Science.gov

Sample records for electricity supply technologies

  1. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  2. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.E.

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  3. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  4. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  5. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  6. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hertwich, Edgar G.; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A.; Arvesen, Anders; Heath, Garvin A.; Bergesen, Joseph D.; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I.; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11–40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6–14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050. PMID:25288741

  7. Successful Use of Remote Engineering Technology to Upgrade Electrical Power Supplies to a Plant Producing Vitrified Highly Active Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Harken, J.P.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a remote handling intervention project on the Sellafield site in the UK that successfully replaced a critical part of a critical plant in a highly radioactive and contaminated cell. The aim of the project was to replace the existing design of electrical power supplies inside the plant that vitrifies high level liquid waste with a new improved design. The project designed and built a hydraulic manipulator and associated work-heads and tooling to be deployed in cell to remotely replace the power supplies. As part of this replacement process, the project also designed and built a drilling rig to remotely drill holes through the cell wall suitable for the new design of electrical power supplies. (authors)

  8. Stand by electrical supply source

    SciTech Connect

    Mucsy, E.; Hoos, K.

    1985-06-25

    A stand-by electrical energy source for equipment to be operated with substantially continuous current supply, comprising three components one of which is at least one electric rotary machine, another of which is a flywheel and the third of which is an auxiliary energy source. Planetary gearing is provided, comprising a central shaft on which is mounted a sun gear, a planet gear and a ring gear, each of the three components being connected with a respective one of these gears. Two of the three components are interconnected by a drive with an infinitely variable transmission. In one embodiment, the electric rotary machine is connected to the planet gear, the flywheel is connected to the sun gear and the auxiliary energy source is connected with the ring gear. In another embodiment, the electric rotary machine is connected to the sun gear, the flywheel is connected to the ring gear, and the auxiliary energy source is connected to the planet gear.

  9. Use of the NII to study impacts of new technologies and policies on supply and demand of electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal to use an implementation of client-server technology on the Internet for simulating a number of aspects of electric power production, distribution, and consumption within a wholly new regulatory, financing, operating, and control environment. This approach would use a large number of people to generate strategies and decisions, in a real-time context, needed to drive the simulation. A World Wide Web server would provide background information about the simulation for those who chose to participate as actors in one of supported roles. Roles would be based on activities associated with different business areas and would include utility manager, independent power producer (entrepreneur), electric power futures trader, electric power futures investor, electric power wheeler, industrial customer, commercial customer, and residential customer. The simulation program would run on a system of high-performance computers (parallel computer system) that communicate between each other on a high speed communications bus. These computers would also be the server systems for the client programs used by the actors. People who want to be actors would be required to register before being given a client program, as a way to have some control over the simulation results. Each role will have its corresponding client program with graphical user interface. Each client program will support a common view of the simulation results and a role specific view.

  10. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. Descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications are presented.

  11. Advising and Optimizing the Deployment of Sustainability-Oriented Technologies in the Integrated Electricity, Light-Duty Transportation, and Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian

    The convergence of increasing populations, decreasing primary resource availability, and uncertain climates have drawn attention to the challenge of shifting the operations of key resource sectors towards a sustainable paradigm. This is prevalent in California, which has set sustainability-oriented policies such as the Renewable Portfolio Standards and Zero-Emission Vehicle mandates. To meet these goals, many options have been identified to potentially carry out these shifts. The electricity sector is focusing on accommodating renewable power generation, the transportation sector on alternative fuel drivetrains and infrastructure, and the water supply sector on conservation, reuse, and unconventional supplies. Historical performance evaluations of these options, however, have not adequately taken into account the impacts on and constraints of co-dependent infrastructures that must accommodate them and their interactions with other simultaneously deployed options. These aspects are critical for optimally choosing options to meet sustainability goals, since the combined system of all resource sectors must satisfy them. Certain operations should not be made sustainable at the expense of rendering others as unsustainable, and certain resource sectors should not meet their individual goals in a way that hinders the ability of the entire system to do so. Therefore, this work develops and utilizes an integrated platform of the electricity, transportation, and water supply sectors to characterize the performance of emerging technology and management options while taking into account their impacts on co-dependent infrastructures and identify synergistic or detrimental interactions between the deployment of different options. This is carried out by first evaluating the performance of each option in the context of individual resource sectors to determine infrastructure impacts, then again in the context of paired resource sectors (electricity-transportation, electricity

  12. 14 CFR 25.1362 - Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical supplies for emergency... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1362 Electrical supplies for emergency conditions. A suitable electrical supply must...

  13. Improving Electrical Efficiency of Edm Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Emanoil; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    This paper briefly presents the principal types of Pulse Generators for Electrical Discharge Machining and ways to improve electrical efficiency. A resonant converter with series-parallel LCC circuit, for EDM applications, was analyzed by PSpice simulation. The performances of EDM Power Supply were improved by adding an energy recovering - voltage limiter circuit. The shape of current pulse was changed by adding a supplementary MOSFET Switch in parallel with the gap. Two or more converters can be parallelized, in this way output current can be changed. A bloc-schema was conceived for EDM experimental set up

  14. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-30

    This document contains quarterly reports on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicles technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-93-1-0027.

  15. Electric power supplying well head assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, L. T.

    1985-01-01

    A well head assembly that terminates on the upper end in a horizontal mounting flange on which the flange of a christmas tree array of valves may be sealingly mounted to control the flow of fluid from the well associated therewith, and the well head assembly including slidably engageable first and second electrical conducting cartridges below the mounting flange for supplying electric power to a number of insulated electrical conductors that extend downwardly in the well to an electric motor driven down hole pump or other electrical apparatus. The positioning of the christmas tree array of valves at a minimum height relative to the well head is most desirable in those situations where a number of wells are drilled close together, such as on an off shore island, and equipment must be periodically moved over the array of valves for maintenance or drilling purposes. The well head assembly also includes means for pressurizing a normally open pressure actuated valve in communication with a tubing string operatively associated with the assembly to place the valve in a closed position. closing of the valve eliminates the possibility of continued undesired fluid discharge from the well in the event of a catastrophe or malfunctioning of the well.

  16. Radiofrequency identification technology: protecting the drug supply.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The FDA has stepped up its efforts to improve the safety and security of the nation's drug supply by encouraging the use of a state-of-the-art technology that tags product packaging electronically. The technology, called radiofrequency identification, or RFID, allows manufacturers and distributors to more precisely track drug products through the supply chain.

  17. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  18. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  19. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)…

  20. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)…

  1. Building renewable electricity supply in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Bangladesh is experiencing a severe electric power capacity crisis that is only likely to worsen over the next 15 years. Further, over 80% of Bangladesh`s population still lives with no electricity, and the rate of grid expansion to connect rural villages is threatened by the looming capacity shortage. There are a number of underlying reasons for the crisis, but ultimately the country lacks the fossil fuel resources required to conduct a large scale grid-expansion program. Alternative approaches to electrifying the country must be found. This paper outlines the prospects for wind and solar power in Bangladesh, and estimates the potential for commercial applications now and in the future. This includes a technical assessment, a market assessment, an environmental assessment, and a policy assessment. The paper concludes that Bangladesh holds the potential to cost-effectively meet a significant fraction of its future electricity demand through the use of renewable generation technologies, possibly adding as much renewable capacity as the current overall electric power capacity of the country. Many parts of the country have favorable solar and wind conditions and there are many potentially cost-effective applications. But the country must develop a policy framework that allows and encourages private investors to develop renewable energy projects in order to realize the enormous potential of renewables.

  2. Science and precaution in the appraisal of electricity supply options.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A

    2001-09-14

    The technological risks associated with electricity generating options are a crucial consideration in the governance of energy strategies. Conversely, many central issues in the broader social debate over the governance of environmental risk (such as acid gas emissions, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety and global climate change) relate very strongly to technology choice in the electricity supply sector. The particularities of this field, therefore, offer a topical and pertinent case with which to explore the relationship between science and precaution in the governance of technological risk. By reference to the electricity sector, the present paper examines the contrasts between 'risk-based' and 'precautionary' approaches to the governance of risk, paying particular attention to the problems of intractable uncertainties and divergent values. A number of theoretical and methodological issues in conventional risk-assessment and cost-benefit analysis are examined and their practical implications for appraisal explored. Attention then turns to the form that might be taken by approaches to the governance of energy risks that are at the same time scientifically well-founded and precautionary. Conclusions are drawn for decision and policy making in this area.

  3. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  4. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-07-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  5. 8. VIEW OF THE SWITCHGEAR AND ELECTRICAL SUPPLY ROOM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE SWITCHGEAR AND ELECTRICAL SUPPLY ROOM IN BETWEEN SIDES A AND B OF BUILDING 883. EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE BUILDING REQUIRED AN EXTENSIVE AMOUNT OF POWER. THE ELECTRICAL SUPPLY ROOM IS ESSENTIALLY AN ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 5. VIEW OF POWER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT SHOWING ELECTRIC MOTER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF POWER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT SHOWING ELECTRIC MOTER AND DRIVE & FLYWHEELS WITH BELT TRANSMISSION. ORIGINALLY STEAM DRIVEN - Anchor (Stangl) Pottery Company, 940 New York Avenue, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  7. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-12-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  8. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  9. Factors affecting household satisfaction with electricity supply in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aklin, Michaël; Cheng, Chao-Yo; Urpelainen, Johannes; Ganesan, Karthik; Jain, Abhishek

    2016-11-01

    Electricity is an important component of socio-economic development, but most studies of household electricity access focus exclusively on the presence or absence of a connection. Here we reach beyond connectivity by examining the relationship between various dimensions of the quality of electricity supply and a household's subjective satisfaction with their electricity or lighting situation. Studying the results from a survey of 8,568 households in six large, energy-poor states from northern, central and eastern India, we find that household satisfaction responds strongly to the average hours of electricity available on a typical day. The positive effect of increasing the number of hours per day by one standard deviation on satisfaction is almost as large as that of electrifying a non-electrified household. These findings underscore the importance of moving from counting electricity connections to enhancing the quality of electricity supply.

