both the bubbles and the plasma pushed ahead typically contain larger distribution functions than those in the inner magnetosphere at quiet times. An integrated effect of those individual bubble injections is the gradual enhancement of the storm time ring current. We also make two predictions testable against observations. First, fluctuations over a time scale of 5-20 min in the plasma distributions and electric field

  2. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  3. Extreme Lightning Flash Rates as an Early Indicator of Severe Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Extreme lightning flash rates are proving to be an early indicator of intensifying storms capable of producing tornadoes, damaging winds and hail. Most of this lightning is in the cloud, where the naked eye can not see it. Recent global observations of thunderstorms from space indicate that giant electrical storms (supercells and convective complexes) with flash rates on the order of 1 flash per second are most common over the land masses of the America sub-tropics and equatorial Congo Basin. Within the United States, the average tornado warning lead time on a national basis is about 11 min. The real-time observation of extreme flash rates and the rapid increase in the in-cloud flash rate, signalling the intensification of the storm updraft, may provide as much as a 50% increase in severe storm warning lead time.

  4. The responses of the thermosphere due to a geomagnetic storm: A MHD model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Chang, S.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamics theory was used to study the dynamic response of the neutral atmosphere to a geomagnetic storm. A full set of magnetohydrodynamic equations appropriate for the present problem is derived and their various orders of approximation are discussed in some detail. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of this theoretical model, the May 1967 geomagnetic storm data were used in the resulting set of nonlinear, time dependent, partial differential magnetohydrodynamic equations to calculate variations of the thermosphere due to the storm. The numerical results are presented for wind speeds, electric field strength, and amount of joule heating at a constant altitude for the data recorded. Data show that the strongest thermospheric responses are at the polar region becoming weaker in the equatorial region. This may lead to the speculation that a thermospheric wave is generated in the polar region due to the geomagnetic storm which propagates towards the equator.

  5. Understanding Storm Time Poynting Flux Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, H. M.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that energy deposited by dayside Earth-directed Poynting flux (S||) is greater during geomagnetic storms; however, S|| spatial and temporal variability are less well understood. Eight years (2000-2008) of data from the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, were collected to identify thirteen large and five super storms according to specific criteria: "classic" storm structure in which the time interval between sudden storm commencement (SSC) and minimum Dst (Dstmin) was ≤ 24 hours; the main and recovery phases did not experience secondary or tertiary disturbances; large storms where Dst ≤ -93 nT; and, super storms where Dst ≤ -184 nT. Solar wind and magnetospheric data for the 18 storms were collected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F-15) and NASA OMNI. For all storms, the data were averaged and plotted to identify S|| variability for the mantle, cusp, polar rain, and central and boundary layer plasma sheet regions during geomagnetic storm time. As known for all storms, while Dst decreased, average S|| peaked, as did Kp. The energy deposited per square-meter by precipitating energetic particles (electrons) did not increase, though average hemispheric power increased by nearly a factor of two for the large and super storms between SSC and Dstmin. For the large storms, average S|| from the central and boundary layer plasma sheet regions (on closed field lines) was enhanced by nearly a factor of two between SSC and Dstmin; for the super storms, enhancement was over a factor of three. Average large storm S|| enhancement from the mantle, cusp, and polar rain regions (on open field lines) was significantly more enhanced by a factor of three between SSC and Dstmin. It was enhanced by a factor of over five for the super storms. For the open field line regions, a large, prolonged secondary peak in S|| was observed for large and super storms during the recovery phase. As suggested by this and prior studies, research is needed to better

  6. Peculiar features of the low-latitude and midlatitude ionospheric response to the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Chinmaya; Tsai, L.-C.; Su, S.-Y.; Galkin, I. A.; Tan, Adrian Teck Keng; Nofri, Ed; Jamjareegulgarn, Punyawi

    2016-08-01

    The current study aims at investigating and identifying the ionospheric effects of the geomagnetic storm that occurred during 17-19 March 2015. Incidentally, with SYM-H hitting a minimum of -232 nT, this was the strongest storm of the current solar cycle 24. The study investigates how the storm has affected the equatorial, low-latitude, and midlatitude ionosphere in the American and the European sectors using available ground-based ionosonde and GPS TEC (total electron content) data. The possible effects of prompt electric field penetration is observed in both sectors during the main phase of the storm. In the American sector, the coexistence of both positive and negative ionospheric storm phases are observed at low latitudes and midlatitudes to high latitudes, respectively. The positive storm phase is mainly due to the prompt penetration electric fields. The negative storm phase in the midlatitude region is a combined effect of disturbance dynamo electric fields, the equatorward shift of the midlatitude density trough, and the equatorward compression of the plasmapause in combination with chemical compositional changes. Strong negative ionospheric storm phase is observed in both ionosonde and TEC observations during the recovery phase which also shows a strong hemispherical asymmetry. Additionally, the variation of equatorial ionization anomaly as seen through the SWARM constellation plasma measurements across different longitudes has been discussed. We, also, take a look at the performance of the IRI Real-Time Assimilative Mapping during this storm as an ionospheric space weather tool.

  7. The storm-time equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, K.; Sastry, T. S. G.; Sampath, S.; Stolarik, J. D.; Usher, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A Petrel rocket carrying a double cell rubidium magnetometer was launched from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station during the early main phase of a magnetic storm. No ionospheric currents associated with the storm were observed and the large field depression, at the flight time, must therefore be attributed to currents at higher altitudes. The equatorial enhancement of ionospheric magnetic storm currents, predicted on the basis of theory and earlier ground data, was not observed.

  8. The storm-time equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, K.; Sastry, T. S. G.; Sampath, S.; Stolarik, J. D.; Usher, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A Petrel rocket carrying a double cell rubidium magnetometer was launched from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station during the early main phase of a magnetic storm. No ionospheric currents associated with the storm were observed, and the large field depression at the flight time must therefore be attributed to currents at higher altitudes. The equatorial enhancement of ionospheric magnetic storm currents, predicted on the basis of theory and earlier ground data, was not observed.

  9. Topographic Correction Module at Storm (TC@Storm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaksek, K.; Cotar, K.; Veljanovski, T.; Pehani, P.; Ostir, K.

    2015-04-01

    Different solar position in combination with terrain slope and aspect result in different illumination of inclined surfaces. Therefore, the retrieved satellite data cannot be accurately transformed to the spectral reflectance, which depends only on the land cover. The topographic correction should remove this effect and enable further automatic processing of higher level products. The topographic correction TC@STORM was developed as a module within the SPACE-SI automatic near-real-time image processing chain STORM. It combines physical approach with the standard Minnaert method. The total irradiance is modelled as a three-component irradiance: direct (dependent on incidence angle, sun zenith angle and slope), diffuse from the sky (dependent mainly on sky-view factor), and diffuse reflected from the terrain (dependent on sky-view factor and albedo). For computation of diffuse irradiation from the sky we assume an anisotropic brightness of the sky. We iteratively estimate a linear combination from 10 different models, to provide the best results. Dependent on the data resolution, we mask shades based on radiometric (image) or geometric properties. The method was tested on RapidEye, Landsat 8, and PROBA-V data. Final results of the correction were evaluated and statistically validated based on various topography settings and land cover classes. Images show great improvements in shaded areas.

  10. Convective storms in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The atmospheres of the planets in the Solar System have different physical properties that in some cases can be considered as extreme when compared with our own planet's more familiar atmosphere. From the tenuous and cold atmosphere of Mars to the dense and warm atmosphere of Venus in the case of the terrestrial planets, to the gigantic atmospheres of the outer planets, or the nitrogen and methane atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan, we can find a large variety of physical environments. The comparative study of these atmospheres provides a better understanding of the physics of a geophysical fluid. In many of these worlds convective storms of different intensity appear. They are analogous to terrestrial atmospheres fed by the release of latent heat when one of the gases in the atmosphere condenses and they are therefore called moist convective storms. In many of these planets they can produce severe meteorological phenomena and by studying them in a comparative way we can aspire to get a further insight in the dynamics of these atmospheres even beyond the scope of moist convection. A classical example is the structure of the complex systems of winds in the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. These winds are zonal and alternate in latitude but their deep structure is not accessible to direct observation. However the behaviour of large--scale convective storms vertically extending over the "weather layer" allows to study the buried roots of these winds. Another interesting atmosphere with a rather different structure of convection is Titan, a world where methane is close to its triple point in the atmosphere and can condense in bright clouds with large precipitation fluxes that may model part of the orography of the surface making Titan a world with a methane cycle similar to the hydrological cycle of Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Home-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation for Long-Term Denervated Human Muscle: History, Basics, Results and Perspectives of the Vienna Rehabilitation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    We will here discuss the following points related to Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-b FES) as treatment for patients with permanently denervated muscles in their legs: 1. Upper (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) damage to the lower spinal cord; 2. Muscle atrophy/hypertrophy versus processes of degeneration, regeneration, and recovery; 3. Recovery of twitch- and tetanic-contractility by h-b FES; 4. Clinical effects of h-b FES using the protocol of the “Vienna School”; 5. Limitations and perspectives. Arguments in favor of using the Vienna protocol include: 1. Increased muscle size in both legs; 2. Improved tetanic force production after 3-5 months of percutaneous stimulation using long stimulus pulses (> 100 msec) of high amplitude (> 80 mAmp), tolerated only in patients with no pain sensibility; 3. Histological and electron microscopic evidence that two years of h-b FES return muscle fibers to a state typical of two weeks denervated muscles with respect to atrophy, disrupted myofibrillar structure, and disorganized Excitation-Contraction Coupling (E-CC) structures; 4. The excitability never recovers to that typical of normal or reinnervated muscles where pulses less than 1 msec in duration and 25 mAmp in intensity excite axons and thereby muscle fibres. It is important to motivate these patients for chronic stimulation throughout life, preferably standing up against the load of the body weight rather than sitting. Only younger and low weight patients can expect to be able to stand-up and do some steps more or less independently. Some patients like to maintain the h-b FES training for decades. Limitations of the procedure are obvious, in part related to the use of multiple, large surface electrodes and the amount of time patients are willing to use for such muscle training. PMID:26913127

  12. Plasmaspheric hiss intensity variations during magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Frandsen, A. M. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Thorne, R. M.; Chan, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    The storm time intensity variations of ELF electromagnetic emissions have been studied by using the Ogo 6 search coil magnetometer. Low-latitude signals exhibit a sharp low-frequency cutoff and are identified as plasmaspheric hiss. Such waves show pronounced intensification during the recovery phase of magnetic storms but remain close to background levels during the storm main phase. This behavior is consistent with cyclotron resonant generation within the plasmasphere as the latter expands into the intensified belt of outer zone electrons during the storm recovery.

  13. Observing storm surges from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqi

    2016-07-01

    Storm surges can cause catastrophic damage to properties and loss of life in coastal communities. Thus it is important to enhance our capabilities of observing and forecasting storm surges for mitigating damage and loss. In this presentation we show examples of observing storm surges around the world using nadir satellite altimetry, during Hurricane Sandy, Igor, and Isaac, as well as other cyclone events. The satellite observations are evaluated against tide-gauge observations and discussed for dynamic mechanisms. We also show the potential of a new wide-swath altimetry mission, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), for observing storm surges.

  14. Storm impact scale for barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale is proposed that categorizes impacts to natural barrier islands resulting from tropical and extra-tropical storms. The proposed scale is fundamentally different than existing storm-related scales in that the coupling between forcing processes and the geometry of the coast is explicitly included. Four regimes, representing different levels of impact, are defined. Within each regime, patterns and relative magnitudes of net erosion and accretion are argued to be unique. The borders between regimes represent thresholds defining where processes and magnitudes of impacts change dramatically. Impact level 1 is the 'swash' regime describing a storm where runup is confined to the foreshore. The foreshore typically erodes during the storm and recovers following the storm; hence, there is no net change. Impact level 2 is the 'collision' regime describing a storm where the wave runup exceeds the threshold of the base of the foredune ridge. Swash impacts the dune forcing net erosion. Impact level 3 is the 'overwash' regime describing a storm where wave runup overtops the berm or, if present, the foredune ridge. The associated net landward sand transport contributes to net migration of the barrier landward. Impact level 4 is the 'inundation' regime describing a storm where the storm surge is sufficient to completely and continuously submerge the barrier island. Sand undergoes net landward transport over the barrier island; limited evidence suggests the quantities and distance of transport are much greater than what occurs during the 'overwash' regime.

