Science.gov

Sample records for electrical storms basic

  1. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.; Rust, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful ground truth support of U-2 overflights was been accomplished. Data have been reduced for 4 June 1984 and some of the results have been integrated into some of MSFC's efforts. Staccato lightning (multiply branched, single stroke flash with no continuing current) is prevalent within the rainfree region around the main storm updraft and this is believed to be important, i.e., staccato flashes might be an important indicator of severe storm electrification. Results from data analysis from two stations appear to indicate that charge center heights can be estimated from a combination of intercept data with data from the fixed laboratory at NSSL. An excellent data base has been provided for determining the sight errors and efficiency of NSSL's LLP system. Cloud structures, observable in a low radar reflectivity region and on a scale smaller than is currently resolved by radar, which appear to be related to electrical activity are studied.

  2. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Taylor, W.; Arnold, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Severe storms and lightning were measured with a NASA U2 and ground based facilities, both fixed base and mobile. Aspects of this program are reported. The following results are presented: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2. These measurements include flash type identification, electric field changes, optical waveforms, and ground strike location; (2) simultaneous extremely low frequency (ELF) waveforms for cloud to ground (CG) flashes; (3) the CG strike location system (LLP) using a combination of mobile laboratory and television video data are assessed; (4) continued development of analog-to-digital conversion techniques for processing lightning data from the U2, mobile laboratory, and NSSL sensors; (5) completion of an all azimuth TV system for CG ground truth; (6) a preliminary analysis of both IC and CG lightning in a mesocyclone; and (7) the finding of a bimodal peak in altitude lightning activity in some storms in the Great Plains and on the east coast. In the forms on the Great Plains, there was a distinct class of flash what forms the upper mode of the distribution. These flashes are smaller horizontal extent, but occur more frequently than flashes in the lower mode of the distribution.

  3. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    During FY-85, Researchers conducted a field program and analyzed data. The field program incorporated coordinated measurements made with a NASA U2. Results include the following: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2; (2) analysis of dual-Doppler radar and dual-VHF lightning mapping data from a supercell storm; (3) analysis of synoptic conditions during three simultaneous storm systems on 13 May 1983 when unusually large numbers of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) flashes occurred; (4) analysis of extremely low frequency (ELF) wave forms; and (5) an assessment of a cloud -ground strike location system using a combination of mobile laboratory and fixed-base TV video data.

  4. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    During FY-85, Researchers conducted a field program and analyzed data. The field program incorporated coordinated measurements made with a NASA U2. Results include the following: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2; (2) analysis of dual-Doppler radar and dual-VHF lightning mapping data from a supercell storm; (3) analysis of synoptic conditions during three simultaneous storm systems on 13 May 1983 when unusually large numbers of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) flashes occurred; (4) analysis of extremely low frequency (ELF) wave forms; and (5) an assessment of a cloud -ground strike location system using a combination of mobile laboratory and fixed-base TV video data.

  5. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  6. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  7. A study of severe storm electricity via storm intercept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Roy T.; Horsburgh, Steven D.; Rust, W. David; Burgess, Don

    1985-01-01

    Storm electricity data, radar data, and visual observations were used both to present a case study for a supercell thunderstorm that occurred in the Texas Panhandle on 19 June 1980 and to search for insight into how lightning to ground might be related to storm dynamics in the updraft/downdraft couplet in supercell storms. It was observed that two-thirds of the lightning ground-strike points in the developing and maturing stages of a supercell thunderstorm occurred within the region surrounding the wall cloud (a cloud feature often characteristic of a supercell updraft) and on the southern flank of the precipitation. Electrical activity in the 19 June 1980 storm was atypical in that it was a right-mover. Lightning to ground reached a peak rate of 18/min and intracloud flashes were as frequent as 176/min in the final stages of the storm's life.

  8. The evaluation and management of electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Eifling, Michael; Razavi, Mehdi; Massumi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Electrical storm is an increasingly common and life-threatening syndrome that is defined by 3 or more sustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate shocks from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator within 24 hours. The clinical presentation can be dramatic. Electrical storm can manifest itself during acute myocardial infarction and in patients who have structural heart disease, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or an inherited arrhythmic syndrome. The presence or absence of structural heart disease and the electrocardiographic morphology of the presenting arrhythmia can provide important diagnostic clues into the mechanism of electrical storm. Electrical storm typically has a poor outcome.The effective management of electrical storm requires an understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms, therapeutic options, device programming, and indications for radiofrequency catheter ablation. Initial management involves determining and correcting the underlying ischemia, electrolyte imbalances, or other causative factors. Amiodarone and β-blockers, especially propranolol, effectively resolve arrhythmias in most patients. Nonpharmacologic treatment, including radiofrequency ablation, can control electrical storm in drug-refractory patients. Patients who have implantable cardioverter-defibrillators can present with multiple shocks and may require drug therapy and device reprogramming. After the acute phase of electrical storm, the treatment focus should shift toward maximizing heart-failure therapy, performing revascularization, and preventing subsequent ventricular arrhythmias. Herein, we present an organized approach for effectively evaluating and managing electrical storm.

  9. Electrical storm: definitions, clinical importance, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongsheng; Sapp, John L

    2013-01-01

    With increasing use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators, physicians are increasingly called upon to manage recurrent ventricular tachycardia, sometimes in the form of frequent recurrences known as electrical storm (or ventricular tachycardia storm). Standard antiarrhythmic drug therapy may suppress storms, but, when refractory, interventions such as catheter ablation or in some cases surgical cardiac denervation may be helpful. Earlier interventional management may confer better outcomes than persisting with antiarrhythmic pharmacologic therapy. The clinical syndrome of electrical storm has been defined empirically. An outcome-derived definition may better guide clinicians on when and how to treat this emergent problem. When available, an early interventional approach is preferred.

  10. Electrical storms and their prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zahid Aslam; ul Hassan, Mahmood; Bangash, Kamran; Shah, Bakhtawar; Noor, Lubna

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of sudden cardiac death has always been a challenge for electrophysiologists and to date, automatic implantable cardiovertor defibrillator (AICD) is found to be the only remedy. This device delivers an intracardiac shock whenever it senses a fatal ventricular arrhythmia in order to achieve sinus rhythm. If the delivery of these intracardiac shocks becomes frequent, the situation is declared as an electrical storm. This article deals with the frequency, precipitating factors and prevention of electrical storms. One hundred and ten episodes of electrical storms (a total of 668 shocks) were retrospectively analysed in 25 recipients of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators. ECG, echocardiography, serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine were done for all the patients, and they were hospitalized for a minimum of 24 hours. During the 3 year study period, all the 25 patients with an implantable cardiovertor defibrillator, on an average, received one shock per two years. However, 12 out of these 25 patients (50%) had more than two shocks within 24 hours. Most of these patients with electrical storms were having active ischemia, electrolytes imbalances or renal failure. Electrical storms are common in patients with coronary artery disease with impaired left ventricular functions. Ischemia, electrolytes imbalances and renal failure predispose to the electrical storms. Electrical Storms are predictors of poor prognosis.

  11. Electrical storm: Incidence, Prognosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Riccardo; Sagone, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Implantable defibrillators are lifesavers and have improved mortality rates in patients at risk of sudden death, both in primary and secondary prevention. However, they are unable to modify the myocardial substrate, which remains susceptible to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Electrical storm is a clinical entity characterized the recurrence of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation, twice or more in 24 hours, requiring electrical cardioversion or defibrillation. With the arrival of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, this definition was broadened, and electrical storm is now defined as the occurrence of three or more distinct episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in 24 hours, requiring the intervention of the defibrillator (anti-tachycardia pacing or shock). Clinical presentation can be very dramatic, with multiple defibrillator shocks and hemodynamic instability. Managing its acute presentation is a challenge, and mortality is high both in the acute phase and in the long term. In large clinical trials involving patients implanted with a defibrillator both for primary and secondary prevention, electrical storm appears to be a harbinger of cardiac death, with notably high mortality soon after the event. In most cases, the storm can be interrupted by medical therapy, though transcatheter radiofrequency ablation of ventricular arrhythmias may be an effective treatment for refractory cases. This narrative literature review outlines the main clinical characteristics of electrical storm and emphasises critical points in approaching and managing this peculiar clinical entity. Finally focus is given to studies that consider transcatheter ablation therapy in cases refractory to medical treatment. PMID:21468247

  12. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  13. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  14. Electrical Storm: Incidence, Prognosis and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sagone, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The term "electrical storm" indicates a life-threatening clinical condition characterized by the recurrence of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation, in particular in patients with ICD implanted for primary or secondary prevention. Although there isn't a shared definition of electrical storm, nowadays the most accepted definition refers to three or more separate arrhythmia episodes leading to ICD therapies including antitachycardia pacing or shock occurring over a single 24 hours' time period. Clinical presentation can be dramatic and triggering mechanism are not clear at all yet, but electrical storm is associated with high mortality rates and low patients quality of life, both in the acute phase and in the long term. The first line therapy is based on antiarrhythmic drugs to suppress electrical storm, but in refractory patients, interventions such as catheter ablation or in some cases surgical cardiac sympathetic denervation might be helpful. Anyhow, earlier interventional management can lead to better outcomes than persisting with antiarrhythmic pharmacologic therapy and, when available, an early interventional approach should be preferred.

  15. Electric Dust Devils and Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N. O.; Yana, C.

    2004-12-01

    Electrical fields measurements in terrestrial dust devils show that they maintain tremendous charge separation and that their electric fields exceeds the breakdown potential (~10 kV/m) of the Martian atmosphere (Farrell et al., 2002, 2003; Krauss et al., 2002; Renno et al., 2004). Typical Martian dust devils are be up to 100 times larger and much stronger than the small terrestrial analogues. Martian dust devils have higher dust content and may produce even stronger electrical fields. Indeed, the dust devils observed in the Pathfinder images have about 700 times the dust content of the local background atmosphere (Metzger et al., 1999). Thus, strong charge separations and electric-field breakdown are likely to occur on Martian dust devils and dust storms. Our theory (Renno et al., 2004) and laboratory experiments in a Mars chamber shows that collisions between sand and dust particles produce non-thermal microwave radiation. The non-thermal microwave emission allows not only the indirect detection of electric activity but also the determination of the physical properties of Martian sand and dust by remote sensing. Besides being geologically important, electrically charged Martian dust devils and dust storms are potential hazards to Landers and will be dangerous to future astronauts exploring its surface. Indeed, the design of adequate mechanical and electrical systems for these Landers cannot progress effectively without a better understanding of Martian dust devils and dust storms. Moreover, ancillary phenomena associated with electrically charged vortices can ionize atmospheric gases and might have important implications for atmosphere chemistry and even habitability.

  16. Optimal antiarrhythmic drug therapy for electrical storm

    PubMed Central

    Sorajja, Dan; Munger, Thomas M.; Shen, Win-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Electrical storm, defined as 3 or more separate episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours, carries significant morbidity and mortality. These unstable ventricular arrhythmias have been described with a variety of conditions including ischemic heart disease, structural heart disease, and genetic conditions. While implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and ablation may be indicated and required, antiarrhythmic medication remains an important adjunctive therapy for these persons. PMID:25745472

  17. Basic Electricity. Part 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

  18. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  19. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  20. Basic Electricity. Part 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

  1. Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, W.

    2015-12-01

    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. Such electrical activity poses serious risks to any Human exploration of the planet and the lack of sufficient data to characterize any such activity has been identified by NASA's MEPAG as a key human safety knowledge gap. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, frequency of occurrence, and the strength of the generated electric fields. We will describe a proposed program using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to carry out a long term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The resulting knowledge of Mars electrical activity would allow NASA to plan risk mitigation measures to ensure human safety during Mars exploration. In addition, these measurements will also allow us to place limits on presence of oxidants such as H2O2 that may be produced by such discharges, providing another measurement point for models describing Martian atmospheric chemistry and habitability. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the DSN is the only instrument in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity at Mars from the ground.

  2. Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, W.; Arabshahi, S.; Kocz, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. Such electrical activity poses serious risks to any Human exploration of the planet and the lack of sufficient data to characterize any such activity has been identified by NASA's MEPAG as a key human safety knowledge gap. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, frequency of occurrence, and the strength of the generated electric fields. We will describe a recently deployed detection engine using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to carry out a long term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The resulting knowledge of Mars electrical activity would allow NASA to plan risk mitigation measures to ensure human safety during Mars exploration. In addition, these measurements will also allow us to place limits on presence of oxidants such as H2O2 that may be produced by such discharges, providing another measurement point for models describing Martian atmospheric chemistry and habitability. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the DSN is the only instrument in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity at Mars from the ground.

  3. Geomagnetic storms: Potential economic impacts on electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1991-03-20

    Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of power over long distance to meet the electricity demands of this region. A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Electrical storm: A clinical and electrophysiological overview

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Sergio; Pala, Salvatore; Biagioli, Viviana; Del Giorno, Giuseppe; Zucchetti, Martina; Russo, Eleonora; Marino, Vittoria; Dello Russo, Antonio; Casella, Michela; Pizzamiglio, Francesca; Catto, Valentina; Tondo, Claudio; Carbucicchio, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Electrical storm (ES) is a clinical condition characterized by three or more ventricular arrhythmia episodes leading to appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies in a 24 h period. Mostly, arrhythmias responsible of ES are multiple morphologies of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), but polymorphic VT and ventricular fibrillation can also result in ES. Clinical presentation is very dramatic in most cases, strictly related to the cardiac disease that may worsen electrical and hemodynamic decompensation. Therefore ES management is challenging in the majority of cases and a high mortality is the rule both in the acute and in the long-term phases. Different underlying cardiomyopathies provide significant clues into the mechanism of ES, which can arise in the setting of structural arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies or rarely in patients with inherited arrhythmic syndrome, impacting on pharmacological treatment, on ICD programming, and on the opportunity to apply strategies of catheter ablation. This latter has become a pivotal form of treatment due to its high efficacy in modifying the arrhythmogenic substrate and in achieving rhythm stability, aiming at reducing recurrences of ventricular arrhythmia and at improving overall survival. In this review, the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects of ES, with regard to the acute and long-term follow-up implications, were evaluated, focusing on these novel therapeutic strategies of treatment. PMID:26413232

  5. Electrical storm: A clinical and electrophysiological overview.

    PubMed

    Conti, Sergio; Pala, Salvatore; Biagioli, Viviana; Del Giorno, Giuseppe; Zucchetti, Martina; Russo, Eleonora; Marino, Vittoria; Dello Russo, Antonio; Casella, Michela; Pizzamiglio, Francesca; Catto, Valentina; Tondo, Claudio; Carbucicchio, Corrado

    2015-09-26

    Electrical storm (ES) is a clinical condition characterized by three or more ventricular arrhythmia episodes leading to appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies in a 24 h period. Mostly, arrhythmias responsible of ES are multiple morphologies of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), but polymorphic VT and ventricular fibrillation can also result in ES. Clinical presentation is very dramatic in most cases, strictly related to the cardiac disease that may worsen electrical and hemodynamic decompensation. Therefore ES management is challenging in the majority of cases and a high mortality is the rule both in the acute and in the long-term phases. Different underlying cardiomyopathies provide significant clues into the mechanism of ES, which can arise in the setting of structural arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies or rarely in patients with inherited arrhythmic syndrome, impacting on pharmacological treatment, on ICD programming, and on the opportunity to apply strategies of catheter ablation. This latter has become a pivotal form of treatment due to its high efficacy in modifying the arrhythmogenic substrate and in achieving rhythm stability, aiming at reducing recurrences of ventricular arrhythmia and at improving overall survival. In this review, the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects of ES, with regard to the acute and long-term follow-up implications, were evaluated, focusing on these novel therapeutic strategies of treatment.

  6. [Electrical storm in patients with prophylactic defibrillator implantation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; González-Cambeiro, Cristina; Moreno-Arribas, Jose; Expósito-García, Víctor; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan Miguel; González-Torres, Luis; Arce-León, Álvaro; Arguedas-Jiménez, Hugo; Gaztañaga, Larraitz; Salvador-Montañés, Oscar; Iglesias-Bravo, Jose Antonio; Huerta, Ana Andrés La; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Arias, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Sande, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of electrical storm, baseline characteristics and mortality implications of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator in primary prevention versus those patients without electrical storm. We sought to assess the prevalence, baseline risk profile and survival significance of electrical storm in patients with implantable defibrillator for primary prevention. Retrospective multicenter study performed in 15 Spanish hospitals. Consecutives patients referred for desfibrillator implantation, with or without left ventricular lead (at least those performed in 2010 and 2011), were included. Over all 1,174 patients, 34 (2,9%) presented an electrical storm, mainly due to ventricular tachycardia (82.4%). There were no significant baseline differences between groups, with similar punctuation in the mortality risk scores (SHOCKED, MADIT and FADES). A clear trigger was identified in 47% of the events. During the study period (38±21 months), long-term total mortality (58.8% versus 14.4%, p<0.001) and cardiac mortality (52.9% versus 8.6%, p<0.001) were both increased among electrical storm patients. Rate of inappropriate desfibrillator intervention was also higher (14.7 versus 8.6%, p<0.001). In the present study of patients with desfibrillator implantation for primary prevention, prevalence of electrical storm was 2.9%. There were no baseline differences in the cardiovascular risk profile versus those without electrical storm. However, all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality was increased in these patients versus control desfibrillator patients without electrical storm, as was the rate of inappropriate desfibrillator intervention. Copyright © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Theory. Course: Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Herb; Carey, John

    This individualized course on basic electricity covers the basic ideas of direct current and alternating current electricity. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Electrical Theory "B," and (2) Electrical Theory "A." Each unit is comprised of Learning Activity Packages (LAP) that provide specific information for completion…

  8. Reducing uncertainty - responses for electricity utilities to severe solar storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunt, Charles Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, electricity utilities in mid- and low-latitude regions believed that solar storms had no (or only insignificant) effect on their power systems. Then it was noticed that the onset of damage in several large transformers, leading to their failure, correlated very closely with the Halloween storm of 2003. Since then engineers have started to appreciate that a very severe storm could have serious consequences outside the high-latitude regions. There are many uncertainties in predicting the effects of solar storms on electrical systems. The severity and time of arrival of a storm are difficult to model; so are the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) expected to flow in the power networks. Published information about the responses of different types of transformers to GICs is contradictory. Measurements of the abnormal power flows in networks during solar storms generally do not take into account the effects of the current distortion and unbalance, potentially giving misleading signals to the operators. The normal requirement for optimum system management, while allowing for the possibility of faults caused by lightning, birds and other causes, limits the capacity of system operators to respond to the threats of GICs, which are not assessed easily by the N - 1 reliability criterion. A utility's response to the threat of damage by GICs depends on the expected frequency and magnitude of solar storms. Approaches to formulating a response are located in a system model incorporating space physics, network analysis, transformer engineering, network reliability and decision support and the benefits are identified. Approaches adopted in high-latitude regions might not be appropriate where fewer storms are expected to reach damaging levels. The risks of an extreme storm cannot be ignored, and understanding the response mechanisms suitable for low-latitude regions has the capacity to inform and reduce the uncertainty for power systems planners and operators

  9. Historically Large Geomagnetic Storms and Potential Electric Power Grid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappenman, J. G.

    2004-05-01

    While recent work has been done to examine the possible Dst Intensity of historically large geomagnetic storms, the impacts caused to modern day electric power grids from these storms occurs due to rapid rate-of-change of regional geomagnetic fields which in most cases are driven by large ionospheric electrojet current intensifications. These temporally and spatially dynamic disturbance morphologies are not well-characterized by Dst or other broad geomagnetic storm indices. For estimates of storm intensity that correctly scale the threat potential to electric power grids, it is necessary to describe the rate-of-change of geomagnetic field. The rate-of-change of the geomagnetic field (dB/dt usually measured in nT/min) creates at ground level a geoelectric field that causes the flow of geomagnetically-induced currents (GIC) through ground connection points in electric power grids. Therefore in general, the larger the dB/dt, the larger the resulting geo-electric field and GIC in exposed power grid infrastructures and the greater the operational impact these induced currents will have on the power grid. Both extensive modeling analysis and recent operational experience suggests that power grids are becoming more vulnerable to geomagnetic storms as they grow in size and complexity. Also, large power grid blackouts have occurred at relatively low geomagnetic storm intensities. For example, the regional disturbance intensity that triggered the Hydro Quebec collapse during the March 13, 1989 Superstorm only reached an intensity of 479 nT/min. Large numbers of power system impacts in the United States were also observed for intensities that ranged from 300 to 600 nT/min during this storm. Yet both recent and historical data indicate that storms with disturbance levels that range from 2000 nT/min to as much ~5000 nT/min may be possible over extensive regions at latitudes of concern for large continental power grids across North America and Europe. Large GIC have also been

  10. Exploratory Meeting on Atmospheric Electricity and Severe Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The meeting was arranged to discuss atmospheric electricity and its relationship to severe storms, the feasibility of developing a set of instruments for either a Space Shuttle or an unmanned satellite, and the scientific rationale which would warrant further in-depth assessment, involvement and development of supporting activities by NASA.

  11. Electric Activity in Dust Devils and Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, R. O.; Yana, C.; Covert, A.; Renno, K.; Wilson, J.

    2005-12-01

    Terrestrial dust devils produce charge separation and electric fields that exceeds the breakdown potential of the thin Martian atmosphere (Farrell et al., 2002, 2003; Krauss et al., 2002; Renno et al., 2004). Typical Martian dust devils are wider, taller and have larger dust content than terrestrial vortices. Thus, charge separation and electric-field breakdown are likely to occur in Martian dust devils and dust storms. We show that theory, laboratory experiments, and field measurements in Arizona suggests that collisions between sand and dust particles at the bottom of dust devils produce non-thermal microwave radiation. The non-thermal microwave emission allows not only the indirect detection of electric activity but could also allow the determination of the physical properties of Martian sand and dust by remote sensing. Besides being geologically important, electrically charged Martian dust devils and dust storms are potential hazards to Landers and at minimum would be an annoyance to future astronauts exploring the planet. Indeed, the design of adequate mechanical and electrical systems for these Landers cannot progress effectively without a better understanding of Martian dust devils and dust storms. Moreover, ancillary phenomena associated with electrically charged vortices can ionize atmospheric gases and might have important implications for atmosphere chemistry and even habitability.

  12. Basic Electricity in Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This unit of instruction on electricity has been designed especially for teachers to use with freshmen and sophomore vocational agricultural students in Montana. It consists of an outline of the unit and eight lesson plans. The unit outline lists the following components: situation, aims and goals, lesson plans, student activities, teacher…

  13. Basic Electricity--a Novel Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Uses the analogy of water flow to introduce concepts in basic electricity. Presents a demonstration that uses this analogy to help students grasp the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. (JRH)

  14. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  15. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  16. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  17. Cervical sympathetic blockade for the management of electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehan; Ciccone, Jeffrey; Tseng, Victor

    2017-02-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with dizziness and fatigue secondary to ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. He underwent an elective ablation but continued to suffer from ventricular tachycardia with cardiovascular instability despite antiarrhythmic therapy with multiple agents. The patient continued to develop episodes of ventricular tachycardia and an episode of ventricular fibrillation. Electrical storm encompasses a situation of cardiac instability which may present as several episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in a short period. We performed an ultrasound-guided left stellate ganglion block at the bedside which resulted in abolition of electrical storm. The patient demonstrated sinus rhythm with episodes of sinus tachycardia. Left stellate ganglion block has proven to be a successful mode of treatment for those patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia resistant to medical management or those who fail atrioventricular node ablation. Ultrasound-guided left stellate ganglion block is a valuable and effective means to providing sympathectomy in the management of electrical storm or ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  19. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  20. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  1. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  2. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  3. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  4. Polarimetric Radar and Electric Field Observations of a Multicell Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruning, E. C.; Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Schuur, T.; Straka, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, W.

    2004-12-01

    Much prior thunderstorm electrification research uses one-dimensional analyses of vertical profiles of the thunderstorm electric field, often incorporating cloud-to-ground lighting strike data and radar reflectivity observations. New instrumentation has provided the opportunity to investigate thunderstorm electrification and lightning in greater spatial detail. We present data from the late stages of a multicellular storm occurring on 28-29 June 2004 during the Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment (TELEX) field program in central Oklahoma. Three-dimensional (3-D) vector electric field (measured by balloon sounding), total lighting mapping, and polarimetric radar are utilized. The maximum measured electric field exceeded -150 kV m-1. Preliminary charge analysis using the electric field vectors indicates a positive layer below 0\\deg C, followed by a large negative layer just above the melting level. Another positive and negative layer follow this. Polarimetric radar signatures within the melting layer are examined in the context of the electric field observations. Mapped lightning flashes are used to clarify and support the inferred charge structure. An interactive 3-D display is used to combine these data sources. Temporal evolution of the storm is also considered.

  5. Basic research for future electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the evolution of electric propulsion over the past two and a half decades has been constrained by the interaction of three broad factors, including the physics and dynamics of the propellants, the dynamical and logistical requirements of the mission, and the technological realities of materials, power sources, and thermal management. A projection of the future of electric propulsion requires, therefore, a simultaneous reassessment of all three factors. Aspects of mission specification and power systems are discussed, and basic research needed for future electric propulsion applications is considered. Attention is given to electrostatic propulsion, electrothermal propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrids, novel concepts, and ancillary concerns.

  6. Geomagnetic storm environments and effects on electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Barnes, P.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the behavior of the earth's magnetic field during a geomagnetic storm. Temporal variations of the B-field on the earths surface can induce an electric field in the earth, and this E-field will induce currents to flow in long, grounded conductors. Previous experience with geomagnetic storms indicates that such geomagnetically-induced currents can cause damage to power system components, and at times, can cause power blackouts. This paper presents some recently measured geomagnetic field variations, and illustrates how the induced electric field can be calculated, assuming a simple model of the imperfectly conducting earth. This calculation may be performed either in the time or in the frequency domain. Approximations to the time dependence of the geomagnetic field permit an analytical evaluation of the corresponding E-field in the earth, and this results in a simple expression for the transient Enfield. A knowledge of this Enfield is important in understanding the effects of geomagnetic storms on the power system, and in devising protection methods.

  7. Geomagnetic storm environments and effects on electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1992-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the behavior of the earth`s magnetic field during a geomagnetic storm. Temporal variations of the B-field on the earths surface can induce an electric field in the earth, and this E-field will induce currents to flow in long, grounded conductors. Previous experience with geomagnetic storms indicates that such geomagnetically-induced currents can cause damage to power system components, and at times, can cause power blackouts. This paper presents some recently measured geomagnetic field variations, and illustrates how the induced electric field can be calculated, assuming a simple model of the imperfectly conducting earth. This calculation may be performed either in the time or in the frequency domain. Approximations to the time dependence of the geomagnetic field permit an analytical evaluation of the corresponding E-field in the earth, and this results in a simple expression for the transient Enfield. A knowledge of this Enfield is important in understanding the effects of geomagnetic storms on the power system, and in devising protection methods.

  8. Electrical Trades. Suggested Basic Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline is intended to assist vocational instructors in developing and teaching a course in the electrical trades. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: orientation (a course overview, job orientation, safety, first aid, and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America); basic skills (mathematics,…

  9. Electrical Trades. Suggested Basic Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline is intended to assist vocational instructors in developing and teaching a course in the electrical trades. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: orientation (a course overview, job orientation, safety, first aid, and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America); basic skills (mathematics,…

  10. Left ventricular assist device in the management of refractory electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Pourdjabbar, A; Maze, R; Hibbert, B; Ruel, M; Haddad, H

    2015-05-01

    Electrical storm refers to a state of cardiac electrical instability characterized by multiple episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) within a relatively short period of time and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The management of electrical storm involves a variety of strategies, including sedation, anti-arrhythmic and electrolyte replacement as well as revascularization and electrical ablation. However, the management strategy in patients with refractory storm is less clear and may require more invasive approaches. We present a case of severe ventricular tachycardia storm refractory to conservative management that was managed with a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The NASA STORMS Sub-Payload electric field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, J.; Swenson, C. M.; Barjatya, A.; Sanderson, W.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA STORMS sounding rocket, 36.218, was launched at 00:10 LT on October 30, 2007 into a mid- latitude spread-F condition over Wallops Island. The rocket deployed instrumented main and sub-payloads. The sub payload instrument complement included a plasma impedance probe for measuring plasma density, a Langmuir probe for relative plasma density and temperature measurements and the daughter electric field experiment. Unfortunately the sub-payload coned badly upon deployment complicating the data reduction. Within this paper we present a description of our data reduction techniques which are based upon an all magnetic attitude solution for the sub-payload's complex motion. The attitude solution is used to present preliminary density and electric field observations within this mid-latitude spread-F event.

  12. Electrical Discharges in the Overshooting Tops of Five Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGorman, D. R.; Elliott, M.

    2013-12-01

    Individual electrical discharges detected by VHF Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMAs) in the overshooting tops of strong storms typically occur continually at rates of roughly 1 - 10 per second and do not appear to cluster systematically in time or space as flashes. This study analyzed discharges relative to S-band polarimetric radar data and to GOES infrared imagery in the overshooting tops of five storms ranging from moderately strong multicell storms to supercell storms. Although the density of VHF sources in overshooting tops was much less than the maximum densities below the level of neutral bouyancy, the overshooting top typically contained a secondary maximum of density. The onset of discharges in an overshooting top corresponded to an increase in the maximum magnitude and height of reflectivity as the top substantially penetrated the level of neutral bouyancy. Once the discharges began, most were within reflectivities of at least 18 dBZ and formed a dome having geometry similar to that of the dome in reflectivity. Discharges persisted for approximately as long as the reflectivity dome persisted and could last anywhere from a few minutes for short-lived overshooting tops to a few hours for cases with an overlapping series of overshooting tops produced by a succession of updraft pulses. The 99.99th percentile in the height of VHF sources was well correlated (correlation coefficient of at least 0.8) with the height of 18 and 30 dBZ, and the timing of variations in height of these parameters agreed well. We suggest the discharges are caused by turbulent cells bringing negative screening layer charge close to positive charge in the updraft core. The onset of discharges in an overshooting top preceded the detection of overshooting tops in satellite imagery. The poorer performance probably was the result of the poorer spatiotemporal resolution of infrared cloud-top imagery in the present GOES constellation. Severe weather was either imminent or occurring when

  13. Atmospheric Electricity Effects of Eastern Mediterranean Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Shai; Yair, Yoav; Yaniv, Roy; Price, Colin

    2016-04-01

    We present atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) and Mt. Hermon (30024'N, 35051'E), Israel, during two massive and unique dust storms that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on February 10-11 and September 08-12, 2015. The first event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of a warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. In the second event, dust particles were transported from the Syrian desert, which dominates the north-east border with Iraq, through flow associated with a shallow Persian trough system. In both events the concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 2200 μg m-3. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) obtained from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker reached values up to 4.0. The gradual intensification of the first event reached peak values on the February 11th > 1200 μg m-3 and an AOT ~ 1.8, while the second dust storm commenced on September 8th with a sharp increase reaching peak values of 2225 μg m-3 and AOT of 4.0. Measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and of the vertical current density (Jz) were conducted continuously with a 1 minute temporal resolution. During the February event, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were measured at the WO. The Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 and +20 pA m-2 (this is an order of magnitude larger compared to the fair weather current density of ~2 pA m-2. In contrast, during the September event, Ez values registered at WO were between -430 and +10 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -6 and +3 pA m2. For the September event the Hermon site showed Ez and Jz values fluctuating between -460 and +570 V m-1 and -14.5 and +18 pA m-2 respectively. The electric field and current variability, amplitude and the

  14. [Electrical storm: definition, prevalence, causes and prognostic implications].

    PubMed

    Israel, Carsten W; Manegold, Johannes C

    2014-06-01

    Electrical storm (ES) represents a state of cardiac electrical instability which manifests by multiple episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) within a short time. In patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), ES is best defined as ≥ 3 appropriate VT detections in 24 h, treated by antitachycardia pacing or shock. The number of shocks and inappropriate detections are irrelevant for the definition. Within a period of 3 years ES occurred in approximately 25 % of ICD patients with secondary prophylaxis indications of sudden cardiac death. Although the definition includes minor arrhythmic events, ES frequently consists of up to 50 VTs. Potential triggers found in 20-65 % of patients include new/deteriorated heart failure, diarrhea/hypokalemia, changes in antiarrhythmic medication, association with other illnesses, and psychological stress. In most patients ES consists of monomorphic VT indicating the presence of reentry while ventricular fibrillation indicating acute ischemia is rare. ES seems to have a low immediate mortality (1 %) but frequently (50-80 %) leads to hospitalization. Long-term prognostic implications of ES are unclear. The key intervention in ES is a reduction of the elevated sympathetic tone by beta blockers and also frequently sedation. Amiodarone i.v. is highly efficient in ES while class I antiarrhythmic drugs are usually unsuccessful. Substrate mapping and VT ablation may be useful in treatment and prevention of ES. Prevention of ES requires ICD programming systematically avoiding unnecessary shocks by long VT detection and numerous attempts of antitachycardia pacing before shock therapy which can fuel the sympathetic tone and prolong ES.

  15. Impacts of ionospheric electric fields on the GPS tropospheric delays during geomagnetic storms in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, W.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aimed to overview the interaction of the thunderstorm with the ionospheric electric fields during major geomagnetic storms in Antarctica through the GPS tropospheric delays. For the purpose of study, geomagnetic activity and electric fields data for the period from 13 to 21 March 2015 representing the St. Patrick’s Day storm is analyzed. To strengthen the analysis, data for the period of 27 October to 1st November 2003 representing for the Halloween storm is also compared. Our analysis showed that both geomagnetic storms were severe (Ap ≥ 100 nT), where the intensity of Halloween storm is double compared to St. Patrick’s Day storm. For the ionospheric electric field, the peaks were dropped to -1.63 mV/m and -2.564 mV/m for St. Patrick and Halloween storms, respectively. At this time, the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component was significantly dropped to -17.31 nT with Ap > 150 nT (17 March 2015 at 19:20 UT) and -26.51 nT with Ap = 300 nT (29 October 2003 at 19:40 UT). For both geomagnetic storms, the electric field was correlated well with the ionospheric activity where tropospheric delays show a different characteristic.