  10. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  11. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  12. 14 CFR 25.1362 - Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical supplies for emergency conditions. 25.1362 Section 25.1362 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1362 - Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical supplies for emergency conditions. 25.1362 Section 25.1362 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1362 - Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical supplies for emergency conditions. 25.1362 Section 25.1362 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1362 - Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical supplies for emergency conditions. 25.1362 Section 25.1362 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and...

  16. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  17. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  18. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  19. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  20. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  1. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  2. (Energy and electricity supply and demand)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1990-10-09

    At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), representing eleven international agencies which are sponsoring the 1991 Helsinki Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, I traveled to Brussels to participate in the second meeting of one of four advisory groups established to prepare for the Symposium. At the meeting, I was involved in a review of a draft issue paper being prepared for the Symposium and of the Symposium program.

  3. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  4. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  5. New England electricity supply outlook: Summer 1998 -- and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    New England is in the third summer of a protracted electricity supply shortage that began with the shutdown of a substantial quantity of nuclear generating capacity, particularly the 2,630 megawatts (MW) from the three Millstone units located in Connecticut and owned and operated by Northeast Utilities. This report was prepared in response to a request from Senator Christopher Dodd and Senator Joseph Lieberman, both of Connecticut, that the Department of Energy provide an update of its June 1997 report, New England Electricity Supply Outlook, Summer 1997--and Beyond, which examines measures that might be taken to ease the supply shortage, particularly measured to relieve transmission constraints that restrict the import of electricity into Connecticut. In the interval since the 1997 report, three changes have occurred in the region`s overall electric supply context that are particularly significant: the Millstone 3 nuclear unit (1,150 MW) has been put back into service at full capacity; electricity demand is higher, due primarily to regional economic growth. The region`s projected 1998 peak demand is 22,100 MW, 1,531 MW higher than the region`s 1997 peak; and many new additions to the region`s generating capacity have been announced, with projected completion dates varying between 1999 and 2002. If all of the announced projects were completed--which appears unlikely--the total additions would exceed 25,000 MW. A small number of new transmission projects have also been announced.

  6. Electric Field Containerless Processing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the science and technology base required to design and construct a high temperature electric field positioning module that could be used by materials scientists to conduct containerless science experiments in a low gravity environment. Containerless science modules that employ electric fields to position and manipulate samples offer several advantages over acoustic or electromagnetic systems. The electric field system will operate not only at atmospheric pressures but also in a vacuum, in contrast to the acoustic modules which can only operate in atmosphere where the acoustic forces are sufficient. The electric field technique puts minimum energy into the sample, whereas the electromagnetic system can deposit energy into the sample through eddy current heat as well as physical mixing in the sample. Two types of electric field modules have been constructed and tested to date. One employs a charged sample and uses electrostatic forces to position and control the sample. The second type of module induces electrical polarization of the sample and electric field gradients to position and control the sample.

  7. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  8. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  9. Effects of enterprise technology on supply chain collaboration: analysis of China-linked supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Supply chain collaboration has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners in recent years. However, our understanding of how enterprise information technology facilitates supply chain collaboration is still very limited, especially with regard to Chinese enterprise ownerships such as state-owned firms, joint-venture firms and local village-owned firms. This paper extends the theory established in enterprise information technology (IT) and supply chain collaboration literature and relates it with coordination in China-linked supply chain. Drawing upon an empirical study from 177 Chinese companies, we provide three major findings: (i) uncovered the importance of leveraging enterprise IT through supply chain collaboration; (ii) identified the relationship between enterprise ownership and enterprise technology use and supply chain collaboration in China-linked supply chain and (iii) illustrated effects of supply chain collaborative activities on operational and market performance.

  10. Climate Considerations Of The Electricity Supply Systems In Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asset, Khabdullin; Zauresh, Khabdullina

    2014-12-01

    The study is focused on analysis of climate considerations of electricity supply systems in a pellet industry. The developed analysis model consists of two modules: statistical data of active power losses evaluation module and climate aspects evaluation module. The statistical data module is presented as a universal mathematical model of electrical systems and components of industrial load. It forms a basis for detailed accounting of power loss from the voltage levels. On the basis of the universal model, a set of programs is designed to perform the calculation and experimental research. It helps to obtain the statistical characteristics of the power losses and loads of the electricity supply systems and to define the nature of changes in these characteristics. Within the module, several methods and algorithms for calculating parameters of equivalent circuits of low- and high-voltage ADC and SD with a massive smooth rotor with laminated poles are developed. The climate aspects module includes an analysis of the experimental data of power supply system in pellet production. It allows identification of GHG emission reduction parameters: operation hours, type of electrical motors, values of load factor and deviation of standard value of voltage.

  11. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  12. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  13. Features of an electricity supply system based on variable input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we analyse and present the major features of electricity production being based predominantly on variable wind onshore and offshore and on photovoltaic generation. Actual data are taken from the German demand and supply situation in 2010. On this basis, the generation capacities are scaled to higher installed powers. The main purpose of the paper is to show characteristic trends and the mostly system oriented consequences of large-scale wind and solar use with fluctuating input.

  14. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  15. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (<140kWe) to be economically attractive (suppliers made their money with maintenance contracts). In the Netherlands, most facilities were sized well above the economic size threshold of 100kWe (lower due to reduced operating and grid connection costs). Institutional players were key in improved sizing of DG. Aided by energy market and CO2 reduction regulatory policy, Dutch distributions utilities played a proactive role in DG. This involved joint ventures with engine cogen suppliers and users, offering improved electricity buy-back tariffs and lower connection costs. This has allowed flexible operation of distributed generation, especially in electricity sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made

  16. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Taliotis, Constantinos; Taibi, Emanuele; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Bazilian, Morgan; Welsch, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  17. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  18. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  19. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  20. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  1. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  2. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  3. Space shuttle electrical power generation and reactant supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design philosophy and development experience of fuel cell power generation and cryogenic reactant supply systems are reviewed, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. Technology advancements span a period of 10 years from initial definition phase to the most recent space transportation system (STS) flights. The development program encompassed prototype, verification, and qualification hardware, as well as post-STS-1 design improvements. Focus is on the problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches employed to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained. Major technology barriers are discussed, and the evolving technology development paths are traced from their conceptual beginnings to the fully man-rated systems which are now an integral part of the shuttle vehicle.

  4. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This teaching guide is designed to help teachers develop lesson plans around nine chapters provided in the student textbook. Chapters focus on energy use, energy demand, energy supply, principles of electric power generation, today's generating options, future generating options, electricity storage and delivery, environmental concerns, and making…

  5. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This teaching guide is designed to help teachers develop lesson plans around nine chapters provided in the student textbook. Chapters focus on energy use, energy demand, energy supply, principles of electric power generation, today's generating options, future generating options, electricity storage and delivery, environmental concerns, and making…

  6. Electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electrical storage-supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R.J.; Ang, P.G.P.

    1984-11-27

    An electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electric storage-supply system and process is disclosed using a sodium or potassium sulfidepolysulfide anolyte reaction and an iodide-polyiodide, chloride-chlorine or bromide-bromine species catholyte reaction. The catholyte and anolyte are separated by an ion selective membrane permeable to positive sodium and potassium ions and substantially impermeable to negative bromide, chloride, iodide, sulfide and polysulfide ions. A flowing electrolyte system is disclosed with external electrolyte storage vessels. The apparatus and process provide an electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation system in which the electrolytes may be maintained at near neutral or slightly basic pH, with virtually no parasitic side reactions upon charging, such as hydrogen or oxygen evolution, and the disclosed storage and supply system provides higher energy densities than referenced prior art systems.

  7. The evolving role of supply chain management technology in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The healthcare supply chain is a vast, disintegrated network of products and players, loosely held together by manual and people-intensive processes. Managing the flow of information, supplies, equipment, and services from manufacturers to distributors to providers of care is especially difficult in clinical supply chains, compared with more technology-intense industries like consumer goods or industrial manufacturing. As supplies move downstream towards hospitals and clinics, the quality and robustness of accompanying management and information systems used to manage these products deteriorates significantly. Technology that provides advanced planning, synchronization, and collaboration upstream at the large supply manufacturers and distributors rarely is used at even the world's larger and more sophisticated hospitals. This article outlines the current state of healthcare supply chain management technologies, addresses potential reasons for the lack of adoption of technologies and provides a roadmap for the evolution of technology for the future. This piece is based on both quantitative and qualitative research assessments of the healthcare supply chain conducted during the last two years.

  8. Electric Propulsion Technologies for Project Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, S.

    2004-11-01

    Last year NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, began efforts to develop technologies for nuclear systems for space use. Key to these developments are electric propulsion technologies that have been shown to enable new nuclear powered missions. A discussion of these mission applications and their projected requirements are discussed. This mission set is focused on a 100 kWe nuclear electric powered flagship science mission.. The corresponding electric propulsion technologies of interest and under development are discussed. These technologies include high power / high Isp gridded ion and Hall thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic, and other new concepts. Finally, base technology developments, such as long life components, electrodeless concepts, and alternate propellants are reviewed.

  9. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-05

    Tactical Vehicles FMTV HEHMMWV HE Combat Vehicle Demos M113 HE PegasusAHED 8x8 Army Hybrid Electric Vehicles FTTS Technology Base Traction Motors...capabilities and enabling technologies Objectives: • Baselined fuel economy data and analyses of hybrid electric vehicles • HEV Test Methodology Test

  10. 76 FR 5833 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ..., Supply Technologies, Aerotek, and Securitas Security Services, Osceola, WI; Amended Certification... workers from Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek and Securitas Security Services, Osceola, Wisconsin... to include on- site leased workers from Supply Technologies. The notice as published in the Federal...

  11. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  12. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  13. Trends in electricity demand and supply in the developing countries, 1980--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Campbell, C.

    1992-11-01

    This report provides an overview of trends concerning electricity demand and supply in the developing countries in the 1980--1990 period, with special focus on 13 major countries for which we have assembled consistent data series. We describe the linkage between electricity demand and economic growth, the changing sectoral composition of electricity consumption, and changes in the mix of energy sources for electricity generation. We also cover trends in the efficiency of utility electricity supply with respect to power plant efficiency and own-use and delivery losses, and consider the trends in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity supply.