  15. A Personal Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Although lightning detection systems operated by government agencies, utilities and other businesses provide storm warnings, this information often does not reach the public until some time after the observations have been made. A low-cost personal lightning detector offers a significant safety advantage to private flyers, boaters, golfers and others. Developed by Airborne Research Associates, the detectors originated in Space Shuttle tests of an optical lightning detection technique. The commercial device is pointed toward a cloud to detect invisible intracloud lightning by sensing subtle changes in light presence. The majority of the sales have been to golf courses. Additional products and more advanced applications are in progress.

  16. Tropical Storm Iniki, Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Tropical Storm Iniki in the North Pacific (40.5N, 152.5W) was dissipating from hurricane status when this photo was taken. Two days prior, as a full fledged hurricane, with winds of about 150 mph and waves of over 15 ft., it swept over the Hawaiian island of Kauai. But, as Iniki moved over the colder waters of the North Pacific, it began to weaken as can be seen by the lack of a tight spiral gyre and the absence of an eye in the center.

  17. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"…

  18. Storm-induced changes of the topside ionosphere as deduced from incoherent-scatter radars. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lunn, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Incoherent scatter radar observations from Millstone Hill, Saint Santin, and Arecibo are used to illustrate changes of the topside ionosphere during a geomagnetic storm. These observations consist of electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. These parameters can further describe changes in ion composition, electric fields, and neutral winds. Attention is given to a specific storm during the Equinox Transition Study (ETS) of September 1984. In order to isolate the storm effects in the topside ionosphere, a comparison will be made between a disturbed and quiet day. A novel result from this study is the finding of correlated oscillations between parallel and perpendicular ion velocity components which are apparently storm induced. Previously, these oscillations have been observed primarily at night, but now it's noticed that during storm conditions there are prominent oscillations during the day.

  19. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  1. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgaladze, A. A.; Förster, M.; Yurik, R. Y.

    2000-04-01

    Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes) above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs). The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric disturbances both

  2. On the phenomenological theory of magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Anatol

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the methodical issues of modeling of the Dst variation of geomagnetic storms. We describe the so-called the RBM model, having the form of an ordinary differential equation whose solutions simulate the relation of Dst variations with azimuthal component of the interplanetary electric field. It has been paid a special attention to the threshold nature of the excitation Dst variation. We have emphasize the needs of statistical generalization of RBM model by taking into account the fluctuations inherent in any physical system. The integral representation of the bifurcation diagram of Dst variation is found. It allowed to take into account the effect of the fluctuations, which eliminate the root singularity of the diagram and lead to a shift in the threshold point. It is shown that the Dst variation belongs to a wide class of threshold phenomena related to phase transitions of the second kind. We have shown an analogy with threshold phenomena in the magnetosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere of the Earth's. In addition, we briefly discussed the issue of soft and hard regimes of passing through the threshold, and raised the issue of explosive instability in the geophysical media.

  3. Reduction of coherence of the human brain electric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor

    Plenty of technological processes are known to be damaged by magnetic storms. But technology is controlled by men and their functional systems may be damaged as well. We are going to consider the electro-neurophysiological aspect of the general problem: men surrounded by physical fields including ones of cosmic origination. Magnetic storms’ influence had been observed for a group of 13 students (practically healthy girls and boys from 18 to 23 years old, Moscow). To control the main functional systems of the examinees, their electroencephalograms (EEG) were being registered along with electrocardiograms, respiratory rhythms, arterial blood pressure and other characteristics during a year. All of these characteristics, save for the EEG, were within the normal range for all of the examinees during measurements. According to the EEG investigations by implementation of the computer proof-reading test in absence of magnetic storms, the values of the coherence function of time series of the theta-rhythm oscillations (f = 4 - 7.9 Hz, A = 20 μV) of electric potentials of the frontal-polar and occipital areas of the head belong to the interval [0.3, 0.8] for all of the students under investigation. (As the proof-reading test, it was necessary to choose given symbols from a random sequence of ones demonstrated at a monitor and to enter the number of the symbols discovered in a computer. Everyone was known that the time for determination of symbols is unlimited. On the other hand, nobody was known that the EEG and other registrations mentioned are connected with electromagnetic geophysical researches and geomagnetic storms). Let us formulate the main result: by implementation of the same test during a magnetic storm, 5 ≤ K ≤ 6, or no later then 24 hours after its beginning (different types of moderate magnetic storms occurred, the data of IZMIRAN were used), the values of the theta-rhythm frontal - occipital coherence function of all of the students of the group under

  4. Calibrating a Magnetotail Model for Storm/Substorm Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Siebert, S.; Mithaiwala, M.; Doxas, I.

    2003-12-01

    The physics network model called WINDMI for the solar WIND driven Magnetosphere-Ionosphere weather system is calibrated on substorm databases [1] using a genetic algorithm. We report on the use of the network as a digital filter to classify the substorms into three types; a process traditionally performed individual inspection. We then turn to using the filter on the seven Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) Storms designated for community wide study. These storms cover periods of days and contain many substorms. First the WINDMI model is run with the 14 parameters set from the study based on the Blanchard-McPherron database of 117 isolated substorms with 80% of the data having the AL below -500nT. In contrast, the GEM storms have long periods with AL in the range of -1000nT. The prediction error measured with the average-relative variance (ARV) is of approximately unity. Reapplying the genetic algorithm the parameters shift such that the one long storm has an ARV=0.59. Physics modifications of the basic WINDMI model including the injection of sheet plasma into the ring current are being evaluated in terms of their impact on the ARV and comparisons with non-physics based signal processing prediction filters. Ensembles of initial conditions are run with 700MHz G3 CPU run times of order 17 sec per orbit per day of real data. The AMD AthlonXP 1700+ processor takes 5sec per orbit per day. The IBM SP-2 speed will be reported. With such speeds it is possible to run balls of initial conditions. Substrom Classification with the WINDMI Model, W. Horton, R.S. Weigel, D. Vassiliadis, and I. Doxas, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1-9, 2003. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0229863.

  5. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  6. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  7. Thunderstorm Electric Potential Profiles: Electrical Evolution and Lightning Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenburg, M.; Marshall, T. C.

    2005-05-01

    From a balloon sounding of electric field through a thunderstorm, one can calculate the vertical profile of potential, V, within the storm. In this presentation we investigate thunderstorm electrical evolution by examining V profiles through various stages of a storm's life. We present data from New Mexico mountain thunderstorms in which we made a series of 4 to 6 balloon soundings. Several of the successive V profiles in the same storm are quite similar, in spite of the numerous lightning flashes that occurred during the balloon flights. These similarities suggest that the V profiles are reasonable estimates of the in-cloud potential. The similar profiles occur during the mature phase of the storm, and mature phase profiles are even similar from one storm to another. This is true despite different lightning flashing rates and, presumably, different charge generation rates in the different storms. Another result of this work is that potential profiles during the early and late stages of the storm do not resemble those from the mature stage. Recently, Coleman et al. [2003] showed that intra-cloud (IC) flashes connect potential extrema of opposite polarity and that normal (negative) cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes connect a potential minimum to ground. Thus we can use the V profiles to estimate the potential difference spanned by lightning flashes during the evolution of the storm and, with this, estimate the lightning energy. Typical potential differences spanned by IC and CG flashes will be presented from four storms. Reference: Coleman, L.M., T.C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P.R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R.J. Thomas, Effects of charge and electrostatic potential on lightning propagation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002718, 2003.

  8. NASA Studies Lightning Storms Using High-Flying, Uninhabited Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely-piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. Using special equipment aboard the Altus II, scientists in ACES will gather electric, magnetic, and optical measurements of the thunderstorms, gauging elements such as lightning activity and the electrical environment in and around the storms. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  9. Global lightning and severe storm monitoring from GPS orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Linford, J; Pongratz, M. B.; Light, T.; Shao, X.

    2004-01-01

    electrical activity within that cell as measured by the lightning flash rate. Williams [2001] has provided a review of experimental work that shows correlations between the total lightning flash rate and the fifth power of the radar cloud-top height (i.e. convective strength) of individual thunder cells. More recently, Ushio et al., [2001] used a large statistical sampling of optical data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) in conjunction with data provided by the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) satellite to conclude that the total lightning flash rate increases exponentially with storm height. Lightning activity levels have also been correlated to cloud ice content, a basic product of the convective process. For example, Blyth et al. [2001] used the Thermal Microwave Imager (TMI) aboard the TRMM satellite to observe a decrease in the 37 and 85 GHz brightness temperatures of upwelling terrestrial radiation during increased lightning activity. This reduction in brightness temperature is believed to be the result of increased ice scattering in the mixed phase region of the cloud. Toracinta and Zipser [2001] have found similar relationships using the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite instrument and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) aboard the DMSP satellites.

  10. Ionospheric response to great geomagnetic storms during solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline Matamba, Tshimangadzo; Bosco Habarulema, John

    2016-07-01

    The analyses of ionospheric responses due to great geomagnetic storms i.e. Dst index < 350 nT that occurred during solar cycle 23 are presented. The GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) and ionosonde data over Southern and Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes were used to study the ionospheric responses. A geomagnetic latitude region of ±30° to ±46° within a longitude sector of 15° to 40° was considered. Using a criteria of Dst < -350 nT, there were only four great storm periods (29 March - 02 April 2001, 27 - 31 October 2003, 18 - 23 November 2003 and 06 - 11 November 2004) in solar cycle 23. Analysis has shown that ionospheric dynamics during these disturbed conditions could be due to a number of dynamic and electrodynamics processes in both Hemispheres. In some instances the ionosphere responds differently to the same storm condition in both Hemispheres. Physical mechanisms related to (but not limited to) composition changes and electric fields will be discussed.

  11. Radial transport of storm time ring current ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Radial transport of energetic ions for the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms is investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer (MEPA) on the Charge Composition Explorer spacecraft, which monitored protons, helium ions, and the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen group, which is mostly dominated by oxygen ions. From a study of four geomagnetic storms, we show that the flux increase of these ions in the inner ring current region can be accounted for by an inward displacement of the ring current population by 0.5 to 3.5 R(E). There is a general trend that a larger inward displacement occurs at higher L shells than at lower ones. These results are in agreement with previous findings. The radially injected population consists of the prestorm population modified by substorm injections which occur on a much shorter time scale than that for a storm main phase. It is also found that the inward displacement is relatively independent of ion mass and energy, suggesting that the radial transport of these energetic ions is effected primarily by convective motion from a large electric field or by diffusion resulting from magnetic field fluctuations.

  12. NASA's 3-D Animation of Tropical Storm Ulika from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ulika using GPM's Radar data showed some strong convective storms inside the tropical storm were dropping precipitation at a rate of over 187 mm (7.4 inches)...

  13. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O.; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult. PMID:27540465

  14. Global differences between moderate and large storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valek, P. W.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. C. H.; Goldstein, J.; Keesee, A. M.; McComas, D. J.; Perez, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The current solar maximum has been relatively quiet compared to previous solar cycles. Whereas numerous moderate storms (Dst < -50 nT) have occurred, there have been only a small number of large (Dst < - 100 nT) and extreme (Dst < -200 nT) storms. Throughout this sequence of storms, the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission has since 2008 observed the inner magnetosphere. TWINS consists of two ENA cameras flown aboard two separate spacecraft in Molniya orbits. TWINS images the ENA emissions from the inner magnetosphere across a broad range of energies (1 to 100 keV for H, 16 to 256 keV for O). This allows TWINS to observe the evolution in space and time of the trapped and precipitating particles most relevant for storm time dynamics on very high time scales (i.e., minutes). Here we will present the differences seen between moderate storms and the two large storms of 17 March 2015 (Dst < -223, St. Patrick's day storm) and 22 June 2015 (Dst < -195 nT). We will present composition-separated ENA observations of the inner magnetosphere covering the both the medium (1 to 30 keV) and high (30 to > 100 keV) energy ranges, and describe how the inner magnetosphere evolves during storm time.

  15. Severe storms and local weather research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in the use of space related techniques to understand storms and local weather are summarized. The observation of lightning, storm development, cloud development, mesoscale phenomena, and ageostrophic circulation are discussed. Data acquisition, analysis, and the development of improved sensor and computer systems capability are described. Signal processing and analysis and application of Doppler lidar data are discussed. Progress in numerous experiments is summarized.