  16. Investigations of Penetration Electric Fields and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances During Intense Geomagnetic Storms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    Rayleigh - Taylor instability process over a large longitudinal range. These plasma bubbles grow and merge to form a wide bubble...Investigations of penetration electric fields and low-latitude ionospheric disturbances during intense geomagnetic storms Principal Investigator: Dr. Sunanda... ionospheric dynamics during intense geomagnetic storms. Summary of Progress: We have

  17. Successful treatment of cardiac electrical storm in dilated cardiomyopathy using esmolol: A case report.

    PubMed

    Li, L I; Zhou, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Wang, Hua-Ting

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports a case of electrical storm occurring in a 43-year-old woman with dilated cardiomyopathy. The patient suffered from a cardiac electrical storm, with 98 episodes of ventricular tachycardia rapidly degenerating to ventricular fibrillation in hospital. The patient was converted with a total of 120 defibrillations. Recurrent ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation was initiated by premature ventricular beats. The patient did not respond to the use of amiodaronum. However, the administration of esmolol stabilized the patient's heart rhythm. A moderate dose of the β-blocker esmolol, administered as an 0.5-mg intravenous bolus injection followed by an infusion at a rate of 0.15 mg/kg/min, inhibited the recurrence of ventricular fibrillation and normalized the electrocardiographic pattern. The results suggest that esmolol may be able to improve the survival rate of patients with electrical storm in dilated cardiomyopathy and should be considered as a primary therapy in the management of cardiac electrical storms.

  18. Electrical storm in dilated cardiomyopathy treated using epicardial radiofrequency ablation as a first line therapy.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Massimiliano; Agricola, Tullio; Xyheri, Borejda; Di Girolamo, Enrico; Leonzio, Luigi; Pizzi, Carmine

    2016-09-01

    We report a patient with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and low left ventricular systolic function (28%) presenting with an electrical storm originated in epicardial scar and ablated by radiofrequency. This case report suggests that a strategy of epicardial catheter ablation is reasonable for the patient presenting with electrical storm related to structural disease with a low left ventricular ejection fraction. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility and safety of catheter ablation of electrical storm in ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Dello Russo, Antonio; Casella, Michela; Pelargonio, Gemma; Santangeli, Pasquale; Bartoletti, Stefano; Bencardino, Gianluigi; Al-Mohani, Ghaliah; Innocenti, Ester; Di Biase, Luigi; Avella, Andrea; Pappalardo, Augusto; Carbucicchio, Corrado; Bellocci, Fulvio; Fiorentini, Cesare; Natale, Andrea; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Electrical storm is an emergency in 'implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator' carriers with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and negatively impacts long-term prognosis. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in controlling electrical storm and its impact on survival and ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation recurrence. We enrolled 27 consecutive patients (25 men, age 73.1 ± 6.5 years) with ischemic DCM and an indication to RFCA for drug-refractory electrical storm. The immediate outcome was defined as failure or success, depending on whether the patient's clinical ventricular tachycardia could still be induced after RFCA; electrical storm resolution was defined as no sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in the next 7 days. Of the 27 patients, 1 died before RFCA; in the remaining 26 patients, a total of 33 RFCAs were performed. In all 26 patients, RFCA was successful, although in 6/26 patients (23.1%), repeated procedures were needed, including epicardial ablation in 3/26 (11.5%). In 23/26 patients (88.5%), electrical storm resolution was achieved. At a follow-up of 16.7 ± 8.1 months, 5/26 patients (19.2%) had died (3 nonsudden cardiac deaths, 2 noncardiac deaths) and 10/26 patients (38.5%) had ventricular tachycardia recurrence; none had electrical storm recurrence. A worse long-term outcome was associated with lower glomerular filtration rate, wider baseline QRS, and presence of atrial fibrillation before electrical storm onset. In patients with ischemic DCM, RFCA is well tolerated, feasible and effective in the acute management of drug-refractory electrical storm. It is associated with a high rate of absence of sustained ventricular tachycardia episodes over the subsequent 7 days. After successful ablation, long-term outcome was mainly predicted by baseline clinical variables.

  20. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  1. Toast, Anyone? Project Teaches Electricity Basics and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliana, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an electrical technology experiment that shows students how to determine the cost of using an electrical appliance. The experiment also provides good math practice and teaches basic electricity terms and concepts, such as volt, ampere, watt, kilowatt, and kilowatt-hour. This experiment could be expanded to calculate the cost…

  2. Toast, Anyone? Project Teaches Electricity Basics and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliana, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an electrical technology experiment that shows students how to determine the cost of using an electrical appliance. The experiment also provides good math practice and teaches basic electricity terms and concepts, such as volt, ampere, watt, kilowatt, and kilowatt-hour. This experiment could be expanded to calculate the cost…

  3. Electrical Storm Simulation to Improve the Learning Physics Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…

  4. Progress in utilization of a mobile laboratory for making storm electricity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. David

    1988-01-01

    A mobile atmospheric science laboratory has been used to intercept and track storms on the Great Plains region of the U.S., with the intention of combining the data obtained with those from Doppler and conventional radars, NASA U-2 aircraft overflights, balloon soundings, and fixed-base storm electricity measurements. The mobile lab has proven to be valuable in the gathering of ground truth verifications for the two commercially operated lightning ground-strike locating systems. Data acquisition has recently been expanded by means of mobile ballooning before and during storms.

  5. Progress in utilization of a mobile laboratory for making storm electricity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. David

    1988-01-01

    A mobile atmospheric science laboratory has been used to intercept and track storms on the Great Plains region of the U.S., with the intention of combining the data obtained with those from Doppler and conventional radars, NASA U-2 aircraft overflights, balloon soundings, and fixed-base storm electricity measurements. The mobile lab has proven to be valuable in the gathering of ground truth verifications for the two commercially operated lightning ground-strike locating systems. Data acquisition has recently been expanded by means of mobile ballooning before and during storms.

  6. Association of time of occurrence of electrical heart storms with environmental physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Kusniec, Jairo; Golovchiner, Gregory; Abramson, Evgeny; Kadmon, Udi; Strasberg, Boris

    2014-08-01

    Many publications in recent decades have reported a temporal link between medical events and environmental physical activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the time of occurrence of electrical heart storms against levels of cosmological parameters. The sample included 82 patients (71 male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator at a tertiary medical center in 1999-2012 (5,114 days). The time of occurrence of all electrical heart storms, defined as three or more events of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation daily, was recorded from the defibrillator devices. Findings were analyzed against data on solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray (neutron) activity for the same time period obtained from space institutions in the United States and Russia. Electrical storms occurred in all months of the year, with a slight decrease in July, August, and September. Most events took place on days with lower-than-average levels of solar and geomagnetic activity and higher-than-average levels of cosmic ray (neutron) activity. There was a significant difference in mean daily cosmic ray activity between the whole observation period and the days of electrical storm activity (P = 0.0001). These data extend earlier findings on the association of the timing of cardiac events and space weather parameters to the most dangerous form of cardiac arrhythmia-electric storms. Further studies are needed to delineate the pathogenetic mechanism underlying this association. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of the electrical properties of dust storms by multi-parameter observations and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Bo, Tian-Li; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2017-03-01

    Dusty phenomena, such as wind-blown sand, dust devils, and dust storms, play key roles in Earth's climate and geological processes. Dust electrification considerably affects the lifting and transport of dust particles. However, the electrical properties of dust storms remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted multi-parameter measurements and theoretical calculations to investigate the electrical properties of dust storms and their application to dust storm prediction. The results show that the vertical electric field (E-field) decreases first, then increases, and finally decreases with the height above the ground, reversing its direction at two heights, ∼ 8- 12 and ∼ 24 m. This suggests that the charge polarity of dust particles changes from negative to positive and back to negative again as the height increases. By carefully analyzing the E-field and dust concentration data, we further found that there is a significant positive linear relationship between the measured E-field intensity and dust concentration at the given ambient conditions. In addition, measurements and calculations demonstrate that a substantial enhancement in the vertical E-field can be observed several hours before the arrival of the external-source dust storms, indicating that the E-field can be used to provide an early warning of external-source dust storms.

  8. Disturbance dynamo electric fields in response to geomagnetic storms occurring at different universal times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Perturbed electric fields in the earth's ionosphere, resulting from the penetration electric fields from high latitudes and/or from the dynamo mechanism driven by the neutral disturbances, occurr in the storm periods. In general, the identification of the penetration electric fields is easier than that of the dynamo electric fields. At times, the latter becomes unperceivable or difficult to identify. This is an interesting problem which motivates a model study to investigate the possible reasons. Model runs made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR/TIEGCM) will be presented. Theoretical studies of ionospheric responses to geomagnetic storms with model simulations indicate that the intensities of disturbance dynamo electric fields are highly dependent on various parameters such as solar activities, seasonal effects and universal times, etc. When geomagnetic storms commence at 01~07 UT in summer solstices with low solar fluxes, the disturbance dynamo electric fields become very small. As compared with the general daily variations, they seem to be unperceivable. This phenomenon can be explained by the model results which show that the positive charge accumulation at low latitudes will be weakened when the equatward neutral disturbances penetrate into the opposite hemisphere in the storm time. For other cases, the magnitudes of the dynamo electric fields are relatively larger under the same geomagnetic activity.

  9. Automated Identification of Initial Storm Electrification and End-of-Storm Electrification Using Electric Field Mill Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Launa M.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operations are located in a region which experiences one of the highest lightning densities across the United States. As a result, on average, KSC loses almost 30 minutes of operational availability each day for lightning sensitive activities. KSC is investigating using existing instrumentation and automated algorithms to improve the timeliness and accuracy of lightning warnings. Additionally, the automation routines will be warning on a grid to minimize under-warnings associated with not being located in the center of the warning area and over-warnings associated with encompassing too large an area. This study discusses utilization of electric field mill data to provide improved warning times. Specifically, this paper will demonstrate improved performance of an enveloping algorithm of the electric field mill data as compared with the electric field zero crossing to identify initial storm electrification. End-of-Storm-Oscillation (EOSO) identification algorithms will also be analyzed to identify performance improvement, if any, when compared with 30 minutes after the last lightning flash.

  10. Basic Electricity/Electronics. Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggett, A. J.

    This packet consists of 22 student learning guides for high school vocational education students in Illinois. The guides contain tasks for a course in electricity/electronics. Each task guide identifies the task and its purpose and provides a learning contract for the student and teacher to sign. Information on the learning contract consists of a…

  11. Basic Electricity/Electronics. Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggett, A. J.

    This packet consists of 22 student learning guides for high school vocational education students in Illinois. The guides contain tasks for a course in electricity/electronics. Each task guide identifies the task and its purpose and provides a learning contract for the student and teacher to sign. Information on the learning contract consists of a…

  12. Section I: Basic Electricity. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    This section describes the first of a three part curriculum in trade electricity-electronics (each part is described in a separate volume). It presents a unit of 6 to 10 weeks duration which develops only those competencies necessary to all electricity or electronics employment. A flow chart indicates how an individual student's program can be…

  13. Lightning Mapping and Electric Field Change Observations of a Stationary New Mexico Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Hunyady, S. J.; Edens, H. E.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Aulich, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    On August 23, 2010 a classic airmass thunderstorm occurred over high plains immediately east of the Langmuir Laboratory mountaintop observatory in central New Mexico. The energetic storm developed around 2:30 pm MDT (2030 UTC) and remained essentially stationary over its complete lifetime of about 2 hours. The complete sequence of lightning was recorded both by the 16-station Langmuir Laboratory Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and by several electrostatic field change stations around and beneath the storm. The LMA and Delta-E data are both of very high quality and sensitivity. In this initial study we report on the lightning-inferred electrical structure of the storm and on estimated charging currents determined from a simple electrodynamic model of the storm. The electric field change measurements, in combination with the detailed 3-D mapping results, can be used to determine the amounts of charge involved in individual strokes and parts of flashes for comparison and improvement of the modeling. The LMA data regularly detected isolated attempted breakdown events at repeated locations at mid- to high altitudes in the storm that were clearly indicative of localized high-field regions. The attempted breakdown events were often exact pre-cursors of the initial breakdown of full-fledged IC flashes typically several seconds up to several tens of seconds later, but also often did not precurse a subsequent discharge. During both IC and CG flashes, numerous recoil-type, fast negative breakdown events were detected along otherwise undetected positive leader channels in the main, mid-level negative charge region. The localized fast events during IC flashes often repeatedly intensified in strength and number prior to upward negative leader K-events, and then temporarily ceased before starting up again prior to the next K-event. Many of the negative CG flashes in the storm produced strokes with long continuing currents (CCs). The overall electric field changes and hence total

  14. Dayside midlatitude ionospheric response to storm time electric fields: A case study for 7 September 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Liemohn, M. W.; Coster, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    With the storm of 7-8 September 2002 as a study case, we demonstrate that an ionospheric model driven by a suitable storm time convection electric field can reproduce the F region dayside density enhancements associated with the ionospheric storm positive phase. The ionospheric model in this case is the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM); the electric field model is the University of Michigan's Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI). Extensive ground truth is available throughout the study period from two independent sources: ground-based vertical TEC and ionosonde stations; our simulation results are in good agreement with these observations. We address the question of what is the source of the high-density plasma that is seen during the positive storm phase and show that in this case a magnetospheric electric field with an eastward component that penetrates to midlatitudes increases local production on the dayside to a degree that is sufficient to account for the storm time density increases that have been observed.

  15. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, D. M.; Blakeslee, R.; Bateman, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  16. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  17. In situ measurements and radar observations of a severe storm - Electricity, kinematics, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Few, A. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Conrad, A. C.; Torczon, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements made inside a multicell severe storm in Oklahoma in 1983 with a balloon-borne instrument are presented. The properties of the electric charge regions, such as altitude, thickness, and charge concentrations, are studied. These measurements are analzyed with meteorological measurements of temperature and humidity, and balloon tracking and radar observations. The relation between the electric charge structure and the precipitation and kinematic features of the storm is examined. The data reveal that the cell exhibits a bipolar charge structure with negative charge below positive charge. The average charge concentrations of the two regions are estimated as -1.2 and 0.15 nC/cu m, respectively; the upper positive charge is about 6 km in vertical extent, and the lower negative charge is less than 1 km in vertical extent.

  18. In situ measurements and radar observations of a severe storm - Electricity, kinematics, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Few, A. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Conrad, A. C.; Torczon, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements made inside a multicell severe storm in Oklahoma in 1983 with a balloon-borne instrument are presented. The properties of the electric charge regions, such as altitude, thickness, and charge concentrations, are studied. These measurements are analzyed with meteorological measurements of temperature and humidity, and balloon tracking and radar observations. The relation between the electric charge structure and the precipitation and kinematic features of the storm is examined. The data reveal that the cell exhibits a bipolar charge structure with negative charge below positive charge. The average charge concentrations of the two regions are estimated as -1.2 and 0.15 nC/cu m, respectively; the upper positive charge is about 6 km in vertical extent, and the lower negative charge is less than 1 km in vertical extent.

  19. Tests of Convection Electric Field Models For The January 10, 1997, Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, V.; Boonsiriseth, A.; Thorne, R.; Dotan, Y.

    The January 10-11, 1997, geomagnetic storm was caused by the passage at Earth of a magnetic cloud with a negative to positive Bz variation extending for 1 day. The ge- omagnetic indices had values of minimum Dst=-83 nT and maximum Kp=6 during the period of southward IMF within the cloud. We simulate ring current development during this storm using our kinetic drift-loss model and compare the results inferred from Volland-Stern type, Weimer, and AMIE convection electric field models. A pen- etration electric field is added to the AMIE model [Boonsiriseth et al., 2001] in order to improve the agreement with measurements from the electric field instrument on Po- lar spacecraft. The ionospheric electric potentials are mapped to the equatorial plane using the Tsyganenko 1996 magnetic field model and the resulting equatorial poten- tial models are coupled with our ring current model. While the temporal evolution of the large-scale features is similar in all three convection models, detailed comparison indicates that AMIE model shows highly variable small-scale features not present in the Volland-Stern or Weimer convection models. Results from our kinetic ring current model are compared with energetic particle data from the HYDRA, TIMAS, IPS, and CAMMICE instruments on Polar to test the applicability of the convection electric field models for this storm period.

  20. Basic Electricity. Training Module 3.325.1.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the basic concepts of electricity as applied to water and wastewater treatment. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. This module considers definition of terms, voltage, current…

  1. Relating Performance in Basic Electricity and Electronics and "A" Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; And Others

    Navy recruits who are assigned to class "A" schools based on their performance on aptitude tests must complete training at Basic Electricity and Electronics (BE/E) schools prior to enrolling at the "A" schools. Since high attrition rates at the BE/E level due to recruits' failing to master 100 percent of the training modules in…

  2. Module Zero: Orientation; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This orientation module for the Basic Electric/Electronics Individualized Learning System (BEEINLES) was designed to familiarize the individual with this new learning experience. The module is divided into six lessons: your rating (a brief discussion of each of the job categories); what an individualized learning system is; the BEEINLES multimedia…

  3. BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASSEL, RICHARD

    THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

  4. Contribution of storm time substorms to the prompt electric field disturbances in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Debrup; Chakrabarty, D.; Sekar, R.; Reeves, G. D.; Yoshikawa, A.; Shiokawa, K.

    2017-05-01

    This study tries to bring out the fact that storm time substorms can compete and at times significantly contribute to the geomagnetically disturbed time prompt penetration electric field effects on low and equatorial latitudes. Observations of unusual equatorial plasma drift data from Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere during two space weather events show that substorms can induce both eastward and westward penetration electric fields under steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) conditions. During the first event on 2 January 2005, the enhancement of the daytime eastward electric field over Jicamarca due to substorm is found to be comparable with the Sq and interplanetary electric field (IEFy) generated electric fields combined. During the second event on 19 August 2006, the substorm is seen to weaken the daytime eastward field thereby inducing a westward field in spite of the absence of northward turning of IMF Bz (overshielding). The westward electric field perturbation in the absence of any overshielding events is observationally sparse and contrary to the earlier results. Further, the substorm-induced field is found to be strong enough to compete or almost nullify the effects of storm time IEFy fields. This study also shows quantitatively that at times substorm contribution to the disturbed time prompt electric fields can be significant and thus should be taken into consideration in evaluating penetration events over low latitudes.

  5. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 2; Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory and "pitch down method" developed in Part I of this study are applied to complete the calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m and a 5 V/m error in the mean fair weather field function, the 3-D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m, the method retrieves the 3-D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair weather field estimate is typically within 1 V/m of the true fair weather field. Using this side constraint and data from fair weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. The resulting calibration matrix was then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably with the results obtained from earlier calibration analyses that were based on iterative techniques.

  6. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircrfaft Field Mill Data: Part II: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William; Mach, D. M.; Christian H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman M. G.

    2006-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory developed in Part I of this study is applied to complete a relative calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the Lagrange multiplier method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -1) and a 5 V m(sup -1) error in the mean fair-weather field function, the 3D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair-weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -l), the method retrieves the 3D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair-weather field estimate is typically within 1 V m(sup -1) of the true fair-weather field. Using this type of side constraint and data from fair-weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. Absolute calibration was completed using the pitch down method developed in Part I, and conventional analyses. The resulting calibration matrices were then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably in many respects with results derived from earlier (iterative) techniques of calibration.

  7. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  8. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  9. Storming the Bastille: the effect of electric fields on the ionospheric F-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rishbeth, H.; Heelis, R. A.; Makela, J. J.; Basu, S.

    2010-04-01

    We discuss different phenomena occurring during ionospheric F-region storms that in principle might be caused by electric fields and point out challenges that must be faced when considering the physical processes at work. We consider the transport of plasma across many degrees of latitude at sub-auroral latitudes, the origin of patches of so-called "storm enhanced density" at high mid-latitudes, and the very high reported heights of the F2 peak at low latitudes. We discuss the role that electric fields might play in changing locally the net production of ionization as well as transporting it. We suggest that the local change in ionization production should be considered as a more important process for producing plasma density enhancements than transport from a more remote source of enhanced density.

  10. [Geomagnetic storm decreases coherence of electric oscillations of human brain while working at the computer].

    PubMed

    Novik, O B; Smirnov, F A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of geomagnetic storms at the latitude of Moscow on the electric oscillations of the human brain cerebral cortex was studied. In course of electroencephalogram measurements it was shown that when the voluntary persons at the age of 18-23 years old were performing tasks using a computer during moderate magnetic storm or no later than 24 hrs after it, the value of the coherence function of electric oscillations of the human brain in the frontal and occipital areas in a range of 4.0-7.9 Hz (so-called the theta rhythm oscillations of the human brain) decreased by a factor of two or more, sometimes reaching zero, although arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate and the electrocardiogram registered during electroencephalogram measurements remained within the standard values.

  11. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  12. Mid-Latitude Dayside Ionospheric Response to Storm-Time Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    One way in which a geomagnetic storm may impact the ionosphere is through an expansion of the magnetospheric electric field to mid-latitudes. This mechanism was explored in detail by Heelis et al [2009], where it was shown that an electric field with a magnitude of just 1 mV/m at mid-latitudes is sufficient to produce a large increase in TEC on the dayside. This effect is brought about by the lifting of the ionosphere as dayside plasma is transported poleward under the influence of the eastward component of the expanded electric field; the lifting occurs because of the inclination of the magnetic field lines. At the time the above-mentioned article was written, the authors lacked a physics-based modeling capability for the behavior of the storm-time electric field at mid-latitudes, so a simple modified form of the Volland 2-cell model was used. In the present work we use the University of Michigan’s Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) electric field model, along with the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM). The HEIDI model provides electric potential distributions spanning the northern mid-latitudes with a cadence of 30 minutes; these are used to drive the TDIM in carrying out mid-latitude simulations. The results are compared with model runs for the quiet-time ionosphere, as well as observations from ionosondes and ground-based GPS TEC receivers. ----------------- Heelis, R. A., J. J. Sojka, M. David, and R. W. Schunk (2009), Storm time density enhancements in the middle-latitude dayside ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A03315, doi:10.1029/2008JA013690.

  13. Suppression by propranolol and amiodarone of an electrical storm refractory to metoprolol and amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Tsagalou, Eleftheria P; Kanakakis, John; Rokas, Stylianos; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria I

    2005-03-18

    A 60-year-old male patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy experienced an electrical storm 1 month after implantation of an internal cardioverter-defibrillator. Recurrent life-threatening episodes of ventricular tachycardia persisted despite maximal antiarrhythmic theraphy with amiodarone, metoprolol and mexiletine. After a total of more than 500 cardioversions, all antiarrhythmic medications were withdrawn, and the nonselective beta-blocker propranolol was initiated. Electrical stability was achieved and the patient was discharged on propranolol 400 mg/day. Two months later, a second arrhythmia cluster occurred that was controlled by the addition of amiodarone. The patient remains free of arrhythmia 15 months after the event with the combination of propranolol and amiodarone.

  14. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  15. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  16. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON…

  17. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON…

  18. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  19. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT,…

  20. Summary of the NASA/MSFC FY-79 Severe Storm and Local Weather research review. [cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics reserach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant acomplishments, current focus of work, plans for FY-80, and recommendations for new research are outlined for 36 research projects proposed for technical monitoring by the Atmospheric Sciences Division at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of the investigations, which were reviewed at a two-day meeting, relate to cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics.

  1. Clinical and Electrocardiographic Characteristics of Electrical Storms Due to Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Refractory to Intravenous Amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hiroshige; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Meiso; Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Yodogawa, Kenji; Ueno, Akira; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ippei; Uetake, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Kenta; Yamamoto, Teppei; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Akutsu, Koichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Keiji; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Katoh, Takao; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Few reports are available on the characteristics of electrical storms of ventricular tachycardia (VT storm) refractory to intravenous (IV) amiodarone. IV-amiodarone was administered to 60 patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia between 2007 and 2012. VT storms, defined as 3 or more episodes of VT within 24 h, occurred in 30 patients (68±12 years, 7 female), with 12 having ischemic and 18 non-ischemic heart disease. We compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the patients with VT storms suppressed by IV-amiodarone (Effective group) to those of patients not affected by the treatment (Refractory group). IV-amiodarone could not control recurrence of VT in 9 patients (30%). The Refractory group comprised 5 patients with acute myocardial infarctions. Although there was no difference in the VT cycle length, the QRS duration of both the VT and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) followed by VT was narrower in the Refractory group than in the Effective group (140±30 vs. 178±25 ms, P<0.01; 121±14 vs. 179±22 ms, P<0.01). In the Refractory group, additional administration of IV-mexiletine and/or Purkinje potential-guided catheter ablation was effective. IV-amiodarone-refractory VT exhibited a relatively narrow QRS tachycardia. The narrow triggering PVCs, suggesting a Purkinje fiber origin, may be treated by additional IV-mexiletine and endocardial catheter ablation.

  2. Influence of the convection electric field models on predicted plasmapause positions during magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrard, V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Cabrera, J.; Lemaire, J.

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, we determine how three well documented models of the magnetospheric electric field, and two different mechanisms proposed for the formation of the plasmapause influence the radial distance, the shape and the evolution of the plasmapause during the geomagnetic storms of 28 October 2001 and of 17 April 2002. The convection electric field models considered are: McIlwain's E5D electric field model, Volland-Stern's model, and Weimer's statistical model compiled from low-Earth orbit satellite data. The mechanisms for the formation of the plasmapause to be tested are: (1) the MHD theory where the plasmapause should correspond to the last-closed-equipotential (LCE) or last-closed-streamline (LCS), if the E-field distribution is stationary or time-dependent respectively; (2) the interchange mechanism where the plasmapause corresponds to streamlines tangent to a Zero-Parallel-Force surface where the field-aligned plasma distribution becomes convectively unstable during enhancements of the E-field intensity in the nightside local time sector. The results of the different time dependent simulations are compared with concomitant EUV/IMAGE observations when available. The plasmatails or plumes observed after both selected geomagnetic storms are predicted in all simulations and for all E-field models. However, their shapes are quite different depending on the E-field models and the mechanisms that are used. Despite the partial success of the simulations to reproduce plumes during magnetic storms and substorms, there remains a long way to go before the detailed structures observed in the EUV observations during periods of geomagnetic activity can be accounted for very precisely by the existing E-field models. Furthermore, it cannot be excluded that the mechanisms currently identified to explain the formation of "Carpenter's knee" during substorm events, will have to be revised or complemented in the cases of geomagnetic storms.

  3. Influence of the Convection Electric Field Models on Predicted Plasmapause Positions During Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrard, V.; Khazanov, G.; Cabrera, J.; Lemaire, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we determine how three well documented models of the magnetospheric electric field, and two different mechanisms proposed for the formation of the plasmapause influence the radial distance, the shape and the evolution of the plasmapause during the geomagnetic storms of 28 October 2001 and of 17 April 2002. The convection electric field models considered are: Mcllwain's E51) electric field model, Volland-Stern's model and Weimer's statistical model compiled from low-Earth orbit satellite data. The mechanisms for the formation of the plasmapause to be tested are: (i) the MHD theory where the plasmapause should correspond to the last-closed- equipotential (LCE) or last-closed-streamline (LCS), if the E-field distribution is stationary or time-dependent respectively; (ii) the interchange mechanism where the plasmapause corresponds to streamlines tangent to a Zero-Parallel-Force surface where the field-aligned plasma distribution becomes convectively unstable during enhancements of the E-field intensity in the nightside local time sector. The results of the different time dependent simulations are compared with concomitant EUV observations when available. The plasmatails or plumes observed after both selected geomagnetic storms are predicted in all simulations and for all E-field models. However, their shapes are quite different depending on the E-field models and the mechanisms that are used. Despite the partial success of the simulations to reproduce plumes during magnetic storms and substorms, there remains a long way to go before the detailed structures observed in the EUV observations during periods of geomagnetic activity can be accounted for very precisely by the existing E-field models. Furthermore, it cannot be excluded that the mechanisms currently identified to explain the formation of "Carpenter's knee" during substorm events, will', have to be revised or complemented in the cases of geomagnetic storms.

  4. Atmospheric Electrical Modeling in Support of the NASA F-106 Storm Hazards Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A recently developed storm electrification model (SEM) is used to investigate the operating environment of the F-106 airplane during the NASA Storm Hazards Project. The model is 2-D, time dependent and uses a bulkwater microphysical parameterization scheme. Electric charges and fields are included, and the model is fully coupled dynamically, microphysically and electrically. One flight showed that a high electric field was developed at the aircraft's operating altitude (28 kft) and that a strong electric field would also be found below 20 kft; however, this low-altitude, high-field region was associated with the presence of small hail, posing a hazard to the aircraft. An operational procedure to increase the frequency of low-altitude lightning strikes was suggested. To further the understanding of lightning within the cloud environment, a parameterization of the lightning process was included in the SEM. It accounted for the initiation, propagation, termination, and charge redistribution associated with an intracloud discharge. Finally, a randomized lightning propagation scheme was developed, and the effects of cloud particles on the initiation of lightning investigated.

  5. Post-Storm Middle and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Electric Fields Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Blanc, M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere undergoes large and complex perturbations during and after geomagnetic storms. Thermospheric winds driven by enhanced energy and momentum due to geomagnetic activity generate large disturbance electric fields, plasma drifts and currents with a broad range of temporal and spatial scales from high to equatorial latitudes. This disturbance dynamo mechanism plays a fundamental role on the response of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere to geomagnetic activity. In this review, we initially describe the early evidence for the importance of this process and the first simulation study which already was able to explain its main effects on the electrodynamics of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere. We then describe the results of more recent simulations and the extensive experimental work that highlights the importance of this mechanism for ionospheric space weather studies extending to post-storms periods, and present some suggestions for future studies.

  6. Post-Storm Middle and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Electric Fields Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Blanc, M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere undergoes large and complex perturbations during and after geomagnetic storms. Thermospheric winds driven by enhanced energy and momentum due to geomagnetic activity generate large disturbance electric fields, plasma drifts and currents with a broad range of temporal and spatial scales from high to equatorial latitudes. This disturbance dynamo mechanism plays a fundamental role on the response of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere to geomagnetic activity. In this review, we initially describe the early evidence for the importance of this process and the first simulation study which already was able to explain its main effects on the electrodynamics of the middle and low-latitude ionosphere. We then describe the results of more recent simulations and the extensive experimental work that highlights the importance of this mechanism for ionospheric space weather studies extending to post-storms periods, and present some suggestions for future studies.

  7. Interplanetary drivers of daytime penetration electric field into equatorial ionosphere during CIR-induced geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeeram, Thana

    2017-05-01

    Observations based on the magnetometer data of the response of the daytime equatorial electric field to the geomagnetic storms induced by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) during 2007-2010 reveal many events of striking long duration of multiple short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs). The PPEFs essentially occurred in the main phase of the storms, which are associated with the ring current and magnetic reconnection of the southward z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) in relation to the Alfvén waves. The behaviors of the electric field penetration during the storms are consistent with the shielding theory. Particularly, the PPEF is found to be complex due to transient variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure (SWDP) and the IMF Bz in the CIRs. The PPEF is temporary suppressed for about an hour under a shock in association with a drop in the SWDP. The interplanetary electric field Ey is the main driver of the PPEFs, when the solar wind speed, SWDP, and the symmetric ring current are nearly constant, even in the recovery phase. The PPEF is allowed under the condition of high and variable SWDP. The shocks with a northward IMF Bz shield the PPEFs when the SWDP is nearly constant. The partial ring current is strongest in the large and northward IMF Bz, where the shielding effect is greater than the undershielding caused by the large SWDP. The results may provide an important step to study equatorial and low latitude ionospheric electrodynamics in the solar minimum conditions.

  8. Electric Field Influence on Driving the Storm-Time Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, S. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; MacDonald, E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2013-05-01

    We present initial numerical simulation results of the storm-time near-Earth magnetosphere obtained with our newly improved self-consistent model, RAM-SCB. The model represents a 2-way coupling of the kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model (RAM) with an Euler potential-based 3D plasma equilibrium code. In our approach, the magnetic field is computed in force balance with the anisotropic pressures in RAM (anisotropy being critically important for wave excitation), and then returned to RAM to guide the particle dynamics. RAM-SCB thus properly treats both the kinetic drift physics crucial in the inner magnetosphere (where gradient/curvature drifts are important) and the self-consistent interaction between plasma and magnetic field (required due to the strong depressions in the field during storms that affect the plasma evolution). Recent improvements in RAM-SCB are the expansion of the boundary from geosynchronous location to 9 RE from Earth and the first-time inclusion of a self-consistent electric field, obtained by closing the field-aligned currents in the ionosphere. This extension makes RAM-SCB the most physically complete inner magnetosphere model in the community, with fully self-consistent 3D magnetic and electric fields. The presentation will analyze, using storm-time simulations of the near-Earth magnetosphere with the improved model, the effect of the self-consistent electric field on ring current dynamics, in comparison with empirical electric field models such as Weimer 01 and Volland/Stern models. We will also compare model results with observations (including global indices such as Dst, but also plasma and field data from available spacecraft, such as Polar, Cluster, GOES and the recently launched Van Allen Probes).

  9. Effects of disturbed electric fields in the low-latitude and equatorial ionosphere during the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Jiawei; Liu, Libo; Liu, Jing; Sripathi, S.; Zhao, Biqiang; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun; Hu, Lianhuan

    2016-09-01

    The 2015 St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm with SYM-H value of -233 nT is an extreme space weather event in the current 24th solar cycle. In this work, we investigated the main mechanisms of the profound ionospheric disturbances over equatorial and low latitudes in the Asian-Australian sector and the American sector during this super storm event. The results reveal that the disturbed electric fields, which comprise penetration electric fields (PEFs) and disturbance dynamo electric fields (DDEFs), play a decisive role in the ionospheric storm effects in low latitude and equatorial regions. PEFs occur on 17 March in both the American sector and the Asian-Australian sector. The effects of DDEFs are also remarkable in the two longitudinal sectors. Both the DDEFs and PEFs show the notable local time dependence, which causes the sector differences in the characteristics of the disturbed electric fields. This differences would further lead to the sector differences in the low-latitude ionospheric response during this storm. The negative storm effects caused by the long-duration DDEFs are intense over the Asian-Australian sector, while the repeated elevations of hmF2 and the equatorial ionization anomaly intensifications caused by the multiple strong PEFs are more distinctive over the American sector. Especially, the storm time F3 layer features are caught on 17 March in the American equatorial region, proving the effects of the multiple strong eastward PEFs.