  14. Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply by Peter T. Bartkowski ARL-TR-6987 July 2014... Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply Peter T. Bartkowski Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  15. Validating Advanced Supply-Chain Technology (VAST)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Use philosophy that is so important in today’s procurement environment. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and eCommerce is proving to be a major...the STEPwise methodology are particularly encouraging. These new EDI and eCommerce technologies are becoming more important with the customers who...critical assumption is based upon the 55 fact that eCommerce is growing throughout the commercial and military sector and those who are not

  16. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  17. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  18. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same.... (f) The source of power for each hydraulically operated watertight door system using an independent...

  19. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same.... (f) The source of power for each hydraulically operated watertight door system using an independent...

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  2. Optimized Operation and Electrical Power Supply System of Ignitor*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, A.; Candela, G.; Coletti, R.; Costa, P.; Maffia, G.; Santinelli, M.; Starace, F.; Sforna, M.; Allegra, G.; Trevisan, L.; Florio, A.; Novaro, R.; Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    The performance of the control system for the position and shape of the elongated, tight aspect ratio plasma column of Two reference sets of parameters for the operation of Ignitor have been identified. One, the main set, involves plasma currents up to 11MA and toroidal fields up to 13T. The reduced parameter set corresponds to 7MA with fields of 9T and considerably longer pulse flat-tops. The evolution of the relevant currents in the toroidal and the poloidal field magnet systems has been optimized in order to minimize the requirements on the electrical power supply and cryogenic cooling systems. Thyristor amplifiers are adapted to drive both the toroidal and poloidal field magnet systems. The total installed power for these systems is 2400 MVA. The connection of this to the terminals, involving two nodes of the 400 kV grid, at the Caorso site, which houses a dismantled nuclear power station, has been analyzed and authorized by the TERNA- GRTN Agency. A particular consideration has been given to the problems involving the control of both the position and the shaping of the plasma column.*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. DOE.

  3. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  4. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  5. A Comparative Study of Power Supply Architectures In Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Bryan

    Wireless inductive power transfer is a transformational and disruptive technology that enables the reliable and efficient transfer of electrical power over large air gaps for a host of unique applications. One such application that is now gaining much momentum worldwide is the wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis examines two of the primary power supply topologies being predominantly used for EV charging, namely the SLC and the LCL resonant full bridge inverter topologies. The study of both of these topologies is presented in the context of designing a 3 kW, primary side controlled, wireless EV charger with nominal operating parameters of 30 kHz centre frequency and range of coupling in the neighborhood of .18-.26. A comparison of both topologies is made in terms of their complexity, cost, efficiency, and power quality. The aim of the study is to determine which topology is better for wireless EV charging.

  6. The Supply of Information Technology Workers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Peter; Aspray, William

    This study is designed to improve understanding of the supply of and demand for information technology (IT) workers in America and contextual issues surrounding that topic. Chapter 1 examines aspects of the political context concerning IT workforce issues. Chapter 2 outlines a way to distinguish IT workers from a much larger class of workers whose…

  7. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  8. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  9. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  13. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  14. Exploratory Research for New Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

    2005-01-01

    We will review highlights of exploratory research for new PV technologies funded by the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program through NREL and its Photovoltaic Exploratory Research Project. The goal for this effort is highlighted in the beginning of the Solar Program Multi-Year Technical Plan by Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham's challenge to leapfrog the status quo by pursuing research having the potential to create breakthroughs. The ultimate goal is to create solar electric technologies for achieving electricity costs below 5 cents/kWh. Exploratory research includes work on advanced photovoltaic technologies (organic and ultra-high efficiency solar cells for solar concentrators) as well as innovative approaches to emerging and mature technologies (e.g., crystalline silicon).

  15. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  16. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  17. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schüngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics.

  18. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms.

    PubMed

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schüngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics.

  19. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    PubMed

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management.

  20. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Partnership for electrical generation technology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R. S.; Beaty, L.; Holman, R.

    2006-07-01

    This Engineering Technician education effort adapts an existing two-year Instrumentation and Control (I and C) education program into a model that is focused on electrical-generation technologies. It will also locally implement a program developed elsewhere with National Science Foundation funding, aimed at public schools, and adapt it to stimulate pre-college interest in pursuing energy careers in general. (authors)

  2. Electrical Technology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides a model for organizing vocational instructional content for a postsecondary electrical technology program. It is divided into six sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophies, purposes, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a discussion of employability skills, description of…

  3. Electrical Technology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides a model for organizing vocational instructional content for a postsecondary electrical technology program. It is divided into six sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophies, purposes, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a discussion of employability skills, description of…

  4. Technology opportunities in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Strategic Research & Development (SR&D) program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The intent of the program is to anticipate and shape the scientific and technological future of the electricity enterprise. SR&D serves those industry R&D needs that are more exploratory, precompetitive, and longer-term. To this end, SR&D seeks to anticipate technological change and, where possible, shape that change to the advantage of the electric utility enterprise and its customers. SR&D`s response to this challenge is research and development program that addresses the most probable future of the industry, but at the same time is robust against alternative futures. The EPRI SR&D program is organized into several vectors, each with a mission that relates directly to one or more EPRI industry goals, which are summarized in the paper. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Electrical Stimulation Technologies for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Luther C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the physiological bases for using exogenously applied electric field (EF) energy to enhance wound healing with conductive electrical stimulation (ES) devices. Approach: To describe the types of electrical currents that have been reported to enhance chronic wound-healing rate and closure. Results: Commercial ES devices that generate direct current (DC), and mono and biphasic pulsed current waveforms represent the principal ES technologies which are reported to enhance wound healing. Innovation: Wafer-thin, disposable ES technologies (wound dressings) that utilize mini or micro-batteries to deliver low-level DC for wound healing and antibacterial wound-treatment purposes are commercially available. Microfluidic wound-healing chips are currently being used with greater accuracy to investigate the EF effects on cellular electrotaxis. Conclusion: Numerous clinical trials described in subsequent sections of this issue have demonstrated that ES used adjunctively with standard wound care (SWC), enhances wound healing rate faster than SWC alone. PMID:24761348

  6. Erratic electricity supply (Dumsor) and anxiety disorders among university students in Ghana: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdallah; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Asampong, Emmanuel; Dwomoh, Duah; Nonvignon, Justice

    2016-01-01

    Ghana is currently experiencing electricity supply crisis that is believed to have some impact on the mental wellbeing of the population, especially among university students that have become increasingly dependent on uninterrupted electricity supply to fully function academically. There is no known study that explores the link between infrequent electricity supply and generalized anxiety disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore that link and determine the proportion of university students whose anxiety levels may be influenced by the electricity supply crisis that the country is experiencing at the moment. This exploratory study used the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) to conduct the study on the University of Ghana campus. The likelihood ratio (LR) test and Fisher's Exact tests were used to determine any association between the electricity supply crisis and anxiety levels among students. Unadjusted odds ratio and corresponding confidence intervals were estimated and ordinal logistic regression technique was used for the effect of covariates on anxiety. Overall, nearly 26 % of students interviewed felt nervous, anxious or on edge almost every day due to the erratic power supply. The proportion of students determined to be classified having minimal, mild, moderate and severe anxiety due to the erratic power supply was 24.2, 30.7, 22.1 and 23.1 % respectively. Students were significantly more likely to be anxious if the frequency of power outage increased (OR 1.36; CI 1.23-1.49). Our finding in this study suggests that although the erratic power supply does not allude to any clinical confirmation of the students having anxiety disorders, it does point to a fact that even in a resource-poor country like Ghana, where constant supply of electricity is not always guaranteed, students may not be entirely immune to the health and well-being implications of failures in some sectors of the economy such as power supply.

  7. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  8. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  9. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  10. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.R.; Doherty, M.P.; Peecook, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  11. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  12. Space station electrical power system technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, A.A.

    1984-08-01

    NASA is beginning the development of both a permanently manned space station and of unmanned space platforms. Although the exact requirements have not been defined, the initial space station will likely require a considerable amount of electrical power. There are many options available for the source, storage and distribution of power/energy. Some of these technologies are better developed and more likely to be applied to the initial systems. This paper describes the results of power system technology studies as applied to manned space stations, and includes tradeoffs for power distribution selection. Sizing and cost factors are provided for the more probable combinations of power sources, storage and distribution approaches.

  13. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  14. Simulation of switching overvoltages in the mine electric power supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, D. I.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overvoltages occur in mine power supply systems during switching off consumers with high inductive load, such as transformers, reactors and electrical machines. Overvoltages lead to an increase of insulation degradation rate and may cause electric faults, power outage, fire and explosion of methane and coal dust. This paper is dedicated to simulation of vacuum circuit breaker switching overvoltages in a mine power supply system by means of Simulink MATLAB. The model of the vacuum circuit breaker implements simulation of transient recovery voltage, current chopping and an electric arc. Obtained results were compared to available experimental data.

  15. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S. )

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities. 33 refs.

  16. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  17. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  18. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  19. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  20. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  1. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  2. Infrared Survey Techniques For An Electricity Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funnell, Ian R.

    1988-10-01

    The use of thermal imagers within the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to monitor plant performance is described. Helicopter-borne high resolution thermal imagers are used to monitor the transmission system and the range of defects that can be detected has been extended in recent years. Similar equipment is used to monitor cooling water discharge behaviour over a tidal cycle while satellite imagery is employed to analyse general warming of the water near a power station. The applications of fault detection and plant monitoring to electrical plant and heated surfaces within substations and power stations is described for several plant items.