  16. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult.

  17. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult. PMID:27540465

  18. Pre-Storm effect at the equatorial, low and Mid-latitude Ionosphere and their possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshua, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and the possible causes of pre storm effect at the equatorial, low latitude and mid latitude have been investigated using some geomagnetic storm parameters and Electron density of the Ionospheric F2 layer. The data used is for 2010 t0 2012. The pre storm effects appeared as either NmF2 depletions or enhancements or even both, when the Dst and Kp indicates a geomagnetically quiet condition (i.e. Dst > -10 nT, Kp < 3). Our results reveal a simultaneous response of the Ionospheric F2 layer and the auroral indices, e.g. AL, AU and AE indices. This suggest their connection to sub storms and a possibility of penetration of the aurora electric field to the mid and low latitudes, leading to the modification of the zonal electric field which in turn affects the drift of electrons from these regions. This and other observations from this study have further shown that Dst and Kp which are indices that have been most widely used in academic research to describe the behavior of geomagnetic storms, are not sufficient for storm time analysis in the equatorial and low latitude. Therefore, it is suggested that AU, AL and AE indices should always be used alongside Dst and Kp or Ap indices for proper and effective storm analysis.

  19. Interactions Between Convective Storms and Their Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, R. A.; Hoxit, L. R.; Chappell, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which intense convective storms interact with their environment are considered for a number of specific severe storm situations. A physical model of subcloud wind fields and vertical wind profiles was developed to explain the often observed intensification of convective storms that move along or across thermal boundaries. A number of special, unusually dense, data sets were used to substantiate features of the model. GOES imagery was used in conjunction with objectively analyzed surface wind data to develop a nowcast technique that might be used to identify specific storm cells likely to become tornadic. It was shown that circulations associated with organized meso-alpha and meso-beta scale storm complexes may, on occasion, strongly modify tropospheric thermodynamic patterns and flow fields.

  20. A rare case of thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Brock; Dhillon, Manvinder Shelley; Yong-Yow, Sabrina

    2016-04-18

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening state of thyroid hormone excess. Rapid recognition of thyroid storm is key to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of this condition. Clinical manifestations of thyroid storm include unexplained weight loss, hyperactivity and irritability. The most common causes of thyrotoxicosis are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre and toxic adenoma. We present a rare case of thyroid storm induced by dual nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy in a patient receiving treatment for advanced melanoma. In this case, our patient was admitted for thyroid storm 1 month after initiating treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy. The patient was treated with β-blockers, antithyroid medications and systemic steroids resulting in an improvement in thyroid function testing and symptoms.

  1. Low-latitude ionospheric effects of energetic electrons during a recurrent magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, A. V.; Huang, C.-M.; Matsumoto, H.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Andreeva, E. S.; Nesterov, I. A.; Tsai, L.-C.

    2014-11-01

    We study a magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at low latitudes during a moderate (corotating interaction regions/high-speed solar wind streams-driven) geomagnetic storm on 22 July 2009. Recently, it has been shown that during major (coronal mass ejection-driven) storms, quasi-trapped >30 keV electrons largely enhance below the radiation belt in the forbidden zone and produce an additional ionization in the topside ionosphere. In this work, we examine a case of the recurrent storm when the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the quasi-trapped electrons also may take place. Data from NOAA/Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite and Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite were used to identify the forbidden electron enhancement (FEE). We find a positive vertical gradient of the electron fluxes that indicates to the radiation belt as a source of FEE. Using global ionospheric maps, radiotomography reconstructions from beacon data and COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 radio occultation measurements, we have observed an unusually large area in the nighttime ionosphere with increased total electron content (TEC) and prominent elevation of the F layer at low latitudes that coincides with FEEs spatially and temporarily. Ionizing particles are considered as an addition source of ionization along with generally accepted mechanisms for storm time TEC increase (a positive ionospheric storm). We discuss relative contributions of the FEE and disturbance dynamo electric field in the TEC increases during the storm recovery phase.

  2. Pre-storm NmF2 enhancements at middle latitudes: delusion or reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.

    2009-03-01

    A critical analysis of recent publications devoted to the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements is performed. There are no convincing arguments that the observed cases of NmF2 enhancements at middle and sub-auroral latitudes bear a relation to the following magnetic storms. In all cases considered the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements were due to previous geomagnetic storms, moderate auroral activity or they presented the class of positive quiet time events (Q-disturbances). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that there is no such an effect as the pre-storm NmF2 enhancement as a phenomenon inalienably related to the following magnetic storm. The observed nighttime NmF2 enhancements at sub-auroral latitudes may result from plasma transfer from the plasma ring area by meridional thermospheric wind. Enhanced plasmaspheric fluxes into the nighttime F2-region resulted from westward substorm-associated electric fields is another possible source of nighttime NmF2 enhancements. Daytime positive Q-disturbances occurring under very low geomagnetic activity level may be related to the dayside cusp activity.

  3. Arecibo observations of ionospheric perturbations associated with the passage of Tropical Storm Odette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, R. L.; Aponte, N.; Earle, G. D.; Sulzer, M.; Larsen, M. F.; Peng, G. S.

    2006-11-01

    A suite of instruments including incoherent scatter radar, ionosonde, and a satellite-bourne GPS receiver observed the ionosphere immediately following the passage of a tropical storm. Tropical Storm Odette formed on 4 December 2003 and proceeded northeasterly over the next 4 days, passing within 600 km of the Arecibo Observatory (AO). On the night of 7-8 December AO measured F region plasma densities and velocities nearly coincident with the storm. Large velocity variations, 10-80 m/s, are evident in the plasma drift components. The variations appear wave-like with an average period of 90 min at 367 km. Zonal drifts were observed with magnitudes significantly greater than commonly observed for similar geomagnetic conditions. The Ramey ionosonde observed intense midlatitude spread F on the night following the closest passage of the storm. GPS occultations within the storm path showed an increase in gravity wave activity and F region scintillation. Combining the local increase in gravity wave activity with the large drift variations and dominant meridional electric field observed immediately following the storm's traversal of the flux tube coincident with the AO observing volume provide insight into coupling between mesoscale weather systems and the ionosphere.

  4. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  5. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  6. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  7. Middle- and low-latitude ionosphere response to 2015 St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Rodríguez-Zuluaga, J.; Alazo-Cuartas, K.; Kashcheyev, A.; Migoya-Orué, Y.; Radicella, S. M.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the St Patrick's Day storm of 2015, with its ionospheric response at middle and low latitudes. The effects of the storm in each longitudinal sector (Asian, African, American, and Pacific) are characterized using global and regional electron content. At the beginning of the storm, one or two ionospheric positive storm effects are observed depending on the longitudinal zones. After the main phase of the storm, a strong decrease in ionization is observed at all longitudes, lasting several days. The American region exhibits the most remarkable increase in vertical total electron content (vTEC), while in the Asian sector, the largest decrease in vTEC is observed. At low latitudes, using spectral analysis, we were able to separate the effects of the prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field (PPEF) and of the disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF) on the basis of ground magnetic data. Concerning the PPEF, Earth's magnetic field oscillations occur simultaneously in the Asian, African, and American sectors, during southward magnetization of the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Concerning the DDEF, diurnal magnetic oscillations in the horizontal component H of the Earth's magnetic field exhibit a behavior that is opposed to the regular one. These diurnal oscillations are recognized to last several days in all longitudinal sectors. The observational data obtained by all sensors used in the present paper can be interpreted on the basis of existing theoretical models.

  8. Effect of Asian dust storms on daily mortality in seven metropolitan cities of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyewon; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Yi, Seungmuk

    2013-11-01

    The adverse effects of dust storms on health have been a major issue in several countries. A substantial number of studies have found significant associations between dust storms and morbidity such as emergency visits and hospitalizations. However, the results of the studies on the association between dust storms and mortality are inconsistent. In Korea, no study has found statistically significant effect of Asian dust storms on daily mortality. Thus, this study aims to explore the effect of Asian dust storms on daily mortality in Korea during 2001-2009. All analyses were confined to non-accidental mortality. We used generalized additive model with Quasi-Poisson regressions. We considered the lag effect of dust storms up to 7 days and performed subgroup analyses by disease, sex and age. Current day's temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, day of the week, season and time trends were controlled for in a basic model. SO2, NO2 and PM10 levels were also added in the further analyses. Meta-analysis was applied for seven metropolitan cities in Korea to estimate the pooled effects of Asian dust storms. We reported results as excessive mortality by percentage due to Asian dust storms. We found significant positive associations between Asian dust storms and mortality at lag 0 (cardiovascular: 2.91%; 95% CI: 0.13, 5.77, male: 2.74%; 95% CI: 0.74, 4.77 and <65 years: 2.52%; 95% CI: 0.06, 5.04), at lag 2 (male 2.4%; 95% CI: 0.43, 4.4 and <65 years: 2.49%; 95% CI: 0.07, 4.97), at lag 3 (total non-accidental: 1.57%; 95% CI: 0.11, 3.06, male: 2.24%; 95% CI: 0.28, 4.25 and <65 years: 2.43%; 95% CI: 0.01, 4.91) and at lag 5 (cardiovascular: 3.7%; 95% CI: 0.93, 6.54 and male: 2.04%, 95 CI: 0.08, 4.04) in the model which adjusted for NO2 additionally. Other models showed similar significant results except the PM10-adjusted model. This is the first study to show the significant relationship between Asian dust storms and mortality in Korea and to present a pooled effect

  9. Development and Evaluation of Storm Surge Ensemble Forecasting for the Philippines Using JMA Storm Surge Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, J. P. B.; Tablazon, J. P.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries most vulnerable to storm surge. It is located in the North-western Pacific basin which is the most active basin in the planet. An average of 20 tropical cyclones enters the Philippine area of responsibility (PAR) every year. The archipelagic nature of the country with regions having gently sloping coasts and shallow bays also contribute to the formation of extreme surges. Last November 2013, storm surge brought by super typhoon Haiyan severely damaged several coastal regions in the Visayan Islands. Haiyan left more than 6 300 casualties and damages amounting to more than $ 2 billion. Extreme storm surge events such as this highlight the need to establish a storm surge early warning system for the country. This study explores the development and evaluation of storm surge ensemble forecasting for the Philippines using the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) storm surge model. 36-hour, 24-hour, and 12-hour tropical cyclone forecasts are used to generate an ensemble storm surge forecast to give the most probable storm surge height at a specific point brought by an incoming tropical cyclone. The result of the storm surge forecast is compared to tide gauge record to evaluate the accuracy. The total time of computation and dissemination of forecast result is also examined to assess the feasibility of using the JMA storm surge model for operational purposes.

  10. Stability of subsea pipelines during large storms

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Scott; An, Hongwei; Cheng, Liang; White, David J.; Griffiths, Terry

    2015-01-01

    On-bottom stability design of subsea pipelines transporting hydrocarbons is important to ensure safety and reliability but is challenging to achieve in the onerous metocean (meteorological and oceanographic) conditions typical of large storms (such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons). This challenge is increased by the fact that industry design guidelines presently give no guidance on how to incorporate the potential benefits of seabed mobility, which can lead to lowering and self-burial of the pipeline on a sandy seabed. In this paper, we demonstrate recent advances in experimental modelling of pipeline scour and present results investigating how pipeline stability can change in a large storm. An emphasis is placed on the initial development of the storm, where scour is inevitable on an erodible bed as the storm velocities build up to peak conditions. During this initial development, we compare the rate at which peak near-bed velocities increase in a large storm (typically less than 10−3 m s−2) to the rate at which a pipeline scours and subsequently lowers (which is dependent not only on the storm velocities, but also on the mechanism of lowering and the pipeline properties). We show that the relative magnitude of these rates influences pipeline embedment during a storm and the stability of the pipeline. PMID:25512592

  11. Stability of subsea pipelines during large storms.

    PubMed

    Draper, Scott; An, Hongwei; Cheng, Liang; White, David J; Griffiths, Terry

    2015-01-28

    On-bottom stability design of subsea pipelines transporting hydrocarbons is important to ensure safety and reliability but is challenging to achieve in the onerous metocean (meteorological and oceanographic) conditions typical of large storms (such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons). This challenge is increased by the fact that industry design guidelines presently give no guidance on how to incorporate the potential benefits of seabed mobility, which can lead to lowering and self-burial of the pipeline on a sandy seabed. In this paper, we demonstrate recent advances in experimental modelling of pipeline scour and present results investigating how pipeline stability can change in a large storm. An emphasis is placed on the initial development of the storm, where scour is inevitable on an erodible bed as the storm velocities build up to peak conditions. During this initial development, we compare the rate at which peak near-bed velocities increase in a large storm (typically less than 10(-3) m s(-2)) to the rate at which a pipeline scours and subsequently lowers (which is dependent not only on the storm velocities, but also on the mechanism of lowering and the pipeline properties). We show that the relative magnitude of these rates influences pipeline embedment during a storm and the stability of the pipeline.