  10. Effect of Precipitating Electrons on Stormtime Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields during the 17 March 2013 Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C. L.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate how scattering of electrons by waves in the plasma sheet and plasmasphere affects precipitating energy flux distributions and how the precipitating electrons modify the ionospheric conductivity and electric potentials during the large 17 March 2013 magnetic storm. Of particular interest is how electron precipitation in the evening sector affects the development of the Sub-auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) electric field that is observed at sub-auroral latitudes in that sector. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to simulate the stormtime precipitating electron distributions and the electric field. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are used. We compare simulated trapped and precipitating electron flux distributions with measurements from Van Allen Probes/MagEIS, POES/TED and MEPED, respectively, to validate the electron loss model. Ground-based (SuperDARN) and in-situ (Van Allen Probes/EFW) observations of electric fields are compared with the simulation results. We discuss the effect of precipitating electrons on the SAPS and inner magnetospheric electric field through the data-model comparisons.

  11. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 1; Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers) and also helps improve absolute calibration. Additionally, this paper introduces an alternate way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has some benefits over conventional analyses. It is accomplished by using the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  12. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part I: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It also allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers). Additionally, this paper introduces a novel way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has several benefits over conventional analyses. In the new approach, absolute calibration is completed by inspecting the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  13. Electrical storm in patients with an implanted defibrillator: a matter of definition.

    PubMed

    Israel, Carsten W; Barold, S Serge

    2007-10-01

    The term "electrical storm" (ES) indicates a state of cardiac electrical instability manifested by several episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTs) within a short time. In patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), ES is best defined as 3 appropriate VT detections in 24 h, treated by antitachycardia pacing, shock or eventually untreated but sustained in a VT monitoring zone. The number of shocks and inappropriate detections are irrelevant for the definition. ES occurs in approximately 25% of ICD patients within 3 years, with typically 5-55 individual VTs within one storm. Potential triggers can be found in approximately 66% of patients and include new/worsened heart failure, changes in antiarrhythmic medication, context with other illness, psychological stress, diarrhea, and hypokalemia. In most patients, ES consists of monomorphic VT indicating the presence of reentry while ventricular fibrillation indicating acute ischemia is rare. ES seems to have a low immediate mortality (1%) but frequently (50-80%) leads to hospitalization. Long-term prognostic implications of ES are unclear. The key intervention in ES is reduction of the elevated sympathetic tone by beta blockers and frequently benzodiazepines. Amiodarone i.v. has also been successful and azimilide seems promising while class I antiarrhythmic drugs are usually unsuccessful. Substrate mapping and VT ablation may be useful in treatment and prevention of ES. Prevention of ES requires ICD programming systematically avoiding unnecessary shocks (long VT detection, antitachycardia pacing where ever possible) which otherwise can fuel the sympathetic tone and prolong ES.

  14. Basics of a Solar Electric System: Better Buildings Series Solar Electric Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-07-01

    Today's solar technologies are more efficient and versatile than ever before, adding to the appeal of an already desirable energy source. This fact sheet provides information on the basics of a solar electric system, including components of a system, how to choose solar modules, and how to choose a solar system.

  15. BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL, AND ELECTRONIC CONTROL. UNIT 1, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.; WYKES, MURRAY L.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC MATHEMATICS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 19 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON SUBJECT, REFERENCES, AND A STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTION OF THE STUDENT ASSIGNMENT SHEET PROBLEMS. THE…

  16. BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL, AND ELECTRONIC CONTROL. UNIT 1, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.; WYKES, MURRAY L.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC MATHEMATICS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 19 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, DIRECTIONS, AND PROBLEMS. THE LESSONS, KEYED TO THREE…

  17. BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL, AND ELECTRONIC CONTROL. UNIT 1, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.; WYKES, MURRAY L.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC MATHEMATICS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 19 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, DIRECTIONS, AND PROBLEMS. THE LESSONS, KEYED TO THREE…

  18. BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL, AND ELECTRONIC CONTROL. UNIT 1, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.; WYKES, MURRAY L.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF BASIC MATHEMATICS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 19 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVE THE LESSON SUBJECT, REFERENCES, AND A STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTION OF THE STUDENT ASSIGNMENT SHEET PROBLEMS. THE…

  19. Analysis of Van Allen Probes Data Showing Nonlinear Electric Field Feedback During a Magnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Katus, R. M.; Smith, L. K.; Skoug, R. M.; Niehof, J. T.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Smith, C. W.; Kletzing, C.; Ilie, R.; Ganushkina, N.

    2013-12-01

    Van Allen Probes data was examined to assess the role of nonlinear feedback in relationship to the spatial structure of hot ions in the inner magnetosphere. During the magnetic storm that peaked on June 1, 2013, localized electric field perturbations from the EFW instrument were observed in relationship to the plasma pressure peak (as identified by the HOPE H+ and O+ fluxes in the 1-40 keV range, as well as magnetic field perturbations from EMFISIS) with a systematic sinusoidal perturbation. Near apogee, it takes the Van Allen Probes 30-60 minutes to traverse a peak in the ion fluxes. Therefore, the electric field was averaged over several minutes to remove the higher-frequency wave oscillations, revealing the longer-baseline perturbation associated with the pressure peak. While the fluxes indicate that the satellite is passing through a pressure peak, the magnetic field perturbation reveals the spatial location of the pressure extrema relative to the spacecraft location. The pattern of these electric fields relative to the location of the plasma pressure peak is in agreement with the hypothesis based on theory and numerical simulation results that an azimuthally localized pressure peak should create a systematic and predictable small-scale reconfiguration of the electric field. This electric field modification is because the field-aligned currents near each end of the pressure crescent close via Pedersen currents, perturbing the electric field in this region, as regulated by the ionospheric conductance. The level of this reconfiguration, relative to the expected dawn-dusk electric field within the magnetosphere, indicates the intensity of the nonlinear feedback.

  20. Prophylactic left thoracic sympathectomy to prevent electrical storms in CPVT patients needing ICD placement.

    PubMed

    Moray, Amol; Kirk, Edwin P; Grant, Peter; Camphausen, Christoph

    2011-11-01

    Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT), a life threatening arrhythmia induced by sympathetic stimulation in susceptible individuals is often refractory to antiarrhythmic agents. First line of treatment, beta-blockers can be ineffective in up to 50% with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement for refractory cases. Paradoxically ICD can be arryhthmogenic from shock-associated sympathetic stimulation, initiating more shocks and "electrical storms". This has led to the use of more effective beta blockade offered by left sympathectomy, now performed by minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Sympathectomy has been traditionally performed long after ICD placement, after the patient has experienced multiple shocks, thus necessitating two procedures. We report simultaneous ICD insertion and thoracoscopic sympathectomy in a 10 year-old boy with CPVT, and suggest it as a better approach than sequential procedures. To our knowledge this is first such reported case. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrical storm originating from a left ventricular epicardial scar in a patient with completely normal endocardial voltage.

    PubMed

    Sternick, Eduardo Back; Piorkowski, Christopher; Hindricks, Gerhard; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sommer, Philipp

    2011-11-01

    We report a patient with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy presenting with an electrical storm because of a poorly tolerated monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Electroanatomical mapping revealed a scar restricted to the epicardium, whereas the endocardial voltage map was completely normal. Epicardial catheter ablation based on substrate mapping and limited pace and entrainment mapping eliminated the tachycardia.

  2. Reproducing Electric Field Observations during Magnetic Storms by means of Rigorous 3-D Modelling and Distortion Matrix Co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth during magnetic storms drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines. These geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) can cause severe service disruptions. The prediction of GIC is thus of great importance for public and industry. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we developed a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a model of the magnetospheric source. The latter is described by low-degree spherical harmonics; its temporal evolution is derived from observatory magnetic data. Time series of the electric field can be computed for every location on Earth's surface. The actual electric field however is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the conductivity model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and computed electric fields. Using data of various magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimated distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Strong correlations between modellings and measurements validate our method. The distortion matrix estimates prove to be reliable, as they are accurately reproduced for different magnetic storms. We further show that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the required computational resources are negligible, our approach is suitable for a real-time prediction of GIC. For this purpose, a reliable forecast of the source field, e.g. based on data from satellites

  3. Storm-time electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere observed by ground magnetometers and the Akebono satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Kikuchi, T.; Nishimura, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

    2008-12-01

    The mid-latitude ionosphere electromagnetically connected to the inner magnetosphere via magnetic field lines is an important region for understanding storm-time magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In order to clarify distributions of electric fields and currents in the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere during storms, we investigated latitudinal and local time dependence of magnetic field variations for six storms using a ground magnetometer network covering from high to equatorial latitudes. The analysis results suggested that competition between convection and shielding electric fields controlled characteristics of magnetic disturbances caused by mid-latitude ionospheric currents. However, a quantitative relationship between ground magnetic disturbances and in-situ ionospheric electric fields has not been clarified yet because of difficulties in deducing electric fields from magnetic field variations. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed ground magnetic disturbances and electric field mapped onto the ionosphere observed by the Akebono satellite during the storm occurred on February 21-22, 1994, with a minimum SYM-H value of -152 nT. During the main phase of the storm, the satellite passed through a region from 73 degrees invariant latitude (ILAT) and 10 magnetic local time (MLT) to 49 degrees ILAT and 18 MLT from 0055 to 0148 UT. The poleward electric field changed negative to positive values at 65.5 degrees ILAT (15 MLT). The electric field signature indicates that the center of region-1 field-aligned currents (R-1 FACs) was located at this latitude. Subsequently, the electric field profile showed two peaks at 62-63 degrees ILAT (15.5 MLT) and 55 degrees ILAT (17 MLT). The former corresponds to the auroral oval identified by the lower energy particle instrument of the Akebono. On the other hand, during the same period, we also investigated the latitudinal distribution of the northward magnetic field variation measured on the ground (16.5-19.5 MLT). The

  4. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  5. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  6. Van Allen Probes based investigation of storm time plasmasphere erosion and earthward penetration of the convection electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Dai, L.; Breneman, A. W.; Kersten, K.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Bonnell, J. W.; De Pascuale, S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bounds, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes we investigate the erosion of the plasmasphere as well as the evolution in location of the plasmapause during large storms (Dst < -100 nT). In addition, we also examine the penetration of the large scale storm-time convection electric field to low L ( < 3 RE) and its role in erosion of the plasmasphere. The enhanced convection electric field penetrates to low L during large storms, and a tangible effect on plasmasphere erosion is observed at low L. The plasmaspause is identified through the UHR line in EMFISIS high frequency spectral data and plasma densities determined from calibration fits to the spacecraft potential from the EFW instrument; such fits are also presented herein. During large storms the plasmapause can move to within L~1.9 RE of the earth. The erosion of the plasmasphere and consequent inward movement of the plasmapause to low L from quite time locations (4-5 RE) occurs within less than one orbit period (~9hr).

  7. What is a geomagnetic storm?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, W. D.; Joselyn, J. A.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H. W.; Rostoker, G.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    After a brief review of magnetospheric and interplanetary phenomena for intervals with enhanced solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, an attempt is made to define a geomagnetic storm as an interval of time when a sufficiently intense and long-lasting interplanetary convection electric field leads, through a substantial energization in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, to an intensified ring current sufficiently strong to exceed some key threshold of the quantifying storm time Dst index. The associated storm/substorm relationship problem is also reviewed. Although the physics of this relationship does not seem to be fully understood at this time, basic and fairly well established mechanisms of this relationship are presented and discussed. Finally, toward the advancement of geomagnetic storm research, some recommendations are given concerning future improvements in monitoring existing geomagnetic indices as well as the solar wind near Earth.

  8. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  9. Reproducing electric field observations during magnetic storms by means of rigorous 3-D modelling and distortion matrix co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth by geomagnetic disturbances drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines, which can cause service disruptions. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we revisit a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a magnetospheric source model described by low-degree spherical harmonics from observatory magnetic data. The actual electric field, however, is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and modelled electric fields. Using data of six magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimate distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Reliable estimates are obtained, and the modellings are found to explain up to 90% of the measurements. We further find that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of the shape of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the method relies on precomputed responses of a 3-D Earth to geomagnetic disturbances, which can be recycled for each storm, the required computational resources are negligible. Our approach is thus suitable for real-time prediction of geomagnetically induced currents by combining it with reliable forecasts of the source field.

  10. Electrical Power Generation. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Four classroom activities are included in this 8-10 period unit suitable for high school chemistry and physics classes. The first activity is a reading (12th-grade readability level determined by the Fry procedure) which explains electricity conversion, transportation, and efficiency ratings. The second and third activities are electrical energy…

  11. Electrical Power Generation. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Four classroom activities are included in this 8-10 period unit suitable for high school chemistry and physics classes. The first activity is a reading (12th-grade readability level determined by the Fry procedure) which explains electricity conversion, transportation, and efficiency ratings. The second and third activities are electrical energy…

  12. Response of the Fair Weather Atmospheric Electrical Current to Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Elhalal, Gal

    2013-04-01

    The Global Electric Circuit (GEC) is a conceptual model that integrates the observed electrical properties of the atmosphere in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. An average potential difference of 250 kV exists between these two conducting layers, leading to a surface electric field (Ez, sometimes also named the Potential Gradient or PG) of ~130 V/m, and a nearly constant downward flowing direct current density (Jz) of ~2 pA m-2. This is known as the DC component of the GEC. The Jz is an extremely sensitive parameter whose magnitude and fluctuations can be used for monitoring local and global conductivity changes due to aerosols, air-pollution and solar activity. The AC part of the circuit is driven by ~50 lightning flashes per second generating the global Schumann resonances (SR) in the ELF range. There are two time-scales for identifying solar effects on the GEC. On the longer scale, an 11-year modulation by solar activity, likely due to changes in ionization, was reported by several authors. For example, Satori et al. (2005) noted a decrease in the frequency of the first 3 modes of the SR band in conjunction with the solar minimum of 1995-6. On shorter time scales typical of solar activity (e.g. CMEs, solar flares and SEP events), observations show marked perturbations in Jz and in the ionospheric potential at the surface. Cobb (1967) observed an increase of Jz by 75% for ~ 6 h in measurements made at Mauna Loa in Hawaii, during a period of multiple solar flares. Reiter (1989) observed an increase in Jz of about 50%-60% following large solar flares, persisting for 4 days (at the Zungspietze station in the Alps). Belova et al. (2001) reported increased Jz for about 2 hours before T=0 (time of minimum in Bx) as well as enhanced average fluctuations. This talk will review the effects of solar storms on the GEC, and present new results from continuous measurements of Jz conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35'N, 34°45'E). During 3 different

  13. Basic Studies on Chaotic Characteristics of Electric Power Market Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yuya; Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Toshihiro

    Recently, deregulation and reform of electric power utilities have been progressing in many parts of the world. In Japan, partial deregulation has been started from generation sector since 1995 and partial deregulation of retail sector is executed through twice law revisions. Through the deregulation, because electric power is traded in the market and its price is always fluctuated, it is important for the electric power business to analyze and predict the price. Although the price data of the electric power market is time series data, it is not always proper to analyze by the linear model such as ARMA because the price sometimes changes suddenly. Therefore, in this paper, we apply the methods of chaotic time series analysis, one of non-linear analysis methods, and investigate the chaotic characteristics of the system price of JEPX.

  14. BASIC CHEMICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BENZENE, *CYANIDES, *HYDROXIDES, *ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, ACETYLENES, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, ANILINES , BENZALDEHYDES, CHEMICAL REACTIONS , CONDENSATION... REACTIONS , ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, MATERIALS, MEASUREMENT, MONOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, PHENOLS, PHENYL RADICALS, QUINONES, SOLID STATE PHYSICS, SYNTHESIS.

  15. The impact of solar flares and magnetic storms on the Earth's atmospheric electrical parameters and VLF electromagnetic waves propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, Alexey; Poklad, Yuri; Rybakov, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Boris; Ermak, Vladimir; Ryakhovskiy, Ilya; Soloviev, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Changes in solar activity lead to fluctuations in the speed of the solar wind, the appearance of cosmic rays flare and perturbations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Streams of solar cosmic rays directly alter profile of the atmospheric ionization rate and modulate the flux of galactic cosmic rays penetrating into the atmosphere. Changes in the conduction profile lead to increased atmospheric electric field at altitudes of 15 km and below, where formed and electrified clouds. In addition, the change in resistance of the air column above the thunderstorm generators of the global electric circuit leads to a change in the potential difference between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. The "Mikhnevo" observatory near Moscow, Russia carried out monitoring measurements of amplitude and phase characteristics of VLF radio signals, the near surface electric field and the vertical current of the atmosphere. Variation of the electric field and currents modulated by solar flares were revealed. The effect of the temporary increase in the electrical parameters noticeable on smooth curves. During strong magnetic storm of March 17, 2015 perturbation of amplitudes and the phases of VLF radio signals were recorded that associated with the disturbance D-layer of the ionosphere on the paths of radio signals propagation. Analysis of the amplitude and phase characteristics of the VLF radio signals for the 2014-2016 has showed perturbations during geomagnetic storms and substorms with Kp=7 or below. Such perturbations are usually have local or regional character.

  16. Terms for Basic Electricity. Fordson Bilingual Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Roger; Topolewski, Rick

    This vocational instructional module on common terms used in the study of electricity is one of eight such modules designed to assist recently arrived Arab students, limited in English proficiency (LEP), in critical instructional areas in a comprehensive high school. Goal stated for this module is for the student enrolled in electronics courses to…

  17. The Elusive Memristor: Properties of Basic Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Wolf, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge "q" and the magnetic flux [phi] in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of…

  18. The Elusive Memristor: Properties of Basic Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Wolf, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge "q" and the magnetic flux [phi] in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of…

  19. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  20. Module Ten: Transformers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module introduces a very important electrical device, the transformer. The module is divided into six lessons: transformer construction, transformer theory and operation, turns and voltage ratios, power and current, transformer efficiency, and semiconductor rectifiers. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson…

  1. The 17 March 2013 storm: Synergy of observations related to electric field modes and their ionospheric and magnetospheric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Zou, S.; Weygand, J. M.; Nishimura, Y.; Li, W.; Gkioulidou, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E. F.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Shepherd, S. G.; Nishitani, N.

    2016-11-01

    The main phase of the 17 March 2013 storm had excellent coverage from ground-based instruments and from low- and high-altitude spacecraft, allowing for evaluation of the relations between major storm time phenomena that are often considered separately. The shock impact with its concurrent southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) immediately drove dramatic poleward expansion of the poleward boundary of the auroral oval (implying strong nightside reconnection), strong auroral activity, and strong penetrating midlatitude convection and ionospheric currents. This was followed by periods of southward IMF driving of electric fields that were at first relatively smooth as often employed in storm modeling but then became extremely bursty and structured associated with equatorward extending auroral streamers. The auroral oval did not expand much further poleward during these two latter periods, suggesting a lower overall nightside reconnection rate than that during the first period and approximate balance with dayside reconnection. Characteristics of these three modes of driving were reflected in horizontal and field-aligned currents. Equatorward expansion of the auroral oval occurred predominantly during the structured convection mode, when electric fields became extremely bursty. The period of this third mode also approximately corresponded to the time of largest equatorward motion of the ionospheric trough, of apparent transport of high total electron content (TEC) features into the auroral oval from the polar cap, and of largest earthward injection of ions and electrons into the ring current. The enhanced responses of the aurora, currents, TEC, and the ring current indicate a common driving of all these storm time features during the bursty convection mode period.

  2. Outcomes of ventricular tachycardia ablation in patients with structural heart disease: The impact of electrical storm

    PubMed Central

    Aldhoon, Bashar; Wichterle, Dan; Peichl, Petr; Čihák, Robert; Kautzner, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate predictors of long-term outcomes after catheter ablation (CA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) and the impact of electrical storm (ES) prior to index ablation procedures. Methods We studied consecutive patients with structural heart disease and VT (n = 328; age: 63±12 years; 88% males; 72% ischaemic cardiomyopathy; LVEF: 32±12%) who had undergone CA. According to presenting arrhythmia at baseline, they were divided into ES (n = 93, 28%) and non-ES groups. Clinical predictors of all-cause mortality were investigated and a clinically useful risk score (SCORE) was constructed. Results During a median follow-up of 927 days (IQR: 564–1626), 67% vs. 60% of patients (p = 0.05) experienced VT recurrence in the ES vs. the non-ES group, respectively; and 41% vs. 32% patients died (p = 0.02), respectively. Five factors were independently associated with mortality: age >70 years (hazard ratio (HR): 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–2.4, p = 0.01), NYHA class ≥3 (HR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.9, p = 0.005), a serum creatinine level >1.3 mg/dL (HR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, p = 0.02), LVEF ≤25% (HR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6–3.5, p = 0.00004), and amiodarone therapy (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0–2.2, p = 0.03). A risk SCORE ranging from 0–4 (1 point for either high-risk age, NYHA, creatinine, or LVEF) correlated with mortality. ES during index ablation independently predicted mortality only in patients with a SCORE ≤1. Conclusions Advanced LV dysfunction, older age, higher NYHA class, renal dysfunction, and amiodarone therapy, but not ES, were predictors of poor outcomes after CA for VT in the total population. However, ES did predict mortality in a low-risk sub-group of patients. PMID:28187168

  3. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation of...

  4. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation of...

  5. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation of...

  6. [Despite medication, overdrive pacing is required to stabilize the electrical storm associated with acute coronary syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Masanobu; Morimoto, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Kaori; Tateishi, Emi; Makino, Kanako; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nakagawa, Yoko; Fukuhara, Shinya; Takase, Eiji

    2007-10-01

    A 75-year-old female complained of severe chest pain and was emergently admitted to our hospital because of anterior acute myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography was performed and revealed occlusion in segment 7, so a stent was implanted. Lidocaine, carvedilol, amiodarone, magnesium, and nifekalant were administered successively because non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) frequently appeared like an electrical storm. After nifekalant administration, QTc was significantly prolonged and torsades de pointes was induced. Overdrive pacing was performed and finally the NSVT was completely controlled. If fatal arrhythmias such as NSVT show resistance to medication, overdrive pacing should be considered to stabilize the arrhythmia associated with acute coronary syndrome.

  7. Impact of Penetration Electric Fields on the Mid and Low Latitude Ionosphere during some Magnetic Storms in Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sunanda; Basu, Santimay; Gardner, Larry; Valladares, Cesar; Scherliess, Ludger; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; Schunk, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of GPS phase fluctuations in conjunction with regional total electron content (TEC) maps, in-situ measurements of sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) from several DMSP spacecraft supported by ground-based SuperDARN measurements in North America indicate the considerable impact of even moderate magnetic storms in 2010-2011 on the mid and low latitude ionosphere. The prompt penetration of the magnetospheric electric field is found to reach the magnetic equator in the main phase of the storm as monitored by the C/NOFS in-situ measurements and the array of GPS receivers forming part of the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) in South America. At mid latitudes the prompt penetration, if occurring during photo-production in the afternoon hours, is associated with storm enhanced density (SED) and TEC plumes that usually travel from the SE to NW across North America. The USU Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) Model is utilized to model these SEDs so that their impact on space-based navigation systems such as the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) can be estimated. It is found that SAPS, mostly occurring around dusk and containing regions of large westward flows, can also have a substantial impact on the WAAS system by generating large phase fluctuations at GPS frequencies.

  8. Basic investigation into the electrical performance of solid electrolyte membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical performance of solid electrolyte membranes was investigated analytically and the results were compared with experimental data. It is concluded that in devices that are used for pumping oxygen the major power losses have to be attributed to the thin film electrodes. Relations were developed by which the effectiveness of tubular solid electrolyte membranes can be determined and the optimum length evaluated. The observed failure of solid electrolyte tube membranes in very localized areas is explained by the highly non-uniform current distribution in the membranes. The analysis points to a possible contact resistance between the electrodes and the solid electrolyte material. This possible contact resistance remains to be investigated experimentally. It is concluded that film electrodes are not appropriate for devices which operate with current flow, i.e., pumps though they can be employed without reservation in devices that measure oxygen pressures if a limited increase in the response time can be tolerated.

  9. Basic Neuron Model Electrical Equivalent Circuit: An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowski, Katie M.; Castaño, Diego J.; Tartar, Jaime L.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise for undergraduate students in which they can build and manipulate a neuron equivalent circuit. This exercise uses electrical circuit components that resemble neuron components and are easy to construct. We describe the methods for creating the equivalent circuit and how to observe different neuron properties through altering the structure of the equivalent circuit. We explain how this hands-on laboratory activity allows for the better understanding of this fundamental neuroscience concept. At the conclusion of this laboratory exercise, undergraduate students will be able to apply the principles of Ohm’s law, cable theory with regards to neurons, and understand the functions of resistance and capacitance in a neuron. PMID:24319391

  10. Basic neuron model electrical equivalent circuit: an undergraduate laboratory exercise.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Katie M; Castaño, Diego J; Tartar, Jaime L

    2013-01-01

    We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise for undergraduate students in which they can build and manipulate a neuron equivalent circuit. This exercise uses electrical circuit components that resemble neuron components and are easy to construct. We describe the methods for creating the equivalent circuit and how to observe different neuron properties through altering the structure of the equivalent circuit. We explain how this hands-on laboratory activity allows for the better understanding of this fundamental neuroscience concept. At the conclusion of this laboratory exercise, undergraduate students will be able to apply the principles of Ohm's law, cable theory with regards to neurons, and understand the functions of resistance and capacitance in a neuron.

  11. Prompt penetration electric fields and the extreme topside ionospheric response to the June 22-23, 2015 geomagnetic storm as seen by the Swarm constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, Elvira; Zakharenkova, Irina; Alken, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Using data from the three Swarm satellites, we study the ionospheric response to the intense geomagnetic storm of June 22-23, 2015. With the minimum SYM-H excursion of -207 nT, this storm is so far the second strongest geomagnetic storm in the current 24th solar cycle. A specific configuration of the Swarm satellites allowed investigation of the evolution of the storm-time ionospheric alterations on the day- and the nightside quasi-simultaneously. With the development of the main phase of the storm, a significant dayside increase of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and electron density Ne was first observed at low latitudes on the dayside. From ~22 UT of 22 June to ~1 UT of 23 June, the dayside experienced a strong negative ionospheric storm, while on the nightside an extreme enhancement of the topside VTEC occurred at mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Our analysis of the equatorial electrojet variations obtained from the magnetic Swarm data indicates that the storm-time penetration electric fields were, most likely, the main driver of the observed ionospheric effects at the initial phase of the storm and at the beginning of the main phase. The dayside ionosphere first responded to the occurrence of the strong eastward equatorial electric fields. Further, penetration of westward electric fields led to gradual but strong decrease of the plasma density on the dayside in the topside ionosphere. At this stage, the disturbance dynamo could have contributed as well. On the nightside, the observed extreme enhancement of the Ne and VTEC in the northern hemisphere (i.e., the summer hemisphere) in the topside ionosphere was most likely due to the combination of the prompt penetration electric fields, disturbance dynamo and the storm-time thermospheric circulation. From ~2.8 UT, the ionospheric measurements from the three Swarm satellites detected the beginning of the second positive storm on the dayside, which was not clearly associated with electrojet

  12. Quantifying the Accuracy of Inner Magnetospheric Electric Field Descriptions With Data- Model Comparisons for All Intense Storms of Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Jazowski, M.; Ilie, R.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    All of the intense magnetic storms (minimum Dst value of < -100 nT) from solar cycle 23 (1996 - 2005) were simulated using the hot electron and ion drift integrator (HEIDI) model. The simulations were run using two electric field descriptions: a Kp-driven shielded Volland-Stern electric field and a self-consistent electric field calculated from the HEIDI-generated field-aligned currents. Of the 90 events, 69 had acceptable boundary condition inputs (nightside plasma data from LANL and upstream solar wind data during the main phase), and are included in the analysis. Storms were classified according to their solar wind driver and means and correlations were examined. Data-model comparisons are made against Dst* time series and dayside LANL plasma data (plasmaspheric plume, hot ion moments and fluxes). It is found, for example, with Dst* comparisons, that the self-consistent electric field simulations are, on average, more accurate than the Volland-Stern-driven simulations. This is especially true for magnetic cloud-driven storm events. For other storm driver categories, the self-consistent results are, on average, more precise than the Volland-Stern results, with less variability in the data-model comparisons from one storm to the next. Other aspects of the data-model comparisons are presented and discussed.

  13. Wave Science with the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite with Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounds, S. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Acuna, M. H.; Torbert, R. B.; Thorne, R.; Jordanova, V.; Smith, C.; Santolik, O.; Pfaff, R.; Rpwlamd, D.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Puhl-Quinn, P.

    2008-12-01

    The physics of the creation and loss of radiation belt particles is intimately connected to the electric and magnetic fields of waves which mediate these processes. A large range of field regimes are involved in this physics from ring current magnetic fields to microscopic kinetic interactions such as whistler-mode chorus waves with energetic electrons. To measure these key field interactions, NASA has selected the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP). EMFISIS is an integrated set of instruments consisting of a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) and a Waves instrument which includes a tri-axial search coil magnetometer and measures AC electric and magnetic fields from 10 Hz to 400 kHz. The broad frequency range of the Waves instrument enables the identification of resonances and cutoffs from Waves to achieve high cadence, accurate plasma density measurements that are essential to RBSP theory and modeling efforts. In combination with the selected double probe electric field and particle investigations on RBSP, EMFISIS will provide the essential measurements necessary to open the frontier of predictive capability for the Earth's highly variable radiation belts. We discuss of the key scientific goals of the EMFISIS investigation with particular attention to the wave physics of the radiation belts.

  14. Module One: Electrical Current; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The student is introduced in this module to some fundamental concepts of electricity. The module is divided into five lessons: electricity and the electron, electron movement, current flow, measurement of current, and the ammeter. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson narratives, programed materials, and lesson…

  15. The role of inductive electric fields in the ring current enhancement during the March 17th, 2013 geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, R.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Chan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial magnetosphere has the capability to rapidly accelerate charged particles up to very high energies over relatively short times and distances. These energetic particles are injected from the magnetotail into the inner magnetosphere through two primary mechanisms. One transport method is the potential-driven convection during periods of southward IMF, which allows part of the dawn-to-dusk solar wind electric field to effectively map down to the polar ionosphere. The second transport process involves a sudden reconfiguration of the magnetic field and the creation of transient induced electric fields. However, it is not possible to distinguish the two terms by only measuring the electric field. Assessing the relative contribution of potential versus inductive electric fields at the energization of the hot ion population in the inner magnetosphere is only possible by thorough examination of the time varying magnetic field and current systems using global modeling of the entire system. We developed a novel method to calculate the inductive and potential components of electric field in the entire magnetosphere domain. This approach removes the need to trace independent field lines and lifts the assumption that the magnetic field lines can be treated as frozen in a stationary ionosphere. We quantify the relative contributions of potential and inductive electric fields at driving plasma sheet ions into the inner magnetosphere during the March 17th, 2103 geomagnetic storm. The consequence of these injections on the distortion of the near-Earth magnetic field and current systems have been rarely separated in order to determine their relative effectiveness from a global perspective.

  16. Rainfall yield characteristics of electrical storm observed in the Spanish Basque Country area during the period 1992 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezcurra, A.; Saenz, J.; Ibarra-Berastegi, G.; Areitio, J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper is focused on the study of rainfall yield characteristics of electrical storms observed over the Northern Iberian Peninsula during 1992-1996. To this aim Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method have been used. The SOM method is a group of artificial neural networks based on the topological properties of the human brain. Results clearly suggest that there exist three different meteorological patterns that are linked to the characteristics of electrical events found in the study area. In winter, most of the electrical events are formed under oceanic advection (NW air fluxes). On these cases, mean rainfall yield estimates reach values of 700 10 4 m 3 per cloud to ground lightning flash (CG flash). During summer most frequent electrical storms are associated to local instability shooting by surface heating with advection of humidity coming from the Iberian Peninsula. Under these meteorological situations, rain is scarcer if compared with oceanic events but lightning CG counts reach the maximum values found in the area (about 10 CG counts per 20 × 20 km 2 and day) giving this way the smallest rainfall yield with a mean value of 15 10 4 m 3 per CG flash. Iberian air fluxes associated with cold air in upper parts of the atmosphere represent the third meteorological pattern found. This pattern is most common in spring and autumn but is not unusual in the rest of the seasons. In those cases mean rainfall yield in the area is about 150 10 4 m 3 per CG flash. In all electrical episodes K instability index is greater than 15 °C but in the most lightning producing events, this index reaches in the area values greater than 24 °C. PCA results pointed out that there exists a relationship between rain and CG counts expressed by the first principal component computed from standardized data. However, we must notice that no event is solely linked to this axis, since a seasonal influence which decreases lightning production when rain

  17. Electrical Experiments. VT-214-12-3. Part III. Basic Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed for high school electronics students, this third document in a series of six electrical learning activity packages focuses on basic electronics. An introductory section gives the objective for the activities, an introduction, and an outline of the content. The remainder of the activity book is comprised of information sheets and job…

  18. NEW APPROACHES: Addressing students' common difficulties in basic electricity by qualitative simulation-based activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronen, M.; Eliahu, M.

    1997-11-01

    Simulation-based activities provide students with an opportunity to compare their physical intuition with the behaviour of the model and can sometimes offer unique advantages over other methods. This article presents various approaches to the development of qualitative simulation- based activities and describes how these activities can be addressed to students' common difficulties in basic electricity.

  19. Electrical Experiments. VT-214-12-3. Part III. Basic Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed for high school electronics students, this third document in a series of six electrical learning activity packages focuses on basic electronics. An introductory section gives the objective for the activities, an introduction, and an outline of the content. The remainder of the activity book is comprised of information sheets and job…

  20. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of a...