  3. Rare resource supply crisis and solution technology for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Hu, Sophia; Yoo, Youngsun; Takahisa, Kenji; Enami, Tatsuo

    2016-03-01

    There are growing concerns over future environmental impact and earth resource shortage throughout the world and in many industries. Our semiconductor industry is not excluded. "Green" has become an important topic as production volume become larger and more powerful. Especially, the rare gases are widely used in semiconductor manufacturing because of its inertness and extreme chemical stability. One major component of an Excimer laser system is Neon. It is used as a buffer gas for Argon (Ar) and Krypton (Kr) gases used in deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography laser systems. Since Neon gas accounting for more than 96% of the laser gas mixture, a fairly large amount of neon gas is consumed to run these DUV lasers. However, due to country's instability both in politics and economics in Ukraine, the main producer of neon gas today, supply reduction has become an issue and is causing increasing concern. This concern is not only based on price increases, but has escalated to the point of supply shortages in 2015. This poses a critical situation for the semiconductor industry, which represents the leading consumer of neon gas in the world. Helium is another noble gas used for Excimer laser operation. It is used as a purge gas for optical component modules to prevent from being damaged by active gases and impurities. Helium has been used in various industries, including for medical equipment, linear motor cars, and semiconductors, and is indispensable for modern life. But consumption of helium in manufacturing has been increased dramatically, and its unstable supply and price rise has been a serious issue today. In this article, recent global supply issue of rare resources, especially Neon gas and Helium gas, and its solution technology to support semiconductor industry will be discussed.

  4. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  5. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  6. Models of supply function equilibrium with applications to the electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aromi, J. Daniel

    Electricity market design requires tools that result in a better understanding of incentives of generators and consumers. Chapter 1 and 2 provide tools and applications of these tools to analyze incentive problems in electricity markets. In chapter 1, models of supply function equilibrium (SFE) with asymmetric bidders are studied. I prove the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium in an asymmetric SFE model. In addition, I propose a simple algorithm to calculate numerically the unique equilibrium. As an application, a model of investment decisions is considered that uses the asymmetric SFE as an input. In this model, firms can invest in different technologies, each characterized by distinct variable and fixed costs. In chapter 2, option contracts are introduced to a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. The uniqueness of the equilibrium in the spot market is established. Comparative statics results on the effect of option contracts on the equilibrium price are presented. A multi-stage game where option contracts are traded before the spot market stage is considered. When contracts are optimally procured by a central authority, the selected profile of option contracts is such that the spot market price equals marginal cost for any load level resulting in a significant reduction in cost. If load serving entities (LSEs) are price takers, in equilibrium, there is no trade of option contracts. Even when LSEs have market power, the central authority's solution cannot be implemented in equilibrium. In chapter 3, we consider a game in which a buyer must repeatedly procure an input from a set of firms. In our model, the buyer is able to sign long term contracts that establish the likelihood with which the next period contract is awarded to an entrant or the incumbent. We find that the buyer finds it optimal to favor the incumbent, this generates more intense competition between suppliers. In a two period model we are able to completely characterize the optimal mechanism.

  7. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  8. Effect of residential solar and storage on centralized electricity supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Scott; Dargusch, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Residential solar photovoltaic systems combined with affordable battery storage are becoming increasingly likely to drive a consumer-led, low-emission evolution of modern electricity supply systems. In the past decade, a multi-billion-dollar boom in solar photovoltaic development across the globe has disrupted the way in which centralized electricity systems operate. At the same time, solar photovoltaic power has begun to make a material contribution to reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions. Viable electricity storage solutions are now on the cusp of a rapidly declining price trajectory. When coupled with solar photovoltaic systems, battery storage could become one of the most disruptive influences to impact the electricity sector in decades, yet governments and the broader power sector are poorly prepared. In this Perspective, we examine emerging trends and proffer a systems framework to analyse the disruptive influence of residential solar photovoltaic and storage systems on existing centralized electricity supply systems.

  9. Transportation and dynamic networks: Models, theory, and applications to supply chains, electric power, and financial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zugang

    Network systems, including transportation and logistic systems, electric power generation and distribution networks as well as financial networks, provide the critical infrastructure for the functioning of our societies and economies. The understanding of the dynamic behavior of such systems is also crucial to national security and prosperity. The identification of new connections between distinct network systems is the inspiration for the research in this dissertation. In particular, I answer two questions raised by Beckmann, McGuire, and Winsten (1956) and Copeland (1952) over half a century ago, which are, respectively, how are electric power flows related to transportation flows and does money flow like water or electricity? In addition, in this dissertation, I achieve the following: (1) I establish the relationships between transportation networks and three other classes of complex network systems: supply chain networks, electric power generation and transmission networks, and financial networks with intermediation. The establishment of such connections provides novel theoretical insights as well as new pricing mechanisms, and efficient computational methods. (2) I develop new modeling frameworks based on evolutionary variational inequality theory that capture the dynamics of such network systems in terms of the time-varying flows and incurred costs, prices, and, where applicable, profits. This dissertation studies the dynamics of such network systems by addressing both internal competition and/or cooperation, and external changes, such as varying costs and demands. (3) I focus, in depth, on electric power supply chains. By exploiting the relationships between transportation networks and electric power supply chains, I develop a large-scale network model that integrates electric power supply chains and fuel supply markets. The model captures both the economic transactions as well as the physical transmission constraints. The model is then applied to the New

  10. Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. Occasional pub

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The expected future benefits of advanced supply technologies are identified using a competitive market model of gas supply and demand. The results show the relative value of the major components of GRI's supply R D program and the sensitivity of the results to changes in key technology and market assumptions.

  11. Characterisation of Electrical Propulsion Thrusters as a Load for Electronic Power Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollor, Matthias; Herty, Frank

    2008-09-01

    For European space missions the importance of electrical propulsion is growing strongly. Many different types of electrical thrusters have been developed in the past years. Often the specification of electrical power supplies suffers from lack of dedicated electrical measurements or misinterpretation of the load behaviour especially under dynamic conditions. As a result, the Power Supply and Control Unit might not be optimally matched to the thrusters and in worst case may react with instabilities during operation.Analyzing the different types of electric thrusters a broad variety of different load characteristics have to be taken into account: non-linear I/V curves, constant voltage and constant current equivalent loads, but except for auxiliary magnet circuits, the loads typically do not show significant inductive or capacitive components. However, the majority of the thrusters show significant load oscillations due to plasma effects, typically in a frequency range of a few ten kHz. Most thrusters are affected by spurious flashovers (sparking, beam-outs, and plasma instabilities).In order to achieve a good definition of the interface between power supplies and the EP thrusters as a load, it is recommended to perform measurements of the current-voltage curve under static and dynamic conditions already in early development phases. For thrusters with complex power supplies the possible coupling between the power sources through the plasma might be considered, too. Examples for such measurements and the transfer of the results into simple electrical models are given for an anode supply of a Kaufmann type ion thruster and a Neutralizer/Keeper supply.

  12. Integrated Electrical Power Supply System for Propulsion and Service Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-16

    propellers with hydraulically controlled pitch for ship propulsion . In such arrangement of equipment, two gas turbines customarily drive each of two...availability of commercial technology presently utilized on cruise ships having service equipment loads larger than their ship propulsion loads. However...accentuated on naval combat ships wherein a larger proportion of the power is utilized for ship propulsion purposes and operational efficiency is of

  13. Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

    2001-04-01

    Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

  14. Electric propulsion flight experience and technology readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, J. E.; Jackson, D. E.; Marvin, D. C.; Jenkin, A. B.; Janson, S. W.

    1993-06-01

    Spacecraft electric propulsion technology is reviewed here to provide mission planners and potential users with a better appreciation of its capabilities and limitations. Flight experience provides the best measure of EP technology readiness. We describe and document the flight history and development status of EP in domestic, foreign, and commercial programs. Low-power resistojets, arcjets, ion engines, and plasma thrusters are applicable today for stationkeeping and drag compensation. Future high-power systems would enable large velocity-change maneuvers. The trade-space of EP encompasses significant performance benefits (reduced propellant mass, enhanced payload, system-level synergism), along with challenges (hardware development, system operations, non-technical issues). The choice of design parameters (thrust, specific impulse, input power) depends on how much of a change from traditional spacecraft operations is acceptable for a given mission - greater change will yield a greater payoff.

  15. [Research and application of supply catalog and encoding identification technology applied to medical consumable materials management].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingna; Han, Wei; Zhang, Enke; Li, Shuaishuai

    2013-01-01

    In this article, medical consumable materials supply catalog technology was introduced through the principle, method and application of topic studies, at the same time bar code tags to tag and identify medical consumable materials were introduced. These two techniques established the correspondence between the real supplies logistics and information flow system, provided foundation for medical supplies all process tracking and traceability management. Supply catalog and encoding identification technology provide a new solution for the effective management of medical consumable materials.

  16. Magnetic fields and leukaemia risks in UK electricity supply workers.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether leukaemia risks are related to occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia risks experienced by 73 051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales were investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82 and were employed for at least 6 months with some employment in the period 1973-82. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing leukaemia or leukaemia subtypes for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. Findings for all leukaemias combined were unexceptional; risks were close to unity for all exposure categories and there was no suggestion of risks increasing with cumulative (or recent or distant) magnetic field exposures. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects shown for acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. There was a significant positive trend for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), but this was based, in the main, on unusually low risks in the lowest exposure category. This study found no convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields is a risk factor for leukaemia, and the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that both distant and recent magnetic field exposures are not causally related to the generality of leukaemia. The limited positive findings for ALL may well be chance findings.

  17. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  18. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  19. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  20. Power supply sharing in the Apollo telescope mount electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, R., Jr.; Kapustka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A modular dc power supply power sharing technique was developed for the Apollo telescope mount electrical power sytem on Skylab. The advantages and disadvantages of various techniques used are reviewed and compared. The new technique design is discussed, and results of its implementation in the power system are reviewed.