  12. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  13. An Evaluation of Lightning Flash Rate Parameterizations Based on Observations of Colorado Storms during DC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basarab, B.; Fuchs, B.; Rutledge, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting lightning activity in thunderstorms is important in order to accurately quantify the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) by lightning (LNOx). Lightning is an important global source of NOx, and since NOx is a chemical precursor to ozone, the climatological impacts of LNOx could be significant. Many cloud-resolving models rely on parameterizations to predict lightning and LNOx since the processes leading to charge separation and lightning discharge are not yet fully understood. This study evaluates predicted flash rates based on existing lightning parameterizations against flash rates observed for Colorado storms during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3). Evaluating lightning parameterizations against storm observations is a useful way to possibly improve the prediction of flash rates and LNOx in models. Additionally, since convective storms that form in the eastern plains of Colorado can be different thermodynamically and electrically from storms in other regions, it is useful to test existing parameterizations against observations from these storms. We present an analysis of the dynamics, microphysics, and lightning characteristics of two case studies, severe storms that developed on 6 and 7 June 2012. This analysis includes dual-Doppler derived horizontal and vertical velocities, a hydrometeor identification based on polarimetric radar variables using the CSU-CHILL radar, and insight into the charge structure using observations from the northern Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). Flash rates were inferred from the LMA data using a flash counting algorithm. We have calculated various microphysical and dynamical parameters for these storms that have been used in empirical flash rate parameterizations. In particular, maximum vertical velocity has been used to predict flash rates in some cloud-resolving chemistry simulations. We diagnose flash rates for the 6 and 7 June storms using this parameterization and compare

  14. Basic memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

  15. Effects of the magnetic storm in April 2000 in the low latitude ionosphere near longitude 120E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wan, W.; Lee, C.

    A halo-CME induced interplanetary shock wave that passed the Earth around 1648 UT on April 6, 2000 triggered a geomagnetic storm with a minimum value of about -300 nT in Dst index. In this paper, digisonde data from ionospheric stations at Chungli, Wuhan, and Kokubunji are included to investigate the ionospheric responses of low latitudes near longitude 120 E to this storm. At three low latitudes near longitude 120 E during this storm, the significant ionospheric responses was an anomalous rapid and large increase in the ionospheric heights occurred around the beginning of the main phase, and the lifts in h'F and hmF2 lasted for about 2 hours. The nearsimultaneous ionosphere increase was also observed at Chungli, Taiwan. And a wave like disturbance appeared on daytime of the second day. The near simultaneity of the ionospheric lifts at these stations in the nighttime ionospheric heights after the SSC suggested that an ExB plasma drift due to the storm related perturbed east-west electric fields. The empirical models of storm time equatorial zonal electric fields (Fejer and Scherliess, 1997) attributed those rapid and large lifts to the effect of solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo origin, which penetrate to low latitudes and equatorial regions. The following wave like disturbance was suggested to be caused by storm induced Travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs). A method developed by Liu et al. (2002) and Luan et al. (2002) was used to derive the vertical effective winds from ionospheric measurements. It also shows that there was a significantly downward and upward vertical drift during the storm, which verifies the existence of the storm related perturbed east-west electric fields. Finally, the ionospheric storm time derivation from its monthly median level at these stations was also used to validate the predication ability of STORM, a storm empirical model of Araujo-Pradere et al. (2001), which is now included in the international reference ionosphere model IRI

  16. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  17. Reduced Baroclinicity During Martian Global Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battalio, Joseph; Szunyogh, Istvan; Lemmon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The eddy kinetic energy equation is applied to the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset during the pre-winter solstice period for the northern hemisphere of Mars. Traveling waves are triggered by geopotential flux convergence, grow baroclinically, and decay barotropically. Higher optical depth increases the static stability, which reduces vertical and meridional heat fluxes. Traveling waves during a global dust storm year develop a mixed baroclinic/barotropic growth phase before decaying barotropically. Baroclinic energy conversion is reduced during the global dust storm, but eddy intensity is undiminished. Instead, the frequency of storms is reduced due to a stabilized vertical profile.

  18. An electrified dust storm over the Negev desert, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Price, C. G.; Yaniv, R.; Katz, S.

    2015-12-01

    We report on atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30035'N, 34045'E) during a massive dust storm that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on 10-11 February 2015. The event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of the warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. Satellite images show the dust plume covering the Negev desert and Southern Israel and moving north. The concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 450 μg m-3 and AOT from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker was 1.5 on the 10th. The gradual intensification of the event reached peak values on February 11th of over 1200 μg m-3 and AOT of 1.8. This was the most severe dust event in a decade. Continuous measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and vertical current density (Jz) were conducted with 1 minute temporal resolution. Meteorological data was also recorded at the site. As the dust was advected over the observation site, we noted very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters. Since the onset of the dust storm, the Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 pA m2 and +20 pA m2, both on time-scales of a few minutes. These values are a significant departures from the mean fair-weather values measured at the site, which are -~200 V m-1 and ~2 pA m2. The disturbed episodes lasted for several hours on the 10th and 11th and coincided with local meteorological conditions related to the wind direction, which carried large amounts of dust particles. We interpret the rapid changes as caused by the transport of electrically charged dust. Calculation of the total electrical charge during the dust storm will be presented.

  19. Numerical Simulations of the Ring Current During Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. W.; Lemon, C.; Guild, T. B.; Schulz, M.; Roeder, J. L.; Lui, A.; Keesee, A. M.; Goldstein, J.; Le, G.; Rodriguez, J. V.

    2012-12-01

    Recent progress in ring current modeling has shown the importance of a self-consistent treatment of particle transport along with magnetic and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. The ring current intensity and spatial distribution are significantly affected by variations in the plasma sheet (the major source to the ring current), the cross polar cap potential, and compressions and expansions of the magnetosphere. We simulate the ion and electron ring current and plasma sheet by using the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium [Lemon et al., JGR, 2004] with a time-varying magnetopause driven by upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic (IMF) conditions and with time-varying plasma sheet distributions as boundary conditions. Examples of detailed comparisons of simulated storm events with in-situ magnetic intensities (e. g., GOES, Polar/MPA, or THEMIS) and proton flux spectra (e. g., LANL/MPA and SOPA, Polar/CAMMICE, or THEMIS) and energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes (e. g., TWINS) will be shown. We will also present comparisons of observed electron flux spectra with simulations based on a few simple electron loss models. These data-model comparisons test the ability of our model to characterize the ring current environment and the storm-time inner magnetospheric magnetic field.

  20. 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, H. J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE 99), held June 7-11, 1999. This conference was attended by scientists and researchers from around the world. The subjects covered included natural and artificially initiated lightning, lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere (sprites and jets), lightning protection and safety, lightning detection techniques (ground, airborne, and space-based), storm physics, electric fields near and within thunderstorms, storm electrification, atmospheric ions and chemistry, shumann resonances, satellite observations of lightning, global electrical processes, fair weather electricity, and instrumentation.

  1. Storm diagnostic/predictive images derived from a combination of lightning and satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Meyer, Paul J.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is presented for generating trend or convective tendency images using a combination of GOES satellite imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning observations. The convective tendency images can be used for short term forecasting of storm development. A conceptual model of cloud electrical development and an example of the methodology used to generate lightning/satellite convective tendency imagery are given. Successive convective tendency images can be looped or animated to show the previous growth or decay of thunderstorms and their associated lighting activity. It is suggested that the convective tendency image may also be used to indicate potential microburst producing storms.

  2. A new parameter of geomagnetic storms for the severity of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Batista, I. S.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Rajesh, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Using the continuous Dst data available since 1957 and H component data for the Carrington space weather event of 1859, the paper shows that the mean value of Dst during the main phase of geomagnetic storms, called mean DstMP, is a unique parameter that can indicate the severity of space weather. All storms having high mean DstMP (≤-250 nT), which corresponds to high amount of energy input in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system in short duration, are found associated with severe space weather events that caused all known electric power outages and telegraph system failures.

  3. Stride search: A general algorithm for storm detection in high resolution climate data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bosler, Peter Andrew; Roesler, Erika Louise; Taylor, Mark A.; Mundt, Miranda

    2015-09-08

    This article discusses the problem of identifying extreme climate events such as intense storms within large climate data sets. The basic storm detection algorithm is reviewed, which splits the problem into two parts: a spatial search followed by a temporal correlation problem. Two specific implementations of the spatial search algorithm are compared. The commonly used grid point search algorithm is reviewed, and a new algorithm called Stride Search is introduced. Stride Search is designed to work at all latitudes, while grid point searches may fail in polar regions. Results from the two algorithms are compared for the application of tropicalmore » cyclone detection, and shown to produce similar results for the same set of storm identification criteria. The time required for both algorithms to search the same data set is compared. Furthermore, Stride Search's ability to search extreme latitudes is demonstrated for the case of polar low detection.« less

  4. Stride search: A general algorithm for storm detection in high resolution climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Bosler, Peter Andrew; Roesler, Erika Louise; Taylor, Mark A.; Mundt, Miranda

    2015-09-08

    This article discusses the problem of identifying extreme climate events such as intense storms within large climate data sets. The basic storm detection algorithm is reviewed, which splits the problem into two parts: a spatial search followed by a temporal correlation problem. Two specific implementations of the spatial search algorithm are compared. The commonly used grid point search algorithm is reviewed, and a new algorithm called Stride Search is introduced. Stride Search is designed to work at all latitudes, while grid point searches may fail in polar regions. Results from the two algorithms are compared for the application of tropical cyclone detection, and shown to produce similar results for the same set of storm identification criteria. The time required for both algorithms to search the same data set is compared. Furthermore, Stride Search's ability to search extreme latitudes is demonstrated for the case of polar low detection.

  5. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments. PMID:25797650

  6. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments.

  7. Effects of magnetic-storm phases on F-layer irregularities from auroral to equatorial latitudes. Quarterly report, 1 April-30 June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, J.; Mendillo, M.

    1990-06-30

    In progress is a major study of the effect of the ring current on the sub-auroral and equatorial generation of patches of irregularities. In addition studies are on-going for determining the dynamics of electric field penetration in latitude with the start of a major geomagnetic storm. For the first time simultaneous observations of irregularities at high and equatorial latitudes will be utilized. The studies use scintillation and spread F data as well as optical observations for data from 1971-1989. Two basic concepts are being studied. With the statistics of morphology of F-layer irregularities now in hand, it is possible to forecast in broad terms what to expect at equatorial, auroral and polar latitudes during various levels of solar flux. With the beginning of an understanding of the effect of the various phases of magnetic storms on generating irregularities as noted from the solar wind, ring current, convection, auroral index, and magnetic index parameters, it is possible to roughly forecast levels of F-layer irregularity intensity. With these in hand, the utility of space, time, and frequency diversity can be evaluated. Diversity could be used if forecasting in real time was possible.

  8. Statistical analysis of storm-time near-Earth current systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Katus, R. M.; Ilie, R.

    2015-08-01

    Currents from the Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) inner magnetospheric model results for all of the 90 intense storms (disturbance storm-time (Dst) minimum < -100 nT) from solar cycle 23 (1996-2005) are calculated, presented, and analyzed. We have categorized these currents into the various systems that exist in near-Earth space, specifically the eastward and westward symmetric ring current, the partial ring current, the banana current, and the tail current. The current results from each run set are combined by a normalized superposed epoch analysis technique that scales the timeline of each phase of each storm before summing the results. It is found that there is a systematic ordering to the current systems, with the asymmetric current systems peaking during storm main phase (tail current rising first, then the banana current, followed by the partial ring current) and the symmetric current systems peaking during the early recovery phase (westward and eastward symmetric ring current having simultaneous maxima). The median and mean peak amplitudes for the current systems ranged from 1 to 3 MA, depending on the setup configuration used in HEIDI, except for the eastward symmetric ring current, for which the mean never exceeded 0.3 MA for any HEIDI setup. The self-consistent electric field description in HEIDI yielded larger tail and banana currents than the Volland-Stern electric field, while the partial and symmetric ring currents had similar peak values between the two applied electric field models.