  1. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of a...

  2. Basic Electricity/Electronics (Industrial Arts). Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1724.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist industrial arts teachers, counselors, and administrators in improving instruction in the areas of electricity and basic electronics. Included in the first part of the guide are a course flow chart, a course description, a discussion of target grade levels and prerequisites, course goals and objectives,…

  3. Atmospheric electrical modeling in support of the NASA F106 Storm Hazards Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    With the use of composite (non-metallic) and microelectronics becoming more prevalent in the construction of both military and commercial aircraft, the control systems have become more susceptible to damage or failure from electromagnetic transients. One source of such transients is the lightning discharge. In order to study the effects of the lightning discharge on the vital components of an aircraft, NASA Langley Research Center has undertaken a Storm Hazards Program in which a specially instrumented F106B jet aircraft is flown into active thunderstorms with the intention of being struck by lightning. One of the specific purposes of the program is to quantify the environmental conditions which are conductive to aircraft lightning strikes.

  4. Basic properties of electrical field coupling between neurons: an analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Costalat, Robert; Chauvet, Gilbert

    2008-06-01

    The basic properties of the electrical field coupling between two parallel neurons, with linear electrical properties of the membranes, are investigated using a mathematical model-based on Laplace transform and matrix algebra, assuming that the system is unidimensional. This approach is extended to a ramified dendritic tree, and to a set of parallel neurons a subset of which is synaptically activated. We show that the electrical field effect is governed by certain geometrical and electrophysiological parameters, the most important being a coupling coefficient k, which depends on the extra- and intracellular resistivity, as well as the extracellular volume fraction. These results support the hypothesis that electrical field effects play an important role in the regions of the brain where neurons are densely packed, even in the absence of, or before, cell firing.

  5. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite with Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletzing, Craig

    The physics of the creation and loss of radiation belt particles is intimately connected to the electric and magnetic fields which mediate these processes. A large range of field regimes are involved in this physics from ring current magnetic fields to microscopic kinetic interactions such as whistler-mode chorus waves with energetic electrons. To measure these key field interactions, NASA has selected the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP). EMFISIS is an integrated set of instruments consisting of a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) and a Waves instrument which includes a tri-axial search coil magnetometer and measures AC electric and magnetic fields from 10 Hz to 400 kHz. The broad frequency range of the Waves instrument enables the identification of resonances and cutoffs from Waves to achieve high cadence, accurate plasma density measurements that are essential to RBSP theory and modeling efforts. The instruments are integrated through a Central Data Processor Unit (CDPU) which provides for flexible instrument operations in both burst and survey telemetry modes that can be optimized to address the specific physics of the many radiation belt processes. The EMFISIS multi-institution team comprises a group of knowledgeable space physics investigators, both experimental and theoretical with the requisite capability, desire, and experience to accomplish the goals of the RBSP mission to further space weather capability. In combination with the selected double probe electric field and particle investigations on RBSP, EMFISIS will provide the essential measurements necessary to open the frontier of predictive capability for the Earth's highly variable radiation belts.

  6. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite with Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W.; Acuna, M.; Torbert, R.; Thorne, R.; Jordanova, V.; Bounds, S.; Smith, C.; Santolik, O.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Puhl-Quinn, P.

    2006-12-01

    The physics of the creation and loss of radiation belt particles is intimately connected to the electric and magnetic fields which mediate these processes. A large range of field dynamics and time scales are involved in this physics from ring current magnetic fields to microscopic kinetic interactions such as whistler-mode chorus waves with energetic electrons. To measure these key field interactions, NASA has selected the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP). EMFISIS is an integrated set of instruments consisting of a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) and a Waves instrument which includes a tri-axial search coil magnetometer and measures AC electric and magnetic fields from 10 Hz to MHz frequencies. The broad frequency range of the Waves instrument enables the identification of resonances and cutoffs from Waves to achieve high cadence, accurate plasma density measurements that are essential to RBSP theory and modeling efforts. The instruments are integrated through a Central Data Processor Unit (CDPU) which provides for flexible instrument operations in both burst and survey telemetry modes that can be optimized to address the specific physics of the many radiation belt processes. The EMFISIS multi-institution team comprises a group of knowledgeable space physics investigators, both experimental and theoretical, with the requisite capability, desire, and experience to accomplish the goals of the RBSP mission to further our nation's space weather capability. In combination with the selected double probe electric field and particle investigations on RBSP, EMFISIS will provide the essential measurements necessary to open the frontier of predictive capability for the Earth's highly variable radiation belts.

  7. The Electric Field Wave Instrument on the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Dombeck, J.; Bonnell, J.; Mozer, F.; Bale, S.; Chaston, C.; Ergun, B.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Hudson, M. K.; Strangeway, R.; Alpert, J.; Brautigam, D.; Mann, I.; Foster, J.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the Electric Field-Wave Instrument on the two RBSP spacecraft is to investigate the role of plasma structures and waves in the physical processes responsible for the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. Some of these processes include: prompt acceleration induced by powerful interplanetary shocks, acceleration by the large scale convection electric field, abrupt energization by intense substorm injection fronts propagating in from the tail, coherent and stochastic radial transport by large scale MHD fluctuations, multi-step local energization and cattering by whistler waves, and scattering and energization by kinetic Alfven waves, ion cycltron waves, and other small scale waves and structures. In order to understand the role of these processes in accelerating particles, the EFW instrument measures the three dimensional electric field from dc to greater than 500 kHz. The spin plane electric field vector is obtained from spherical sensors at the ends of two pair of orthogonal booms with tip-to- tip separations of 80 and 100 m. The spin axis measurement is obtained by opposed stacer booms with a tip- to-tip separation of 12 meters or greater. The electric field below 12 Hz is telemetered continuously while higher time resolution is obtained from a programmable burst memory with a maximum sampling rate for six quantities of greater 30,000 samples/s each. DC magnetic fields from the fluxgate magnetometer and wave magnetic fields from the search coil, both associated with the University of Iowa Instrument are input into the EFW instrument for processing in the burst memory and in the Digital Signal Processing Board (DSP). The DSP provides wave spectra and cross spectra of electric and magnetic field data over the frequency range between 50 Hz and 10 kHz with a typical cadence of once per 12 seconds with a maximum rate of ~ 1 Hz in order to provide continuous information on wave properties

  8. Duskside enhancement of equatorial zonal electric field response to convection electric fields during the St. Patrick's Day storm on 17 March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Sripathi, S.; Veenadhari, B.; Heelis, R.; Ajith, K. K.; Gowtam, V. S.; Gurubaran, S.; Supnithi, P.; Le Huy, M.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial zonal electric field responses to prompt penetration of eastward convection electric fields (PPEF) were compared at closely spaced longitudinal intervals at dusk to premidnight sectors during the intense geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. At dusk sector (Indian longitudes), a rapid uplift of equatorial F layer to >550 km and development of intense equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were observed. These EPBs were found to extend up to 27.13°N and 25.98°S magnetic dip latitudes indicating their altitude development to ~1670 km at apex. In contrast, at few degrees east in the premidnight sector (Thailand-Indonesian longitudes), no significant height rise and/or EPB activity has been observed. The eastward electric field perturbations due to PPEF are greatly dominated at dusk sector despite the existence of background westward ionospheric disturbance dynamo (IDD) fields, whereas they were mostly counter balanced by the IDD fields in the premidnight sector. In situ observations from SWARM-A and SWARM-C and Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellites detected a large plasma density depletion near Indian equatorial region due to large electrodynamic uplift of F layer to higher than satellite altitudes. Further, this large uplift is found to confine to a narrow longitudinal sector centered on sunset terminator. This study brings out the significantly enhanced equatorial zonal electric field in response to PPEF that is uniquely confined to dusk sector. The responsible mechanisms are discussed in terms of unique electrodynamic conditions prevailing at dusk sector in the presence of convection electric fields associated with the onset of a substorm under southward interplanetary magnetic field Bz.

  9. Study of Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms with the Deep Space Network antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Tamppari, L. K.; Renno, N. O.; Ruf, C.; Trinh, J. T.

    2012-09-01

    Evidence for non-thermal emission produced by electrostatic discharges in a deep Martian dust storm has been reported by Ruf et al. 2009 [1]. Such discharges had been detected with an innovative kurtosis detector installed in a 34m radio telescope of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in June of 2006. The kurtosis (the fourth central moment of the signal normalized by the square of the second central moment) is extremely sensitive to the presence of non-thermal radiation, but is insensitive to variations in the intensity of the thermal radiation and instrument gain. The non-thermal radiation was detected while a 35 Km deep Martian dust storm was within the field of view of the radio telescope and presented signatures of modulation by the Martian Schumann Resonance. Encouraged by this discovery, several attempts have been made within the DSN to confirm the detection using the R&D antenna (DSS-13) and other antennas in the Madrid and Goldstone complexes, but using a very limited receiver, in terms of recorded data rates, the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receiver (VSR). We are planning to initiate an extensive monitoring of Mars emission in a noninterfering basis while our antennas are tracking various Mars probes, using the Wideband Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receiver (WVSR). The WVSR is a very flexible open-loop digital backend that is used for radio science and spacecraft navigation support in the DSN. This instrument allows us to sample a larger bandwidth than with previously used detectors. The processing to look for the kurtosis signature will be performed in software, limited only by the computer capacity. Additionally there are plans to develop an even more powerful custom-built detector based in CASPER technology and Graphic Processing Units for enhance computational power. This contribution will describe how we plan to select the target Mars tracking passes from the DSN schedule. An automated process will generate

  10. The Electric Fields and Waves Instrument on the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, John

    The purpose of the Electric Field-Wave (EFW) Instrument on the two RBSP spacecraft is to investigate the role of electric field structures and waves in the physical processes responsible for the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. The RBSP spacecraft apogee will be at about 5.8 Re near the equatorial plane. Perigee will be at about 400 kms altitude. Some of processes that will be investigated by the RBSP-EFW instrument include: prompt acceleration induced by powerful interplanetary shocks, acceleration by the large scale convection electric field, abrupt energization by intense substorm injection fronts propagating in from the tail, coherent and stochastic radial transport by large scale MHD fluctuations, and multi-step local energization and loss by whistler waves. In order to understand the role of these processes in accelerating particles, the EFW instrument measures the three dimensional electric field and cold plasma density estimates from the spacecraft potential all over a frequency range from dc to ˜500 kHz. Measurements from the spatially separated spacecraft will provide information on azimuthal and radial spatial scales and propagation velocities of large scale structures. The spin plane electric field vector is obtained from spherical sensors at the ends of two pair of orthogonal booms with tip to tip separations of 80 and 100 m. The spin axis measurement is obtained from a pair of stace booms with a tip to tip separation of ˜12 meters. The electric field below 12 Hz is telemetered continuously while higher time resolution is obtained from a programmable burst memory with a maximum sampling rate for six quantities of ˜ 30,000 samples/s. High time resolution data includes interferometric timing measurements between individual probe at the ends of the booms which provide information on small scale structures and phase velocities. DC magnetic fields from the fluxgate magnetometer and wave

  11. A coordinated study of a storm system over the South American continent. 1. Weather information and quasi-DC stratospheric electric field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, O.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.; Gin, R. B. B.; Mendes, O.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on a coordinated campaign conducted in Brazil, December 13, 1989, to study the electrical signatures associated with a large storm system over the South American continent. Inside the storm, large convective cells developed extending up to the tropopause, as revealed from meteorological balloon soundings. Quasi-DC vertical electric field and temperature were measured by zero-pressure balloon-borne payload launched from Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. The data were supported by radar and GOES satellite observations, as well as by a lightning position and tracking system (LPATS). The analysis of infrared imagery supports the general tendency for lightning strikes to be near to but not exactly under the coldest cloud tops. In turn, the radar maps located the strikes near to but outside of the most intense areas of precipitation (reflectivity levels above 40 dBz). The balloon altitude and stratospheric temperature show significant variations in association with the storm. The quasi-DC vertical electric field remained almost during the whole flight in a reversed direction relative to the usual fair weather downward orientation with values as large as 4 V/m. A simple calculation based on a static dipole model of electrical cloud structure gives charges of some tens of coulombs. In contrast with most electric field measurements in other regions, no indication of an intensification of the vertical field in the downward fair weather orientation was observed. This fact is in agreement with past observations in the South American region and seems to be related to a particular type of storm that would occur with more frequency in this region. If so, such a difference may have an important role in the global atmospheric electrical circuit, considering that South America is believed to give a significant current contribution to the global circuit.

  12. The impact of geomagnetic storms on the US electric power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, C.; Mitchell, S.; Title, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Large solar explosions are responsible for space weather that can impact technological infrastructure on and around Earth. We study the impacts of geomagnetic activity on the U.S. electric power grid for the period from 1992 through 2010. We find, with more than 3-sigma significance, that approximately 4% of the disturbances in the U.S. power grid reported to the U.S. Department of Energy are attributable to geomagnetic activity. The combination of our results with an economic assessment study by the electric power industry suggests that the average cost to the U.S. economy of non-catastrophic grid disturbances in which space weather conditions are a contributing factor exceeds $3 billion per year. The magnitude of this apparent economic impact warrants extensive follow-up studies to validate, understand, and mitigate against the weak but significant contribution of space weather in power grid disturbances.

  13. Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

  14. Modeling storm-time electrodynamics of the low-latitude ionosphere thermosphere system: Can long lasting disturbance electric fields be accounted for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Naomi; Sazykin, Stanislav; Spiro, Robert W.; Anderson, David; Anghel, Adela; Wolf, Richard A.; Toffoletto, Frank R.; Fuller-Rowell, Timothy J.; Codrescu, Mihail V.; Richmond, Arthur D.; Millward, George H.

    2007-07-01

    Storm-time ionospheric disturbance electric fields are studied for two large geomagnetic storms, March 31, 2001 and April 17 18, 2002, by comparing low-latitude observations of ionospheric plasma drifts with results from numerical simulations based on a combination of first-principles models. The simulation machinery combines the Rice convection model (RCM), used to calculate inner magnetospheric electric fields, and the coupled thermosphere ionosphere plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe) model, driven, in part, by RCM-computed electric fields. Comparison of model results with measured or estimated low-latitude vertical drift velocities (zonal electric fields) shows that the coupled model is capable of reproducing measurements under a variety of conditions. In particular, our model results suggest, from theoretical grounds, a possibility of long-lasting penetration of magnetospheric electric fields to low latitudes during prolonged periods of enhanced convection associated with southward-directed interplanetary magnetic field, although the model probably overestimates the magnitude and duration of such penetration during extremely disturbed conditions. During periods of moderate disturbance, we found surprisingly good overall agreement between model predictions and data, with penetration electric fields accounting for early main phase changes and oscillations in low-latitude vertical drift, while the disturbance dynamo mechanism becomes increasingly important later in the modeled events. Discrepancies between the model results and the observations indicate some of the difficulties in validating these combined numerical models, and the limitations of the available experimental data.

  15. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    PubMed

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  16. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics Through a Classroom Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-05-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not completely resolve these misconceptions. Mazur and Knight,2 in particular, separately note that such misconceptions include the notion that electric current on either side of a light bulb in a circuit can be different. Other difficulties and confusions involve understanding why the current in a parallel circuit exceeds the current in a series circuit with the same components, and include the role of the battery (where students may assume wrongly that a dry cell battery is a fixed-current rather than a fixed-voltage device). A simple classroom activity that students can play as a game can resolve these misconceptions, providing an intellectual as well as a hands-on understanding. This paper describes the "Electron Runaround," first developed by the author to teach extremely bright 8-year-old home-schooled children the basics of electric circuits and subsequently altered (according to the required level of instruction) and used for various college physics courses.

  17. [A case of electrical storm in a patient with short-coupled variant of torsade de pointes].

    PubMed

    Conte, Giulio; Coppini, Lucia; Demola, Maria Antonietta; Ardissino, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Short-coupled variant of torsade de pointes (TdP) is an uncommon variant of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with unknown etiology. It is initiated by a closely coupled premature ventricular complex (<300 ms) in the absence of QT prolongation and structural heart disease. Verapamil seems to be the only drug able to suppress the arrhythmia but, as it does not reduce the risk of sudden death, implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is recommended. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman referred to our Emergency Department because of palpitations. The initial ECG showed a non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with a borderline QTc interval (450 ms). After admission, the patient experienced an episode of TdP that started after short-coupling interval (280 ms) between the last sinus beat and the ventricular premature beat (VPB). DC-shock restored sinus rhythm. Physical examination, exercise testing, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance were all normal, and she had no family history of sudden cardiac death. Baseline ECG showed sinus rhythm and unifocal VPBs with the same morphology of the VPB of TdP. The patient received an ICD and was treated medically with verapamil. She was discharged from the hospital on oral therapy with verapamil (240 mg/day), and she was free of recurrence 12 months later when an electrical storm occurred. The verapamil dose was therefore increased to 480 mg/day. Unifocal VPBs disappeared from her body surface ECG, and the subsequent 3-year follow-up was uneventful.

  18. Study of simultaneous presence of DD and PP electric fields during the geomagnetic storm of November 7-8, 2004 and resultant TEC variation over the Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galav, P.; Sharma, Shweta; Rao, S. S.; Veenadhari, B.; Nagatsuma, T.; Pandey, R.

    2014-04-01

    During very intense geomagnetic storm of November 7-8, 2004 simultaneous presence of storm time disturbance dynamo and eastward and westward directed prompt penetration electric fields inferred from the ground based magnetometer data in the 75∘ E sector is presented. Magnetometer observations show that, on the whole, average Δ H variation on 8 November remains below the night time level compared to its quiet day variation. A number of upward and downward excursions have been observed between 0130 UT and 0800 UT in the Δ H variation on 8 November. These excursions in Δ H have been attributed to the episodes of eastward and westward prompt penetrating electric fields. Ionospheric response in the equatorial ionization anomaly region along 75∘ E has also been studied using the total electron content data recorded at five GPS stations, namely Udaipur, Bengaluru (IISC), Hyderabad (HYDE), Maldives (MALD) and Diego Garcia (DGAR). Observation of markedly suppressed EIA, in conjunction with Δ H variation which was m negative during the daytime on 8 November, indicates the presence of an external field of opposite polarity (the disturbance dynamo electric field) that either undermined, or overshadowed the daytime ambient (eastward) electric field to the extent that the equatorial plasma fountain could not become effective.

  19. Prediction and prognosis of ventricular tachycardia recurrence after catheter ablation with remote magnetic navigation for electrical storm in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qi; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Pehrson, Steen; Chen, Xu

    2017-08-17

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrence after catheter ablation for electrical storm is commonly seen in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). We hypothesized that VT recurrence can be predicted and be related to the all-cause death after VT storm ablation guided by remote magnetic navigation (RMN) in patients with ICM. A total of 54 ICM patients (87% male; mean age, 65 ± 7.1 years) presenting with VT storm undergoing acute ablation using RMN were enrolled. Acute complete ablation success was defined as noninducibility of any sustained monomorphic VT at the end of the procedure. Early VT recurrence was defined as the occurrence of sustained VT within 1 month after the first ablation. After a mean follow-up of 17.1 months, 27 patients (50%) had freedom from VT recurrence. Sustained VT recurred in 12 patients (22%) within 1 month following the first ablation. In univariate analysis, VT recurrence was associated with incomplete procedural success (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-32.47, P = 0.029), lack of amiodarone usage before ablation (HR: 4.71, 95% CI: 1.12-19.7, P = 0.034), and a longer procedural time (HR: 1.023, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05, P = 0.05). The mortality of patients with early VT recurrence was higher than that of patients without recurrence (P < 0.01). Inducibility of any VT at the end of procedure for VT storm guided by RMN is the strongest predictor of VT recurrence. ICM patients who have early recurrences after VT storm ablation are at high risk of all-cause death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How the effects of winds and electric fields in F2-layer storms vary with latitude and longitude - A theoretical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendillo, M.; He, X.-Q.; Rishbeth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of thermospheric winds and electric fields on the ionospheric F2-layer are controlled by the geometry of the magnetic field, and so vary with latitude and longitude. A simple model of the daytime F2-layer is adopted and the effects at midlatitudes (25-65 deg geographic) of three processes that accompany geomagnetic storms: (1) thermospheric changes due to auroral heating; (2) equatorward winds that tend to cancel the quiet-day poleward winds; and (3) the penetration of magnetospheric electric fields are studied. At +/- 65 deg, the effects of heating and electric fields are strongest in the longitudes toward which the geomagnetic dipole is tilted, i.e., the North American and the South Indian Ocean sectors. Because of the proximity of the geomagnetic equator to the East Asian and South American sectors, the reverse is true at +/- 25 deg.

  1. Basic setup for breast conductivity imaging using magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Il; Oh, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae-Seong; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol; Kwon, Ohin; Seo, Jin Keun

    2006-01-01

    We present a new medical imaging technique for breast imaging, breast MREIT, in which magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is utilized to get high-resolution conductivity and current density images of the breast. In this work, we introduce the basic imaging setup of the breast MREIT technique with an investigation of four different imaging configurations of current-injection electrode positions and pathways through computer simulation studies. Utilizing the preliminary findings of a best breast MREIT configuration, additional numerical simulation studies have been carried out to validate breast MREIT at different levels of SNR. Finally, we have performed an experimental validation with a breast phantom on a 3.0 T MREIT system. The presented results strongly suggest that breast MREIT with careful imaging setups could be a potential imaging technique for human breast which may lead to early detection of breast cancer via improved differentiation of cancerous tissues in high-resolution conductivity images.

  2. Science and Measurement of Global Ionospheric Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2007-12-01

    Recent observations are revealing surprising features of global ionospheric storms that defy simple explanation. We review new and recently published results that define new science questions regarding these storms. Geomagnetic storms have been studied for decades and possible physical mechanisms for the observed ionospheric variability have been proposed. The increased availability of data from numerous Global Positioning System receivers has revealed new qualtitative and quantitative behavior that earlier observations did not resolve. This has led to new science questions ranging from fundamental physics to collective behavior of the ionosphere as part of the larger geospace "system." Analysis of multiple storms reveals new patterns of commonality across multiple events, but also variations in response that are not easily explained. Certain aspects of the global dynamics are a manifestation of long-range electromagnetic forces at work on planetary scales. Energy and mass coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere are significant, suggesting that understanding geospace cannot be achieved by focusing on a single regime (such as ionosphere alone, or magnetosphere alone). The interface between the magnetosphere and the solar wind is clearly important also and influenced by ionospheric dynamics. Observations show that spatial and temporal dynamics encompass all scales (from minutes to days, from tens of meters to planetary scale). The neutral thermosphere dynamics strongly influences the storm time response, but understanding of the many possible responses is incomplete. The wide variety of phenomena exhibited during geospace storms has renewed the debate about basic physical processes that might be operating. Not surprisingly, fundamental physical mechanisms are being reexamined such as: shielding of electric fields by the conducting ionosphere, and the role of electric fields in plasma drift. Recent modeling work suggests that the role of the complex plasma

  3. Storm Front

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-21

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey captures storm clouds that are moving towards the crater in the bottom of this image. Storms like this are common during the spring and early summer near the north pole.

  4. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  5. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  6. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmias or electrical storm: intermediate and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, Marmar; Gima, Jean; Kanaan, Christopher; Ajijola, Olujimi A; Marmureanu, Alexander; Mahajan, Aman; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2014-03-01

    Left and bilateral cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) have been shown to reduce burden of ventricular arrhythmias acutely in a small number of patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) storm. The effects of this procedure beyond the acute setting are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intermediate and long-term effects of left and bilateral CSD in patients with cardiomyopathy and refractory VT or VT storm. Retrospective analysis of medical records for patients who underwent either left or bilateral CSD for VT storm or refractory VT between April 2009 and December 2012 was performed. Forty-one patients underwent CSD (14 left CSD, 27 bilateral CSD). There was a significant reduction in the burden of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks during follow-up compared to the 12 months before the procedure. The number of ICD shocks was reduced from a mean of 19.6 ± 19 preprocedure to 2.3 ± 2.9 postprocedure (P < .001), with 90% of patients experiencing a reduction in ICD shocks. At mean follow-up of 367 ± 251 days postprocedure, survival free of ICD shock was 30% in the left CSD group and 48% in the bilateral CSD group. Shock-free survival was greater in the bilateral group than in the left CSD group (P = .04). In patients with VT storm, bilateral CSD is more beneficial than left CSD. The beneficial effects of bilateral CSD extend beyond the acute postsympathectomy period, with continued freedom from ICD shocks in 48% of patients and a significant reduction in ICD shocks in 90% of patients. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Formative Evaluation of an Experimental BE/E [Basic Electricity and Electronics] Program. Report No. 9-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishburne, R. P., Jr.; Mims, Diane M.

    An experimental Basic Electricity and Electronics course (BE/E) utilizing a lock-step, instructor presentation methodology was developed and evaluated at the Service School Command, Great Lakes. The study, directed toward the training of lower mental group, school nonqualified personnel, investigated comparative data on test performance, attitude,…

  8. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 23: Multivibrators. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on multivibrators is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Three lessons are included in the…

  9. Instructor's Index to U.S. Navy and Air Force Materials for Teaching Basic Electricity. Final Report, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Alan

    The purpose of this index is to identify U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force transparencies, films, and manuals which can be used by schools and colleges to teach basic electricity. Materials are classified according to 39 major categories including Electron Theory, Batteries and Battery Connections, D.C. Series Circuits, Network Theorems,…

  10. Instructor's Index to U.S. Navy and Air Force Materials for Teaching Basic Electricity. Final Report, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Alan

    The purpose of this index is to identify U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force transparencies, films, and manuals which can be used by schools and colleges to teach basic electricity. Materials are classified according to 39 major categories including Electron Theory, Batteries and Battery Connections, D.C. Series Circuits, Network Theorems,…

  11. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 22: Oscillators. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on oscillators is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the module:…

  12. Groundwater discharge to wetlands driven by storm and flood events: Quantification using continuous Radon-222 and electrical conductivity measurements and dynamic mass-balance modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Frei, S.; Hofmann, H.; Cartwright, I.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic response of groundwater discharge to external influences such as rainfall is an often neglected part of water and solute balances in wetlands. Here we develop a new field platform for long-term continuous 222Rn and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at Sale Wetland, Australia to study the response of groundwater discharge to storm and flood events. The field measurements, combined with dynamic mass-balance modelling, demonstrate that the groundwater flux can increase from 3 to ∼20 mm d-1 following storms and up to 5 mm d-1 on the receding limb of floods. The groundwater pulses are likely produced by activation of local groundwater flow paths by water ponding on the surrounding flood plains. While 222Rn is a sensitive tracer for quantifying transient groundwater discharge, the mass-balance used to estimate fluxes is sensitive to parameterisation of gas exchange (k) with the atmosphere. Comparison of six equations for calculating k showed that, based on parameterisation of k alone, the groundwater flux estimate could vary by 58%. This work shows that neglecting transient processes will lead to errors in water and solute flux estimates based on infrequent point measurements. This could be particularly important for surface waters connected to contaminated or saline groundwater systems.

  13. Discrimination of Basic Taste Solutions and Soft Drinks on Electrical and Optical Response Patterns of Artificial Lipid Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Keiichi; Misawa, Kenji; Arisawa, Junji

    In this paper, electrical and optical characteristics of artificial lipid membrane for basic taste solutions and tea drinks were examined. The possibility of taste sensing on the electrical and optical response patterns of a single membrane was also discussed. As a result, in case of sour and sweet solutions with different concentration, the patterns of taste response were similar in shape. In case of the tea drinks on some commercial goods, the different shapes among the sample solutions were obtained. Furthermore, the strength of sour taste was reflected in the electrical axis of response pattern and the strength of sweet taste was reflected in the optical axis of response pattern. Therefore, it was found that the possibility of taste sensing using electrical and optical response patterns was obtained from a single membrane.

  14. Mobile intercept of storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The primary goal was to acquire lightning data to serve as ground truth for U2 overflights. Researchers were successful in instrumenting the Univ. of Mississippi/National Severe Storms Lab. (UM/NSSL) mobile laboratory and in coordinating storm intercept through communication to the U2 provided by airplane guidance at NSSL and through direct communication with the U2 pilot from a portable transceiver in the mobile lab. A demonstration showed that a mobile laboratory can be directed within a large geographical area and used to collect ground truth data for comparison with airborne data on a routine basis with proper utilization of forecasts, nowcasts, and communication among all participants. After the U2 flights, researchers turned their attention solely to intercepting severe storms within the area of Oklahoma with good Doppler radar coverage. They incorporated a second vehicle, which followed the mobile lab and from which they released instrumented balloons. This project utilized a standard meteorological rawinsonde and a balloon-borne electric field meter. They were successful in flying, tracking, and receiving data from mobily launched balloons on several days. Researchers believe that they have demonstrated the ability to obtain meteorological and electrical data in severe storms using instrumented balloons. This also includes the capability to launch into the mesocyclone region and for multiple launches in the same storm.

  15. A working hypothesis for connections between electrically-induced changes in cloud microphysics and storm vorticity, with possible effects on circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, Brian A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper outlines, and explores the uncertainties in, hypothesized connections between a series of processes that could explain two long-standing puzzles; those of (1) the observed winter storm vorticity responses to atmospheric energy inputs that change the ionosphere-earth current density, Jz, that appear to involve storm invigoration, and (2) changes in anti-cyclonic blocking and circulation that include the observed colder winters in Great Britain and western Europe at solar minima, and especially at extended solar minima. A working hypothesis for the mechanism responsible for (1) is that the flow of Jz through conductivity gradients, as in stratified cloud layers and fog, especially with sea-salt aerosol haze over the high latitude winter oceans, deposits electric changes on droplets and aerosol particles; most importantly on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). These electric charges modulate scavenging of the particles in clouds and haze layers, increasing the concentration of small CCN and decreasing the concentration of large CCN. When further cloud formation occurs there is increased concentration of small droplets and decreased concentration of large ones, reducing coalescence and the production of rain. Thus updrafts carry more liquid water above the freezing level, and there the increased production of ice releases more latent heat and invigorates the updraft (the Rosenfeld mechanism), leading to increased vorticity. Here we explore the major uncertainties for the reality of the above chain of physical processes. A consequence of cumulative cyclonic vorticity increases is increases in downstream anti-cyclonic blocking. A further working hypothesis for (2) is that the invigoration may be large enough to contribute to the observed increases in blocking in winters at solar minima (high Jz) in the North Atlantic, that result in colder winters in the UK and northern Europe.

  16. Electrical storm induced by cardiac resynchronization therapy is determined by pacing on epicardial scar and can be successfully managed by catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Carla; Trevisi, Nicola; Silberbauer, John; Oloriz, Teresa; Mizuno, Hiroya; Baratto, Francesca; Bisceglia, Caterina; Sora, Nicoleta; Marzi, Alessandra; Radinovic, Andrea; Guarracini, Fabrizio; Vergara, Pasquale; Sala, Simone; Paglino, Gabriele; Gulletta, Simone; Mazzone, Patrizio; Cireddu, Manuela; Maccabelli, Giuseppe; Della Bella, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The mechanism of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)-induced proarrhythmia remains unknown. We postulated that pacing from a left ventricular (LV) lead positioned on epicardial scar can facilitate re-entrant ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CRT-induced proarrhythmia and LV lead location within scar. Twenty-eight epicardial and 63 endocardial maps, obtained from 64 CRT patients undergoing ventricular tachycardia ablation, were analyzed. A positive LV lead/scar relationship, defined as a lead tip positioned on scar/border zone, was determined by overlaying fluoroscopic projections with LV electroanatomical maps. CRT-induced proarrhythmia occurred in 8 patients (12.5%). They all presented early with electrical storm (100% versus 39% of patients with no proarrhythmia; P<0.01), requiring temporary biventricular pacing discontinuation in half of cases. They more frequently presented with heart failure/cardiogenic shock (50% versus 7%; P<0.01), requiring intensive care management. Ventricular tachycardia was re-entrant in all. The LV lead location within epicardial scar was significantly more frequent in the proarrhythmia group (60% versus 9% P=0.03 on epicardial bipolar scar, 80% versus 17% P=0.02 on epicardial unipolar scar, and 80% versus 17% P=0.02 on any-epicardial scar). Ablation was performed within epicardial scar, close to the LV lead, and allowed CRT reactivation in all patients. CRT-induced proarrhythmia presented early with electrical storm and was associated with an LV lead positioning within epicardial scar. Catheter ablation allowed for resumption of biventricular stimulation in all patients. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Storming ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Fourteen tropical storms, nine hurricanes, and four intense hurricanes with winds above 111 mph. That's the forecast for hurricane activity in the Atlantic Basin for the upcoming hurricane season which extends from June 1 through November 30, 1999, according to a Colorado State Hurricane Forecast team led by William Gray, professor of atmospheric science. The forecast supports an earlier report by the team.Hurricane activity, said Gray will be similar to 1998—which yielded 14 tropical storms, 10 hurricanes, and 3 intense storms. These numbers are significantly higher than the long-term statistical averages of 9.3, 5.8, and 2.2, annually.