  1. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  2. Electronic/electric technology benefits study. [avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howison, W. W.; Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits and payoffs of advanced electronic/electric technologies were investigated for three types of aircraft. The technologies, evaluated in each of the three airplanes, included advanced flight controls, advanced secondary power, advanced avionic complements, new cockpit displays, and advanced air traffic control techniques. For the advanced flight controls, the near term considered relaxed static stability (RSS) with mechanical backup. The far term considered an advanced fly by wire system for a longitudinally unstable airplane. In the case of the secondary power systems, trades were made in two steps: in the near term, engine bleed was eliminated; in the far term bleed air, air plus hydraulics were eliminated. Using three commercial aircraft, in the 150, 350, and 700 passenger range, the technology value and pay-offs were quantified, with emphasis on the fiscal benefits. Weight reductions deriving from fuel saving and other system improvements were identified and the weight savings were cycled for their impact on TOGW (takeoff gross weight) and upon the performance of the airframes/engines. Maintenance, reliability, and logistic support were the other criteria.

  3. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Dong; Haas, Harry; Terricciano, Paul

    2015-09-30

    some real life experimentation and sporadic deployment of these technologies [14]. By many accounts, the second decade of the 21st Century is expected to be the time when mass volume production and popular usage of these AFV technologies, especially EV, will materialize. The current DOE request for proposals recognizes the need for major technological changes to ensure that the above national goal is realizable. Two major challenges have been identified: (1) major reduction in the cost of ownership of EVSEs, and (2) managing additional EV loads in the power grid while maintaining power quality, reliability, and affordability. We note that the two challenges are closely linked – A holistic approach to true lifecycle cost of EVSE ownership will certainly include any taxes and surcharges that can be put in place for major potential investments in the grid, and higher electricity charges in case of more frequent and longer peak periods. From a societal perspective, this cost could also include the lost GDP (computed on a local basis) and revenue for businesses at local and regional levels when the grid is no longer capable of meeting the demand and unexpected outages occur. A typical end-point electrical distribution system delivers power to a residential EVSE from the neighborhood distribution pole, as shown in Fig.1. This pole has a transformer (neighboring step-down transformer) that steps down the utility medium voltage to dual 120VAC single phase (also called 240VAC split phase). This voltage is fed through a meter into the residential load control center. The load control center consists of branch circuit breakers and distributes the power supply within various areas of the residential unit. One of the branch circuits from the load control center feeds EV charging station for the unit. An electric vehicle charger is plugged into the socket of the EV charging station and other end of this charger is connected to the vehicle during charging. Figure 1 illustrates a

  4. Supply Curves for Solar PV-Generated Electricity for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2008-11-01

    Energy supply curves attempt to estimate the relationship between the cost of an energy resource and the amount of energy available at or below that cost. In general, an energy supply curve is a series of step functions with each step representing a particular group or category of energy resource. The length of the step indicates how much of that resource is deployable or accessible at a given cost. Energy supply curves have been generated for a number of renewable energy sources including biomass fuels and geothermal, as well as conservation technologies. Generating a supply curve for solar photovoltaics (PV) has particular challenges due to the nature of the resource. The United States has a massive solar resource base -- many orders of magnitude greater than the total consumption of energy. In this report, we examine several possible methods for generating PV supply curves based exclusively on rooftop deployment.

  5. Hybrid Electric Propulsion Technologies for Commercial Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has set strategic research thrusts to address the major drivers of aviation such as growth in demand for high-speed mobility, addressing global climate and capitalizing in the convergence of technological advances. Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the key strategic research thrust and drives the search for alternative and greener propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The Hybrid Gas-Electric Subproject in the Advanced Air Transportation Project is energizing the transport class landscape by accepting the technical challenge of identifying and validating a transport class aircraft with net benefit from hybrid propulsion. This highly integrated aircraft of the future will only happen if airframe expertise from NASA Langley, modeling and simulation expertise from NASA Ames, propulsion expertise from NASA Glenn, and the flight research capabilities from NASA Armstrong are brought together to leverage the rich capabilities of U.S. Industry and Academia.

  6. DC/DC Power Converter for Super-Capacitor Supplied by Electric Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubert, T.; Mindl, P.

    The aim of the article is design of DC/DC converter and discussing of problematic supply using electric power splitter. The electric power splitter with AC/DC converter is source for the DC/DC converter, which is dedicated for charging and discharging of hybrid car drive super-capacitor energy storage. The electric power splitter is synchronous machine with two rotating parts. First rotor contains permanent magnet and the second rotor contains three-phase windings. The amplitude of output voltage depends on difference between first and second rotor speed. The main role of the DC/DC converter is to optimize energy content in super-capacitor storage used to acceleration and deceleration driving period of the passenger car with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive system using electric power splitter.

  7. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs.

  8. Supply Chain Management: A Case Study of Using EDI and Bar Code Information Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    This research addresses the impact of various practices in supply chain management with EDI and barcoding information technology. While EDI...through the supply chain in a Taiwan company. By implementing EDI, Barcoding, POS, EOS systems, the Kang Kuo Company has embraced the supply chain management and

  9. The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity.

    PubMed

    Williams, James H; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S

    2012-01-06

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  10. The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James H.; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R.; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S.

    2012-01-01

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California’s goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  11. Estimated winter 1980-1981 electric demand and supply, contiguous United States. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the most recent data available concerning projected electrical peak demands and available power resouces for the 1980-1981 winter peak period, as reported by electric utilities in the contiguous United States. The data, grouped by Regional Reliability Council areas and by Electrical Regions within the Council areas, was obtained from the Form 12E-2 reports filed by utilities with the Department of Energy on October 15, 1980 (data as of September 30). In some instances the data were revised or verified by telephone. Considerations affecting reliability, arising from Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions based on lessons learned from the forced outage of Three Mile Island Nuclear Unit No. 2, were factored into the report. No widespread large-scale reliability problems are foreseen for electric power supply this winter, on the basis of the supply and demand projections furnished by the electric utilities. Reserve margins could drop in some electric regions to levels considered inadequate for reliable service, if historical forced-outage magnitudes recur.

  12. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview of the electric power industry, selected NASA contributions to progress in the industry, linkages affecting the transfer and diffusion of technology, and, finally, a perspective on technology transfer issues are presented.

  13. Solar sail-solar electric technology readiness and transfer assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of conducting a technology readiness assessment was developed. It uses existing OAST technology readiness and risk criteria to define a technology readiness factor that considers both the required gain in technology readiness level to achieved technology readiness plus the degree of effort associated with achieving the gain. The results indicate that Solar Electric Propulsion is preferred based on technology readiness criteria. Both Solar Sail and Solar Electric Propulsion have a high level of transfer potential for future NASA missions, and each has considerable technology spillover for non-NASA applications.

  14. Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Melissa

    This thesis estimates available coal resources, recoverability, mining costs, environmental impacts, and environmental control costs for the United States under technological and environmental uncertainty. It argues for a comprehensive, well-planned research program that will resolve resource uncertainty, and innovate new technologies to improve recovery and environmental performance. A stochastic process and cost (constant 2005) model for longwall, continuous, and surface mines based on current technology and mining practice data was constructed. It estimates production and cost ranges within 5-11 percent of 2006 prices and production rates. The model was applied to the National Coal Resource Assessment. Assuming the cheapest mining method is chosen to extract coal, 250-320 billion tons are recoverable. Two-thirds to all coal resource can be mined at a cost less than 4/mmBTU. If U.S. coal demand substantially increases, as projected by alternate Energy Information Administration (EIA), resources might not last more than 100 years. By scheduling cost to meet EIA projected demand, estimated cost uncertainty increases over time. It costs less than 15/ton to mine in the first 10 years of a 100 year time period, 10-30/ton in the following 50 years, and 15-$90/ton thereafter. Environmental impacts assessed are subsidence from underground mines, surface mine pit area, erosion, acid mine drainage, air pollutant and methane emissions. The analysis reveals that environmental impacts are significant and increasing as coal demand increases. Control technologies recommended to reduce these impacts are backfilling underground mines, surface pit reclamation, substitution of robotic underground mining systems for surface pit mining, soil replacement for erosion, placing barriers between exposed coal and the elements to avoid acid formation, and coalbed methane development to avoid methane emissions during mining. The costs to apply these technologies to meet more stringent

  15. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  16. Ship electric propulsion simulator based on networking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huayao; Huang, Xuewu; Chen, Jutao; Lu, Binquan

    2006-11-01

    According the new ship building tense, a novel electric propulsion simulator (EPS) had been developed in Marine Simulation Center of SMU. The architecture, software function and FCS network technology of EPS and integrated power system (IPS) were described. In allusion to the POD propeller in ship, a special physical model was built. The POD power was supplied from the simulative 6.6 kV Medium Voltage Main Switchboard, its control could be realized in local or remote mode. Through LAN, the simulated feature information of EPS will pass to the physical POD model, which would reflect the real thruster working status in different sea conditions. The software includes vessel-propeller math module, thruster control system, distribution and emergency integrated management, double closed loop control system, vessel static water resistance and dynamic software; instructor main control software. The monitor and control system is realized by real time data collection system and CAN bus technology. During the construction, most devices such as monitor panels and intelligent meters, are developed in lab which were based on embedded microcomputer system with CAN interface to link the network. They had also successfully used in practice and would be suitable for the future demands of digitalization ship.

  17. The evolutionary development of high specific impulse electric thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Myers, Roger M.

    1992-01-01

    Electric propulsion flight and technology demonstrations conducted primarily by Europe, Japan, China, the U.S., and the USSR are reviewed. Evolutionary mission applications for high specific impulse electric thruster systems are discussed, and the status of arcjet, ion, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters and associated power processor technologies are summarized.

  18. Investigations of the quality of hospital electric power supply and the tolerance of medical electric devices to voltage dips.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Eisuke; Itoga, Shuuya; Takano, Kyoko; Kudou, Takato

    2007-06-01

    Medical devices driven by electric power have come to be commonly used in hospitals, and rapid changes of voltage or current can easily cause them to fail. A stable and high quality power supply is indispensable in order to maintain safety in the modern clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the quality of the power supply in a hospital and determined the tolerance of 13 pieces of medical equipment to voltage dips. The results showed little distortion of the voltage wave. However, we found an approximately 7% momentary voltage dip caused by lightening and other problems, such as 2 to 5% periodic drops in voltage and voltage wave distortions caused by incorrect grounding. In a tolerance test, the settings of some medical devices were changed at the time of automatic reboot after a disturbance. For another device, trend information was initialized.