  9. Electronics Technology. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Guy

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 20 terminal objectives for a basic electronics technology course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily) designed to include instruction in basic electricity and electronic fundamentals, and to develop skills and…

  10. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  11. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  12. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  13. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  14. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  15. Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission Trailer

    NASA Video Gallery

    With launch scheduled for 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) are two identical spacecraft that will investigate the doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts, the first discovery of the sp...

  16. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  17. GOES Satellite Movie of 2014 Winter Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery shows the movement of winter storms from January 1 to March 24 making for a snowier-than-normal winter along the U.S. East coast and Midwest...

  18. Satellite Movie Sees Southern California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Jan. 5 through Jan 7 shows the progression of storm systems in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that hit southern California and generated flooding a...

  19. GMI Rainfall Data on Tropical Storm Adjali

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows GMI rainfall data on Tropical Storm Adjali on Nov. 19, 2014 combined with cloud data from the METEOSAT-7 satellite. Rainfall was found to be falling at a rate of over 69 mm/hr ...

  20. Isaac's Remnants; Tropical Storms Kirk, Michael

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of GOES-13 satellite observations from Sept. 1-4, 2012, showing Isaac's remnants move from the central to eastern U.S., Tropical Storm Leslie nearing Bermuda, Kirk fading in the No. Atlan...

  1. Tropical Storm Wali Seen by GOESWest

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of infrared and visible imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from July 15 to 18 shows the birth of Tropical Storm Wali southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii on July 17. Credit: NA...

  2. Satellite Sees Birth of Tropical Storm Gordon

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations from August 13-16, 2012, shows the birth of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season's eighth tropical depression that strengthens into Tropical Storm Gordon. This...

  3. TRMM Sees California Storm Move East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from Feb. 28 to Mar. 3 shows the movement of the rain associated with the storm system that soaked California. On March 3, precipitation (yellow) and snow cover (white/yellow) spread...

  4. The Surprising Power of Solar Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA-funded researchers say a flurry of solar storms from March 8-10, 2012 dumped enough energy in Earth's upper atmosphere (our thermosphere absorbed 26 billion kWh of energy) to power every resid...

  5. GOES video of Tropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This NOAA GOES-East satellite animation shows the development of System 91L into Tropical Storm Andrea over the course of 3 days from June 4 to June 6, just after Andrea was officially designated a...

  6. Rainfall Totals Over Storm Life of Matthew

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the amount of rainfall dropped by Hurricane Matthew over the life and track of the storm/ IMERG real time data covering the period from Sept. 28 through Oct. 10, 2016 show rain...

  7. Tropical Storm Gil - July 31, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite traveled above intensifying Tropical Storm Gil on July 31 at 12:55 a.m. EDT. The TRMM satellite pass showed that Gil was already very well organized with intense bands of rain...

  8. GOES Movie of Tropical Storm Danielle

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from June 18 to 20 shows the development and movement Tropical Storm Danielle from the western Caribbean Sea into the Bay of Campeche/Gulf of Mexic...

  9. UCAR group urges STORM program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A blue-ribbon panel of scientists has proposed a decade-long, $1 billion program to improve forecasting operations and research of regional and local hazardous weather. The panel, appointed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), believes that the program could reduce the $20-billion annual cost of damage from severe weather by $1 billion per year.The primary aim of the program is to ‘enable weather services, public and private, to observe and predict stormscale weather phenomena— such as squall lines, thunderstorms, flash floods, local heavy snows, or tornadoes—with the accuracy and reliability to protect the public, serve the national economy, and meet defense requirements,’ as explained in the report, The National STORM (Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology) Program: A Call to Action. Stormscale phenomena also include nonviolent weather: freezing rain, dense ground fog, low-lying clouds that disrupt ground or air traffic, persistent temperature inversions, and strong nocturnal cooling that may produce killing frost.

  10. Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern California’s September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude

  11. The effects of storms and storm-generated currents on sand beaches in Southern Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, H.W.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Dickson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Storms are one of the most important controls on the cycle of erosion and accretion on beaches. Current meters placed in shoreface locations of Saco Bay and Wells Embayment, ME, recorded bottom currents during the winter months of 2000 and 2001, while teams of volunteers profiled the topography of nearby beaches. Coupling offshore meteorological and beach profile data made it possible to determine the response of nine beaches in southern Maine to various oceanographic and meteorological conditions. The beaches selected for profiling ranged from pristine to completely developed and permitted further examination of the role of seawalls on the response of beaches to storms. Current meters documented three unique types of storms: frontal passages, southwest storms, and northeast storms. In general, the current meter results indicate that frontal passages and southwest storms were responsible for bringing sediment towards the shore, while northeast storms resulted in a net movement of sediment away from the beach. During the 1999-2000 winter, there were a greater percentage of frontal passages and southwest storms, while during the 2000-2001 winter, there were more northeast storms. The sediment that was transported landward during the 1999-2000 winter was reworked into the berm along moderately and highly developed beaches during the next summer. A northeast storm on March 5-6, 2001, resulted in currents in excess of 1 m s-1 and wave heights that reached six meters. The storm persisted over 10 high tides and caused coastal flooding and property damage. Topographic profiles made before and after the storm demonstrate that developed beaches experienced a loss of sediment volume during the storm, while sediment was redistributed along the profile on moderately developed and undeveloped beaches. Two months after the storm, the profiles along the developed beaches had not reached their pre-storm elevation. In comparison, the moderately developed and undeveloped beaches

  12. Geomagnetic storms, super-storms, and their impacts on GPS-based navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Yasyukevich, Yu.; Maksikov, A.; Zhivetiev, I.

    2014-07-01

    Using data of GPS receivers located worldwide, we analyze the quality of GPS performance during four geomagnetic storms of different intensity: two super-storms and two intense storms. We show that during super-storms the density of GPS Losses-of-Lock (LoL) increases up to 0.25% at L1 frequency and up to 3% at L2 frequency, and up to 0.15% (at L1) and 1% (at L2) during less intense storms. Also, depending on the intensity of the storm time ionospheric disturbances, the total number of total electron content (TEC) slips can exceed from 4 to 40 times the quiet time level. Both GPS LoL and TEC slips occur during abrupt changes of SYM-H index of geomagnetic activity, i.e., during the main phase of geomagnetic storms and during development of ionospheric storms. The main contribution in the total number of GPS LoL was found to be done by GPS sites located at low and high latitudes, whereas the area of numerous TEC slips seemed to mostly correspond to the boundary of the auroral oval, i.e., region with intensive ionospheric irregularities. Our global maps of TEC slips show where the regions with intense irregularities of electron density occur during geomagnetic storms and will let us in future predict appearance of GPS errors for geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  13. Electron Acceleration and Radio Noise Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, N.; Trottet, G.

    2008-05-01

    Radio noise storms are radiated by suprathermal electrons accelerated continuously over time scales of hours to days in the vicinity of active regions. Such long-duration electron acceleration may be related to emerging magnetic loops interacting with overlying loops leading to magnetic reconfiguration in the corona. A close spatial and temporal relationship is also sometimes observed between noise storm onsets or enhancements and white light transient activity. For a few cases, noise storm enhancements were found to be associated with flare like sudden energy release in the active region, either as a fully developed flare or, more often as a microwave or soft X-ray brightening without Halpha signature. A few cases have also been reported in which 10-30 keV X-rays from a superhot flaring plasma or from non-thermal electrons have been observed at the onset of the noise storm confirming that a flare-like signature in the low corona could be a necessary condition for noise storms to start. Most of these results were however obtained with no spatial resolution at X-ray wavelengths allowing us to confirm that the flare-like signature was indeed related to the radio noise storm onset. We shall present here some results of a search of X-ray counterparts (observed by RHESSI) at the onset or enhancements of a few radio noise storms observed with the Nançay Radioheliograph. We shall investigate whether X-ray flare-like signatures are seen in close temporal and spatial association with the appearance of the noise storm and briefly discuss the thermal or non thermal nature of the emission as well as its energy content.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR COMET STORMS IN METEORITE AGES

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, S.; Muller, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    Clustering of cosmic-ray exposure ages of H chondritic meteorites occurs at 7 {+-} 3 and 30 {+-} 6 Myr ago. There is independent evidence that comet storms have occurred at the same times, based on the fossil record of family and genus extinctions, impact craters and glass, and geomagnetic reversals. We suggest that H chondrites were formed by the impact of shower comets on asteroids. The duration of the most recent comet shower was {le} 4 Myr, in agreement with storm theory.

  15. Ionospheric storm effects at subauroral latitudes - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proelss, G. W.; Brace, L. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Carignan, G. R.; Killeen, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to classify ionospheric storm effects at subauroral latitudes according to their presumed origin. The storm of December 7/8, 1982, serves as an example. It is investigated using ionosonde, electron content, and DE 2 satellite data. The following effects are distinguished: (1) positive storm effects caused by traveling atmospheric disturbances, (2) positive storm effects caused by changes in the large-scale thermospheric wind circulation, (3) positive storm effects caused by the expansion of the polar ionization enhancement, (4) negative storm effects caused by perturbations of the neutral gas composition, and (5) negative storm effects caused by the equatorward displacement of the trough region.

  16. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  17. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  18. Total Lightning Activity Associated with Tornadic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Buechler, Dennis; Hodanish, Stephen; Sharp, David; Williams, Earle; Boldi, Bob; Matlin, Anne; Weber, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Severe storms often have high flash rates (in excess of one flash per second) and are dominated by intracloud lightning activity. In addition to the extraordinary flash rates, there is a second distinguishing lightning characteristic of severe storms that seems to be important. When the total lightning history is examined, one finds sudden increases in the lightning rate, which we refer to as lightning "jumps," that precede the occurrence of severe weather by ten or more minutes. These jumps are typically 30-60 flashes/min, and are easily identified as anomalously large derivatives in the flash rate. This relationship is associated with updraft intensification and updraft strength is an important factor in storm severity (through the accumulation of condensate aloft and the stretching of vorticity). In several cases, evidence for diminishment of midlevel rotation and the descent of angular momentum from aloft is present prior to the appearance of the surface tornado. Based on our experience with severe and tornadic storms in Central Florida, we believe the total lightning may augment the more traditional use of NEXRAD radars and storm spotters. However, a more rigorous relation of these jumps to storm kinematics is needed if we are to apply total lightning in a decision tree that leads to improved warning lead times and decreased false alarm rates.

  19. Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of effected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems (GIS) provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-hour intervals from midnight (0000 hour) through noon (1200 hour) on September 24, 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared to the extent of flood-inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

  20. Mapping hurricane rita inland storm tide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.; Mason, R.R.; Blanchard, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of affected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-h intervals from midnight (00:00 hours) through noon (12:00 hours) on 24 September 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared with the extent of flood inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Scientists Track 'Perfect Storm' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Two dramatically different faces of our Red Planet neighbor appear in these comparison images showing how a global dust storm engulfed Mars with the onset of Martian spring in the Southern Hemisphere. When NASA's Hubble Space Telescope imaged Mars in June, the seeds of the storm were caught brewing in the giant Hellas Basin (oval at 4 o'clock position on disk) and in another storm at the northern polar cap.

    When Hubble photographed Mars in early September, the storm had already been raging across the planet for nearly two months obscuring all surface features. The fine airborne dust blocks a significant amount of sunlight from reaching the Martian surface. Because the airborne dust is absorbing this sunlight, it heats the upper atmosphere. Seasonal global Mars dust storms have been observed from telescopes for over a century, but this is the biggest storm ever seen in the past several decades.

    Mars looks gibbous in the right photograph because it is 26 million miles farther from Earth than in the left photo (though the pictures have been scaled to the same angular size), and our viewing angle has changed. The left picture was taken when Mars was near its closest approach to Earth for 2001 (an event called opposition); at that point the disk of Mars was fully illuminated as seen from Earth because Mars was exactly opposite the Sun.