  18. The Dragon Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-02-24

    A large, bright and complex convective storm that appeared in Saturn's southern hemisphere in mid-September 2004 was the key in solving a long-standing mystery about the ringed planet. Saturn's atmosphere and its rings are shown here in a false color composite made from Cassini images taken in near infrared light through filters that sense different amounts of methane gas. Portions of the atmosphere with a large abundance of methane above the clouds are red, indicating clouds that are deep in the atmosphere. Grey indicates high clouds, and brown indicates clouds at intermediate altitudes. The rings are bright blue because there is no methane gas between the ring particles and the camera. The complex feature with arms and secondary extensions just above and to the right of center is called the Dragon Storm. It lies in a region of the southern hemisphere referred to as "storm alley" by imaging scientists because of the high level of storm activity observed there by Cassini in the last year. The Dragon Storm was a powerful source of radio emissions during July and September of 2004. The radio waves from the storm resemble the short bursts of static generated by lightning on Earth. Cassini detected the bursts only when the storm was rising over the horizon on the night side of the planet as seen from the spacecraft; the bursts stopped when the storm moved into sunlight. This on/off pattern repeated for many Saturn rotations over a period of several weeks, and it was the clock-like repeatability that indicated the storm and the radio bursts are related. Scientists have concluded that the Dragon Storm is a giant thunderstorm whose precipitation generates electricity as it does on Earth. The storm may be deriving its energy from Saturn's deep atmosphere. One mystery is why the radio bursts start while the Dragon Storm is below the horizon on the night side and end when the storm is on the day side, still in full view of the Cassini spacecraft. A possible explanation is

  19. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics through a Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not…

  20. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics through a Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not…

  1. Electric versus hydraulic hospital beds: differences in use during basic nursing tasks.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Edda Maria

    2013-01-01

    Biomechanical, postural and ergonomic aspects during real patient-assisting tasks performed by nurses using an electric versus a hydraulic hospital bed were observed. While there were no differences in the flexed postures the nurses adopted, longer performance times were recorded when electric beds were used. Subjective effort, force exertion and lumbar shear forces exceeding safety limits proved electric beds were superior. Patients' dependency level seemed to influence the type of nurses' intervention (duration and force actions), irrespective of the bed used. The nurses greatly appreciated the electric bed. Its use seemed to reduce the level of effort perceived during care giving and the postural load during critical subtasks. Ergonomics and organizational problems related to adopting electric beds in hospital wards should be addressed further to make their use more efficient.

  2. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  3. Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine. A few years later, speculation on a causal relationship between flares and storms arose when Carrington reported that a large magnetic storm followed the great September 1859 solar flare. However, it was not until this century that a well-accepted statistical survey on large solar flares and geomagnetic storms was performed, and a significant correlation between flares and geomagnetic storms was noted. Although the two phenomena, one on the Sun and the other on the Earth, were statistically correlated, the exact physical linkage was still an unknown at this time. Various hypotheses were proposed, but it was not until interplanetary spacecraft measurements were available that a high-speed plasma stream rich in helium was associated with an intense solar flare. The velocity of the solar wind increased just prior to and during the helium passage, identifying the solar ejecta for the first time. Space plasma measurements and Skylab's coronagraph images of coronal mass elections (CMES) from the Sun firmly established the plasma link between the Sun and the Earth. One phenomenon associated with magnetic storms is brilliant "blood" red auroras, as shown.

  4. The Cause of Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsuma, T.

    2001-12-01

    Although the cause of magnetic storms is important issue, the exact mechanism of the storm development is still controversial. Two mechanisms of storm development are considered. One is that the frequent substorm activity injects high-energy particles to the inner magnetosphere; the other is that the enhanced convection plays a role. Further, Iyermori and Rao [1996] shows that the substorm reduces the development of storms. On the contrary, magnetospheric convections and magnetic storms correspond different solar wind parameter. It is well known that the variations of the magnetospheric convection correspond to merging electric field (Em) by Kan and Lee [1979]. However, the variations of the magenetic storm correspond Ey [e.g. Burton et al., 1975]. This suggests that magnetospheric convection and magnetic storm are independent phenomena. However, we cannot discuss the independency of two phenomena since the difference between Em and Ey is small, under usual solar wind condition. We have analyzed Nov. 8, 1998 storm event, since the big difference between Em and Ey exists during 6 hours. The enhancement of Ey terminates first, and Em continues to enhance more than 6 hours after that. Although the variation of the storm estimated from SYM-H(Dst) index corresponds to Ey, that of the magnetospheric convection estimated from PC index corresponds to Em. This shows that the development of the storm terminate although the magnetospheric convection still enhances. This result suggests that the development of magnetic storms is independent from enhanced convection and the magnetic storm is directly caused by the enhancement of Ey in the solar wind.

  5. Storm severity detection (RF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Smith, G. A.; Goodman, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of lightning location data which occur together with continental thunderstorms and hurricanes was examined, and a second phase linear interferometer was deployed. Electrical emission originating from tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico were monitored. The time span between hurricane ALLEN (10 August 1980) and hurricane ALICIA (18 August 1983) represents the longest period that the United States has gone without hurricane landfall. Both systems were active and data were acquired during the landfall period of hurricane ALICIA.

  6. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a safe...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a safe...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a safe...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a safe...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a safe...

  11. Electrical Trades. COM-LINK. Competency Based Vocational Curricula with Basic Skills and Academic Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannone, Richard

    This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The model demonstrates the relationship of vocational skills to communication, mathematics, and science. The document begins with a philosophy statement; preface; a…

  12. Electrical Trades. COM-LINK. Competency Based Vocational Curricula with Basic Skills and Academic Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannone, Richard

    This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The model demonstrates the relationship of vocational skills to communication, mathematics, and science. The document begins with a philosophy statement; preface; a…

  13. What is a geomagnetic storm?

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, W.D.; Joselyn, J.A.; Kamide, Y.

    1994-04-01

    The authors present a review of geomagnetic storm research. They examine the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. They argue that a storm results from the extended interaction of the solar wind/magnetosphere when a strong convection electric field is generated, which is able to perturb the ring current above some threshold level, triggering the event. They touch on interrelationships of the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere as it bears on this problem, and offer ideas for continuing research directions to address the origin of geomagnetic storms.

  14. Making Their Own Connections: Students' Understanding of Multiple Models in Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutwill, Joshua P.; Frederiksen, John R.; White, Barbara Y.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored impact of teaching high schoolers coordinated or uncoordinated models of static electricity. Posttest results showed that students who were taught the uncoordinated models outperformed those in that control group; however, the coordinated model group did not outperform its control group. Process data suggest that the…

  15. Making Their Own Connections: Students' Understanding of Multiple Models in Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutwill, Joshua P.; Frederiksen, John R.; White, Barbara Y.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored impact of teaching high schoolers coordinated or uncoordinated models of static electricity. Posttest results showed that students who were taught the uncoordinated models outperformed those in that control group; however, the coordinated model group did not outperform its control group. Process data suggest that the…

  16. Analogies and "Modeling Analogies" in Teaching: Some Examples in Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, J. J.; Johsua, S.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effect of modeling analogy on learning of the concepts of electricity in grade 6, 8, and 10. Describes 2 analogies (train analogy and thermal analogy) with diagrams and examples. Discusses the accessibility, transferability, and difficulty of each analogy. Reports treatment effect and some further implications. (YP)

  17. Progress Check Module; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. Progress Check Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Progress Check Booklet is designed to be used by the student working in the programed course to determine if he has mastered the concepts in the course booklets on: electrical current; voltage; resistance; measuring current and voltage in series circuits; relationships of current, voltage, and resistance; parellel circuits; combination…

  18. [Efficacy and safety of the coronary intervention therapy to prevent electrical storm in patients with coronary artery disease but without myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Guo, Cheng-jun; Lü, Shu-zheng; Yan, Fang-ming; Jiang, Teng-yong; Li, Hai-yan; Zhang, Jin-rong

    2005-09-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of the coronary interventional therapy to prevent electrical storm (ES) in patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) but without myocardial infarction or ischemic cardiomyopathy. Coronary angiography and stent implantation were performed in CAD patients with ES as major symptom, according to the standardized methods. Holter Electrocardiography was recorded regularly during follow-up. Six patients, five male and one female, with mean age of 49.5 +/- 9.1 year-old, were hospitalized. In 2 patients with repetitive syncope, multiple episodes of ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation (VF) were documented by Holter recording. One patient developed VF during exercise test. Three patients experienced chest pain and multiple episodes of cardiac arrest. Before procedure, averaged 16.5 +/- 5.3 episodes of syncope or VF were documented in 6 patients. Coronary angiography revealed severe one or multi-vessel diseases. Total 8 stents, including 3 drug-eluting stents, were implanted in 6 patients. Symptom, ST-T changes and ES disappeared after coronary stenting. During 4 month to 6.5 year follow-up (mean 47.7 +/- 30.7 months), ES was not documented, no appropriated shock occurred in patients with implantable defibrillator for 6.5 years. In CAD patients without myocardial infarction, coronary stenting can relieve the ischemic substrate of ES, hence prevents sudden death effectively.

  19. Modeling extracellular electrical neural stimulation: from basic understanding to MEA-based applications.

    PubMed

    Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular electrical stimulation of neural networks has been widely used empirically for decades with individual electrodes. Since recently, microtechnology provides advanced systems with high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Taking the most of these devices for fundamental goals or developing neural prosthesis requires a good knowledge of the mechanisms underlying electrical stimulation. Here, we review modeling approaches used to determine (1) the electric potential field created by a stimulation and (2) the response of an excitable cell to an applied field. Computation of the potential field requires solving the Poisson equation. While this can be performed analytically in simple electrode-neuron configurations, numerical models are required for realistic geometries. In these models, special care must be taken to model the potential drop at the electrode/tissue interface using appropriate boundary conditions. The neural response to the field can then be calculated using compartmentalized cell models, by solving a cable equation, the source term of which (called activating function) is proportional to the second derivative of the extracellular field along the neural arborization. Analytical and numerical solutions to this equation are first presented. Then, we discuss the use of approximated solutions to intuitively predict the neuronal response: Either the "activating function" or the "mirror estimate", depending on the pulse duration and the cell space constant. Finally, we address the design of optimal electrode configurations allowing the selective activation of neurons near each stimulation site. This can be achieved using either multipolar configurations, or the "ground surface" configuration, which can be easily integrated in high-density MEAs. Overall, models highlighting the mechanisms of electrical microstimulation and improving stimulating devices should help understanding the influence of extracellular fields on neural elements and developing

  20. The link between abnormal calcium handling and electrical instability in acquired long QT syndrome--Does calcium precipitate arrhythmic storms?

    PubMed

    Němec, Jan; Kim, Jong J; Salama, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Release of Ca(2+) ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into myocyte cytoplasm and their binding to troponin C is the final signal form myocardial contraction. Synchronous contraction of ventricular myocytes is necessary for efficient cardiac pumping function. This requires both shuttling of Ca(2+) between SR and cytoplasm in individual myocytes, and organ-level synchronization of this process by means of electrical coupling among ventricular myocytes. Abnormal Ca(2+) release from SR causes arrhythmias in the setting of CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and digoxin toxicity. Recent optical mapping data indicate that abnormal Ca(2+) handling causes arrhythmias in models of both repolarization impairment and profound bradycardia. The mechanisms involve dynamic spatial heterogeneity of myocardial Ca(2+) handling preceding arrhythmia onset, cell-synchronous systolic secondary Ca(2+) elevation (SSCE), as well as more complex abnormalities of intracellular Ca(2+) handling detected by subcellular optical mapping in Langendorff-perfused hearts. The regional heterogeneities in Ca(2+) handling cause action potential (AP) heterogeneities through sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) activation and eventually overwhelm electrical coupling of the tissue. Divergent Ca(2+) dynamics among different myocardial regions leads to temporal instability of AP duration and - on the patient level - in T wave lability. Although T-wave alternans has been linked to cardiac arrhythmias, non-alternans lability is observed in pre-clinical models of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) and CPVT, and in LQTS patients. Analysis of T wave lability may provide a real-time window on the abnormal Ca(2+) dynamics causing specific arrhythmias such as Torsade de Pointes (TdP).

  1. Geomagnetic storms: historical perspective to modern view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2016-12-01

    The history of geomagnetism is more than 400 years old. Geomagnetic storms as we know them were discovered about 210 years ago. There has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs, and concomitant magnetic storms in recent times. Magnetic storms are the most important component of space weather effects on Earth. We give an overview of the historical aspects of geomagnetic storms and the progress made during the past two centuries. Super magnetic storms can cause life-threatening power outages and satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. The data for such super magnetic storms that occurred in the last 50 years during the space era is sparce. Research on historical geomagnetic storms can help to create a database for intense and super magnetic storms. New knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of magnetic storms gained from spaceage observations will be used to review the super magnetic storm of September 1-2, 1859. We discuss the occurrence probability of such super magnetic storms, and the maximum possible intensity for the effects of a perfect ICME: extreme super magnetic storm, extreme magnetospheric compression, and extreme magnetospheric electric fields.

  2. Quantifying Power Grid Risk from Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homeier, N.; Wei, L. H.; Gannon, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    We are creating a statistical model of the geophysical environment that can be used to quantify the geomagnetic storm hazard to power grid infrastructure. Our model is developed using a database of surface electric fields for the continental United States during a set of historical geomagnetic storms. These electric fields are derived from the SUPERMAG compilation of worldwide magnetometer data and surface impedances from the United States Geological Survey. This electric field data can be combined with a power grid model to determine GICs per node and reactive MVARs at each minute during a storm. Using publicly available substation locations, we derive relative risk maps by location by combining magnetic latitude and ground conductivity. We also estimate the surface electric fields during the August 1972 geomagnetic storm that caused a telephone cable outage across the middle of the United States. This event produced the largest surface electric fields in the continental U.S. in at least the past 40 years.

  3. The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instrument on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Science Operations Center, Operational Modes, and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnell, J. W.; Wygant, J. R.; Ergun, R. E.; Schroeder, P. C.; Rachelson, W.; Tao, J.; Vernetti, J.; Mozer, F.; Kersten, K.; Breneman, A. W.; Kletzing, C.; Bounds, S. R.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; MacDowall, R. J.; Smith, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument on the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) observatories provides measurement of 3D DC and AC E-fields, as well as 3D AC magnetic fields as provided on board from the EMFISIS tri-axial searchcoil magnetometer (MSC). Two 100-m tip-to-tip spin plane and 12 to 14-m tip-to-tip axial E-field antennas are deployed on each of the two RBSP observatories, with all instrument operations controlled on board via the EFW Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). Both continuous waveform and spectral data products from DC up to 8 kHz, as well as high-rate burst waveforms (E-field and interferometric modes) are produced on-board through a highly-configurable digital signal processing system. A large-capacity waveform burst memory (32 GB) with human-in-the-loop playback selection is also included in the EFW instrument, allowing for days to tens of days of lookback and playback of selected time intervals of burst data. EFW also provides higher-frequency 3D E-field signals to the EMFISIS suite, providing waveform coverage up to 12 kHz and spectral coverage to over 400 kHz. A description of all the EFW operational modes and data products is presented. Access tot he ISTP-compliant CDF datasets served from the primary EFW Science Operations Center (SOC) at the University of California, Berkeley is shown, along with support for data acquisition and analysis under the IDL THEMIS Data Analysis Software (TDAS) and Science Data Tool (SDT) packages.

  4. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  5. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 21: Basic Transistor Theory; Module 21T: Multi-Element Vacuum Tubes. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This set of individualized learning modules on transistor theory is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two modules are included in…

  6. On the watch for geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Arthur W.; Brown, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms, induced by solar activity, pose significant hazards to satellites, electrical power distribution systems, radio communications, navigation, and geophysical surveys. Strong storms can expose astronauts and crews of high-flying aircraft to dangerous levels of radiation. Economic losses from recent geomagnetic storms have run into hundreds of millions of dollars. With the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the lead agency, an international network of geomagnetic observatories monitors the onset of solar-induced storms and gives warnings that help diminish losses to military and commercial operations and facilities.

  7. Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Y.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Baumjohann, W.; Daglis, I.A.; Grande, M.; Joselyn, J.A.; Singer, H.J.; McPherron, R.L.; Phillips, J.L.; Reeves, E.G.; Rostoker, G.; Sharma, A.S.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1998-08-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the current understanding of the storm/substorm relationship by clearing up a considerable amount of controversy and by addressing the question of how solar wind energy is deposited into and is dissipated in the constituent elements that are critical to magnetospheric and ionospheric processes during magnetic storms. (1) Four mechanisms are identified and discussed as the primary causes of enhanced electric fields in the interplanetary medium responsible for geomagnetic storms. It is pointed out that in reality, these four mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, but interdependent, interact differently from event to event. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are found to be the primary phenomena responsible for the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The other two mechanisms, i.e., HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet activity) and the so-called Russell-McPherron effect, work to make the ICME and CIR phenomena more geoeffective. The solar cycle dependence of the various sources in creating magnetic storms has yet to be quantitatively understood. (2) A serious controversy exists as to whether the successive occurrence of intense substorms plays a direct role in the energization of ring current particles or whether the enhanced electric field associated with southward IMF enhances the effect of substorm expansions. While most of the {ital Dst} variance during magnetic storms can be solely reproduced by changes in the large-scale electric field in the solar wind and the residuals are uncorrelated with substorms, recent satellite observations of the ring current constituents during the main phase of magnetic storms show the importance of ionospheric ions. This implies that ionospheric ions, which are associated with the frequent occurrence of intense substorms, are accelerated upward along magnetic field lines, contributing to the energy density of

  8. Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream Observations During Storm and Non-Storm Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. G.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    A consequence of pressure gradients in the inner magnetosphere and low ionospheric conductivity, sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) manifest in the ionosphere as a westward plasma drift (poleward directed electric field) equatorward of the electron precipitation boundary. They can extend over more than 12 hours in MLT with centering on the nightside and maximum velocity in the dusk sector, and occur under all but the quietest geomagnetic conditions. The basic physical mechanism for SAPS appears toinvolve an interplay of field-aligned current, electric field, and conductivity, however, understanding the occurrence and characteristics of SAPS in specific events and the development of a predictive capability require an elaboration of the dynamical aspects of the phenomenon under both storm and non-storm conditions. Ground- and space-based observations, as well as theoretical and modeling capabilities, have improved substantially in recent years and will help answer some of the outstanding questions. Drawing from the recent CEDAR-GEM SAPS Focus Study this talk is an overview of our current state of understanding of the SAPS phenomenon, primarily from an observational perspective, with reference to potential issues and possible studies to resolve them.

  9. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  10. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Two: Voltage. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on voltage is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module: (1)…

  11. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…

  12. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 34: Linear Integrated Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on linear integrated circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two lessons are included in…

  13. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 31: RF, IF, and Video Amplifiers. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on radio frequency (RF), intermediate frequency (IF), and video amplifiers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a…

  14. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Eight: Induction. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on induction is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the module: (1)…

  15. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Twelve: Series AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on series alternating current resistive-reactive circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  16. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Ten: Transformers. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on transformers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module:…

  17. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 30: Intermediate Power Supplies. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on intermediate power supplies is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included…

  18. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 33: Special Devices. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on special devices is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…

  19. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 25: Special Devices. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on special devices is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two lessons are included in the module:…

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 24: Wave Shaping Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on wave-shaping circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Three lessons are included in the…

  1. Industrial Arts Education Competency Catalogs for Basic Technical Drawing, Engineering Drawing, Architectural Drawing, Electricity and Electronics, Energy and Power, Graphic Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA. Dept. of Industrial Arts Education.

    Six competency catalogs of tasks for industrial arts programs are presented. These include catalogs in Architectural Drawing, Basic Technical Drawing, Electricity and Electronics, Energy and Power, Engineering Drawing, and Graphic Communications. The purpose of each catalog is to establish a basis for program content selection and criterion levels…

  2. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Eleven: Capacitance. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on capacitance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Seven lessons are included in the module:…

  3. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  4. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…

  5. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Six: Parallel Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…

  6. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn...

  11. Nuclear magnetohydrodynamic EMP, solar storms, and substorms

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M. ); Meliopoulous, A.P.S.; Glytsis, E.N. . School of Electrical Engineering); Cokkinides, G.J. )

    1992-10-20

    In addition to a fast electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high altitude nuclear burst produces a relatively slow magnetohydrodynamic EMP (MHD EMP), whose effects are like those from solar storm geomagnetically induced currents (SS-GIC). The MHD EMP electric field E [approx lt] 10[sup [minus] 1] V/m and lasts [approx lt] 10[sup 2] sec, whereas for solar storms E [approx gt] 10[sup [minus] 2] V/m and lasts [approx gt] 10[sup 3] sec. Although the solar storm electric field is lower than MHD EMP, the solar storm effects are generally greater due to their much longer duration. Substorms produce much smaller effects than SS-GIC, but occur much more frequently. This paper describes the physics of such geomagnetic disturbances and analyzes their effects.

  12. Geomagnetic storm fields near a synchronous satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, K.; Akasofu, S. I.

    1971-01-01

    An apparent early recovery of the main phase of geomagnetic storms at the distance of the synchronous satellite is examined in terms of changing electric current distributions in the magnetosphere during magnetic storms. It is suggested that a rapid recession of the edge of the plasma sheet (after the advance toward the earth during an early epoch of the main phase) is partly responsible for the early recovery. Relevant plasma sheet variations during geomagnetic storms are found to be in agreement with the inferred variations.

  13. Spotting Saturn Northern Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-06

    NASA Cassini spacecraft captures a composite near-true-color view of the largest and most intense storm observed on Saturn. The storm is seen churning through the atmosphere in Saturn northern hemisphere.

  14. Tropical Storm Bud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  A Strengthening Eastern Pacific Storm     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) show then Tropical Storm Bud as it was intensifying toward hurricane status, which it acquired ...

  15. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  16. Exploring the Basic Principles of Electric Motors and Generators with a Low-Cost Sophomore-Level Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, T. F.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular needs, an electric motor and generator laboratory experience was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum and in that it focuses on modeling electric motors, predicting their performance, and measuring efficiency of energy conversion. While…

  17. Exploring the Basic Principles of Electric Motors and Generators with a Low-Cost Sophomore-Level Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, T. F.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular needs, an electric motor and generator laboratory experience was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum and in that it focuses on modeling electric motors, predicting their performance, and measuring efficiency of energy conversion. While…

  18. Two Pairs of Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-04

    Two pairs of dark spots, or storms, in Saturn atmosphere squeeze past each other as they dance around the planet. In this group of four storms, the top left and lower right storms are fringed with white clouds as seen by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  19. Extreme Geoelectric Fields Induced By Magnetic Storm Sudden Impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Rigler, E. J.; Swidinsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large magnetic storms, as quantified by the Dst index, can produce geoelectric fields that are hazardous for the operation of electric power grids. The great storm of March 1989, for example, had the highest -Dst value of the 20th century. During the main phase of this storm, rapid magnetic variation induced geoelectric fields in the Earth's lithosphere that caused the complete collapse of the Canadian Hydro-Québec electric-power grid. In this study, we focus specifically on how sudden impulses in geomagnetic activity, those that occur during large storms, can induce geoelectric fields. These impulses can be seen during storm main phases, but they are most usually recognized as storm sudden commencements corresponding to the arrival, at Earth, of coronal mass ejections. We use a newly developed algorithm for estimating induced geoelectric fields from magnetic field variation recorded at ground-based observatories. We train the algorithm on 1-sec geomagnetic and geoelectric field data collected at Japanese observatories during the October 2003 Halloween storm. We then postdict geoelectric fields that would have been realized (but not directly measured at 1-sec resolution) in Japan during the 1989 Québec storm and during another intense storm that occurred in March 1991. The later storm is noteworthy, not because of its intense main phase, but because it commenced with a sudden impulse of enormous magnitude. For the first half minute of the 1991 storm, induced geoelectric fields far exceeded those realized during the 1989 storm. Recognizing the potential hazard, we also analyze a scenario geomagnetic time series of an extreme event sudden commencement, and we calculate the geoelectric fields that this scenario event might plausibly induce. Results show that substantial geoelectric field induction, possibly hazardous for electric power grids, can occur briefly but very abruptly as soon as a magnetic storm commences.

  20. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  1. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  2. Storm Surge Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morss, R. E.; Fossell, K.; Ahijevych, D.; Davis, C. A.; Snyder, C.

    2016-12-01

    Storm surge is one of the most dangerous hazards of hurricanes; it results in devastating flooding and billions of dollars in damage to coastal regions and is one of the primary hurricane threats for loss of life. As such it is of great interest to better understand the probability of significant storm surge occurrence and the potential extent of impact at longer lead times to give emergency managers adequate time to plan for necessary evacuation and protective measures. This work aims to quantify the practical predictability of storm surge at various lead times and the sensitivity of the storm surge to storm parameters such as track, strength, size, and translation speed. This study also draws a distinction between inundation of a fixed region and inundation following the storm landfall location as the track varies. The latter is not usually considered, but is important for identifying particularly dangerous scenarios within the envelope of possible realizations. We quantify the predictability of storm surge from both the local and storm-following perspectives. The ADCIRC model is used to produce an ensemble of storm surge simulations. The ensemble is generated in an idealized context where the model is driven by best track data and perturbations from the best track (e.g. storm track, maximum wind, storm speed, and storm size). Inundation metrics are computed for both storm-following inundation and location-based inundation to better understand the predictive nature. While the magnitude of maximum inundation at a point is often emphasized in storm surge prediction studies, this study focuses on integrated metrics such as inundation volume and spatial extent of inundation along the coast and inland. Results will be presented from simulations of Hurricane Ike, Hurricane Charley, and a hypothetical storm that combines the size and intensity of Hurricane Charley over the track of Hurricane Ike, to demonstrate the sensitivity of inundation to a certain storm of certain

  3. Subtropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The circling clouds of an intense low-pressure system sat off the southeast coast of the United States on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. By the following morning, the storm developed enough to be classified as a subtropical storm, a storm that forms outside of the tropics, but has many of the characteristics--hurricane-force winds, driving rains, low pressure, and sometimes an eye--of a tropical storm. Although it arrived several weeks shy of the official start of the hurricane season (June 1), Subtropical Storm Andrea became the first named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm has the circular shape of a tropical cyclone in this image, but lacks the tight organization seen in more powerful storms. By May 9, the storm's winds reached 75 kilometers per hour (45 miles per hour), and the storm was not predicted to get any stronger, said the National Hurricane Center. Though Subtropical Storm Andrea was expected to remain offshore, its strong winds and high waves pummeled coastal states, prompting a tropical storm watch. The winds fueled wild fires (marked with red boxes) in Georgia and Florida. The wind-driven flames generated thick plumes of smoke that concentrated in a gray-brown mass over Tampa Bay, Florida. Unfortunately for Georgia and Florida, which are experiencing moderate to severe drought, Subtropical Storm Andrea was not predicted to bring significant rain to the region right away, according to reports on the Washington Post Website.

  4. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) and NeuroImaging: the state-of-the-art, new insights and prospects in basic and clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Herring, Jim Don; McGonigle, David

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself. At the same time, they also point to the many caveats and specific challenges associated with such studies, which can arise from both technical and biological sources. Besides promising to advance basic neuroscience, combined tES and neuroimaging studies may also substantially change previous conceptions about the methods of action of electric or magnetic stimulation on the brain.

  5. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  6. Tropical Storm Ana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    ISS043E182261 (05/08/2015) --- This image of Tropical Storm Anna taken from the International Space Station displays the view looking south-southeastward from western Virginia towards storm about 200 miles east of Savannah, Georgia, Bahamas and Florida in the distance. Expedition 43 NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and his crewmates captured many images of the Earth showing the storms progression onto the Carolina's and other east coast states.

  7. Coastal Storm Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-30

    MILL IBARS I ~ 1022.8. 0 SEA I LND 0’ 100 A-STORM TRACK 200 :km. NORTH; B-STORM TRACK 0_____. T% WO - X00 SHORE SITEI C-STORM TRACK 300 SOU 00 .) -400 0...SCOTIA CANADA PRUF. C. . A. M._KING D PARTMENT IF GFOGRAPHY JR. H. J. SCHOEMAKER _1,NIVELSITY UF NOTT INGHAM . ... W ATFRLOUPKUNDIG LARIORATORIUM TE

  8. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. A.; Schrag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of modeling the electrical system aspects of a coil and metal target configuration resembling a practical electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) installation, and a simple circuit for providing energy to the coil, was presented. The model was developed in sufficient theoretical detail to allow the generation of computer algorithms for the current in the coil, the magnetic induction on both surfaces of the target, the force between the coil and target, and the impulse delivered to the target. These algorithms were applied to a specific prototype EIDI test system for which the current, magnetic fields near the target surfaces, and impulse were previously measured.

  9. Global ionospheric disturbances during super magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Foster, J.; Rideout, W.; Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic storms represent the largest disturbances in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. We will present the ionospheric observations by the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar, global GPS network, and TIMED GUVI instrument during two super storms. The sudden commencement (SSC) of the 15 July 2000 storm occurred at 19 UT, and the minimum Dst reached -301 nT. The dayside midlatitude ionospheric F region electron density showed a sudden decrease at Millstone Hill and Eglin in response to the SSC. The elevation scan measurements of the Millstone HIll radar show that the sudden decrease in the ionospheric electron density was related to an electron density trough which had an equatorward boundary at Eglin (magnetic latitude 41 degree) at 16 MLT. The formation of the trough may be related to equatorward incursion of the disturbance SAPS electric field. The dayside TEC decreased significantly at the equatorial and upper midlatitudes, and an enhanced TEC band occurred between the depleted regions. The SSC of the 29 October 2003 storm occurred at 07 UT, the storm was further enhanced at 18 UT, and the minimum Dst reached -363 nT. The Millstone Hill radar also detected a sudden decrease of the dayside F region electron density immediately after the storm enhancement. The simultaneous TIMED GUVI measurements show a significant decrease in the O/N2 ratio over the Atlantic sector from the auroral zone to anomaly latitudes, and large TEC depletions occurred coincidentally with the O/N2 decrease. In this second case, both the enhanced electric field and decrease of O/N2 ratio contributed to the depletion of the dayside midlatitude F-region electron density and TEC. The multiple measurements during the two storms reveal the distinct properties and mechanisms of the global ionospheric disturbances.

  10. Ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Alex T.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Collins, Nancy; Hoar, Timothy J.; Lu, Gang; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Coster, Anthea J.; Paxton, Larry J.; Bust, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionospheric storms can have important effects on radio communications and navigation systems. Storm time ionospheric predictions have the potential to form part of effective mitigation strategies to these problems. Ionospheric storms are caused by strong forcing from the solar wind. Electron density enhancements are driven by penetration electric fields, as well as by thermosphere-ionosphere behavior including Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and changes to the neutral composition. This study assesses the effect on 1 h predictions of specifying initial ionospheric and thermospheric conditions using total electron content (TEC) observations under a fixed set of solar and high-latitude drivers. Prediction performance is assessed against TEC observations, incoherent scatter radar, and in situ electron density observations. Corotated TEC data provide a benchmark of forecast accuracy. The primary case study is the storm of 10 September 2005, while the anomalous storm of 21 January 2005 provides a secondary comparison. The study uses an ensemble Kalman filter constructed with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. Maps of preprocessed, verticalized GPS TEC are assimilated, while high-latitude specifications from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics and solar flux observations from the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment are used to drive the model. The filter adjusts ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, making use of time-evolving covariance estimates. The approach is effective in correcting model biases but does not capture all the behavior of the storms. In particular, a ridge-like enhancement over the continental USA is not predicted, indicating the importance of predicting storm time electric field behavior to the problem of ionospheric forecasting.

  11. Tropical Storm Ana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    ISS043E182270 (05/08/2015) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly tweeted this image of Subtropical Storm Anna as it moved toward the US east coast on May 8th, 2015. Scott added this comment to his tweet: "Subtropical Storm #Ana churns off the East coast of USA. #Wx from @Space_Station. #YearInSpace."

  12. Tropical Storm Katrina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-25

    Tropical Storm Katrina is shown here as observed by NASA QuikScatsatellite on August 25, 2005, at 08:37 UTC 4:37 a.m. in Florida. At this time, the storm had 80 kilometers per hour 50 miles per hour; 43 knots sustained winds.

  13. Developing Basic Electronics Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeshore Technical Coll., Cleveland, WI.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for basic training in electrical and electronic theory to enable participants to analyze circuits and use test equipment to verify electrical operations and to succeed in the beginning electrical and electronic courses in the Lakeshore Technical College (Wisconsin) electronics programs. The course includes…

  14. Effects of a geomagnetic storm on thermospheric circulation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The motions of the thermosphere and its interactions with the ionosphere during a geomagnetic storm are of current interest to space scientists. A two-dimensional model was used to simulate the thermospheric response to the impulsive high-latitude heating associated with a geomagnetic storm. The storm-induced motions can be characterized by an initial period of transient waves followed by the development of a mean circulation. These motions generate an electrical-current system that is on the same order of magnitude as, and in the opposite sense to the normal s/sub q/ current system. Model-simulated winds and electrical currents were then compared to observations.

  15. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert A.; Schrag, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of modelling a system consisting of a cylindrical coil with its axis perpendicular to a metal plate of finite thickness, and a simple electrical circuit for producing a transient current in the coil, is discussed in the context of using such a system for de-icing aircraft surfaces. A transmission line model of the coil and metal plate is developed as the heart of the system model. It is shown that this transmission model is central to calculation of the coil impedance, the coil current, the magnetic fields established on the surfaces of the metal plate, and the resultant total force between the coil and the plate. FORTRAN algorithms were developed for numerical calculation of each of these quantities, and the algorithms were applied to an experimental prototype system in which these quantities had been measured. Good agreement is seen to exist between the predicted and measured results.

  16. Gamma Rays from Martian Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, Shahab; Majid, Walid; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

    2017-04-01

    Martian dust storms are suggested to be able to generate electric fields close to the breakdown values for Mars' atmosphere, i.e. 25 kV/m [Farrel et al. 2006]. Such electric fields could initiate large electrostatic discharges on Mars [Ruf et al. 2009]. Additionally, similar to terrestrial thunderstorms, they might also be able to produce bright bursts of X-rays and gamma rays. On Earth, thunderstorm electric fields could produce avalanche of energetic electrons from single seed electron, through Møller scattering with air atoms and molecules. The process is called Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA), and can then generate large flux of X-rays and gamma rays through bremsstrahlung scattering. In this presentation, we have used detailed Monte Carlo simulations to study the possibility of producing large flux of energetic photon from a RREA-like mechanism inside Martian dust storms.