  19. Trends in the use of digital technology for control and regulation of power supplies.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1999-10-22

    Since the availability of computers, accelerator power supplies have relied on digital technology in some way, from such simple tasks as turning the supplies on and off to the supplying of computer-controlled references. However, advances in digital technology, both in performance and cost, allow considerably more than simple control and monitoring. This, coupled with increasing demand for higher performance and monitoring capabilities, has made it appealing to integrate such technology into power supply designs. This paper will review current trends in the use of such advanced technology as embedded DSP controllers, and the application of real-time algorithms to the regulation and control of power supplies for accelerators and other large-scale physics applications.

  20. A Gastrointestinal Electrical Stimulation System Based on Transcutaneous Power Transmission Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bingquan; Wang, Yongbing; Yan, Guozheng; Jiang, Pingping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been suggested as a possible treatment for various functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). This paper presents a transcutaneous power supplied implantable electrical stimulation system. This technology solves the problem of supplying extended power to an implanted electrical stimulator. After implantation, the stimulation parameters can be reprogrammed by the external controller and then transmitted to the implanted stimulator. This would enable parametric studies to investigate the efficacy of various stimulation parameters in promoting gastrointestinal contractions. A pressure detector in the internal stimulator can provide real-time feedback about variations in the gastrointestinal tract. An optimal stimulation protocol leading to cecal contractions has been proposed: stimulation bursts of 3 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude, 40 Hz frequency, and 20 s duration. The animal experiment demonstrated the functionality of the system and validated the effects of different stimulation parameters on cecal contractions. PMID:25053939

  1. Technology Education Teacher Supply and Demand--A Critical Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education is an excellent format to integrate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) studies by employing problem-based learning activities. However, the benefits of technology education are still generally "misunderstood by the public." The effects of technology education on increased student mathematics…

  2. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  3. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Electrical and Electronic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of twenty-three learning modules is equivalent to the content of two quarters of a five-credit hour class in electrical technology, electronic service technology, electronic engineering technology, or electromechanical…

  4. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Electrical and Electronic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of twenty-three learning modules is equivalent to the content of two quarters of a five-credit hour class in electrical technology, electronic service technology, electronic engineering technology, or electromechanical…

  5. Studies of New Multistory House Electrical Supply Load and Determination Methods Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budahs, Martins; Vanzovichs, Edvins; Zviedritis, Mareks

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of work has devoted to electric supply system load determination. Most of the load calculation methods and values of the appropriate factors were found many years ago and are outdated, for example, electric supply system for new many dwelling houses. At this time, there is changed not only value of loads but also its character - thus leaving the impact on the calculation methodology and factors values. Employers of Latvenergo Distribution Network are realized wide range of load inspection in more then 24 commercial buildings and dwelling houses over two years. The results are presented in the form of official instruction. This paper is continuing the ongoing theme and dedicating improving possibilities of the calculation methodology. Particular attention has paid to existing methods of load calculation, physical interpretation of factors and possible character changes in the range. The method is designed for design engineers and engineering staff, working with the maintenance and control of apartment buildings. The methodology is not applicable in buildings with electric heating and hot water.

  6. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    SciTech Connect

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  7. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  8. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  9. FY2015 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-02-29

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  10. FY2014 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  11. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-space Propulsion Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The solar electric propulsion technology area has been investing in NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Current status and expected capabilities of the solar electric propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  12. Effect of a pulsed power supply on the spectral and electrical characteristics of HID lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chammam, Abdeljelil; Elloumi, Hatem; Mrabet, Brahim; Charrada, Kamel; Stambouli, Mongi; Damelincourt, Jean Jacques

    2005-04-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed power operated high intensity discharges (HIDs). This investigation is related to the application of a pulsed power supply for pile driving of HID lamps. Specifically, we are interested in controlling the spectral response radiation of visible and ultraviolet (UV) lines for tertiary treatment of water using UV radiation. Simulations based on a physical model of the lamps were conducted. These results relate to the radial temperature, line intensity and electrical properties (voltage, power and conductivity). Good agreement has been found between the results of the simulations and the experimental findings.

  13. Electricity and the environment: Building partnerships through technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, K.E.; Torrens, I.

    1995-12-01

    The vision for electricity in the world today transcends its role as just an energy medium and focuses on its ability to furnish ever greater productivity of labor, capital and primary energy resources. Its efficiency and precision, through innovative technology, have become essential assets for resolving the interrelated economic, environmental and energy security issues facing the world. As a result, electricity has become a major differentiating factor in the global economy. For example, the fraction of all primary energy converted to electricity is typically used as a rough indication of regional prosperity. This index reflects the importance of electricity in both creating and harvesting technological innovation. Electricity`s advantages in focusing and amplifying physical power during the first century are being complemented in the second by its even greater advantages for focusing and amplifying the power of knowledge. As its importance grows, electricity will likely expand in the next half-century to provide over half the world`s energy demands while providing the means for the most effective conservation of natural resources. Collaborative R&D organizations such as EPRI are acting as new catalysts and partners to transfer technology on a world-wide basis. With respect to Central and Eastern Europe, this effort focuses on new, more cost-effective innovations for the generation and delivery of electricity because obsolete and inefficient technology is contrary to our mutual interest in achieving efficient and sustainable economic development. EPRI stands ready to assist in this international endeavor.

  14. Electricity on the rig. Part 3 - New electric rig technology

    SciTech Connect

    McNair, W.L.

    1983-07-01

    The use of an SCR-controlled power system on an offshore drilling rig has lead to an increased acceptance of high technology equipment. Such equipment increases drilling productivity, reduces maintenance, and improves reliability. Most new rigs now have AC squirrel cage motors, brushless AC generators, silicon controlled rectifiers, DC motors, and swtichgear and motor starters. Several opportunities for cost reductions in SCR systems, such as improving the power factor, are studied in this paper.

  15. Impact of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies on the hospital supply chain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Tomblin, Shane; Slack, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Supply costs account for more than one-third of the average operating budget and constitute the second largest expenditure in hospitals. As hospitals have sought to reduce these costs, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has emerged as a solution. This study reviews existing literature to gauge the recent and potential impact and direction of the implementation of RFID in the hospital supply chain to determine current benefits and barriers of adoption. Findings show that the application of RFID to medical equipment and supplies tracking has resulted in efficiency increases in hospitals with lower costs and increased service quality. RFID technology can reduce costs, improve patient safety, and improve supply chain management effectiveness by increasing the ability to track and locate equipment, as well as monitoring theft prevention, distribution management, and patient billing. Despite ongoing RFID implementation in the hospital supply chain, barriers to widespread and rapid adoption include significant total expenditures, unclear return on investment, and competition with other strategic imperatives.

  16. Natural graphite demand and supply - Implications for electric vehicle battery requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.; Virta, Robert L.; Mahdavi, Mahbood; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Fortier, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been promoted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lessen U.S. dependence on petroleum for transportation. Growth in U.S. sales of electric vehicles has been hindered by technical difficulties and the high cost of the lithium-ion batteries used to power many electric vehicles (more than 50% of the vehicle cost). Groundbreaking has begun for a lithium-ion battery factory in Nevada that, at capacity, could manufacture enough batteries to power 500,000 electric vehicles of various types and provide economies of scale to reduce the cost of batteries. Currently, primary synthetic graphite derived from petroleum coke is used in the anode of most lithium-ion batteries. An alternate may be the use of natural flake graphite, which would result in estimated graphite cost reductions of more than US$400 per vehicle at 2013 prices. Most natural flake graphite is sourced from China, the world's leading graphite producer. Sourcing natural flake graphite from deposits in North America could reduce raw material transportation costs and, given China's growing internal demand for flake graphite for its industries and ongoing environmental, labor, and mining issues, may ensure a more reliable and environmentally conscious supply of graphite. North America has flake graphite resources, and Canada is currently a producer, but most new mining projects in the United States require more than 10 yr to reach production, and demand could exceed supplies of flake graphite. Natural flake graphite may serve only to supplement synthetic graphite, at least for the short-term outlook.

  17. BMDO Technology and the Electric Utility Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    based on measurement while drilling ( MWD ) techniques. MWD uses a cylindrically shaped sensor package (containing the gyro) roughly 2 inches in diameter...which is connected to the drill string. MWD techniques also use accelerometers, a power supply, an electronics processing package, and a telemetry ...Employing Advanced Sensors 32 ■ Monitoring and Controlling Plant Processes 35 ■ Predicting Plant Response for Higher Efficiencies 37 Environmental

  18. Reimbursement programs and health technology assessment for diabetes devices and supplies: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Richard Y; Mui, Vanessa

    2015-05-01

    The reimbursement model for medical devices and supplies used in the management of diabetes in Canada, along with the process for assessing new health technologies, can be complicated. Various provincial programs, including Ontario's Assistive Devices Program and the Ontario Monitoring for Health Program, reimburse the costs associated with certain devices and supplies for diabetes management. In addition, provincial advisory committees, such as the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee, review and make recommendations on the adoption of new health technologies in each province. This article provides an overview of the reimbursement programs available for diabetes devices and supplies and reviews the process for assessing new health technologies using the province of Ontario as an example. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...REPORT DATE September 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF...HYBRID-ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  20. Impacts of recent drought and warm years on water resources and electricity supply worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent droughts and heatwaves showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for thermoelectric power and hydropower generation in different regions. Here we use a global hydrological-electricity modelling framework to quantify the impacts of recent drought and warm years on hydropower and thermoelectric power usable capacity worldwide. Our coupled modelling framework consists of a hydrological model, stream temperature model, hydropower and thermoelectric power models, and was applied with data of a large selection of hydropower and thermoelectric power plants worldwide. Our results show that hydropower utilisation rates were on average reduced by 5.2% and thermoelectric power by 3.8% during the drought years compared to the long-term average for 1981-2010. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) impacts on both hydropower and thermoelectric power usable capacity were found during major drought years, e.g. 2003 in Europe (-6.6% in hydropower and -4.7% in thermoelectric power) and 2007 in Eastern North America (-6.1% in hydropower and -9.0% in thermoelectric power). Our hydrological-electricity modelling framework has potential for studying the linkages between water and electricity supply under climate variability and change, contributing to the quantification of the ‘water-energy nexus’.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States: A Multi-Model Comparison

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares the climate change impacts on U.S. electricity demand and supply from three models: the Integrated Planning Model (IPM), the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, and GCAM. Rising temperatures cause an appreciable net increase in electricity demand....