    Both images are in natural color, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  2. Ionspheric and thermospheric response to the 27-28 February 2014 geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Malki; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Vilmer, Nicole; Bounhir, Aziza; Makela, Jonathan J.; Kaab, Mohamed; Lagheryeb, Amine

    2015-08-01

    The present work explores the ionospheric and thermospheric responses to the 27-28 February 2014 geomagnetic storm. This storm was consecutive to CME associated flares that occurred on 25 February. A Fabry Perrot interferometer provides measurements of the neutral winds and temperature based on the observations of the 630 nm redline emission and of a wide angle imaging system which records images of the 630 nm emission.The effects of this geomagnetic storm on the thermosphere are evident from the clear departure of the winds and the temperature from their seasonal behavior. The effects on the ionosphere were also evident through the change observed in the background electric field as shown from the plasma bubbles drifts direction reversal. Attention was paid to the the interplanetary medium ; solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, shock waves and geomagnetic indices. We also explore RHESSI data of the flare.

  3. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning following a winter storm--Washington, January 1993.

    PubMed

    1993-02-19

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning was a major health consequence of a severe storm that struck the Puget Sound region of western Washington state the morning of January 20, 1993. Wind gusts up to 94 miles per hour interrupted electrical power for an estimated 776,000 residents, and during the 4 nights following the storm, temperatures fell to near freezing. Because of the use of alternative sources of energy for indoor cooking and home heating, the risk of exposure to CO increased for many persons. This report summarizes cases of storm-related CO poisoning among persons who were initially evaluated at Seattle's Harborview Medical Center (HMC) or who were referred to the Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) for hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

  4. Geomagnetic storm effect on the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities over African equatorial sector using GPS-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Paul; Oyeyemi, Elijah; Akala, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Total electron content (TEC) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) network have been used to study the occurrence of large scale ionospheric irregularities over the African equatorial sector. The rate of change of TEC (ROT) as well as its standard deviation over five minutes (ROTI) were used to monitor the level of irregularities over 3 stations distributed across the three longitudinal sectors of Africa (eastern, central and western longitudinal sectors). The storm effect on irregularities occurrence has been studied in conjunction with the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the z component of the Interplanetary magnetic field (IMFBz) indices during four intense storms which were classified according to their season of occurrence during the year 2015. Irregularities were associated with GPS-TEC fluctuations as seen in the increased ROT and ROTI values especially in the post sunset period. Irregularities were inhibited over all the stations during the storm of March plausibly as a result of electric field conditioned by the southward turning of IMFBz during the pre and post midnight periods. The triggering of irregularities over the western and central stations and their inhibition over the eastern station during the storm of June was controlled by the ring current. The storm effect on irregularities was not evident over the western and central stations but inhibition of irregularities was observed over the eastern station during the storm of September.

  5. Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the

  6. Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

  7. A Basic Guide to Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martocci, Barbara; Wilson, Greg

    More than 100 nuclear power plants supply over 17 percent of the electricity in the United States. The basic principles of how nuclear energy works and how it is used to make electricity are explained in this profusely illustrated booklet written for the average sixth grade reader. Discussions include: (1) atomic structure; (2) nuclear fission;…

  8. Two-Step Forecast of Geomagnetic Storm Using Coronal Mass Ejection and Solar Wind Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    To forecast geomagnetic storms, we had examined initially observed parameters of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and introduced an empirical storm forecast model in a previous study. Now we suggest a two-step forecast considering not only CME parameters observed in the solar vicinity but also solar wind conditions near Earth to improve the forecast capability. We consider the empirical solar wind criteria derived in this study (Bz = -5 nT or Ey = 3 mV/m for t = 2 h for moderate storms with minimum Dst less than -50 nT) (i.e. Magnetic Field Magnitude, B (sub z) less than or equal to -5 nanoTeslas or duskward Electrical Field, E (sub y) greater than or equal to 3 millivolts per meter for time greater than or equal to 2 hours for moderate storms with Minimum Disturbance Storm Time, Dst less than -50 nanoTeslas) and a Dst model developed by Temerin and Li (2002, 2006) (TL [i.e. Temerin Li] model). Using 55 CME-Dst pairs during 1997 to 2003, our solar wind criteria produce slightly better forecasts for 31 storm events (90 percent) than the forecasts based on the TL model (87 percent). However, the latter produces better forecasts for 24 nonstorm events (88 percent), while the former correctly forecasts only 71 percent of them. We then performed the two-step forecast. The results are as follows: (i) for 15 events that are incorrectly forecasted using CME parameters, 12 cases (80 percent) can be properly predicted based on solar wind conditions; (ii) if we forecast a storm when both CME and solar wind conditions are satisfied (n, i.e. cap operator - the intersection set that is comprised of all the elements that are common to both), the critical success index becomes higher than that from the forecast using CME parameters alone, however, only 25 storm events (81 percent) are correctly forecasted; and (iii) if we forecast a storm when either set of these conditions is satisfied (?, i.e. cup operator - the union set that is comprised of all the elements of either or both

  9. Differences in generation of magnetic storms driven by magnetic clouds, ejecta, sheath region before ICME and CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Nadezhda; Yermolaev, Yuri; Lodkina, Irina

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the efficiency of main phase storm generation by different solar wind (SW) streams when using 12 functions coupling (FC) various interplanetary parameters with magnetospheric state. By using our Catalog of Solar Wind Phenomena [Yermolaev et al., 2009] created on the basis of the OMNI database for 1976-2000, we selected the magnetic storms with Dst ≤ -50 nT for which interplanetary sources were following: MC (10 storms); Ejecta (31 storms); Sheath (21 storms); CIRs (31magnetic storms). To compare the interplanetary drivers we estimate an efficiency of magnetic storm generation by type of solar wind stream with using 12 coupling functions. We obtained that in average Sheath has more large efficiency of the magnetic storm generation and MC has more low efficiency in agreement with our previous results which show that by using a modification of formula by Burton et al. [1975] for connection of interplanetary conditions with Dst and Dst* indices the efficiency of storm generation by Sheath and CIR was ~50% higher than generation by ICME [Nikolaeva et al., 2013; 2015]. The most part of FCs has sufficiently high correlation coefficients. In particular the highest values of coefficients (~ 0.5 up to 0.63) are observed for Sheath- driven storms. In a small part of FCs with low coefficients it is necessary to increase the number of magnetic storms to increase the statistical significance of results. The reliability of the obtained data and possible reasons of divergences for various FCs and various SW types require further researches. The authors are grateful for the opportunity to use the OMNI database. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 16-02-00125, and by Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. References: Nikolaeva, N. S., Y. I. Yermolaev, and I. G. Lodkina (2013), Modeling of Dst-index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind, Cosmic

  10. Large Scale Ionospheric Response During March 17, 2013 Geomagnetic Storm: Reanalysis Based on Multiple Satellites Observations and TIEGCM Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Wang, W.; Schreiner, W. S.; Kuo, Y. H.; Lei, J.; Liu, J.; Burns, A. G.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Based on slant total electron content (TEC) observations made by ~10 satellites and ~450 ground IGS GNSS stations, we constructed a 4-D ionospheric electron density reanalysis during the March 17, 2013 geomagnetic storm. Four main large-scale ionospheric disturbances are identified from reanalysis: (1) The positive storm during the initial phase; (2) The SED (storm enhanced density) structure in both northern and southern hemisphere; (3) The large positive storm in main phase; (4) The significant negative storm in middle and low latitude during recovery phase. We then run the NCAR-TIEGCM model with Heelis electric potential empirical model as polar input. The TIEGCM can reproduce 3 of 4 large-scale structures (except SED) very well. We then further analyzed the altitudinal variations of these large-scale disturbances and found several interesting things, such as the altitude variation of SED, the rotation of positive/negative storm phase with local time. Those structures could not be identified clearly by traditional used data sources, which either has no gloval coverage or no vertical resolution. The drivers such as neutral wind/density and electric field from TIEGCM simulations are also analyzed to self-consistantly explain the identified disturbance features.

  11. Major Geomagnetic Storms (Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) Generated by Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Webb, D. F.; Zhang, J.; Berdichevsky, B. D.; Biesecker, D. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kataoka, R.; Steinberg, J. T.; Thompson, B. J.; Wu, C.-C.; Zhukov, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-nine major geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) observed in 1996 to 2004 were the focus of a Living with a Star Coordinated Data-Analysis Workshop (CDAW) in March, 2005. In 9 cases, the storm driver appears to have been purely a corotating interaction region (CIR) without any contribution from coronal mass ejection-related material (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs). These storms were generated by structures within CIRs located both before and/or after the stream interface that included persistently southward magnetic fields for intervals of several hours. We compare their geomagnetic effects with those of 159 CIRs observed during 1996 - 2005. The major storms form the extreme tail of a continuous distribution of CIR geoeffectiveness which peaks at Dst approx. -40 nT but is subject to a prominent seasonal variation of - 40 nT which is ordered by the spring and fall equinoxes and the solar wind magnetic field direction towards or away from the Sun. The O'Brien and McPherron [2000] equations, which estimate Dst by integrating the incident solar wind electric field and incorporating a ring current loss term, largely account for the variation in storm size. They tend to underestimate the size of the larger CIR-associated storms by Dst approx. 20 nT. This suggests that injection into the ring current may be more efficient than expected in such storms. Four of the nine major storms in 1996 - 2004 occurred during a period of less than three solar rotations in September - November, 2002, also the time of maximum mean IMF and solar magnetic field intensity during the current solar cycle. The maximum CIR-storm strength found in our sample of events, plus additional 23 probable CIR-associated Dst less than or equal to -100 nT storms in 1972 - 1995, is (Dst = -161 nT). This is consistent with the maximum storm strength (Dst approx. -180 nT) expected from the O'Brien and McPherron equations for the typical range of solar wind

  12. DE 2 observations of disturbances in the upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.J.; Brace, L.H.; Spencer, N.W. ); Carignan, G.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Data taken in the dusk sector of the mid-latitude thermosphere at 275-450 km by instruments on board Dynamics Explorer 2 in polar orbit are used to examine the response of the ionosphere- thermosphere system during a geomagnetic storm. The results represent the first comparison of nearly simultaneous measurements of storm disturbances in dc electric fields, zonal ion convection, zonal winds, gas composition and temperature, and electron density and temperature, at different seasons in a common local time sector. The storm commenced on November 24, 1982, during the interaction of a solar wind disturbance with the geomagnetic field while the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field, B{sub z}, was northward. The storm main phase began while B{sub z} was turning southward. Storm-induced variations in meridional de electric fields, neutral composition, and N{sub e} were stronger and spread farther equatorward in the winter hemisphere. Westward ion convection was intense enough to produce westward winds of 600 m s{sup {minus} 1} via ion drag in the winter hemisphere. Frictional heating was sufficient to elevate ion temperatures above electron temperatures in both seasons and to produce large chemical losses of O{sup +} by increasing the rate of O{sup +} loss via ion-atom interchange. Part of the chemical loss of O{sup +} was compensated by upward flow of O{sup +} as the ion scale height adjusted to the increasing ion temperatures. In this storm, frictional heating was an important subauroral heat source equatorward to at least 53{degree} invariant latitude.

  13. Real-time prediction of intense magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. E.; Chen, J.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    appropriately. In the algorithm proposed in this paper are incorporate two important physical features of solar wind - magnetosphere coupling during intense magnetic storms. First, three indicative parameters of the geoeffective interplanetary structures are studied: Eym, the maximum value of the interplanetary electric field in the East-West direction; Dp1, the minimum Dst considering a constant energy injection function during the event; and, Dp2, the minimum Dst variation considering sinusoidal energy injection function. The second aspect is the inclusion of an estimate of the previous value of the Dst (Dst0) index. The previous value of the Dst is obtained using the Burton Dst Model based on real-time observations of the solar-wind parameter. With the incorporation of these two characteristics to the model there was an increase of the precision of the algorithm and the estimate of the future values of important parameters solar wind - magnetosphere coupling parameters. It was shown that it is possible to predict successfully and accurately the Dst minimum value with a antecedence higher than that obtained by time series prediction algorithms.