  17. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for space and electric vehicle applications: From basic research to technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Parthasarathy, A.; CesarFerreira, A.; Wakizoe, Masanobu; Rho, Yong Woo; Kim, Junbom; Mosdale, Renaut A.; Paetzold, Ronald F.; Lee, James

    1994-01-01

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising electrochemical power sources for space and electric vehicle applications. The wide spectrum of R&D activities on PEMFC's, carried out in our Center from 1988 to date, is as follows (1) Electrode Kinetic and Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction; (2) Optimization of Structures of Electrodes and of Membrane and Electrode Assemblies; (3) Selection and Evaluation of Advanced Proton Conducting Membranes and of Operating Conditions to Attain High Energy Efficiency; (4) Modeling Analysis of Fuel Cell Performance and of Thermal and Water Management; and (5) Engineering Design and Development of Multicell Stacks. The accomplishments on these tasks may be summarized as follows: (1) A microelectrode technique was developed to determine the electrode kinetic parameters for the fuel cell reactions and mass transport parameters for the H2 and O2 reactants in the proton conducting membrane. (2) High energy efficiencies and high power densities were demonstrated in PEMFCs with low platinum loading electrodes (0.4 mg/cm(exp 2) or less), advanced membranes and optimized structures of membrane and electrode assemblies, as well as operating conditions. (3) The modeling analyses revealed methods to minimize mass transport limitations, particularly with air as the cathodic reactant; and for efficient thermal and water management. (4) Work is in progress to develop multi-kilowatt stacks with the electrodes containing low platinum loadings.

  18. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  19. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  20. Feline thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    Ward, Cynthia R

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid storm is a syndrome described in human medicine to define a multisystemic disorder resulting from organ exposure to excessive levels of thyroid hormone. This form of acute thyrotoxicosis, although uncommon, can be life threatening and is a significant cause of mortality in human emergency rooms. Although thyroid storm is a well-recognized clinical entity in human medicine, it has not been described in veterinary medicine. This article discusses the human syndrome and defines a similar syndrome in hyperthyroid veterinary patients. The clinical signs of and treatment modalities for feline thyroid storm are also presented.

  1. Decameter storm radiation. I. [solar radio bursts and noise storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gergely, T. E.; Erickson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of six decametric storms which took place during the period from January to August, 1971. The storms described were observed with a swept frequency interferometer. The array consists of sixteen log-periodic antennas, equally spaced on a two mile east-west baseline. The association of storms with optical activity and photospheric fields is considered along with the relation of decametric storms to coronal magnetic fields and the association of storms with decimeter and meter wavelength activity. It is shown that decametric storms are always associated with storms at the meter and decimeter wavelengths.

  2. Lightning parameterization in a storm electrification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Farley, Richard D.; Wu, Gang

    1988-01-01

    The parameterization of an intracloud lightning discharge has been implemented in our Storm Electrification Model. The initiation, propagation direction, termination and charge redistribution of the discharge are approximated assuming overall charge neutrality. Various simulations involving differing amounts of charge transferred have been done. The effects of the lightning-produced ions on the hydrometeor charges, electric field components and electrical energy depend strongly on the charge transferred. A comparison between the measured electric field change of an actual intracloud flash and the field change due to the simulated discharge show favorable agreement.

  3. An interval-possibilistic basic-flexible programming method for air quality management of municipal energy system through introducing electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Shan, B G

    2017-09-01

    Contradictions of sustainable transportation development and environmental issues have been aggravated significantly and been one of the major concerns for energy systems planning and management. A heavy emphasis is placed on stimulation of electric vehicles (EVs) to handle these problems associated with various complexities and uncertainties in municipal energy system (MES). In this study, an interval-possibilistic basic-flexible programming (IPBFP) method is proposed for planning MES of Qingdao, where uncertainties expressed as interval-flexible variables and interval-possibilistic parameters can be effectively reflected. Support vector regression (SVR) is used for predicting electricity demand of the city under various scenarios. Solutions of EVs stimulation levels and satisfaction levels in association with flexible constraints and predetermined necessity degrees are analyzed, which can help identify the optimized energy-supply patterns that could plunk for improvement of air quality and hedge against violation of soft constraints. Results disclose that largely developing EVs can help facilitate the city's energy system with an environment-effective way. However, compared to the rapid growth of transportation, the EVs' contribution of improving the city's air quality is limited. It is desired that, to achieve an environmentally sustainable MES, more concerns should be focused on the integration of increasing renewable energy resources, stimulating EVs as well as improving energy transmission, transport and storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tropical Storm Faxai

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA/JAXA's TRMM Satellite provided data of developing Tropical Storm Faxai to make this 3-D image that showed some towering thunderstorms in the area were reaching altitudes of up to 15.5km/~9.6 m...

  5. Tropical Storm Dolly Develops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation from NOAA's GOES-East satellite from Aug. 31-Sept. 2 shows the movement of a low pressure area from the western Caribbean Sea over the Yucatan Peninsula as it becomes Tropical Storm ...

  6. Autumn Dust Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-405, 28 June 2003

    Autumn on the martian northern plains means clouds and dust storms. As autumn got underway in early May 2003, large dust storms began to form on the northern plains and sweep their way eastward--and sometimes southward--bringing colder air down from the north polar cap, now shrouded in darkness and clouds. This early autumn view, assembled from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images, shows an eastward-moving dust storm on the plains north of Cydonia and western Arabia Terra. The storm is nearly as big as the continental United States are wide, from west to east. In this image, north is toward the top, east to the right, and sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  7. Powerful Midwest Storm System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of imagery from NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite shows themovement of storm systems in the south central United States on May 20,2013. Warm, moist gulf air flowing across Texas, Oklahoma...

  8. 2001 Leonid Meteoroid Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and discuss their possible consequences and mitigation strategies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Meteors , Leonids, Meteoroids, Spacecraft, Meteor showers , Impact...release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We present the latest predictions about the November 2001 Leonid Meteor storms

  9. Solar radio continuum storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Radio noise continuum emission observed in metric and decametric wave frequencies is discussed. The radio noise is associated with actively varying sunspot groups accompanied by the S-component of microwave radio emissions. It is shown that the S-component emission in microwave frequencies generally occurs several days before the emission of the noise continuum storms of lower frequencies. It is likely that energetic electrons, 10 to 100 Kev, accelerated in association with the variation of sunspot magnetic fields, are the sources of the radio emissions. A model is considered to explain the relation of burst storms on radio noise. An analysis of the role of energetic electrons on the emissions of both noise continuum and type III burst storms is presented. It is shown that instabilities associated with the electrons and their relation to their own stabilizing effects are important in interpreting both of these storms.

  10. Tropical Storm Debbie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-27

    iss050e060444 (03/27/2017) --- Tropical Cyclone Debbie as photographed by crewmembers aboard the International Space Station on March 27, 2017. The large storm made landfall across the northeastern coast of Australia on March 28.

  11. Tropical Storm Don

    NASA Image and Video Library

    GOES-13 data was compiled into an animation by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard that shows the development of Tropical Storm Don in the southern Gulf of Mexico, west of Cuba. The animation run...

  12. Storm surge and tidal range energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  13. Merging Saturnian Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-08

    Three months before its scheduled arrival at Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft has observed two storms in the act of merging. With diameters close to 1,000 kilometers (621 miles), both storms, which appear as spots in the southern hemisphere, were seen moving west, relative to the rotation of Saturn's interior, for about a month before they merged on March 19 through 20, 2004. This set of eight images was taken between Feb. 22 and March 22, 2004. The top four frames span 26 days. They are portions of images from the narrow angle camera taken through a filter accepting light in the near-infrared region of the spectrum centered at 619 nanometers, and they show two storms approaching each other. Both storms are located at 36 degrees south latitude and sit in an anti-cyclonic shear zone, which means that the flow to the north is westward relative to the flow to the south. Consequently, the northern storm moves westward at a slightly greater rate than the southern one, 11 meters versus 6 meters per second (25 and 13 mph), respectively. The storms drift with these currents and engage in a counterclockwise dance before merging with each other. The bottom four frames are from images taken on March 19, 20, 21 and 22, in a region of the spectrum visible to the human eye; they illustrate the storms' evolution. Just after the merger, on March 20, the new feature is elongated in the north-south direction, with bright clouds on either end. Two days later, on March 22, the storm has settled into a more circular shape, and the bright clouds have spread around the circumference to form a halo. Whether the bright clouds are particles of a different composition or simply at a different altitude is uncertain. The new storm is a few tenths of a degree farther south than either of its progenitors. There, its westward velocity is weaker, and it is almost stationary relative to the planet's rotation. Although these particular storms move slowly west, storms at Saturn's equator move east at

  14. Electrical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    The purpose of this electrical program is to prepare students for service, repair, and assembly of electrically driven or controlled devices. The program theory and application includes mechanical assemblies, electrical circuitry, and electronic principles including basic digital circuitry. The electrical program manual includes the following…

  15. The relationship of storm severity to directionally resolved radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to provide continuous observation of atmospheric electrical activity occurring in association with tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico. The observations were to include the location of all detected intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning activity occurring in the storm. To provide synoptic scale coverage, a phase linear interferometer high frequency direction finder (HFDF) system was constructed and developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This was used in concert with the existing HFDF interferometer at the southwest research institute to provide lightning location data through triangulation. Atmospheric electrical events were synchronized through the use of satellite receivers at each site. The intent of the data analysis was to correlate the location of electrical centers of activity with radar and satellite imagry to identify areas of intense convection within the tropical storm system. Analysis of the hurricane Alicia data indicate a center of atmospheric electrical activity associated with the vortex of the storm. The center appears to rotate from the Northern side of the vortex to the Southern side during the period of observation. An analysis of the atmospheric electrical burst rates associated with hurrican Alicia indicates that the electrical activity appears to maximize at the time of greatest storm intensity, i.e., maximum winds and lowest central pressure.

  16. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  17. The Fifth Estate: The New Media of Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Storm and why these changes in the media’s information process are of importance to our country both politically and militarily. It also offers...changes in the information process during Desert Storm altered some of the long standing relationships between the media, the government and American...purposes, this would be the media and viewer. This gives us five areas for thought in terms of an information strategy. While the basic information process is

  18. Basic Electronics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  19. Jupiter Swirling Pearl Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-30

    This image, taken by the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft, highlights a swirling storm just south of one of the white oval storms on Jupiter. The image was taken on March 27, 2017, at 2:12 a.m. PDT (5:12 a.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed a close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was about 12,400 miles (20,000 kilometers) from the planet. Citizen scientist Jason Major enhanced the color and contrast in this image, turning the picture into a Jovian work of art. He then cropped it to focus our attention on this beautiful example of Jupiter's spinning storms. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21387

  20. Great magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lee, Yen T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tang, Frances

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 to 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that: (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective.

  1. Storms and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this 2-millisecond exposure of Jupiter at 04:41:04 UTC on January 24, 2007. The spacecraft was 57 million kilometers (35.3 million miles) from Jupiter, closing in on the giant planet at 41,500 miles (66,790 kilometers) per hour. At right are the moons Io (bottom) and Ganymede; Ganymede's shadow creeps toward the top of Jupiter's northern hemisphere.

    Two of Jupiter's largest storms are visible; the Great Red Spot on the western (left) limb of the planet, trailing the Little Red Spot on the eastern limb, at slightly lower latitude. The Great Red Spot is a 300-year old storm more than twice the size of Earth. The Little Red Spot, which formed over the past decade from the merging of three smaller storms, is about half the size of its older and 'greater' counterpart.

  2. Superposed Epoch Analysis of Current Systems During Intense Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Katus, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    A statistical approach to investigating the intensity and timing of storm-time current systems is conducted and presented. The Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model was used to simulate all of the intense storms (Dstmin < -100 nT) from solar cycle 23 (1996-2005). Five different HEIDI input combinations were used to create a large collection of numerical results, varying the plasma outer boundary condition and electric field description in the model. The simulation results are then combined with a normalized superposed epoch analysis, where each phase of each storm is prorated to the average duration of that phase and then all of the storms are averaged together. The azimuthal currents in the HEIDI simulation domain are classified as westward and eastward symmetric ring current, partial ring current, banana current, and tail current. The average behavior of these current systems with respect to the HEIDI plasma and electric field boundary conditions are then presented and discussed. It is found that the Volland-Stern electric field produces an earlier increase in the inner magnetospheric current systems because of the usage of the 3-h Kp index. A self-consistent electric field develops the current systems a few hours later, but produces much stronger asymmetric current systems (partial, banana, and tail currents), especially in the main phase of the storm. Applying a nonuniform local time distribution for the plasma outer boundary condition slightly increases the magnitudes of the current systems, but this effect is smaller than the electric field influence.

  3. Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A Huntsville meteorologist of Baron Services, Inc. has formed a commercial weather advisory service. Weather information is based on data from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) collected from antennas in Alabama and Tennessee. Bob Baron refines and enhances MSFC's real time display software. Computer data is changed to audio data for radio transmission, received by clients through an antenna and decoded by computer for display. Using his service, clients can monitor the approach of significant storms and schedule operations accordingly. Utilities and emergency management officials are able to plot a storm's path. A recent agreement with two other companies will promote continued development and marketing.

  4. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute "electrical and electronic devices", such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  5. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan; Seitz, Steffen

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute electrical and electronic devices, such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  6. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Nine: Relationships of Current, Counter EMF, and Voltage in LR Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, electromotive force, and voltage in inductive-resistive circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and…

  7. Estimation of Observatory Geoelectric Fields Induced during Great Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Swidinsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    In support of a project for monitoring hazards for electric power grids, we present a new method for estimating electric fields that are induced in the Earth's interior at a particular site during magnetic storms. For this, we adopt a model of the electrical conductivity of the lithosphere that is simple but sufficient to model most variation in the induced geoelectric field: two horizontal layers, each with uniform electrical conductivity properties that can be parameterized by a galvanic distortion tensor. After Laplace transformation of the induction equations into the complex frequency domain, we obtain an electromagnetic impedance function. Upon inverse transformation back to the time domain, convolution of the impedance tensor with a geomagnetic time series yields an estimated geoelectric time series. We optimize the model conductivity parameters using 1-sec resolution magnetic and electric field data collected at the Kakioka magnetic observatory during the October 2003 Halloween storm. We validate the algorithm against Kakioka magnetic and electric field data for the July 2000 Bastille-Day storm. Finally, we infer 1-sec geoelectric fields that were realized (but not directly measured) in Japan during the 1989 Quebec storm. Results highlight the need for improved ground-level monitoring of geomagnetic and geoelectric fields. They also reveal the need for accommodating the galvanic distortion of three-dimensional conductivity when predicting geoelectric fields in the lithosphere and geomagnetically induced currents in electric power grids.

  8. Tropical Storm Lee to Newfoundland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows Tropical Storm Lee as it made landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi on September 4, 2011. This storm produced flooding and tornadoes to the southern states all the way to flooding ...

  9. California's Perfect Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  10. California's Perfect Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  11. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  12. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  13. Recovery from major storms

    SciTech Connect

    Holeman, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Public Service Company of Oklahoma's transmission and distribution system is in tornado alley, and it seems the number of tornados hitting some part of the system is increasing each year. In the past 30 years, Tulsa his been hit 7 times, and experienced 3 very wide and destructive tornado storm systems between 1971 and 1975.

  14. Severe storms forecast systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M.; Zack, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two research tasks are described: (1) the improvement and enhancement of an existing mesoscale numerical simulation system, and (2) numerical diagnostic studies associated with an individual case of severe storm development (April 10, 1979 in the Red River Valley of Texas and Oklahoma).

  15. Weathering the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1993-02-01

    When Hurricane Andrew struck, thousands were displaced from their homes in Florida and Louisiana. Now, months after the winds ceased blowing, the storm is causing hardship once again. Insurance companies sustaining large losses in recent months from a number of natural disasters - including the hurricane - are now passing those losses on to their customers. Independent power companies are no exception.

  16. WEATHER RADAR RESEARCH AND STORM DYNAMICS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    METEOROLOGICAL RADAR, STORMS), (*WEATHER FORECASTING, METEOROLOGICAL RADAR), (*STORMS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES), TORNADOES , CYCLONES, METEOROLOGY, ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION, RAINFALL, WIND, TROPICAL CYCLONES, HAIL

  17. Devastation of aquifers from tsunami-like storm surge by Supertyphoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Bennett, P. C.; Zamora, P. B.; Befus, K. M.; Rodolfo, R. S.; Cabria, H. B.; Lapus, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The northwest Pacific Ocean is a hot spot for sea level rise and increasing frequency of stronger storms. It is where Supertyphoon Haiyan formed, the strongest storm to hit land, which provided a window into the hydrologic impacts of an extreme storm. Through detailed documentation of flood levels, groundwater table elevations and salinity, electrical resistivity, and modeling, we found that Haiyan's storm surge reached 7 m above sea level along Samar Island, Philippines, which led to contamination of crucial aquifers by infiltrating seawater. A contaminated surficial aquifer will take years to recover. Groundwater in an underlying deeper aquifer saw widespread contamination immediately after the storm, but here salinity has decreased significantly after 8 months. However, this deeper aquifer remains vulnerable to seawater slowly percolating through the surficial aquifer. As warmer seas generate more powerful storms, the vulnerability of aquifers to persistent contamination from intense storm surges is a growing concern for coastal communities.

  18. Historic and Future Ice Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ice storm losses from business interruption as well as transportation and health damages can range into billions of dollars. For instance, the December 2008 New England and Upstate New York ice storm caused four deaths and monetary damages between 2.5 and 3.7 billion, and the 2008 Chinese winter storms resulted in over 130 deaths and over 20 billion in damages. Informal discussions with ice storm experts indicate that due to competing temperature and precipitation effects as well as local topographic effects, it is unclear how exactly climate change will affect ice storms. Here we ask how incident frequencies might change in a future climate at four weather stations prone to ice storms. Using historical atmospheric soundings, we conduct a thought experiment where we perturb the temperatures as might be expected in a future climate. We then discuss changes in monthly frequency of ice storms.

  19. How Ionospheric Ions Populate the Magnetosphere during a Magnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, T. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Slinker, S. P.; Fedder, J. A.; Delcourt, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Ionospheric oxygen ions have been observed throughout the magnetosphere, from the plasma sheet to the ring current region. I t has been found that the O+ /H+ density ratio in the magnetosphere increases with geomagnetic activity and varies with storm phases. During the magnetic storm in late September to earIy October 2002, Cluster was orbiting in the plasma sheet and ring current regions. At prestorm time, Cluster observed high H+ density and low O+ density in the plasma sheet and lobes. During the storm main phase, 0+ density has increased by 10 times over the pre-storm level. Strong field-aligned beams of O+ were observed in the lobes. O+ fluxes were significantly reduced in the central plasma sheet during the storm recovery. However, 0+ was still evident on the boundaries of the plasma sheet and in the lobes. In order to interpret the Cluster observations and to understand how O+ ions populate the magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, we model the storm in early October 2002 using our global ion kinetic simulation (GIK). We use the LFN global simulation model to produce electric and magnetic fields in the outer magnetosphere, the Strangeway outflow scaling with Delcourt ion trajectories to include ionospheric outflows, and the Fok inner magnetospheric model for the plasmaspheric and ring current response to all particle populations. We find that the observed composition features are qualitatively reproduced by the simulations, with some quantitative differences that point to future improvements in the models.

  20. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  1. Morphology of Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestine, E. H.

    1961-01-01

    This publication is a product of the continuing study of the properties of charged particles and fields in space being conducted by The RAND Corporation under contract No. NAS5-276 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Magnetic storms, revealed by world-wide changes in the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, and emphasized by disturbances in electromagnetic communication channels, form detectable patterns on the surface of the earth and above it. The author draws together data from various times, places, and altitudes and, coupling these with what is known or inferred about the aurora, the ionosphere, and the relationship between them and the earth's radiation belts, creates a picture of what is believed to occur during a magnetic storm.

  2. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  3. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Development in the STORM

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Daichi; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution microscopy has brought up much excitement in the biological research community. Here, we will focus on Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy/Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (STORM/PALM) to discuss the challenges in applying super-resolution microscopy to the study of developmental biology, including tissue imaging, sample preparation artifacts, and image interpretation. We will also summarize new opportunities that super-resolution microscopy could bring to the field of developmental biology. PMID:23237944

  5. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Tropical Storm Arthur

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-02

    ISS040-E-031651 (2 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, some 227 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of Tropical Storm Arthur moving northerly near the east coast of the USA late on July 2, 2014. The crew had photographed imagery which showed Arthur churning in Atlantic waters off of Florida some eight hours prior to this picture.

  7. Weather radar research at the USA's storm laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doviak, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Radar research that is directed toward improving storm forecasts and hazard warnings and studying lightning is discussed. The two moderately sensitive Doppler weather radars in central Oklahoma, with their wide dynamic range, have demonstrated the feasibility of mapping wind fields in all weather conditions from the clear skies of quiescent air and disturbed prestorm air near the earth's surface to the optically opaque interior of severe and sometimes tornadic thunderstorms. Observations and analyses of Doppler weather radar data demonstrate that improved warning of severe storm phenomena and improved short-term forecast of storms may be available when Doppler techniques are well integrated into the national network of weather radars. When used in combination with other sensors, it provides an opportunity to learn more about the complex interrelations between the wind, water, and electricity in storms.

  8. Weather radar research at the USA's storm laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doviak, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Radar research that is directed toward improving storm forecasts and hazard warnings and studying lightning is discussed. The two moderately sensitive Doppler weather radars in central Oklahoma, with their wide dynamic range, have demonstrated the feasibility of mapping wind fields in all weather conditions from the clear skies of quiescent air and disturbed prestorm air near the earth's surface to the optically opaque interior of severe and sometimes tornadic thunderstorms. Observations and analyses of Doppler weather radar data demonstrate that improved warning of severe storm phenomena and improved short-term forecast of storms may be available when Doppler techniques are well integrated into the national network of weather radars. When used in combination with other sensors, it provides an opportunity to learn more about the complex interrelations between the wind, water, and electricity in storms.

  9. A case study of ionospheric storm effects in the Chinese sector during the October 2013 geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Tian

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the ionospheric storm effects in the Chinese sector during 2 October 2013 geomagnetic storm. The TEC map over China sector (1°×1°) and eight ionosondes data along the longitude of 110°E are used to show significant positive ionospheric phases (enhancements in TEC and ionospheric peak electron density NmF2) in the high-middle latitude region and the negative effects at the low latitude and equatorial region during the storm. A wave structure with periods about 1-2 h and horizontal speed about 680 m/s, propagating from the high latitudes to the low latitudes is observed in electron densities within the height region from 200 to 400 km, which is caused by the combined effects of neutral wind and the large-scale traveling disturbances (LSTIDs). In the low latitude regions, compared with those in the quiet day, the ionospheric peak heights of the F2 layer (hmF2) in the storm day obviously increase accom- panying a notably decrease in TEC and NmF2, which might be as a result of the eastward prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) evi- denced by the two magnetometers and the subsequent westward disturbance dynamo electric fields (DDEF). The storm-time TEC enhancement mainly occurs in the topside ionosphere, as revealed from the topside TEC, bottomside TEC and GPS TEC. Keywords: Ionospheric storm; Neutral wind; LSTIDs; PPEF; DDEF

  10. Defining Coastal Storm and Quantifying Storms Applying Coastal Storm Impulse Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudpour, Nader

    2014-05-01

    What defines a storm condition and what would initiate a "storm" has not been uniquely defined among scientists and engineers. Parameters that have been used to define a storm condition can be mentioned as wind speed, beach erosion and storm hydrodynamics parameters such as wave height and water levels. Some of the parameters are storm consequential such as beach erosion and some are not directly related to the storm hydrodynamics such as wind speed. For the purpose of the presentation, the different storm conditions based on wave height, water levels, wind speed and beach erosion will be discussed and assessed. However, it sounds more scientifically to have the storm definition based on the hydrodynamic parameters such as wave height, water level and storm duration. Once the storm condition is defined and storm has initiated, the severity of the storm would be a question to forecast and evaluate the hazard and analyze the risk in order to determine the appropriate responses. The correlation of storm damages to the meteorological and hydrodynamics parameters can be defined as a storm scale, storm index or storm parameter and it is needed to simplify the complexity of variation involved developing the scale for risk analysis and response management. A newly introduced Coastal Storm Impulse (COSI) parameter quantifies storms into one number for a specific location and storm event. The COSI parameter is based on the conservation of linear, horizontal momentum to combine storm surge, wave dynamics, and currents over the storm duration. The COSI parameter applies the principle of conservation of momentum to physically combine the hydrodynamic variables per unit width of shoreline. This total momentum is then integrated over the duration of the storm to determine the storm's impulse to the coast. The COSI parameter employs the mean, time-averaged nonlinear (Fourier) wave momentum flux, over the wave period added to the horizontal storm surge momentum above the Mean High

  11. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic storm driver and intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katus, R. M.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2013-05-01

    Geomagnetic storms are investigated statistically with respect to the solar wind driver and the intensity of the events. The Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model was used to simulate all of the intense storms (minimum Dst < - 100 nT) from solar cycle 23 (1996-2005). Four different configurations of HEIDI were used to investigate the outer boundary condition and electric field description. The storms are then classified as being a coronal mass ejection (CME) or corotating interaction region (CIR) driven event and binned based on the magnitude of the minimum Dst. The simulation results as well as solar wind and geomagnetic data sets are then analyzed along a normalized epoch timeline. The average behavior of each storm type and the corresponding HEIDI configurations are then presented and discussed. It is found that while the self-consistent electric field better reproduces stronger CME driven storms, the Volland-Stern electric field does well reproducing the results for CIR driven events.

  12. On the return period statistics of magnetic storms and their implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, M. P.; Horne, R. B.; Daws, M.; Wilson, P. S.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic storms are globally coherent non-secular variations of the geomagnetic field that have been identified as a natural environmental hazard with adverse effects on radio communications, satellite operations, electrical power distribution, etc. Thus it is desirable to forecast the occurrence of magnetic storms to mitigate their impact. To this end, we have analysed the probability density function (PDF) of magnetic storm duration, non-storm duration, and waiting time between storm onsets, for two objective definitions of a magnetic storm based on historical precedent. In the first definition, a magnetic storm is defined as a classic extreme event - the interval for which a relevant geomagnetic measure (the -Dst index) is above a given threshold, c. The PDF of storm duration, non-storm duration, and waiting time between storm onsets are all found to be truncated power laws, independent of threshold. Thus, under this definition, magnetic storms have no characteristic duration or recurrence time between ˜ 1 h and ˜ 100 h. In the second definition, we show evidence that the extreme events of the first definition are part of a longer coherent structure in the time series such that a magnetic storm can alternatively be defined as the interval for which the -Dst index is above a given threshold b and the maximum -Dst is above a second, higher threshold c. Over a region of the two-threshold parameter space \\{b, c\\}, the PDF of waiting times between storm onsets in 3-year samples is found to be a random stationary (Poisson) process with a Poisson statistic that varies with the solar cycle, and the PDF of storm durations is peaked at 20-30 h. The analysis raises an interesting general question as to the occurrence properties of abstract extrema (e.g., gale force winds) compared to those of physical extreme events (e.g., hurricanes?). Moreover, an interesting similarity between the occurrence pattern of repeatable magnetic storms and of solar flares is noted.

  13. Asthma Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  14. Storm-Substorm Relations Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Joe

    2006-06-01

    Magnetic storms in the magnetosphere can cause damage to communication satellites and large-scale power outages. The concept that a magnetic storm is a compilation of a series of substorms was proposed by Akasofu [1968]. However, Kamide [1992] showed that substorms are not a necessary condition for the occurrence of a magnetic storm. This controversy initiated a new era of research on the storm-substorm relation, which was the subject of a recent workshop in Banff, Alberta, Canada. The main topics discussed during the meeting included a brief overview of what a substorm is, how quasiperiodic substorm events and steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) events without substorms contribute to storms, and how plasma flows enhanced by magnetic reconnection in the plasma sheet contribute to substorms and storms.

  15. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  16. STORM WATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: CAPACITIES, CAPABILITIES, AND SOME LIMITATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the basics of what a storm water best management practices and focus on infiltration-type practices using the example of rain gardens. I will demonstrate how water moves through rain gardens with a simple hydrologic model and discuss ancillary benefit...

  17. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  18. Toward storm-time ionosphere forecast using GNSS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Charles; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Tiger J. Y.; Chen, Wei-Han

    2016-04-01

    Previous theoretical simulations of the mid- and low-latitude ionospheric responses to space weather events have indicated general features of electron density disturbances. The magnetic storm produced penetration electric field and neutral wind disturbances lead to formation of various storm-time ionospheric electron density structures, such as super plasma fountain, equatorial electron density trough and F3 layer, as well as long-lasting global ionosphere suppression. We attempt to model these storm-related ionospheric electron density structures using the global assimilative ionospheric model that assimilates electron densities taken from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and TEC from ground-based GNSS receivers. Using the ensemble Kalman filter with consideration of ion densities, electric potential, thermospheric neutral wind and compositions as update variables, we study the performance and forecast capability of the assimilative model. The assimilative model could be utilized for ionosphere forecast in near future.

  19. Desert Shield/Storm Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    Wc This document may not be retee for open publiarion until it has bm deaed by the Vproprnite military service or gmeanen agency. DESERT SHIELD /STORM...capture what had occurred during Operations DESERT SHIELD and STORM, the commanders of the Division Support Command of the 24th Infantry Division...Mechanized) held a ful. day of discussion centering on what occurted during Operation DESERT STORM and its preceding operation, DESERT SHIELD . The entire

  20. Tropical Storm Erin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Location: The Atlantic Ocean 210 miles south of Galveston, Texas Categorization: Tropical Storm Sustained Winds: 40 mph (60 km/hr)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared ImageMicrowave Image

    Infrared Images Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red).

    Microwave Images In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is therefore low. Thus the ocean also appears 'low temperature' in the AIRS microwave images and is assigned the color blue

  1. Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2013-01-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented

  2. Dust storm in Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Dust storm in Alaska captured by Aqua/MODIS on Nov. 17, 2013 at 21:45 UTC. When glaciers grind against underlying bedrock, they produce a silty powder with grains finer than sand. Geologists call it “glacial flour” or “rock flour.” This iron- and feldspar-rich substance often finds its ways into rivers and lakes, coloring the water brown, grey, or aqua. When river or lake levels are low, the flour accumulates on drying riverbanks and deltas, leaving raw material for winds to lift into the air and create plumes of dust. Scientists are monitoring Arctic dust for a number of reasons. Dust storms can reduce visibility enough to disrupt air travel, and they can pose health hazards to people on the ground. Dust is also a key source of iron for phytoplankton in regional waters. Finally, there is the possibility that dust events are becoming more frequent and severe due to ongoing recession of glaciers in coastal Alaska. To read more about dust storm in this region go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=79518 Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Storm impact for barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale is proposed that categorizes impacts to natural barrier islands resulting from tropical and extra-tropical storms. The proposed scale is fundamentally different than existing storm-related scales in that the coupling between forcing processes and the geometry of the coast is explicitly included. Four regimes, representing different levels of impact, are defined. Within each regime, patterns and relative magnitudes of net erosion and accretion are argued to be unique. The borders between regimes represent thresholds defining where processes and magnitudes of impacts change dramatically. Impact level 1 is the 'swash' regime describing a storm where runup is confined to the foreshore. The foreshore typically erodes during the storm and recovers following the storm; hence, there is no net change. Impact level 2 is the 'collision' regime describing a storm where the wave runup exceeds the threshold of the base of the foredune ridge. Swash impacts the dune forcing net erosion. Impact level 3 is the 'overwash' regime describing a storm where wave runup overtops the berm or, if present, the foredune ridge. The associated net landward sand transport contributes to net migration of the barrier landward. Impact level 4 is the 'inundation' regime describing a storm where the storm surge is sufficient to completely and continuously submerge the barrier island. Sand undergoes net landward transport over the barrier island; limited evidence suggests the quantities and distance of transport are much greater than what occurs during the 'overwash' regime.

  4. Communicating Storm Surge Forecast Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troutman, J. A.; Rhome, J.

    2015-12-01

    When it comes to tropical cyclones, storm surge is often the greatest threat to life and property along the coastal United States. The coastal population density has dramatically increased over the past 20 years, putting more people at risk. Informing emergency managers, decision-makers and the public about the potential for wind driven storm surge, however, has been extremely difficult. Recently, the Storm Surge Unit at the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida has developed a prototype experimental storm surge watch/warning graphic to help communicate this threat more effectively by identifying areas most at risk for life-threatening storm surge. This prototype is the initial step in the transition toward a NWS storm surge watch/warning system and highlights the inundation levels that have a 10% chance of being exceeded. The guidance for this product is the Probabilistic Hurricane Storm Surge (P-Surge) model, which predicts the probability of various storm surge heights by statistically evaluating numerous SLOSH model simulations. Questions remain, however, if exceedance values in addition to the 10% may be of equal importance to forecasters. P-Surge data from 2014 Hurricane Arthur is used to ascertain the practicality of incorporating other exceedance data into storm surge forecasts. Extracting forecast uncertainty information through analyzing P-surge exceedances overlaid with track and wind intensity forecasts proves to be beneficial for forecasters and decision support.

  5. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Chapter Three. ൓FBIS-LAT-93-249, December 30, 1993, p. 7. 12Ibid., pp. 4-5. i2 18 Storm Warnings for Cuba Corps General Abelardo Colom6, Cuba’s Minister...analysis of the grim state of the Cuban economy by the Assistant Director of CEA. See also the brief but illuminating article by another CEA economist, Pedro ...The principal difference between the current model and the fidelista system of the past lies in the regime’s economic policies. According to Pedro

  6. Seeing the Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-08

    This beautiful look at Saturn's south polar atmosphere shows the hurricane-like polar storm swirling there. Sunlight highlights its high cloud walls, especially around the 10 o'clock position. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera using a spectral filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 939 nanometers. The image was taken on Jan. 30, 2007 at a distance of approximately 1.1 million kilometers (700,000 miles) from Saturn. Image scale is 61 kilometers (38 miles) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA08892

  7. Influence of storm characteristics on soil erosion and storm runoff

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. III Grace

    2008-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads can be major sources of sediment from forested watersheds. Storm runoff from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery of sediments and nutrients to stream systems resulting in degraded water quality. The volume and sediment concentrations of stormwater runoff emanating from forest roads can be greatly influenced by storm...