  2. Climate Change Impacts on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States: A Multi-Model Comparison

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares the climate change impacts on U.S. electricity demand and supply from three models: the Integrated Planning Model (IPM), the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, and GCAM. Rising temperatures cause an appreciable net increase in electricity demand....

  3. Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters and Power Supplies for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Thomas M.

    1994-07-01

    Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters (FET) and Power Supplies (FPS) should occur at a lunar base because of the following: availability of helium-3, a vacuum better than on Earth, low K in shade reachable by radiant cooling, supply of ``high temp'' superconducting ceramic-metals, and a low G environment. The early FET will be much smaller than an Apollo engine, with specific impulse of 10,000-100,000-s. Solar power and low G will aid early development. To counter the effect of low G on humans, centrifuges will be employed for sleeping and resting. Work will be done by telerobotic view control. The FPS will be of comparable size, and will generate power mainly by having replaceable rectennas, resonant to the fusion synchrotron radiation. FPSs are used for house keeping power and initiating superconduction. Spaceships will carry up to ten FETs and two FPSs. In addition to fusion fuel, the FET will inject H or Li low mass propellant into the fusion chamber. Developing an FET would be difficult on Earth. FET spaceships will park between missions in L1, and an FET Bus will fetch humans/supplies from Moon and Earth. Someday FETs, with rocket assist, will lift spaceships from Earth, and make space travel to planets far cheaper, faster, and safer, than at present. Too long a delay due to the space station, or the huge cost of getting into space by current means, will damage the morale of the space program.

  4. Development of effective power supply using electric double layer capacitor for static magnetic field coils in fusion plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, M; Abe, K; Yamada, T; Kuwahata, A; Kamio, S; Cao, Q H; Sakumura, M; Suzuki, N; Watanabe, T; Ono, Y

    2011-02-01

    A cost-effective power supply for static magnetic field coils used in fusion plasma experiments has been developed by application of an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). A prototype EDLC power supply system was constructed in the form of a series LCR circuit. Coil current of 100 A with flat-top longer than 1 s was successfully supplied to an equilibrium field coil of a fusion plasma experimental apparatus by a single EDLC module with capacitance of 30 F. The present EDLC power supply has revealed sufficient performance for plasma confinement experiments whose discharge duration times are an order of several seconds.

  5. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  6. Electrical Power and Illumination Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in electrical power and illumination systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  7. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  8. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. The Supply and Demand of Technology and Engineering Teachers in the United States: Who Knows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the supply and demand of technology and engineering teachers in the United States. Once gathered, the resulting data (that was available) was compared to previous studies to determine trends. The researcher reviewed the 2010-11 through 2015-16 Technology & Engineering Teacher Education Directories. To…

  10. Essays on Adoption and Diffusion of New Technology in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Daeheon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, network technologies across supply chains have been introduced and promoted with the premised benefits for all participants. However industry experience with an adoption process of some technology suggests that some firms have a great amount of uncertainty in estimating the benefits of its adoption. This uncertainty will…

  11. Essays on Adoption and Diffusion of New Technology in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Daeheon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, network technologies across supply chains have been introduced and promoted with the premised benefits for all participants. However industry experience with an adoption process of some technology suggests that some firms have a great amount of uncertainty in estimating the benefits of its adoption. This uncertainty will…

  12. The Supply and Demand of Technology and Engineering Teachers in the United States: Who Knows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the supply and demand of technology and engineering teachers in the United States. Once gathered, the resulting data (that was available) was compared to previous studies to determine trends. The researcher reviewed the 2010-11 through 2015-16 Technology & Engineering Teacher Education Directories. To…

  13. Strategic information technology alliances for effective health-care supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Shih, Stephen C; Rivers, Patrick A; Hsu, H Y Sonya

    2009-08-01

    To gain and sustain competitive advantage, health-care providers have to continuously review and renovate their operational and information technology (IT) strategies through collaborative and cooperative endeavour with their supply chain channel members. This paper explores new ways of enhancing a health-care organization's responsiveness to changes and increasing its competitiveness through implementing strategic information technology alliances among channel members in a health-care supply chain network. An overview of issues and problems (e.g. bullwhip effect, negative externalities and free-riding phenomenon in multichannel supply chains) presented in the health-care supply chains is first delineated. This paper further goes over the issues of health-care supply chain coordination and integration for strategic IT alliances, followed by the discussion of the spillover effect of IT investments. A number of viable IT practices (such as information sharing and Internet-enabled supply chain portal) for effective health-care supply chain collaboration and coordination are then examined in this research. Finally, the paper discusses how strategic IT alliances can help improve the effectiveness of health-care supply chain management.

  14. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  15. Reimbursement Programs and Health Technology Assessment for Diabetes Devices and Supplies

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Richard Y.; Mui, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The reimbursement model for medical devices and supplies used in the management of diabetes in Canada, along with the process for assessing new health technologies, can be complicated. Various provincial programs, including Ontario’s Assistive Devices Program and the Ontario Monitoring for Health Program, reimburse the costs associated with certain devices and supplies for diabetes management. In addition, provincial advisory committees, such as the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee, review and make recommendations on the adoption of new health technologies in each province. This article provides an overview of the reimbursement programs available for diabetes devices and supplies and reviews the process for assessing new health technologies using the province of Ontario as an example. PMID:25697719

  16. Influence of Power System Technology on Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) thruster technology, with efficient lightweight power systems can provide substantial reductions in propulsion system wet mass due to the high specific impulse (Isp) of the thrusters. Historically, the space power systems are too massive for many potential orbital missions. The objective of this paper is to show the impact of current power system technology on EP mission performance and determine what technology advancements are needed to make EP beneficial for earth orbital applications. The approach of the paper is to model the electric propulsion system and orbital mission using a partial parametric method. Various missions are analyzed from orbit maintenance to orbit transfer. Results portray the relationship between mission performance and power technology level. Conclusions show which mission applications currently have acceptable power technology, and which mission applications require power technology improvements.

  17. Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project Utilizing Gasification Technology: Feedstock Supply Plan; March 15, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The report describes a Feedstock Supply Plan for the proposed Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project to be located in the City of Gridley Industrial Park in Gridley, California. This report also includes information on the establishment of the required infrastructure required for collecting approximately 113,000 Bone Dry Tons (BDT) annually for the proposed facility. Using the Pearson Technology from Aberdeen, Mississippi, and the related engineering assumptions for required feedstock, it is estimated that the proposed Gridley Ethanol Project will use approximately 113,000 BDT of rice straw to produce approximately up to 20 million gallons of ethanol annually, and/or process steam and or electricity. Based on TSS's survey of planted rice acreage in the Sacramento Valley, a total of 379,765 acres of rice are grown within a 30-mile radius of the Gridley site and that 759,530 BDT of recoverable rice straw are generated annually. This volume of rice straw is 6.7 times the 113,000 BDT of tot al feedstock needed by the proposed Gridley facility. Sufficient infrastructure exists with additional market potential for further private market infrastructure expansion in California and the Northwest (Oregon, Washington and Idaho) to collect the annual feedstock requirement of 113,000 BDT for the proposed Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project. The projected feedstock cost for 113,000 BDT of rice straw delivered annually to the Gridley facility is approximately $35.00/BDT.

  18. Electrically Isolating Subsystems in SOAC Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. M.; Mojarradi, M. M.; Kuhn, W. B.; Shumaker, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Integrated circuit fabrication technology has evolved to the point that it is possible to construct complete systems, including power, data processing, and communications, on a single chip. Such System-on-a-chip (SOAC) technologies can enable drastic reductions in spacecraft size and weight, lowering the cost of missions and presenting new mission opportunities. This paper overviews some key enabling technologies unique to the needs of spacecraft for outer-planet exploration and missions requiring extreme resistance to radiation such as Europa orbiters and Europa Landers. The work is being carried out by Kansas State University (KSU) under direction of the Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Electrically Isolating Subsystems in SOAC Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. M.; Mojarradi, M. M.; Kuhn, W. B.; Shumaker, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Integrated circuit fabrication technology has evolved to the point that it is possible to construct complete systems, including power, data processing, and communications, on a single chip. Such System-on-a-chip (SOAC) technologies can enable drastic reductions in spacecraft size and weight, lowering the cost of missions and presenting new mission opportunities. This paper overviews some key enabling technologies unique to the needs of spacecraft for outer-planet exploration and missions requiring extreme resistance to radiation such as Europa orbiters and Europa Landers. The work is being carried out by Kansas State University (KSU) under direction of the Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flows and water temperatures under future climate (2031-2060) in power production models, we show declines in both thermoelectric and hydropower generating potential for most parts of Europe, except for the most northern countries. Based on changes in power production potentials, we assess the cost-optimal use of power plants for each European country by taking electricity import and export constraints into account. Higher wholesale prices are projected on a mean annual basis for most European countries (except for Sweden and Norway), with strongest increases for Slovenia (12-15%), Bulgaria (21-23%) and Romania (31-32% for 2031-2060), where limitations in water availability mainly affect power plants with low production costs. Considering the long design life of power plant infrastructures, short-term adaptation strategies are highly recommended to prevent undesired distributional and allocative effects.

  1. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-07

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  2. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  3. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  4. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional tomographic imaging of the human body using impedance mapping. This technology can be developed to evaluate health risks and provide appropriate medical care on the ISS, during space travel and on the ground.