  14. The F region and topside ionosphere response to a strong geomagnetic storm at Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yun; Zhou, Qihou; Zhang, Shao Dong; Aponte, NéStor; Sulzer, Michael; GonzáLez, Sixto A.

    2013-08-01

    analyze the data derived from the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar measurements to investigate the response of the F region and topside ionosphere to a strong geomagnetic storm that occurred during the period of 5-6 August 2011. The meridional wind was extremely enhanced at the early stage of the storm. The peak velocity reached approximately 300 m/s at an altitude of 340 km, which is seldom seen at the Arecibo latitude. During the storm, the vertical ion drift caused by the meridional wind was positively correlated with that caused by the electric field, which is opposite to the quiet time relationship. The disturbed vertical ion drifts resulted in large ionospheric perturbations in the F and topside regions. Several collapses were observed in hmF2 during the storm night. NmF2 rapidly increased after the storm and then decreased around midnight. At an altitude of 610 km, the concentration of H+ and O+, and the ratio of H+ over electron density all exhibited large variations. The ratio of H+ over electron density changed from less than 10% to more than 80% in a matter of 2 hours in the morning of 6 August. One explanation for such a behavior is that vertical transport dominates over charge exchange late at night due to the lower concentration of O+.

  15. Observations of lightning in convective supercells within tropical storms and hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Keen, Cecil S.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning observations from land-based lightning detection networks now allow monitoring this component of the electrical structure of tropical storms and hurricanes within a few hundred kilometers of the United States coastline. Several case studies confirm the long-held opinion that lightning is rather common within the outer rainbands. The general absence of CG lightning within the interior of mature tropical cyclones is also apparent. On the other hand, bursts of CG lightning near the circulation center of developing storms appear to precede periods of further deepening. The CG events are associated with convective supercells, whose anvil canopies can often obscure much of the underlying storm. Near-eyewall CG bursts preceding periods of intensification were noted in Hurricanes Diana (1984) and Florence (1988). A detailed case study of the 1987 unnamed tropical storm that struck the Texas-Louisiana coastline reveals that lightning was associated with two large supercells. These supercells appeared to be the trigger for the development of a closed circulation that formed several hours after the apparent low pressure center made landfall. Further studies of lightning may provide additional insight into the role of convective supercells in tropical storm intensification. It may also provide a useful diagnostic of impending deepening.

  16. Observations of lightning in convective supercells within tropical storms and hurricanes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S. |

    1994-08-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning observations from land-based lightning detection networks now allow monitoring this component of the electrical structure of tropical storms and hurricanes within a few hundred kilometers of the United States coastline. Several case studies confirm the long-held opinion that lightning is rather common within the outer rainbands. The general absence of CG lightning within the interior of mature tropical cyclones is also apparent. On the other hand, bursts of CG lightning near the circulation center of developing storms appear to precede periods of further deepening. The CG events are associated with convective supercells, whose anvil canopies can often obscure much of the underlying storm. Near-eyewall CG bursts preceding periods of intensification were noted in Hurricanes Diana (1984) and Florence (1988). A detailed case study of the 1987 unnamed tropical storm that struck the Texas-Louisiana coastline reveals that lightning was associated with two large supercells. These supercells appeared to be the trigger for the development of a closed circulation that formed several hours after the apparent low pressure center made landfall. Further studies of lightning may provide additional insight into the role of convective supercells in tropical storm intensification. It may also provide a useful diagnostic of impending deepening.

  17. Criteria of interplanetary parameters causing intense magnetic storms (Dst less than -100nT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1987-01-01

    Ten intense storms occurred during the 500 days of August 16, 1978 to December 28, 1979. From the analysis of ISEE-3 field and plasma data, it is found that the interplanetary cause of these storms are long-duration, large and negative IMF B sub Z events, associated with interplanetary duskward-electric fields greater than 5 mV/m. Because a one-to-one relationship was found between these interplanetary events and intense storms, it is suggested that these criteria can, in the future, be used as predictors of intense storms by an interplanetary monitor such as ISEE-3. These B sub Z events are found to occur in association with large amplitudes of the IMF magnitude within two days after the onset of either high-speed solar wind streams or of solar wind density enhancement events, giving important clues to their interplanetary origin. Some obvious possibilities will be discussed. The close proximity of B sub Z events and magnetic storms to the onset of high speed streams or density enhancement events is in sharp contrast to interplanetary Alfven waves and HILDCAA events previously reported, and thus the two interplanetary features corresponding geomagnetic responses can be thought of as being complementary in nature. An examination of opposite polarity B sub Z events with the same criteria show that their occurrence is similar both in number as well as in their relationship to interplanetary disturbances, and that they lead to low levels of geomagnetic activity.

  18. Ionospheric and Thermospheric Response to the 2015 St. Patrick's Day Storm: a Global Multi-Instrumental Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.; Foerster, M.; Doornbos, E.; Encarnacao, J.; Siemes, C.

    2015-12-01

    We study the ionospheric response to the geomagnetic storm of 17-18 March 2015 (the St. Patrick's Day 2015 storm) that was up to now the strongest in the 24th solar cycle (minimum SYM-H value of -233 nT). For this purpose, we use data of ground-based GPS-receivers and ionosondes, along space-borne instruments onboard the following satellites: Jason-2, GRACE, Terra-SAR-X, the three Swarm satellites (A, B, and C), and GUVI/TIMED. The storm consisted of two successive moderate storms. In the response to the first short storm, a short-term positive effect in the ionospheric vertical electron content (VTEC) occurred at low- and mid-latitudes on the dayside. The second event lasted longer and caused significant and complex storm-time changes around the globe. At high-latitudes, negative storm signatures were recorded in all longitudinal regions. The negative storm phase was found to be strongest in the Asian sector, in particular in the northern hemisphere (NH), but developed globally on March 18 at the beginning of the recovery phase. At mid-latitudes, inverse hemispheric asymmetries occurred in different longitudinal regions: in the European-African sector, positive storm signatures were observed in the NH, whereas in the American sector, a large positive storm occurred in the southern hemisphere (SH), and the NH experienced a negative storm. These observations performed around the spring equinox signify the existence of other impact factors than seasonal dependence for hemispheric asymmetries to occur. At low-latitudes, data from multiple satellites revealed the strongest storm-time effects in the morning (~100-150% enhancement) and post-sunset (~80-100% enhancement) sectors in the topside ionosphere. These dramatic VTEC enhancements were observed at different UT, but around the same area of Eastern Pacific region. To further understand the storm development, we are planning to use thermospheric data from Swarm-C satellite, as well as the data from the electric field

  19. Tropical Storm Track representation in a Global Tide and Storm Surge Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, H.; Verlaan, M.; Vatvani, D.; Muis, S.; Ward, P.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding due to tides and storm surges causes massive societal impacts and the largest economic damage of all flood hazards. To adequately estimate and counteract upon their risk, sound global scientific information on hazards due to storm surges and tides is required. Recently, a first global tide and storm surge reanalysis (GTSR) has been prepared (Muis et al., 2015) that provides a 36 year time series of sea levels, along with extreme value statistics. The GTSR is established using a physically based model, forced by meteorological reanalysis data. Validation of GTSR showed that tropical storms are underrepresented, firstly, due to the fact that they occur rarely and then only affect a limited area, and secondly, because the spatio-temporal resolution of reanalysis wind and pressure fields is too low to accurately represent the strong spatio-temporal variability of tropical storms. In this contribution, we are improving GTSR by contributing a large amount of historical tropical storm tracks into the analysis as a first step to accommodate tropical storms in the reanalysis. We estimate how the statistics of the meteorological extremes in pressure and wind are changing, and consequently, how this translates into new statistics of storm surge extremes.

  20. Tropical storm tracks in a global tide and storm surge reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Vatvani, Deepak; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Flooding due to tides and storm surges causes massive societal impacts and the largest economic damage of all flood hazards. To adequately estimate and counteract upon their risk, sound global scientific information on hazards due to storm surges and tides is required. Recently, a first global tide and storm surge reanalysis (GTSR) has been prepared (Muis et al., 2015) that provides a 36 year time series of sea levels, along with extreme value statistics. The GTSR is established using a physically based model, forced by meteorological reanalysis data. Validation of GTSR showed that tropical storms are underrepresented, firstly, due to the fact that they occur rarely and then only affect a limited area, and secondly, because the spatio-temporal resolution of reanalysis wind and pressure fields is too low to accurately represent the strong spatio-temporal variability of tropical storms. In this contribution, we show the GTSR as well as its recent advancements by contributing a large amount of historical tropical storm tracks into the analysis. This advancement is seen as a first step to accommodate tropical storms in the reanalysis. We estimate how the statistics of the meteorological extremes in pressure and wind are changing, and consequently, how this translates into new statistics of storm surge extremes.

  1. Healthcare4VideoStorm: Making Smart Decisions Based on Storm Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weishan; Duan, Pengcheng; Chen, Xiufeng; Lu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Storm-based stream processing is widely used for real-time large-scale distributed processing. Knowing the run-time status and ensuring performance is critical to providing expected dependability for some applications, e.g., continuous video processing for security surveillance. The existing scheduling strategies’ granularity is too coarse to have good performance, and mainly considers network resources without computing resources while scheduling. In this paper, we propose Healthcare4Storm, a framework that finds Storm insights based on Storm metrics to gain knowledge from the health status of an application, finally ending up with smart scheduling decisions. It takes into account both network and computing resources and conducts scheduling at a fine-grained level using tuples instead of topologies. The comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework has good performance and can improve the dependability of the Storm-based applications. PMID:27120606

  2. Healthcare4VideoStorm: Making Smart Decisions Based on Storm Metrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weishan; Duan, Pengcheng; Chen, Xiufeng; Lu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Storm-based stream processing is widely used for real-time large-scale distributed processing. Knowing the run-time status and ensuring performance is critical to providing expected dependability for some applications, e.g., continuous video processing for security surveillance. The existing scheduling strategies' granularity is too coarse to have good performance, and mainly considers network resources without computing resources while scheduling. In this paper, we propose Healthcare4Storm, a framework that finds Storm insights based on Storm metrics to gain knowledge from the health status of an application, finally ending up with smart scheduling decisions. It takes into account both network and computing resources and conducts scheduling at a fine-grained level using tuples instead of topologies. The comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework has good performance and can improve the dependability of the Storm-based applications. PMID:27120606

  3. Healthcare4VideoStorm: Making Smart Decisions Based on Storm Metrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weishan; Duan, Pengcheng; Chen, Xiufeng; Lu, Qinghua

    2016-04-23

    Storm-based stream processing is widely used for real-time large-scale distributed processing. Knowing the run-time status and ensuring performance is critical to providing expected dependability for some applications, e.g., continuous video processing for security surveillance. The existing scheduling strategies' granularity is too coarse to have good performance, and mainly considers network resources without computing resources while scheduling. In this paper, we propose Healthcare4Storm, a framework that finds Storm insights based on Storm metrics to gain knowledge from the health status of an application, finally ending up with smart scheduling decisions. It takes into account both network and computing resources and conducts scheduling at a fine-grained level using tuples instead of topologies. The comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework has good performance and can improve the dependability of the Storm-based applications.

  4. Major magnetic storm of March 13-14, 1989 and associated ionosphere effects. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, F.J.; Denig, W.F.

    1993-06-30

    The geomagnetic storm of March 1989 was the largest geomagnetic storm of the decade and one of the largest of the century. The authors review many of the `high-latitude` ionospheric observations that were made during this storm. Most of the data presented here comes from the polar-orbiting satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series. A review of the DMSP data shows that most of the high-latitude, top-side ionospheric disturbance occurred on March 13 and 14. The magnitudes of the particle energy flux (ergs cm 2) (1 erg = 10{minus}7 J) and Joule heating were not unusually large for a storm, but the area of the energy deposition, and thus the total energy deposition, was extremely large. At the peak of the storm (minimum in D(st) (disturbance with storm time) and midnight boundary indices) the auroral particle precipitation extended down to magnetic latitudes of 40.1 deg or L = 1.71 while the polar edge of the auroral zone expanded poleward only slightly. The storm was also a period of intense, hemispherically symmetric polar rain fluxes. The auroral electric field was clearly observed down to magnetic latitude of 35 deg. This is consistent with the auroral electrojet (AE) current density and the AE index having a saturation level beyond which the index will increase slowly or not at all as more energy is transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere, but the cross polar-cap potential during this storm shows no evidence of saturation. There are only two visible light images from DMSP available near the peak of the storm.