  8. Solar radio continuum storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of research on solar radio continuum emissions from metric to hectometric wave frequencies, emphasizing the role of energetic electrons in the 10-100 keV range in these emissions. It is seen that keV-energy electrons generated in active sunspot groups must be the sources of radio continuum storm emissions for wide frequency bands. These electrons excite plasma oscillations in the medium, which in turn are converted to electromagnetic radiation. The radio noise continuum sources are usually associated with type III burst activity observed above these sources. Although the mechanism for the release of the energetic electrons is not known, it seems they are ejected from storm source regions in association with rapid variation of associated sunspot magnetic fields due to their growth into complex types. To explain some of the observed characteristics, the importance of two-stream instability and the scattering of ambient plasma ions on energetic electron streams is pointed out.

  9. Coronal Rain, Solar Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Explanation: In this picture, the Sun's surface is quite dark. A frame from a movie recorded on November 9th by the orbiting TRACE telescope, it shows coronal loops lofted over a solar active region. Glowing brightly in extreme ultraviolet light, the hot plasma entrained above the Sun along arching magnetic fields is cooling and raining back down on the solar surface. Hours earlier, on November 8th, astronomers had watched this particular active region produce a not so spectacular solar flare. Still, the M-class flare spewed forth an intense storm of particles, suddenly showering satellites near the Earth with high energy protons. The flare event was also associated with a large coronal mass ejection, a massive cloud of material which impacted our fair planet's magnetic field about 31 hours later. The result ... a strong geomagnetic storm. Credit: NASA/GSFC/TRACE To learn more go to: nasascience.nasa.gov/missions/trace To learn more about NASA's Sun Earth Day go here: sunearthday.nasa.gov/2010/index.php

  10. Dynamics of SAPS/SAID During Non-Storm Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Shepherd, S. G.; Baker, J. B. H.; Thomas, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that SAPS is a prominent feature of the storm-time ionosphere with connection to the dynamics of the disturbed inner magnetosphere. Somewhat surprisingly SAPS are also observed under non-storm conditions. These events of SAPS/SAID are distinguished by extreme narrowness in latitude (<2°) moderately enhanced westward plasma velocity ( 1 km/s), relatively higher latitude of occurrence, and association with a very narrow trough feature in GPS/TEC observations. Recent improvements in coverage with ground-based radar make it possible to observe the SAPS phenomenon as it initiates and evolves over periods of typically several hours duration and across many hours of MLT. We report on an analysis of non-storm SAPS/SAID events during the periods selected by the CEDAR Grand Challenge "Storms and Substorms without Borders" focus study, in particular June 16 and 17, 2015, 06-10 UT. The results elucidate the interplay between field-aligned currents, ionospheric electric fields, and ionospheric conductivity and plasma structuring during non-storm SAPS/SAID. We summarize the challenge to modelers and theorists for objectively accounting for the occurrence and characteristics of the observed features and for developing an ability to nowcast or forecast non-storm SAPS/SAID generally.

  11. At the eye of the storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    The great storm now going on in the atmosphere of Saturn is discussed. Observational results are summarized, and possible explanations for the storm's origin are addressed. The potential for ongoing observations to clarify the storm's causes is considered.

  12. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms.

    PubMed

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-12-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<-100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.

  13. Northern Storm in Full Force

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-31

    This mosaic of images from NASA Cassini spacecraft shows the trail of a great northern storm on Saturn raging in full force. The contrast in the images has been enhanced to make the turbulent parts of the storm in white stand out.

  14. Thyroid storm induced by strangulation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Jesús I; Petrone, Patrizio; Kuncir, Eric J; Asensio, Juan A

    2004-06-01

    Thyroid storm most often occurs in patients with known thyrotoxicosis. This report discusses a severe case of thyroid storm developing as a direct result of strangulation in a patient without a preexisting history of thyroid disease. Classification and treatment of this entity are discussed.

  15. Geospace system responses to the St. Patrick's Day storms in 2013 and 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Zhang, Yongliang; Wang, Wenbin; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.

    2017-06-01

    This special collection includes 31 research papers investigating geospace system responses to the geomagnetic storms during the St. Patrick's Days of 17 March 2013 and 2015. It covers observation, data assimilation, and modeling aspects of the storm time phenomena and their associated physical processes. The ionosphere and thermosphere as well as their coupling to the magnetosphere are clearly the main subject areas addressed. This collection provides a comprehensive picture of the geospace response to these two major storms. We provide some highlights of these studies in six specific areas: (1) global and magnetosphere/plasmasphere perspectives, (2) high-latitude responses, (3) subauroral and midlatitude processes, (4) effects of prompt penetration electric fields and disturbance dynamo electric fields, (5) effects of neutral dynamics and perturbation, and (6) storm effects on plasma bubbles and irregularities. We also discuss areas of future challenges and the ways to move forward in advancing our understanding of the geospace storm time behavior and space weather effects.

  16. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition.

  17. Clouds and Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 2 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 180 East (180 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with

  18. Dust storm in Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Chad (lower left) and the surrounding wetlands are under increasing pressure from desertification. The encroachment of the Sahara occurs with creeping sand dunes and major dust storms, such as the one pictured in this MODIS image from October 28, 2001. The amount of open water (lighter green patch within the darker one) has declined markedly over the last decades and the invasion of dunes is creating a rippled effect through the wetlands that is all too clear in the high-resolution images. Growing population and increasing demands on the lake give it an uncertain future. The loss of such an important natural resource will have profound effects on the people who depend on the rapidly diminishing source of fresh water. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Dust storm in Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Chad (lower left) and the surrounding wetlands are under increasing pressure from desertification. The encroachment of the Sahara occurs with creeping sand dunes and major dust storms, such as the one pictured in this MODIS image from October 28, 2001. The amount of open water (lighter green patch within the darker one) has declined markedly over the last decades and the invasion of dunes is creating a rippled effect through the wetlands that is all too clear in the high-resolution images. Growing population and increasing demands on the lake give it an uncertain future. The loss of such an important natural resource will have profound effects on the people who depend on the rapidly diminishing source of fresh water. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Dust Storm in Syria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-366, 20 May 2003

    A dust storm rages in Syria Planum, south of the Labyrinthus Noctis troughs (at lower center) in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) composite of daily global images taken during the recent southern winter. In this view, water ice clouds are present over each of the five largest Tharsis volcanoes, Olympus Mons (right center), Alba Patera (upper center), Ascraeus Mons (near center), Pavonis Mons (toward lower left), and Arsia Mons (lower left). The summertime north polar residual water ice cap can be seen at the top of this picture. Sunlight illuminates the planet from the left.

  1. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  2. Solar storms can destabilize power grids at midlatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-10-01

    The Sun is capable of disrupting electrical systems on Earth in a variety of ways, from solar flares and coronal mass ejections to proton storms. Typically, it is only objects far above the Earth's surface, or systems at high altitudes at polar latitudes that are considered at risk except during the most powerful storms. Notable recent examples include solar activity during March 1989 and October 2003 (the “Halloween Storms”), which knocked out power in Québec, Canada, and Sweden, respectively. Research by Marshall et al., however, found that even a moderate event can have destructive effects far from the typical regions of concern.

  3. IRI STORM validation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralambous, Haris; Vryonides, Photos; Demetrescu, Crişan; Dobrică, Venera; Maris, Georgeta; Ionescu, Diana

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model includes an empirical Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM) extension to account for storm-time changes of the F layer peak electron density (NmF2) during increased geomagnetic activity. This model extension is driven by past history values of the geomagnetic index ap (The magnetic index applied is the integral of ap over the previous 33 hours with a weighting function deduced from physically based modeling) and it adjusts the quiet-time F layer peak electron density (NmF2) to account for storm-time changes in the ionosphere. In this investigation manually scaled hourly values of NmF2 measured during the main and recovery phases of selected storms for the maximum solar activity period of the current solar cycle are compared with the predicted IRI-2012 NmF2 over European ionospheric stations using the STORM model option. Based on the comparison a subsequent performance evaluation of the STORM option during this period is quantified.

  4. Thromboembolic complications of thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    Min, T; Benjamin, S; Cozma, L

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential. Atrial fibrillation can occur in up to 40% of patients with thyroid storm. Studies have shown that hyperthyroidism increases the risk of thromboembolic events. There is no consensus with regard to the initiation of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in severe thyrotoxicosis. Anticoagulation is not routinely initiated if the risk is low on a CHADS2 score; however, this should be considered in patients with thyroid storm or severe thyrotoxicosis with impending storm irrespective of the CHADS2 risk, as it appears to increase the risk of thromboembolic episodes. Herein, we describe a case of thyroid storm complicated by massive pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical findings. Early recognition and prompt treatment could lead to a favourable outcome.Hypercoagulable state is a recognised complication of thyrotoxicosis.Atrial fibrillation is strongly associated with hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm.Anticoagulation should be considered for patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and atrial fibrillation irrespective of the CHADS2 score.Patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and clinical evidence of thrombosis should be immediately anticoagulated until hyperthyroidism is under control.

  5. Electric Fields and Magnetic Fields in the Plasmasphere: A Perspective From CLUSTER and IMAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Foster, John C.; Carpenter, Donald L.; Dandouras, Iannis; Darrouzet, Fabien; de Keyser, Johan; Gallagher, Dennis L.; Goldstein, Jerry; Puhl-Quinn, Pamela A.; Vallat, Claire

    2009-05-01

    The electric field and magnetic field are basic quantities in the plasmasphere measured since the 1960s. In this review, we first recall conventional wisdom and remaining problems from ground-based whistler measurements. Then we show scientific results from Cluster and Image, which are specifically made possible by newly introduced features on these spacecraft, as follows. 1. In situ electric field measurements using artificial electron beams are successfully used to identify electric fields originating from various sources. 2. Global electric fields are derived from sequences of plasmaspheric images, revealing how the inner magnetospheric electric field responds to the southward interplanetary magnetic fields and storms/substorms. 3. Understanding of sub-auroral polarization stream (SAPS) or sub-auroral ion drifts (SAID) are advanced through analysis of a combination of magnetospheric and ionospheric measurements from Cluster, Image, and DMSP. 4. Data from multiple spacecraft have been used to estimate magnetic gradients for the first time.

  6. Myriad Genetics: In the eye of the policy storm

    PubMed Central

    Gold, E. Richard; Carbone, Julia

    2011-01-01

    From the late 1980s, a storm surrounding the wisdom, ethics, and economics of human gene patents has been brewing. The various winds of concern in this storm touched on the impact of gene patents on basic and clinical research, on health care delivery, and on the ability of public health care systems to provide equal access when faced with costly patented genetic diagnostic tests. Myriad Genetics, Inc., along with its subsidiary, Myriad Genetic Laboratories, Inc., a small Utah-based biotechnology company, found itself unwittingly in the eye of this storm after a series of decisions it made regarding the commercialization of a hereditary breast cancer diagnostic test. This case study examine the background to Myriad's decisions, the context in which these decisions were made and the policy, research and business response to them. PMID:20393310

  7. Myriad Genetics: In the eye of the policy storm.

    PubMed

    Gold, E Richard; Carbone, Julia

    2010-04-01

    From the late 1980s, a storm surrounding the wisdom, ethics, and economics of human gene patents has been brewing. The various winds of concern in this storm touched on the impact of gene patents on basic and clinical research, on health care delivery, and on the ability of public health care systems to provide equal access when faced with costly patented genetic diagnostic tests. Myriad Genetics, Inc., along with its subsidiary, Myriad Genetic Laboratories, Inc., a small Utah-based biotechnology company, found itself unwittingly in the eye of this storm after a series of decisions it made regarding the commercialization of a hereditary breast cancer diagnostic test. This case study examine the background to Myriad's decisions, the context in which these decisions were made and the policy, research and business response to them.

  8. Severe Storms Branch research report (April 1984 April 1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubach, L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Research Program is a program of integrated studies which are to achieve an improved understanding of the basic behavior of the atmosphere through the use of remotely sensed data and space technology. The program consist of four elements: (1) special observations and analysis of mesoscale systems; (20 the development of quanitative algorithms to use remotely sensed observations; (3) the development of new observing systems; and (4) numerical modeling. The Severe Storms Branch objectives are the improvement of the understanding, diagnosis, and prediction of a wide range of atmospheric storms, which includes severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, flash floods, tropical cyclones, and winter snowstorms. The research often shed light upon various aspects of local weather, such as fog, sea breezes, air pollution, showers, and other products of nonsevere cumulus cloud clusters. The part of the program devoted to boundary layer processes, gust front interactions, and soil moisture detection from satellites gives insights into storm growth and behavior.

  9. Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A final progress report is presented on the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS). The primary purpose of the CSIS is to demonstrate and evaluate real time interactive computerized data collection, interpretation and display techniques as applied to severe weather forecasting. CSIS objectives pertaining to improved severe storm forecasting and warning systems are outlined. The positive impact that CSIS has had on the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is discussed. The benefits of interactive processing systems on the forecasting ability of the NSSFC are described.

  10. Moments of catchment storm area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.; Wang, Q.

    1985-01-01

    The portion of a catchment covered by a stationary rainstorm is modeled by the common area of two overlapping circles. Given that rain occurs within the catchment and conditioned by fixed storm and catchment sizes, the first two moments of the distribution of the common area are derived from purely geometrical considerations. The variance of the wetted fraction is shown to peak when the catchment size is equal to the size of the predominant storm. The conditioning on storm size is removed by assuming a probability distribution based upon the observed fractal behavior of cloud and rainstorm areas.

  11. Moments of catchment storm area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.; Wang, Q.

    1985-01-01

    The portion of a catchment covered by a stationary rainstorm is modeled by the common area of two overlapping circles. Given that rain occurs within the catchment and conditioned by fixed storm and catchment sizes, the first two moments of the distribution of the common area are derived from purely geometrical considerations. The variance of the wetted fraction is shown to peak when the catchment size is equal to the size of the predominant storm. The conditioning on storm size is removed by assuming a probability distribution based upon the observed fractal behavior of cloud and rainstorm areas.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL POLYSENSORY SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGNED TO HELP STUDENTS ACQUIRE BASIC ELECTRICAL OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES. FINAL REPORT NO. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, EDWIN K.

    AN EXPERIMENTAL POLYSENSORY SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGNED TO ASSIST STUDENTS IN ACQUIRING AND APPLYING KNOWLEDGE OF THE NATURE, CONVERSION, AND TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND OF PRINCIPLES OF SIMPLE EELECTRICAL CIRCUITS WAS DEVELOPED AND TESTED FOR EFFECTIVENESS. RELATED LABORATORY EXERCISES WERE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE SYSTEM WHICH…

  13. Polar and equatorial ionosphere interaction during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biktash, L.

    The solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling as applied to the polar and equatorial ionosphere dynamics is examined. To do this simultaneous observations of the IMF, ground-based measurements of the ionospheric parameters and geomagnetic field variations from the high latitudes to the equator are used during magnetic storms. It is shown that the auroral electric fields during magnetically disturbed conditions by the magnetospheric current systems can play a dominant role in the equatorial ionosphere processes. During magnetic storms the equatorial ionosphere parameters h'F, foF2 and etc. widely deviated from quiet day conditions and different kinds of ionospheric irregularities are formed. The equatorial ionospheric irregularities manifest as spread F in ionograms, reversals of drift velocities, scintillation of radio transmissions through the ionosphere, etc. These phenomena can interpret as the result of direct penetration of electric fields from the high latitude field-aligned currents (FAC) to the equatorial ionosphere. Model of direct penetration of FAC electric field of Polar Regions 1 and Region 2, which are controlled by the solar wind, to the equatorial ionosphere is presented. From this model the solar wind electric field through the FAC is likely to the factor wich generate or inhibit the equatorward penetration of the high latitude electric field. We demonstrate that the model is suitable to explain h'F, foF2 variations and scintillation activity during geomagnetic storms. Taking into account of the equatorial and auroral electric fields coupling, relationship, between these regions can be useful to study difficult auroral conditions during magnetic storms.

  14. Insulin Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Basics There are different types of insulin depending ... you may be experiencing a reaction. Types of Insulin Rapid-acting insulin , begins to work about 15 ...

  15. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  16. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  17. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  18. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  19. Extreme EEJ and Topside Ionospheric Response to the 22-23 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.; Alken, P.; Coisson, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we study the ionospheric and thermospheric response to the intense geomagnetic storm of 22-23 June 2015. With the minimum SYM-H excursion of -207 nT, this storm is so far the 2nd strongest geomagnetic storm in the current 24th solar cycle. The storm started with the arrival of a coronal mass ejection at 18:37UT on 22 June 2015. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component changed polarity several times during this storm. Consequently, the interplanetary electric field Ey component repeated this oscillatory behavior, and varied from -15 to +20 mV/m, which is comparable with storm-time levels. Data from multiple ground-based and space-borne instruments showed that both positive and negative ionospheric storms occurred during this storm at middle and low latitudes on both day and night sides. To study the drivers of the observed ionospheric effects, we further analyze variations of thermospheric parameters (neutral mass density and thermospheric O/N2 ratio), as well as the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) data as retrieved from magnetic measurements onboard Swarm satellites. One of the most interesting features of the June 2015 storm is observation of extremely high EEJ values (both eastward and westward), that correlate with variations of the IEF Ey. We find that the storm-time penetration electric fields were, most likely, the main driver of the observed ionospheric effects at the initial phase of the storm, and at the beginning of the main phase. At the end of the main phase, the thermospheric composition changes seemed to contribute as well.

  20. Neonatal thyroid storm accompanied with severe anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu-Ying; Wei, Hong; Wang, Zheng-Li

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal thyroid storm is rare; the diagnostic criteria and management of neonatal thyroid storm have not been well established. In this paper, we report a preterm infant diagnosed with neonatal hyperthyroidism secondary to maternal Graves' disease who was discharged after therapy. Unfortunately, he was rehospitalised for neonatal thyroid storm. We will discuss the diagnosis and general therapy of neonatal thyroid storm.

  1. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  2. Regarding Electrified Martian Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the dynamic competition between dust devil/storm charging currents and dissipating atmospheric currents. A question: Can high-current lightning be a dissipation product of this competition? Most likely not but there are exceptions.

  3. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used throughout the world for planning, analysis and design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban areas.

  4. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  5. Cloudsat Dissects Tropical Storm Ileana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's CloudSat satellite's Cloud Profiling Radar captured a sideways look across Tropical Storm Ileana on Aug. 27 at 20:40 UTC. The colors indicate intensity of reflected radar energy. The blue ar...

  6. Thyroid storm with multiorgan failure.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hui Wen; See, Kay Choong; Phua, Jason

    2010-03-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and potentially fatal condition. Various unusual presentations in patients with thyroid storm have been described but multiorgan dysfunction is uncommonly seen. We describe a 35-year-old patient with a history of Graves' disease who was diagnosed with thyroid storm at 2 weeks postpartum. This was complicated by acute liver failure, acute kidney injury, severe lactic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and heart failure with acute pulmonary edema. The multiorgan dysfunction was reversed by prompt institution of antithyroid drugs and supportive management in the intensive care unit. Thyroid storm is a medical emergency. One of the challenges lies in recognizing its varied presentations. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is important to prevent the catastrophic outcomes associated with this condition.

  7. Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...

  8. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Social Media Contact Us FAQS Publications Emergency Alerts Home Search × Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Languages × ... take when you receive a winter weather storm alert from the National Weather Service for your local ...

  9. Riding the storm out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, Josh

    2009-04-01

    I am standing on a bridge near the North Carolina coast. There is a light breeze, and I am enjoying some hazy sunshine. But this calm is an illusion: in a few minutes winds of up to 45ms-1 (100 mph) will sweep in again. The approaches to my section of the bridge are already drowned under 2.5 m of water, and my companions on this island are an eclectic mix of traumatized animals, including snakes, rats, wounded pelicans and frogs. Earlier, one of the snakes flew through the air past my truck. The animals and I have been drawn to this bridge by Hurricane Isabel, which has just slammed into the coastal islands of North Carolina, and at the moment we are in the calm, sunny eye of the storm. The animals are just trying to survive on the area's only dry ground. But I have come to the bridge with a radar system on a truck and have spent a night and a day on it because I want to know what is happening inside this hurricane.

  10. Storm and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Yesterday's storm front was moving westward, today's moves eastward. Note the thick cloud cover and beautifully delineated cloud tops.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 72.1, Longitude 308.3 East (51.7 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Positive and negative ionospheric responses to the March 2015 geomagnetic storm from BDS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Jin, Rui; Kutoglu, H.

    2017-01-01

    The most intense geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24 occurred on March 17, 2015, and the detailed ionospheric storm morphologies are difficultly obtained from traditional observations. In this paper, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) observations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) are for the first time used to investigate the ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm. Using BDS GEO and GIMs TEC series, negative and positive responses to the March 2015 storm are found at local and global scales. During the main phase, positive ionospheric storm is the main response to the geomagnetic storm, while in the recovery phase, negative phases are pronounced at all latitudes. Maximum amplitudes of negative and positive phases appear in the afternoon and post-dusk sectors during both main and recovery phases. Furthermore, dual-peak positive phases in main phase and repeated negative phase during the recovery are found from BDS GEO observations. The geomagnetic latitudes corresponding to the maximum disturbances during the main and recovery phases show large differences, but they are quasi-symmetrical between southern and northern hemispheres. No clear zonal propagation of traveling ionospheric disturbances is detected in the GNSS TEC disturbances at high and low latitudes. The thermospheric composition variations could be the dominant source of the observed ionospheric storm effect from GUVI [O]/[N2] ratio data as well as storm-time electric fields. Our study demonstrates that the BDS (especially the GEO) observations are an important data source to observe ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm.

  12. Impact of famous CEDAR, GEM and ISTP geomagnetic Storms on HF Radio Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchensky, D.; Sergeeva, M.

    The mighty geomagnetic storms due to the extraordinary Sun s activity cause as a rule some impacts in these areas radiation effects on human and satellites commercial airlines outages electric power and other geomagnetic effects navigation and communication GPS effects ionospheric disturbances HF communication effects Therefore our scientific understanding of this activity is very important Joint efforts for example within the framework of the CAWSES enable progress in our ability to i identify critical inputs to specify the geospace environment at a level needed to minimize impacts on technology human society and life and ii support the development of robust models that predict conditions in geospace based on understanding of the Sun-Earth system and all of its interacting components In this study influence of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR GEM and ISTP storms within 1997-99 on radio propagation conditions have been investigated These conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on each path from three high-latitude HF radio paths of North-west Russia before during and after a storm It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character Nevertheless the common character of the certain manifestations during storm-time was revealed For example the frequency range MOF - LOF is getting wider several hours before a storm then it is sharply narrow during a storm-time and further it is expanded again several

  13. Positive and negative ionospheric responses to the March 2015 geomagnetic storm from BDS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Jin, Rui; Kutoglu, H.

    2017-06-01

    The most intense geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24 occurred on March 17, 2015, and the detailed ionospheric storm morphologies are difficultly obtained from traditional observations. In this paper, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) observations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) are for the first time used to investigate the ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm. Using BDS GEO and GIMs TEC series, negative and positive responses to the March 2015 storm are found at local and global scales. During the main phase, positive ionospheric storm is the main response to the geomagnetic storm, while in the recovery phase, negative phases are pronounced at all latitudes. Maximum amplitudes of negative and positive phases appear in the afternoon and post-dusk sectors during both main and recovery phases. Furthermore, dual-peak positive phases in main phase and repeated negative phase during the recovery are found from BDS GEO observations. The geomagnetic latitudes corresponding to the maximum disturbances during the main and recovery phases show large differences, but they are quasi-symmetrical between southern and northern hemispheres. No clear zonal propagation of traveling ionospheric disturbances is detected in the GNSS TEC disturbances at high and low latitudes. The thermospheric composition variations could be the dominant source of the observed ionospheric storm effect from GUVI [O]/[N2] ratio data as well as storm-time electric fields. Our study demonstrates that the BDS (especially the GEO) observations are an important data source to observe ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm.

  14. Energy and Mass Transport of Magnetospheric Plasmas during the November 2003 Magnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Chging; Moore, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Intensive energy and mass transport from the solar wind across the magnetosphere boundary is a trigger of magnetic storms. The storm on 20-21 November 2003 was elicited by a high-speed solar wind and strong southward component of interplanetary magnetic field. This storm attained a minimum Dst of -422 nT. During the storm, some of the solar wind particles enter the magnetosphere and eventually become part of the ring current. At the same time, the fierce solar wind powers strong outflow of H+ and O+ from the ionosphere, as well as from the plasmasphere. We examine the contribution of plasmas from the solar wind, ionosphere and plasmasphere to the storm-time ring current. Our simulation shows, for this particular storm, ionospheric O+ and solar wind ions are the major sources of the ring current particles. The polar wind and plasmaspheric H+ have only minor impacts. In the storm main phase, the strong penetration of solar wind electric field pushes ions from the geosynchronous orbit to L shells of 2 and below. Ring current is greatly intensified during the earthward transport and produces a large magnetic depression in the surface field. When the convection subsides, the deep penetrating ions experience strong charge exchange loss, causing rapid decay of the ring current and fast initial storm recovery. Our simulation reproduces very well the storm development indicated by the Dst index.

  15. Basic Research in Electric Propulsion. Part I: Pulsed Plasma Thruster Propellant Efficiency and Contamination. Part II: Arcjet Remote Plume Measurement and Hydrogen Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    neutral density NO nitrous oxide NO2 nitrogen dioxide Nd:YAG NeodymiumYttrium Aluminum Garnet laser NSTAR NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technical...Signature experiments underway and Multiphoton Laser Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Ground State Atomic Hydrogen have been performed in an...in low power hydrogen arcjet plumes. This work applied a flame diagnostic, Multiphoton Laser Induced Fluorescence, to the excited-state plasma

  16. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms

    PubMed Central

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-01-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429

  17. Different behavior of storm-time themospheric mass density response to merging E field for different type of magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S. Y.; Zhou, Yunliang; Liu, Ruosi

    With the help of GRACE accelerometer observations and the solar wind and IMF OMNI data, a statistical investigation has been made on the relationships of merging electrical field, Em, with the storm-time changes in the upper thermospheric mass density for 35 great storms during 2002-2006. The linear control factors of Em on the storm-time changes of both mass density and its algorithm are examined, along with the delay times of density changes behind Em. The dependences of the control factors on the latitude and local time are investigated for different storm types. It is found that the influences of Em on the storm-time mass densities characterized by nonlinear control factors show different behavior for different types of storms. The influence intensity of Em on mass density is stronger for CIR-driven than for CME-driven storms, manifested as 2.7 times for CME-driven over CIR driven storm at dawn sector. In terms of the ratio of influence factor for CIR over CME, there is a larger intensification in dawn/dusk sector than in noon/midnight sector clearly. Besides, it is very interesting that, except for noon sector, the delay times of mass density changes in respect to Em at low latitudes are shorter than at mid-latitudes. This phenomenon seems in contravention of high latitude origin of mass density changes and consequent propagation equatorward. We surmise that this may imply some additional heating or disturbance sources rather than high latitude origin at working for low and/or mid-latitude mass density changes. One possible source is energetic neutral atom (ENA) precipitation of storm-time ring current origin caused by charge exchange between energetic RC (ring current) ions and cold atoms of geo-corona, another may be the coupling between low-latitude thermosphere and ionosphere associated with prompt penetration of interplanetary electric field that has larger penetration efficiency during night. Acknowledgements: Many thanks to Prof. Luehr for useful

  18. nuSTORM and a Path to a Muon Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adey, David; Bayes, Ryan; Bross, Alan D.; Snopok, Pavel

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the current status of the nuSTORM facility and shows how it can be utilized to perform the next step on the path toward the realization of a μ+μ- collider. This review includes the physics motivation behind nuSTORM, a detailed description of the facility and the neutrino beams it can produce, and a summary of the short-baseline neutrino oscillation physics program that can be carried out at the facility. The basic idea for nuSTORM (the production of neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring) was discussed in the literature more than 30 years ago in the context of searching for noninteracting (sterile) neutrinos. However, only in the past 5 years has the concept been fully developed, motivated in large part by the facility's unmatched reach in addressing the evolving data on oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. Finally, this article reviews the basics of the μ+μ- collider concept and describes how nuSTORM provides a platform to test advanced concepts for six-dimensional muon ionization cooling.

  19. Electrification in winter storms and the analysis of thunderstorm overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, Marx

    1991-01-01

    The emergence of 24 hr operational lightning detection networks has led to the finding that positive lightning strokes, although still much fewer in number than the normal negative strokes, are present in summer and winter storms. Recent papers address the importance of understanding the meteorological conditions which lead to a dominance of one polarity of stroke over another; the appearance of positive strokes at the end of a storm appeared to presage the end-of-storm downdraft and subsidence leading to downburst activity. It is beginning to appear that positive strokes may be important meteorological indicators. Significant research accomplishments on the following topics are addressed: (1) a study to verify that the black boxes used in the lightning networks to detect both negative and positive strokes to ground were accurate; (2) the use of slow tails to determine the polarity of distant lightning; (3) lightning initiation in winter vs. summer storms; (4) the upgrade of sensors for the measurement of electric field signals associated with lightning; (5) the analysis of lightning flash records from storms between 40 and 125 km from the sensor; and (6) an interesting aspect of the initiation process which involves the physical processes driving the stepped leader. The focus of current research and future research plans are presented.

  20. Dust storms are an indication of an unhealthy environment in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Batjargal, Z; Dulam, Jugder; Chung, Y S

    2006-03-01

    Dust storms frequently occur in Mongolia and in northern China. Each year there are 30 to 120 dusty days in source regions of Mongolia and 14-20 dusty days on the Korean Peninsula. Intense sand storms and associated dust falls produce environmental impacts in East Asia. This paper discusses the environmental degradation in Mongolia and the social, economic and atmospheric impacts of dust storms in the sink area. The impact of dust storms on environmental compartments as well as their direct and indirect consequences to basic resources like water and energy demand and supply is explained. Governments are encouraged to take appropriate action in specified regions. For monitoring dust storms there is a need for international cooperation to combat growing environmental and human security concerns.

  1. Cycle 22; Geomagnetic storm threats to power systems continue

    SciTech Connect

    Kappernman, J.G. ); Albertson, V.D. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  2. Solar Energetic Particle Trapping During Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M.; Kress, B.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J.

    2007-12-01

    The prompt trapping of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) in the inner magnetosphere inside of L = 4 has been reported, including protons and heavier ions, in association with high speed interplanetary shocks and Storm Sudden Commencements (SSCs). These observations include the Bastille Day 2000 CME-driven storm as well as two in November 2001, which produced a long-lived new proton belt, as well as trapping of heavy ions up to Fe in all three cases. A survey of such events around the most recent solar maximum, including high altitude measurements from Polar, HEO and ICO satellites along with low altitude measurements from SAMPEX, indicates similarities to the well-studied March 24, 1991 SSC event. In this event, electrons and protons in drift resonance with a magnetosonic impulse were transported radially inward, requiring a source population which is multi-MeV at geosynchronous. A requirement for such shock-induced acceleration is a high-speed CME- shock at 1 AU, which launches a perturbation with comparable velocity inside the magnetosphere. Secondly, there must be a source population which is drift-resonant with the impulse. The CME-shock itself is a source of solar energetic particles, both protons and heavy ions, with higher fluxes and harder spectra associated with faster moving CMEs. A 3D Lorentz integration of SEP trajectories in electric and magnetic fields taken from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD model, using solar wind input parameters from spacecraft measurements upstream from the bow shock, has been carried out for two November, 2001 SEP trapping events, and a CME-shock associated with the Halloween 2003 storm period, 29 October, which transported outer zone electrons and trapped solar energetic electrons into around L = 2.5, with little effect on SEPs. These results indicate that an enhancement in solar wind dynamic pressure for these events plays a role in the observed injection of ions (and electrons) to low L-values, as does the extent of

  3. Status and Future of Dust Storm Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been given to the large amounts of airborne dust derived from the deserts and desertified areas of the world and transported over scales ranging from local to global. This dust can have positive and negative impacts on human activities and the environment, including modifying cloud formation, fertilizing the ocean, degrading air quality, reducing visibility, transporting pathogens, and inducing respiratory problems. The atmospheric radiative forcing by the dust has implications for global climate change and presently is one of the largest unknowns in climate models. These uncertainties have lead to much of the funding for research into the sources, properties, and fate of atmospheric dust. As a result of advances in numerical weather prediction over the past decades and the recent climate research, we are now in a position to produce operational dust storm forecasts. International organizations and national agencies are developing programs for dust forecasting. The approaches and applications of dust detection and forecasting are as varied as the nations that are developing the models. The basic components of a dust forecasting system include atmospheric forcing, dust production, and dust microphysics. The forecasting applications include air and auto traffic safety, shipping, health, national security, climate and weather. This presentation will summarize the methods of dust storm forecasting and illustrate the various applications. The major remaining uncertainties (e.g. sources and initialization) will be discussed as well as approaches for solving those problems.

  4. The 17 March 2015 storm: the associated magnetic flux rope structure and the storm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marubashi, Katsuhide; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Rok-Soon; Kim, Sujin; Park, Sung-Hong; Ishibashi, Hiromitsu

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is (1) to determine the magnetic cloud (MC) structure associated with the 17 March 2015 storm and (2) to gain an insight into how the storm developed responding to the solar wind conditions. First, we search MC geometries which can explain the observed solar wind magnetic fields by fitting to both cylindrical and toroidal flux rope models. Then, we examine how the resultant MC geometries can be connected to the solar source region to find out the most plausible model for the observed MC. We conclude that the observations are most consistently explained by a toroidal flux rope with the torus plane nearly parallel to the ecliptic plane. It is emphasized that the observations are characterized by the peculiar spacecraft crossing through the MC, in that the magnetic fields to be observed are southward throughout the passage. For understanding of the storm development, we first estimate the injection rate of the storm ring current from the observed Dst variation. Then, we derive an expression to calculate the estimated injection rate from the observed solar wind variations. The point of the method is to evaluate the injection rate by the convolution of the dawn-to-dusk electric field in the solar wind and a response function. By using the optimum response function thus determined, we obtain a modeled Dst variation from the solar wind data, which is in good agreement with the observed Dst variation. The agreement supports the validity of our method to derive an expression for the ring current injection rate as a function of the solar wind variation.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. New forecasting methods of the intensity and time development of geomagnetic and ionospheric storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    The main phase of a geomagnetic storm develops differently from one storm to another. A description is given of the solar wind quantity which controls directly the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The parameters involved include the solar wind speed, the magnetic field intensity, and the polar angle of the solar wind magnetic field projected onto the dawn-dusk plane. A redefinition of geomagnetic storm and auroral activity is given. It is pointed out that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by the magnetic fields of electric currents which are generated by the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo. Attention is given to approaches for forecasting the occurrence and intensity of geomagnetic storms and ionospheric disturbances.

  6. On the Variability of Wilson Currents by Storm Type and Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deierling, Wiebke; Kalb, Christina; Mach, Douglas; Liu, Chuntao; Peterson, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Storm total conduction currents from electrified clouds are thought to play a major role in maintaining the potential difference between the earth's surface and the upper atmosphere within the Global Electric Circuit (GEC). However, it is not entirely known how the contributions of these currents vary by cloud type and phase of the clouds life cycle. Estimates of storm total conduction currents were obtained from data collected over two decades during multiple field campaigns involving the NASA ER-2 aircraft. In this study the variability of these currents by cloud type and lifecycle is investigated. We also compared radar derived microphysical storm properties with total storm currents to investigate whether these storm properties can be used to describe the current variability of different electrified clouds. The ultimate goal is to help improve modeling of the GEC via quantification and improved parameterization of the conduction current contribution of different cloud types.

  7. SAMI3-RCM simulation of the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, J. D.; Sazykin, S.; Coster, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a self-consistent modeling study of the ionosphere-plasmasphere system response to the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm using the coupled SAMI3-RCM code. The novel feature of this work is that we capture the important storm time dynamics of the ionosphere on a global scale and its manifestation in the plasmasphere. We find that the penetration electric fields associated with the magnetic storm lead to a storm time enhanced density in the low- to middle-latitude ionosphere. We compare the modeled total electron content (TEC) with GPS-measured TEC in the American sector. Additionally, we observe the development of polar cap "tongues of ionization" and the formation of subauroral plasma streams in the postsunset, premidnight sector, and its impact on the plasmasphere. However, we did not see the development of plasmaspheric plumes during this event which we attribute to the long main phase of the storm (˜18 h).

  8. Ring Current Development During Storm Main Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Greenspan, Marian E.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the ring current ions in the inner magnetosphere during the main phase of a magnetic storm is studied. The temporal and spatial evolution of the ion phase space densities in a dipole field are calculated using a three dimensional ring current model, considering charge exchange and Coulomb losses along drift paths. The simulation starts with a quiet time distribution. The model is tested by comparing calculated ion fluxes with Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/CCE measurement during the storm main phase on May 2, 1986. Most of the calculated omnidirectional fluxes are in good agreement with the data except on the dayside inner edge (L less than 2.5) of the ring current, where the ion fluxes are underestimated. The model also reproduces the measured pitch angle distributions of ions with energies below 10 keV. At higher energy, an additional diffusion in pitch angle is necessary in order to fit the data. The role of the induced electric field on the ring current dynamics is also examined by simulating a series of substorm activities represented by stretching and collapsing the magnetic field lines. In response to the impulsively changing fields, the calculated ion energy content fluctuates about a mean value that grows steadily with the enhanced quiescent field.

  9. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  10. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  11. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  12. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  13. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson),…

  14. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  15. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  16. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  17. Thyroid storm and arrhythmic storm: a potentially fatal combination.

    PubMed

    Anjo, Diana; Maia, José; Carvalho, André Couto; Castro, Heloísa; Aragão, Irene; Vieira, António Pinheiro; Reis, António Hipólito; Borges, Fátima; Torres, Severo

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare clinical emergency with a mortality rate between 20% and 30%. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with thyrotoxicosis are usually supraventricular. Ventricular arrhythmias are rarely associated with this entity and tend to occur in patients with intrinsic cardiac disease. We present a 35-year-old woman with Graves disease and a thyroid storm manifested with multiple malignant dysrhythmic episodes, without underlying cardiac disease. The mechanism for ventricular arrhythmia is not clear but seems to be due to the increased myocardial excitability directly caused by the thyroid hormones. The presence of myocarditis lesions may constitute an arrhythmogenic substratum and contribute further to this manifestation. This case emphasizes the importance of cardiac monitoring in patients with thyroid storm.

  18. Studying Peculiarities of Ionospheric Response to the 2015 March 17-19 Geomagnetic Storm in East Asia: Observations and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Elena; Zherebtsov, Gelii; Polekh, Nelya; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Zolotukhina, Nina; Shi, Jiankui

    2016-07-01

    latitudes. The prolonged negative disturbances during the recovery storm phase in middle latitudes are attributed to variations in the global wind circulation and to [O]/[N2] reduction; in low latitudes, a prolonged negative disturbance is also conditioned by variations in the global wind circulation and, to a lesser extent, by [O]/[N2] reduction as well as by penetration of electric fields to low latitudes; hence there was no equatorial anomaly on March 18. This is confirmed by total electron content data (http://cdaweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/eval2.cgi). The recovery storm phase lasted until mid-March 25. The work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR grant No. 16-55-53003_DVEH_a).

  19. Sediment Transport on Continental Shelves: Storm Bed Formation and Preservation in Heterogeneous Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    modern storm beds and applies the principle of uniformitarianism to estimate the preservation potential of beds within a storm-dominated shelf...One of the basic tenets of the geological sciences is uniformitarianism . All of the evidence indicates that the climate of the past varied from that...late from the modern ocean, it is becoming pos- sible to test the assumptions implicit in uniformitarianism with respect to processes

  20. On explaining magnetic storm phenomena in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbe, P.; Chandra, S.

    1971-01-01

    Changes in ion and neutral compositions and in neutral, ion, and electron temperatures during the main phase of a magnetic storm are studied by solving a system of basic ionospheric and atmospheric differential equations. It is shown that a decrease in the atomic-to-molecular concentration ratio in the lower thermosphere may help explain several phenomena observed during a magnetic storm. These phenomena include decreases in the columnar electron content and increases in neutral temperature.

  1. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  3. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  4. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  6. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-04

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03400

  7. The ice storm of the century: how affected hospitals and communities dealt with the challenges of a unique, prolonged emergency.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    A huge ice storm in early January 1998 caused severe damage in northern New York and parts of Maine and Canada. The storm, which lasted in some areas for several weeks and is being called the "storm of the century," led to 30 deaths (many from carbon monoxide poisoning); closed roads and schools; downed thousand of trees and power lines; and left hundreds of thousands without electricity. In this report, we'll present details on how hospitals in these three locations which were declared disaster areas were affected by the storm as well as the measures that they and their security departments took to help patients, staff, and their communities.

  8. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  9. Geomagnetic storm of 29-31 October 2003: Geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Lindahl, Sture; Viljanen, Ari; Pirjola, Risto

    2005-08-01

    On 30 October 2003, an ongoing geomagnetic superstorm knocked down a part of the high-voltage power transmission system in southern Sweden. The blackout lasted for an hour and left about 50,000 customers without electricity. The incident was probably the most severe geomagnetically induced current (GIC) failure observed since the well-known March 1989 Québec blackout. The "three-phase" storm produced exceptionally large geomagnetic activity at the Fennoscandian auroral region. Although the diversity of the GIC drivers is addressed in the study, the problems in operating the Swedish system during the storm are attributed geophysically to substorms, storm sudden commencement, and enhanced ionospheric convection, all of which created large and complex geoelectric fields capable of driving large GIC. On the basis of the basic twofold nature of the failure-related geoelectric field characteristics, a semideterministic approach for forecasting GIC-related geomagnetic activity in which average overall activity is supplemented with statistical estimations of the amplitudes of GIC fluctuations is suggested. The study revealed that the primary mode of GIC-related failures in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system were via harmonic distortions produced by GIC combined with too sensitive operation of the protective relays. The outage in Malmö on 30 October 2003 was caused by a combination of an abnormal switching state of the system and tripping of a low-set residual overcurrent relay that had a high sensitivity for the third harmonic of the fundamental frequency.

  10. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  11. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  12. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  13. Industrial Electronics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Earl

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 30 terminal objectives for a two-semester (2 hours daily) high school course in basic industrial electronics. The objectives cover instruction in basic electricity including AC-DC theory, magnetism, electrical safety, care and use of hand tools,…

  14. Industrial Electronics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Earl

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 30 terminal objectives for a two-semester (2 hours daily) high school course in basic industrial electronics. The objectives cover instruction in basic electricity including AC-DC theory, magnetism, electrical safety, care and use of hand tools,…

  15. [Biological effects of planetary magnetic storms].

    PubMed

    Chibisov, S M; Breus, T K; Levitin, A E; Drogova, G M

    1995-01-01

    Six physiological parameters of cardio-vascular system of rabbits and ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were investigated during two planetary geomagnetic storms. At the initial and main phase of the storm the normal circadian structure in each cardiovascular parameter was lost. The asynchronicity was growing together with the storm and abrupt drop of cardia activity was observed during the main phase of storm. The main phase of storm followed by the destruction and degradation of cardiomyocytes. Parameters of cardia activity became substantially synchronized and characterised by circadian rhythm structure while the amplitude of deviations was still significant at the recovery stage of geomagnetic storm.

  16. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  17. Springtime North Polar Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-321, 12 December 2002

    As on the Earth, many severe storms brew in the martian polar regions. Here, temperature contrasts between the cold carbon dioxide ('dry ice') seasonal frost cap and the warm ground adjacent to it--combined with a flow of cool polar air evaporating off the cap--sweeps up dust and funnels it into swirling dust storms along the cap edge. The dust storms shown here were observed during the recent northern spring by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) in May 2002. The picture is a mosaic of daily global images from the MOC wide angle cameras. The north polar cap is the bright, frosty surface at the top.

  18. Mars' great storm of 1971.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capen, C. F.; Martin, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the development of this planet-wide storm and its subsequent decline through mid-January 1972. The initial core of the disturbance extended northeast to southwest. Preliminary examination of photographic data indicates that the storm, yellow in color, spread completely around the planet in about 16 days. During the storm, red- and green-light photographs recorded Mars as brighter than normal, while in blue it was only slightly brighter, and in the ultraviolet there was no significant change. The history of yellow clouds is discussed. They seem to germinate in specific areas in the southern hemisphere, such as the Hellas-Noachis region. Another yellow cloud is predicted for July or August of 1973.

  19. Agents to reduce cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    The increasing insight into pathomechanisms of dysregulated host response in several inflammatory diseases led to the implementation of the term "cytokine storm" in the literature more than 20 years ago. Direct toxic effects as well as indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms during cytokine storm have been described and were the basis for the rationale to use several substances and devices in life-threatening infections and hyperinflammatory states. Clinical trials have been performed, most of them in the form of minor, investigator-initiated protocols; major clinical trials focused mostly on sepsis and septic shock. The following review tries to summarize the background, pathophysiology, and results of clinical investigations that had implications for the development of therapeutic strategies and international guidelines for the management of hyperinflammation during syndromes of cytokine storm in adult patients, predominantly in septic shock.

  20. DE 2 observations of disturbances in the upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Brace, L. H.; Spencer, N. W.; Carignan, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of physical interpretations of a sequence of in situ measurements taken in the midlatitude dusk sector during the geomagnetic storm of November 24, 1982 by instruments on board the DE-2 spacecraft in polar orbit. The results represent the first comparison of nearly simultaneous measurements, obtained at different seasons in a common local time sector, of storm disturbances in dc electric fields, zonal ion convection, zonal winds, gas composition and temperature, and electron density and temperature.

  1. NASA Studies Lightning Storms Using High-Flying, Uninhabited Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely-piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. Data obtained through sensors mounted to the aircraft will allow researchers in ACES to gauge elements such as lightning activity and the electrical environment in and around storms. By learning more about individual storms, scientists hope to better understand the global water and energy cycle, as well as climate variability. Contained in one portion of the aircraft is a three-axis magnetic search coil, which measures the AC magnetic field; a three-axis electric field change sensor; an accelerometer; and a three-axis magnetometer, which measures the DC magnetic field. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  2. Magnetospheric signature of some F layer positive storms

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.J.; Mayr, H.G.; Grebowsky, J.M.; Harris, I.; Tulunay, Y.K.

    1981-05-01

    Calculations using a self-consistent model of the global thermosphere-ionosphere system perturbed by high-latitude thermospheric heating show that the resultant electron density disturbances within the mid-latitude F layer can propagate upward along magnetic field lines to the equator. The F layer disturbances described by the model calculations correspond to the evolution of enhancements or reductions in electron density that is called the positive or negative phase of an F layer storm. We deduce that the positive phase of dayside F layer storms is initiated when high-latitude thermospheric heating generates equatorward winds. These winds raise the mid-latitude F layer along the geomagnetic field B through momentum transfer from neutral atoms to F layer ons that pull electrons with them. For Lapprox.3 or less the upward movement of ionospheric plasma results in ionization increases at all altitudes along B from the F2 maximum to the equator. An increase in the average magnitude of the equatorial dawn-dusk magnetospheric electric field retards the dayside development of a positive storm phase by drifting plasma away from mid-latitude field lines along which the electron density is increasing. During an F layer storm in June 1972, instruments on Explorer 45 and Ariel 4 detected dayside electron density enhancements simultaneously at 550 km over mid-latitudes and near the equatorial plane in the magnetosphere. These in situ measurements support the model prediction that disturbances in the magnetospheric plasma near the equator can arise through interactions occuring at lower altitudes along a magnetic field line. Our study demonstrates that some storm time enhancements of dayside magnetospheric plasma near Lapprox.2--3 may be signatures of the positive phase of an F layer storm.

  3. National Severe Storms Forecast Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The principal mission of the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is to maintain a continuous watch of weather developments that are capable of producing severe local storms, including tornadoes, and to prepare and issue messages designated as either Weather Outlooks or Tornado or Severe Thunderstorm Watches for dissemination to the public and aviation services. In addition to its assigned responsibility at the national level, the NSSFC is involved in a number of programs at the regional and local levels. Subsequent subsections and paragraphs describe the NSSFC, its users, inputs, outputs, interfaces, capabilities, workload, problem areas, and future plans in more detail.

  4. Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-28

    This infrared image shows Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba, from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder AIRS on NASA Aqua satellite in August, 2006. Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00510

  5. Mesoscale aspects of convective storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The structure, evolution and mechanisms of mesoscale convective disturbances are reviewed and observation techniques for "nowcasting" their nature are discussed. A generalized mesometeorological scale is given, classifying both low and high pressure systems. Mesoscale storms are shown often to induce strong winds, but their wind speeds are significantly less than those accompanied by submesoscale disturbances, such as tornadoes, downbursts, and microbursts. Mesoscale convective complexes, severe storm wakes, and flash floods are considered. The understanding of the evolution of supercells is essential for improving nowcasting capabilities and a very accurate combination of radar and satellite measurements is required.

  6. Research on Historical Records of Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Alex, S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    In recent times, there has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs and concomitant magnetic storms. Magnetic storms are the most dramatic and perhaps important component of space weather effects on Earth. Super-intense magnetic storms (defined here as those with Dst < -500 nT, where Dst stands for the disturbance storm time index that measures the strength of the magnetic storm) although relatively rare, have the largest societal and technological relevance. Such storms can cause life-threatening power outages, satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. However, the data for such magnetic storms is rather scarce. For example, only one super-intense magnetic storm has been recorded (Dst=-640 nT, March 13, 1989) during the space-age (since 1958), although such storms may have occurred many times in the last 160 years or so when the regular observatory network came into existence. Thus, research on historical geomagnetic storms can help to create a good data base for intense and super-intense magnetic storms. From the application of knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of storms gained from the spaceage observations applied to the super-intense storm of September 1-2, 1859, it has been possible to deduce that an exceptionally fast (and intense) magnetic cloud was the interplanetary cause of this geomagnetic storm with a Dst -1760 nT, nearly 3 times as large as that of March 13, 1989 super-intense storm. The talk will focus on super-intense storms of September 1-2, 1859, and also discuss the results in the context of some recent intense storms.

  7. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a chronic infection or pneumonia from Valley Fever. Native Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans are more likely to develop an infection from Valley Fever. Dust storms can have a significant effect on agriculture by damaging crops and harming livestock. They can ...

  8. GPM Sees Powerful Storms in Tropical Storm Hermine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This is a 3-D animated flyby of Tropical Storm Hermine created using radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Aug. 31 at 4 p.m. EDT GPM found rainfall occurring at a rate of over 9.9 inches (251 ...

  9. Prediction and Identification of Flash Flood Storms in Colorado. Part I: Attributes of Environment and Storm Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Rita; Wilson, James

    2013-04-01

    between 2.5 - 15 m/s (5-30 kts), so storms were either semi-stationary or not moving particularly fast. Numerous storms formed on these days, but the heaviest rainfall and flash flood resulted from merging storms, back-building storms, and the continual re-initiation of new storms over the same elevated terrain locations during the afternoon period. The collision of convergence boundaries over the plains and the enhancement of existing storms by convergence boundary passage resulted in the formation of large, semi-stationary storms that proceeded to rain heavily over the Denver urban area, and caused one fatality on one of the days. On another day, the storms that formed all seemed rather similar in character, but the rainfall associated with storms that passed over a recent fire burn area caused flooding in that sensitive land area. Identifying and improving the prediction of those specific storms that will produce the heaviest rainfall or case substantial flooding is challenging. Use of basic extrapolation techniques are not sufficient for prediction of heavy rainfall and flooding events (see Part II). Planned efforts include using the documented attributes of the ten heavy precipitation events to develop improved, location-specific, detection and prediction of heavy precipitation storms.

  10. Home-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation for Long-Term Denervated Human Muscle: History, Basics, Results and Perspectives of the Vienna Rehabilitation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    We will here discuss the following points related to Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-b FES) as treatment for patients with permanently denervated muscles in their legs: 1. Upper (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) damage to the lower spinal cord; 2. Muscle atrophy/hypertrophy versus processes of degeneration, regeneration, and recovery; 3. Recovery of twitch- and tetanic-contractility by h-b FES; 4. Clinical effects of h-b FES using the protocol of the “Vienna School”; 5. Limitations and perspectives. Arguments in favor of using the Vienna protocol include: 1. Increased muscle size in both legs; 2. Improved tetanic force production after 3-5 months of percutaneous stimulation using long stimulus pulses (> 100 msec) of high amplitude (> 80 mAmp), tolerated only in patients with no pain sensibility; 3. Histological and electron microscopic evidence that two years of h-b FES return muscle fibers to a state typical of two weeks denervated muscles with respect to atrophy, disrupted myofibrillar structure, and disorganized Excitation-Contraction Coupling (E-CC) structures; 4. The excitability never recovers to that typical of normal or reinnervated muscles where pulses less than 1 msec in duration and 25 mAmp in intensity excite axons and thereby muscle fibres. It is important to motivate these patients for chronic stimulation throughout life, preferably standing up against the load of the body weight rather than sitting. Only younger and low weight patients can expect to be able to stand-up and do some steps more or less independently. Some patients like to maintain the h-b FES training for decades. Limitations of the procedure are obvious, in part related to the use of multiple, large surface electrodes and the amount of time patients are willing to use for such muscle training. PMID:26913127

  11. Ligand and electrically induced acitivation patterns in myenteric neuronal networks. Confocal calcium imaging as a bridge between basic and human physiology.

    PubMed

    Bisschops, R

    2008-01-01

    Confocal imaging in combination with fluorescent calcium indicators provides the possibility to study neuronal activation in entire neuronal networks. The experiments presented in this essay aimed at applying confocal calcium imaging to study activation patterns in neuronal networks of myenteric ganglia in situ. First we studied the response to electrical train stimulation (ETS). ETS induced Ca2+ transients in 52.2% and 65.4% of the neurons when applied orally and aborally respectively. We observed more responses during aboral ETS which is not in line with the hypothesis of neuronal polarity, suggesting complex neuronal activation patterns and neuronal interaction in ETS-induced activation in myenteric ganglia. We demonstrated that ghrelin has a direct excitatory effect on myenteric neurons in situ via ghrelin receptor activation. Ghrelin induced Ca2+ transients in one third of the myenteric neurons, involving release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and direct GHS-receptor activation. We found that CRF activates one fifth of the myenteric neurons, via CRF1 receptor activation. These CRF induced Ca2+ signals involved somatic influx through (mainly R-type) voltage operated Ca2+ channels. Finally we set up human studies in healthy volunteers and dyspeptic patients to test the effect of ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility. Intravenous administration of ghrelin induced a premature phase 3 activity front that originated in the stomach and an increase in gastric tone. Ghrelin decreased gastric emptying time for fluids and reduced symptom scores for fullness and pain. These studies provide further evidence for a role of ghrelin in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, and possibly provide new therapeutic approaches. Our studies show that confocal calcium imaging allows to assess neuronal activation of myenteric neurons. The influence of new hormones or new pharmaceutical compounds on the myenteric plexus can hereby be easily assessed.

  12. Satellite View of 2 Trop. Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    System 98L exploded into Tropical Storm Irene on Saturday, August 20. This GOES-13 Video shows Tropical Storm Harvey making landfall in Belize (just beneath the Yucatan Peninsula) and moving into t...

  13. Martian Dust Storm, Nov. 18, 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-21

    This nearly global mosaic of observations from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Nov. 18, 2012, shows a dust storm in Mars southern hemisphere. Small white arrows outline the area where dust from the storm is apparent in the atmosphere.

  14. Templates of Change: Storms and Shoreline Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert; Hayden, Bruce

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of research designed to assess and predict the storm-related hazards of living on the coast. Findings suggest that certain sections of coastline are more vulnerable than others to storm damage. (WB)

  15. Patterns of Storm Injury and Tree Response

    Treesearch

    Kevin Smith; Walter Shortle; Kenneth Dudzik

    2001-01-01

    The ice storm of January 1998 in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada was an extreme example of severe weather that injures trees every year. Broken branches, split branch forks, and snapped stems are all examples of storm injury.

  16. Templates of Change: Storms and Shoreline Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert; Hayden, Bruce

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of research designed to assess and predict the storm-related hazards of living on the coast. Findings suggest that certain sections of coastline are more vulnerable than others to storm damage. (WB)

  17. Tropical Storm Debby Moves into Atlantic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Debby from June 25-27, 2012. The animation shows that Tropical Storm Debby's center move from the northeastern Gulf of...

  18. nuSTORM and A Path to a Muon Collider

    DOE PAGES

    Adey, David; Bayes, Ryan; Bross, Alan; ...

    2015-05-20

    Our article reviews the current status of the nuSTORM facility and shows how it can be utilized to perform the next step on the path toward the realization of a μ+μ- collider. This review includes the physics motivation behind nuSTORM, a detailed description of the facility and the neutrino beams it can produce, and a summary of the short-baseline neutrino oscillation physics program that can be carried out at the facility. The idea for nuSTORM (the production of neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring) was discussed in the literature more than 30 years agomore » in the context of searching for noninteracting (sterile) neutrinos. However, only in the past 5 years has the concept been fully developed, motivated in large part by the facility's unmatched reach in addressing the evolving data on oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. Finally, this article reviews the basics of the μ+μ-collider concept and describes how nuSTORM provides a platform to test advanced concepts for six-dimensional muon ionization cooling.« less

  19. Hurricane Risk Assessment: Wind Damage and Storm Surge (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Vanmarcke, E. H.; Emanuel, K.

    2010-12-01

    Hurricanes present major hazards for the United States. Associated with extreme winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surge, landfalling hurricanes often cause enormous structural damage to coastal regions. Risk assessment of hurricane-induced wind damage and storm surge is discussed. First, an innovative windborne debris risk model is presented. It is integrated into a next-generation structural vulnerability analysis to predict cumulative wind damage in residential developments, accounting for the interaction between debris damage and wind-pressure damage during storm passage, a major mechanism leading to structural failures during hurricanes. Second, a risk assessment model is introduced to estimate hurricane storm surge risk along the coast, particularly for data-scarce regions. It couples a statistical/deterministic hurricane model and the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model with grids of various resolutions to simulate large numbers of synthetic surge events for statistical analysis. Basic properties of Poisson random measures are applied to develop the mathematical frameworks for both of these risk models, which can be applied to investigate climate change impact and provide the basis for policy-making related to loss mitigation.

  20. nuSTORM and A Path to a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Adey, David; Bayes, Ryan; Bross, Alan; Snopok, Pavel

    2015-05-20

    Our article reviews the current status of the nuSTORM facility and shows how it can be utilized to perform the next step on the path toward the realization of a μ+μ- collider. This review includes the physics motivation behind nuSTORM, a detailed description of the facility and the neutrino beams it can produce, and a summary of the short-baseline neutrino oscillation physics program that can be carried out at the facility. The idea for nuSTORM (the production of neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring) was discussed in the literature more than 30 years ago in the context of searching for noninteracting (sterile) neutrinos. However, only in the past 5 years has the concept been fully developed, motivated in large part by the facility's unmatched reach in addressing the evolving data on oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. Finally, this article reviews the basics of the μ+μ-collider concept and describes how nuSTORM provides a platform to test advanced concepts for six-dimensional muon ionization cooling.

  1. ENSO and winter storms in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Bromirski, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of North Pacific winter storms that penetrate the California coast drives the winds, sea level, precipitation and streamflow that are crucial influences on coastal processes. There is considerable variability of these storm characteristics, in large part owing to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO} phenomenon. There is a great contrast of the storm characteristics during the El Nino phase vs. the La Nina phase, with the largest scale, southerly extensive winter storms generated during El Nino.

  2. Uplift of Ionospheric Oxygen Ions During Extreme Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Huba, Joseph; Lakhina, Gurbax S.

    2013-01-01

    Research reported earlier in literature was conducted relating to estimation of the ionospheric electrical field, which may have occurred during the September 1859 Carrington geomagnetic storm event, with regard to modern-day consequences. In this research, the NRL SAMI2 ionospheric code has been modified and applied the estimated electric field to the dayside ionosphere. The modeling was done at 15-minute time increments to track the general ionospheric changes. Although it has been known that magnetospheric electric fields get down into the ionosphere, it has been only in the last ten years that scientists have discovered that intense magnetic storm electric fields do also. On the dayside, these dawn-to-dusk directed electric fields lift the plasma (electrons and ions) up to higher altitudes and latitudes. As plasma is removed from lower altitudes, solar UV creates new plasma, so the total plasma in the ionosphere is increased several-fold. Thus, this complex process creates super-dense plasmas at high altitudes (from 700 to 1,000 km and higher).

  3. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E...

  4. Rain from Tropical Storm Noel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).

  5. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E...

  6. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianquan; Ma, Hongqiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-05

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy. Among all SR techniques, STORM offers a high spatial resolution with simple optical instrumentation and standard organic fluorescent dyes, but it is also prone to image artifacts and degraded image resolution due to improper sample preparation or imaging conditions. It requires careful optimization of all three aspects-sample preparation, image acquisition, and image reconstruction-to ensure a high-quality STORM image, which will be extensively discussed in this unit. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Problems with Modeling Plasmasphere Refilling After Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    During geomagnetic storms, the plasma in the outer plasmasphere is depleted as the plasma drifts away from the Earth across magnetic field (B) lines due to storm-time electric fields. After the storm, the plasmasphere refills due to an upward flow of plasma from the ionosphere that is initially supersonic (H+). The current numerical models of plasmasphere refilling are typically based on a numerical solution of the ion (H+, O+, He+) and electron continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The equations are solved along closed magnetic field lines that connect conjugate ionospheres, with allowance for cross-B plasma drift during storms. Both diffusion and hydrodynamic approximations have been adopted. The diffusion approximation neglects the nonlinear initial term in the momentum equations, so this approximation is not rigorously valid for early refilling times (~ day). At high altitudes, the plasma becomes collisionless and there are different temperatures parallel and perpendicular to B (not included in current models). Also, single-stream and multi-stream (separate ion streams from the conjugate ionospheres) formulations have been adopted, and the refilling features are different. These and other problems with the current plasmasphere refilling models will be discussed.

  8. Evolution of the ring current during two geomagnetic storms

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1987-07-01

    The progressive developments in the radial profiles of the particle pressure, plasma beta, and electric currents of the storm time ring current are investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer on the AMPTE Charged Particle Explorer spacecraft. Measurements of ions from 25 keV to 1 MeV, which carry 70--85% of the energy density of the entire ring current population, are used in this work. Two geomagnetic storms in September of 1984 are selected and four traversals of the equatorial ring current region during the course of each storm are studied. It is shown that enhancements in the particle pressure occur initially in the outer region and reach the inner region in the late phase of the storm. Structures suggestive of multiple particle injections are seen in the pressure profile. The leading and trailing edges of the particle injection structures are associated, respectively, with the depressions and enhancements of the westward current densities of the ring current. Plasma beta occasionally increases to values of the order of 1 in some regions of the ring current from prestorm values of the order of 0.1 or less. It is also found that the location of the maximum ring current particle pressure can be several earth radii from where the most intense westward ring current flows. This is a consequence of the dominance of pressure gradient current over the current associated with the magnetic field line curvature and particle anisotropy. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  9. The Ring Current Response to Solar and Interplanetary Storm Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Bingham, S.; Kronberg, E. A.; Gkioulidou, M.; Huang, C. L.; Farrugia, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The ring current responds differently to the different solar and interplanetary storm drivers such as coronal mass injections, (CME's), corotating interaction regions (CIR's), high-speed streamers and other structures. The resulting changes in the ring current particle pressure, in turn, change the global magnetic field, controlling the transport of the radiation belts. To quantitatively determine the field changes during a storm throughout the magnetosphere, it is necessary to understand the transport, sources and losses of the particles that contribute to the ring current. Because the measured ring current energy spectra depend not only on local processes, but also on the history of the ions along their entire drift path, measurements of ring current energy spectra at two or more locations can be used to strongly constrain the time dependent magnetic and electric fields. In this study we use data predominantly from the Cluster and the Van Allen Probes, covering more than a full solar cycle (from 2001 to 2014). For the period 2001-2012, the Cluster CODIF and RAPID measurements of the inner magnetosphere are the primary data set used to monitor the storm time ring current variability. After 2012, the Cluster data set complements the data from the Van Allen Probes HOPE and RBSPICE instruments, providing additional measurements from different MLT and L shells. Selected storms from this periods, allow us to study the ring current dynamics and pressure changes, as a function of L shell, magnetic local time, and the type of interplanetary disturbances.

  10. Storm severity detection (RF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Goodman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric electrical emissions occurring in association with Hurricane Alicia were observed by two crossed baseline phase linear interferometers. The sensors were located in San Antonio, Texas, and at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Alabama. An analysis of the data has indicated that the direction finding (DF) performance of the San Antonio site was extremely good while the DF performance at the MSFC site evidenced erratic behavior. A check of the data acquisition hardware revealed an intermitted problem in one of the radio receiver channels. Since the system has experienced several lightning strikes during the early spring of 1984, it was necessary to ship the entire rack of equipment back to SwRI for refurbishment. Analysis of the DF data from the interferometer site at San Antonio is being done. A limited subset of the MSFC data acquired during Hurricane Alicia has been found to be valid. These were data which satisfied the phase linearity criteria. Approximately 2,000 location estimates have been produced on the valid data. The results of the DF analysis and the location data are being correlated with the McIDAS data base at Marshall Space Flight Center, and with the radar summary data provided by the Hurricane Research Division using the National weather Service radar Facility at Galveston, Texas.

  11. Storm severity detection (RF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Goodman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric electrical emissions occurring in association with Hurricane Alicia were observed by two crossed baseline phase linear interferometers. The sensors were located in San Antonio, Texas, and at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Alabama. An analysis of the data has indicated that the direction finding (DF) performance of the San Antonio site was extremely good while the DF performance at the MSFC site evidenced erratic behavior. A check of the data acquisition hardware revealed an intermitted problem in one of the radio receiver channels. Since the system has experienced several lightning strikes during the early spring of 1984, it was necessary to ship the entire rack of equipment back to SwRI for refurbishment. Analysis of the DF data from the interferometer site at San Antonio is being done. A limited subset of the MSFC data acquired during Hurricane Alicia has been found to be valid. These were data which satisfied the phase linearity criteria. Approximately 2,000 location estimates have been produced on the valid data. The results of the DF analysis and the location data are being correlated with the McIDAS data base at Marshall Space Flight Center, and with the radar summary data provided by the Hurricane Research Division using the National weather Service radar Facility at Galveston, Texas.

  12. Weathering the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-03-01

    The power markets of Canada, the United States and Mexico differ greatly in the extent of their electrification and their methods of regulation. Upon looking closer, however, the developer would be struck by remarkable similarities in the three countries` current market conditions. All three countries are undergoing fundamental structural changes in the way electric power investments ar planned, built, and operated. Energy users are demanding greater flexibility in choosing suppliers and services, and traditional utilities are resisting forces that threaten their market positions. Economic and regulatory uncertainties have delayed new power investments, and independent power developers are finding a high level of competition for available project opportunities. In Canada, slow economic growth has resulted in minimal demands for new power. Similarly, utilities in the US have adopted a wait and see posture as regulators and legislators work to restructure the country`s power industry. In Mexico, the devaluation of the peso in late December continues to have a chilling effect on development in the country. This article examines prospects for independent power in North American markets during this time of transition.

  13. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  14. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  15. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  16. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  17. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  18. Characterizing Times Between Storms in Mountainous Areas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An exploratory investigation was conducted on how two parameters that characterize dry times between storms (average time between storms, ATBS, and minimum dry time between storms, MTBS) vary with elevation, and how these two parameters may be estimated for areas without data. 16 rain gauges with h...

  19. A Global Database of Tropical Storm Surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Hal F.; Keim, Barry D.; Sathiaraj, David; Shafer, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Tropical cyclone-generated storm surges are among the world's most deadly and costly natural disasters. The destructive nature of this hazard was clearly seen last fall, as Hurricane Sandy generated a devastating storm surge along the mid-Atlantic coast. The storm killed 147 people and caused approximately $50 billion in economic losses [Blake et al., 2012].

  20. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  1. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  2. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  3. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  4. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  5. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  6. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  7. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  8. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  9. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  10. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  11. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  12. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  13. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  14. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  15. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  16. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  17. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  18. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  19. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  20. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be suitable... does not permit improper connection. (d) Electrical equipment and circuits must be clearly marked...