  5. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  6. A case study of the Thunderstorm Research International Project storm of July 11, 1978. 1. Analysis of the data base

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, J.S.; Barnard, T.A.; Forbes, G.S. ); Krider, E.P. ); Lhermitte, R. ); Lennon, C.L. )

    1990-04-20

    A coordinated analysis of the Thunderstorm Research International Project storm of July 11, 1978, from 1900 to 2000 UT at the Kennedy Space Center is presented using data from three Doppler radars, a lightning detection and ranging system and a network of 25 electric field mills, and rain gages. This storm produced two cells for which the center of the updraft remained within range of the observational network. Electric field measurements were used to analyze the charge moments transferred by lightning flashes. An attempt was made to analyze as large a percentage as possible of the flashes so that the measurements would be usable to study the charge moment transferred by lightning in the storm. These data were fitted to Weibull distributions which were used to estimate statistical parameters of the lightning for both intracloud and cloud-to-ground flashes and to estimate the fraction of the flashes which were below the observation threshold for the two cells studied. The displacement and conduction current densities were calculated throughout the storm from electric field measurements between flashes, and data are presented of values at 5-min intervals throughout the storm. These values were used to derive the magnitudes and locations of dipole and monopole generators by least squares fitting the measured Maxwell current densities to the displacement-dominated equations. Constrained fitting was used to examine the uniqueness of the solutions.

  7. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B. R.; Millan, R. M.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.

    2015-12-02

    We report that past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms (Dst >₋50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result in flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.

  8. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, Brett R.; Millan, R. M.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reinhard Hans W.

    2015-12-02

    Past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms (Dst > –50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result in flux depletionmore » than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. As a result, small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.« less

  9. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brett R.; Millan, R. M.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reinhard Hans W.

    2015-12-02

    Past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms (Dst > –50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result in flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. As a result, small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.

  10. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, B. R.; Millan, R. M.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.

    2015-12-02

    We report that past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms (Dst >₋50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result inmore » flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.« less

  11. Observatory geoelectric fields induced in a two-layer lithosphere during magnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development and validation of an algorithm for estimating geoelectric fields induced in the lithosphere beneath an observatory during a magnetic storm. To accommodate induction in three-dimensional lithospheric electrical conductivity, we analyze a simple nine-parameter model: two horizontal layers, each with uniform electrical conductivity properties given by independent distortion tensors. With Laplace transformation of the induction equations into the complex frequency domain, we obtain a transfer function describing induction of observatory geoelectric fields having frequency-dependent polarization. Upon inverse transformation back to the time domain, the convolution of the corresponding impulse-response function with a geomagnetic time series yields an estimated geoelectric time series. We obtain an optimized set of conductivity parameters using 1-s resolution geomagnetic and geoelectric field data collected at the Kakioka, Japan, observatory for five different intense magnetic storms, including the October 2003 Halloween storm; our estimated geoelectric field accounts for 93% of that measured during the Halloween storm. This work demonstrates the need for detailed modeling of the Earth’s lithospheric conductivity structure and the utility of co-located geomagnetic and geoelectric monitoring.

  12. Observatory geoelectric fields induced in a two-layer lithosphere during magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    We report on the development and validation of an algorithm for estimating geoelectric fields induced in the lithosphere beneath an observatory during a magnetic storm. To accommodate induction in three-dimensional lithospheric electrical conductivity, we analyze a simple nine-parameter model: two horizontal layers, each with uniform electrical conductivity properties given by independent distortion tensors. With Laplace transformation of the induction equations into the complex frequency domain, we obtain a transfer function describing induction of observatory geoelectric fields having frequency-dependent polarization. Upon inverse transformation back to the time domain, the convolution of the corresponding impulse-response function with a geomagnetic time series yields an estimated geoelectric time series. We obtain an optimized set of conductivity parameters using 1-s resolution geomagnetic and geoelectric field data collected at the Kakioka, Japan, observatory for five different intense magnetic storms, including the October 2003 Halloween storm; our estimated geoelectric field accounts for 93% of that measured during the Halloween storm. This work demonstrates the need for detailed modeling of the Earth's lithospheric conductivity structure and the utility of co-located geomagnetic and geoelectric monitoring.

  13. The structure of solar radio noise storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, C.; Subramanian, P.; Chambe, G.; Janardhan, P.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) routinely produces snapshot images of the full sun (field of view ~3 R⊙) at 6 or 10 frequencies between 150 and 450 MHz, with typical resolution 3 arcmin and time cadence 0.2 s. Combining visibilities from the NRH and from the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) allows us to produce images of the sun at 236 or 327 MHz, with the same field as the NRH, a resolution as low as 20 arcsec, and a time cadence 2 s. Aims: We seek to investigate the structure of noise storms (the most common non-thermal solar radio emission) which is yet poorly known. We focus on the relation of position and altitude of noise storms with the observing frequency and on the lower limit of their sizes. Methods: We use an improved version of a previously used method for combining NRH and GMRT visibilities to get high-resolution composite images and to investigate the fine structure of noise storms. We also use the NRH data over several consecutive days around the common observation days to derive the altitude of storms at different frequencies. Results: We present results for noise storms on four days. Noise storms consist of an extended halo and of one or several compact cores with relative intensity changing over a few seconds. We found that core sizes can be almost stable over one hour, with a minimum in the range 31-35 arcsec (less than previously reported). The heliocentric distances of noise storms are ~1.20 and 1.35 R⊙ at 432 and 150 MHz, respectively. Regions where storms originate are thus much denser than the ambient corona and their vertical extent is found to be less than expected from hydrostatic equilibrium. Conclusions: The smallest observed sizes impose upper limits on broadening effects due to scattering on density inhomogeneities in the low and medium corona and constrain the level of density turbulence in the solar corona. It is possible that scatter broadening has been overestimated in the past, and that the observed sizes

  14. A case study of Ionospheric storm effects during long-lasting southward IMF Bz driven geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple instrumental observations including GPS TEC, foF2 and hmF2 from ionosondes, vertical ion drift measurements from C/NOFS, magnetometer data and far-ultraviolet airglow measured by TIMED/GUVI are used to investigate the profound ionospheric disturbances at mid- and low-latitudes during the 14-17 July 2012 geomagnetic storm event, which was featured by prolonged southward interplanetary geomagnetic field component for about 30 hours below -10 nT. In the East Asian/Australian sector, latitudinal profile of TEC variations in the main phase were characterized by three bands of increments and separated by weak depressions in the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA) crest regions, which were caused by the combined effects of disturbance dynamo electric fields (DDEF) and equatorward neutral winds. In the recovery phase, strong inhibition of EIA occurred and the summer crest of EIA disappeared on 16 July due to the combined effects of intrusion of neutral composition disturbance zone as shown by the TIME/GUVI O/N2 measurements and long-lasting daytime westward DDEF inferred from the equatorial electric electrojet (EEJ) observations. The transit time of DDEF over the dip equator from westward to eastward is around 2200 LT. In the American longitude, the salient ionospheric disturbances in the summer hemisphere were characterized by daytime periodical intrusion of negative phase for three consecutive days in the recovery phase, preceded by storm enhanced density (SED) plume in the initial phase. In addition, multiple short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEF) appeared during stable southward IMF Bz in the recovery phase and were responsible for enhanced the EIA and equatorial ionospheric uplift around sunset.

  15. Factors Associated With Mortality of Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yosuke; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid storm is a life-threatening and emergent manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. However, predictive features associated with fatal outcomes in this crisis have not been clearly defined because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of patient characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with thyroid storm using a national inpatient database in Japan from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Of approximately 21 million inpatients in the database, we identified 1324 patients diagnosed with thyroid storm. The mean (standard deviation) age was 47 (18) years, and 943 (71.3%) patients were female. The overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. The number of patients was highest in the summer season. The most common comorbidity at admission was cardiovascular diseases (46.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that higher mortality was significantly associated with older age (≥60 years), central nervous system dysfunction at admission, nonuse of antithyroid drugs and β-blockade, and requirement for mechanical ventilation and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with hemodialysis. The present study identified clinical features associated with mortality of thyroid storm using large-scale data. Physicians should pay special attention to older patients with thyrotoxicosis and coexisting central nervous system dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify treatment options that could improve the survival outcomes of thyroid storm. PMID:26886648

  16. Modeling of the 22 July 2009 Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Buzulukova, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic storm on 22 July 2009 is the greatest storm observed since the summer of 2008 when TWINS began its stereo imaging of the magnetosphere, On 22 July 2009, the Dst dropped to nearly -80 nT at 07:00 and 10:00 UT. During the main phase and at the peak of the storm, TWINS 1 and 2 were near apogee and moving from pre-dawn to post-dawn local time. The energetic neutral atom (ENA) Imagers on the 2 spacecraft captured the storm intensification and the formation of the partial ring current. The development of this storm has been simulated using the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) to understand and interpret the observed signatures. The CRCM reproduced the double-dip in the Dst index and the simulated ENA flux intensities agree very well with the TWINS images. However, the peak of ion flux predicted by the model is always eastward of the observed maximum by TWINS. This discrepancy posts a challenge to reexamine the physical models employed in the CRCM.

  17. Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

    This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

  18. In-Situ Severe Storm Monitoring Utilizing the Wave Glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, J.; Thomas, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Wave Glider (WG) is an ocean going Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) that harnesses mechanical energy from waves and electrical energy from solar cells to power a configurable panel of scientific instruments. With its ability to transmit sensor data to shore in near real-time via an Iridium satellite connection, the Wave Glider can be used as a remote, mobile data collection platform on the world's oceans for extended periods up to a year. In a series of trials and demonstrations, the vehicle was directed into the path of 2 hurricanes, a cyclone, and a tropical storm while transmitting oceanographic and meteorological data including wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, sea surface temperature and wave height. In its transit through Tropical Cyclone Freda, for example, the Wave Glider measured barometric pressure as low as 975 millibar and significant wave heights of up to 9 meters. Data from these 4 events exhibit strong correlation with independent data products such as ASCAT and NOAA's JTWC-WaveWatch III model. In all 4 events, the Wave Glider provided uninterrupted data streams in near-real time despite the extreme conditions. These data collections are solid evidence that the Wave Glider is a suitable and highly efficient platform for the observation of sea surface and lower atmospheric conditions from directly within severe storm events.

  19. Empirical reconstruction of storm-time steady magnetospheric convection events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Kissinger, J.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; McPherron, R. L.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the storm-scale morphology of the magnetospheric magnetic field as well as underlying distributions of electric currents, equatorial plasma pressure and entropy for four Steady Magnetospheric Convection (SMC) events that occurred during the May 2000 and October 2011 magnetic storms. The analysis is made using the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D, in which the structure of equatorial currents is not predefined and it is dictated by data. The model also combines the strengths of statistical and event-oriented approaches in mining data for the reconstruction of the magnetic field. The formation of a near-Earth minimum of the equatorial magnetic field in the midnight sector is inferred from data without ad hoc assumptions of a special current system postulated in earlier empirical reconstructions. In addition, a new SMC class is discovered where the minimum equatorial field is substantially larger and located closer to Earth. The magnetic field tailward of the minimum is also much larger, and the corresponding region of accumulated magnetic flux may occupy a very short tail region. The equatorial current and plasma pressure are found to be strongly enhanced far beyond geosynchronous orbit and in a broad local time interval covering the whole nightside region. This picture is consistent with independent recent statistical studies of the SMC pressure distributions, global MHD and kinetic RCM-E simulations. Distributions of the flux tube volume and entropy inferred from data reveal different mechanisms of the magnetotail convection crisis resolution for two classes of SMC events.

  20. NASA Studies Lightning Storms Using High-Flying, Uninhabited Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. The ACES lightning study used the Altus II twin turbo uninhabited aerial vehicle, built by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. of San Diego. The Altus II was chosen for its slow flight speed of 75 to 100 knots (80 to 115 mph), long endurance, and high-altitude flight (up to 65,000 feet). These qualities gave the Altus II the ability to fly near and around thunderstorms for long periods of time, allowing investigations to be conducted over the entire life cycle of storms. The vehicle has a wing span of 55 feet and a payload capacity of over 300 lbs. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.