  5. Electric Arc and Electrochemical Surface Texturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Snyder, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface texturing of conductive materials can readily be accomplished by means of a moving electric arc which produces a plasma from the environmental gases as well as from the vaporized substrate and arc electrode materials. As the arc is forced to move across the substrate surface, a condensate from the plasma re-deposits an extremely rough surface which is intimately mixed and attached to the substrate material. The arc textured surfaces produce greatly enhanced thermal emittance and hold potential for use as high temperature radiator surfaces in space, as well as in systems which use radiative heat dissipation such as computer assisted tomography (CAT) scan systems. Electrochemical texturing of titanium alloys can be accomplished by using sodium chloride solutions along with ultrasonic agitation to produce a random distribution of craters on the surface. The crater size and density can be controlled to produce surface craters appropriately sized for direct bone in-growth of orthopaedic implants. Electric arc texturing and electrochemical texturing techniques, surface properties and potential applications will be presented.

  6. Advanced electric motor technology: Flux mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Brantley, Larry W.; Dean, Garvin

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the assumptions, mathematical models, design methodology, and design points involved with the design of an electromechanical actuator (EMA) suitable for directing the thrust vector of a large MSFC/NASA launch vehicle. Specifically the design of such an actuator for use on the upcoming liquid fueled National Launch System (NLS) is considered culminating in a point design of both the servo system and the electric motor needed. A major thrust of the work is in selecting spur gear and roller screw reduction ratios to achieve simultaneously wide bandwidth, maximum power transfer, and disturbance rejection while meeting specified horsepower requirements at a given stroking speed as well as a specified maximum stall force. An innovative feedback signal is utilized in meeting these diverse objectives.

  7. Advanced electric motor technology: Flux mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Brantley, Larry W.; Dean, Garvin

    1992-04-01

    This report contains the assumptions, mathematical models, design methodology, and design points involved with the design of an electromechanical actuator (EMA) suitable for directing the thrust vector of a large MSFC/NASA launch vehicle. Specifically the design of such an actuator for use on the upcoming liquid fueled National Launch System (NLS) is considered culminating in a point design of both the servo system and the electric motor needed. A major thrust of the work is in selecting spur gear and roller screw reduction ratios to achieve simultaneously wide bandwidth, maximum power transfer, and disturbance rejection while meeting specified horsepower requirements at a given stroking speed as well as a specified maximum stall force. An innovative feedback signal is utilized in meeting these diverse objectives.

  8. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-08-03

    The nation's power system is facing a diverse and broad set of challenges. These range from restructuring and increased competitiveness in power production to the need for additional production and distribution capacity to meet demand growth, and demands for increased quality and reliability of power and power supply. In addition, there are growing concerns about emissions from fossil fuel powered generation units and generators are seeking methods to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission intensity of power generation. Although these challenges may create uncertainty within the financial and electricity supply markets, they also offer the potential to explore new opportunities to support the accelerated deployment of cleaner and cost-effective technologies to meet such challenges. The federal government and various state governments, for example, support the development of a sustainable electricity infrastructure. As part of this policy, there are a variety of programs to support the development of ''cleaner'' technologies such as combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration) and renewable energy technologies. Energy from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are considered carbon-neutral energy technologies. The production of renewable energy creates no incremental increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Electricity and thermal energy production from all renewable resources, except biomass, produces no incremental increase in air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. There are many more opportunities for the development of cleaner electricity and thermal energy technologies called ''recycled'' energy. A process using fossil fuels to produce an energy service may have residual energy waste streams that may be recycled into useful energy services. Recycled energy methods would capture energy from sources that would otherwise be unused and convert it to electricity or

  9. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  10. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  11. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  12. Decision and coordination of low-carbon supply chain considering technological spillover and environmental awareness.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lang; Wang, Chuanxu; Li, Hui

    2017-06-08

    We focus on the impacts of technological spillovers and environmental awareness in a two-echelon supply chain with one-single supplier and one-single manufacturer to reduce carbon emission. In this supply chain, carbon abatement investment becomes one of key factors of cutting costs and improving profits, which is reducing production costs in the components and products-the investment from players in supply chain. On the basis of optimality theory, the centralized and decentralized models are respectively established to investigate the optimal decisions and profits. Further, setting the players' profits of the decentralized scenario as the disagreement points, we propose a bargaining-coordination contract through revenue-cost sharing to enhance the performance. Finally, by theoretical comparison and numerical analysis, the results show that: (i) The optimal profits of players and supply chain improve as technological spillovers and environmental awareness increase, and the profits of them in the bargaining-coordination contract are higher than that in the decentralized scenario; (ii) Technological spillovers between the players amplify the impact of "free-ride" behavior, in which the supplier always incentives the manufacturer to improve carbon emission intensity, but the cooperation will achieves and the profits will improve only when technological spillovers and environmental awareness are great; (iii) The contract can effectively achieve coordinated supply chain, and improve carbon abatement investment.

  13. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland. In some cases additional storage would allow mitigating negative impacts of climate change. In one of the tested cases the decrease in inflows is such that the reservoir will not fill up in the future; this reservoir will become a priority location for pumping capacity increase, for short-term or seasonal storage of excess solar/wind energy. Considering that the present average rate of glacier mass loss at the country scale is equivalent to the Grande Dixence reservoir per year (the largest Swiss reservoir, approx. 380 hm3), increasing artificial water storage might become mandatory to maintain the same level of security electricity supply in the future.

  14. Development of electric motor cycle technologies in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. T.; Kuo, C. C.; Pan, J. S.; Lin, B. M.

    1994-02-01

    The development of an electric motor cycle was initiated at the Industrial Technology Research Institute in 1990. Several types of experimental electric scooters have been developed and field-tested, but their individual performances are far from satisfactory. Thus, it has been decided to make improvements on both the key components (such as battery, motor and driver) and the structural designs. The targeted electric motor cycle will adopt well to city-driving conditions and will help to alleviate urban air-pollution problems. The impact of electric motor cycles on the improvement of urban air-pollution problem has been evaluated. It is found that if 20% of the total motor cycle population is replaced by electric versions, a tremendous improvement in air quality will result, but this will still not meet the air-regulation standard. At least a 50% replacement is required to prevent continuous degradation of air quality.

  15. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  16. Application of digital/electric systems to advanced technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    Potential improvements in weight and performance of the digital/electric airplane of the 1990s are investigated, using data based on the Integrated Digital/Electric Airplane (IDEA) study, a nine-month investigation of integrated digital/electric concepts. A baseline configuration was compared to these IDEA configurations in terms of economic performance, fuel efficiency, and significant system and aircraft configuration characteristics. The 1990 baseline configuration represents a six to eight percent performance improvement over current technology; however, the IDEA airplane shows an additional three percent improvement in fuel burn performance. This improvement is due to a reduction of over 3000 pounds in systems weight alone.

  17. Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel findings and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a triagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) panel on Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Technology. NEP has been identified as a candidate nuclear propulsion technology for exploration of the Moon and Mars as part of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The findings are stated in areas of system and subsystem considerations, technology readiness, and ground test facilities. Recommendations made by the panel are summarized concerning: (1) existing space nuclear power and propulsion programs, and (2) the proposed multiagency NEP technology development program.

  18. Electrical System Technology Working Group (WG) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S.; Ford, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology needs for space power systems (military, public, commercial) were assessed for the period 1995 to 2005 in the area of power management and distribution, components, circuits, subsystems, controls and autonomy, modeling and simulation. There was general agreement that the military requirements for pulse power would be the dominant factor in the growth of power systems. However, the growth of conventional power to the 100 to 250kw range would be in the public sector, with low Earth orbit needs being the driver toward large 100kw systems. An overall philosophy for large power system development is also described.

  19. Electrical System Technology Working Group (WG) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S.; Ford, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology needs for space power systems (military, public, commercial) were assessed for the period 1995 to 2005 in the area of power management and distribution, components, circuits, subsystems, controls and autonomy, modeling and simulation. There was general agreement that the military requirements for pulse power would be the dominant factor in the growth of power systems. However, the growth of conventional power to the 100 to 250kw range would be in the public sector, with low Earth orbit needs being the driver toward large 100kw systems. An overall philosophy for large power system development is also described.

  20. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Advanced electric motor technology flux mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Dean, Garvin

    1993-01-01

    Design of electric motors which fulfill the needs of Thrust Vector Control (TVC) actuators used in large rocket propelled launch vehicles is covered. To accomplish this end the methodology of design is laid out in some detail. In addition a point design of a motor to fulfill the requirements of a certain actuator specified by MSFC is accomplished and reported upon. In the course of this design great stress has been placed on ridding the actuator of internally generated heat. To conduct the heat out of the motor use is made of the unique properties of the in house MSFC designed driving electronics. This property is that as along as they are operated in a quasi-linear mode the electronics nullify the effects of armature inductance as far as the phase of the armature current versus the rotor position is concerned. Actually the additional inductance due to the extended end turns in this design is of benefit because in the shorted armature failure mode the armature current in the fault (caused by the rotor flux sweeping past the armature) is diminished at a given rotor speed when compared to a more conventional motor with lower inductance. The magnetic circuit is analyzed using electromagnetic finite element methods.

  2. Electrical actuation technology bridging, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-10-01

    The Electrical Actuation (ELA) Bridging Programs integrated ELA and power systems test, and demonstration plans require power output capability which characterizes all power source options for the variety of ELA applications. Acquisition or development of actual power source devices is not practical within ELA-TB Program budget and schedule constraints. The ELA Power Source Systems (ELAPSS) will provide a programmable power source emulation capability to meet all NASA ELA application/system test and demonstration needs. One ELAPSS can be developed to emulate the defined operating characteristics of any power source using commercially available hardware and applications software. A modular design will allow the ELAPSS to be reconfigured to support multiple ELA system sizes, redundancy schemes, and integrated ELA/power system performance and fault testing. The ELAPSS will provide a permanent power source simulator capability for use on current and future NASA programs. The ELAPSS will be a portable piece of NASA GSE for use at any NASA center with the facility to support it. The ELAPSS will be developed with commercial components for more timely development and use, more cost effective replication, and future expansion of power source emulation capability. The ELAPSS allows very robust power degradation and fault testing capability via automated test sequences or manual commands from an operator control console. Various aspects of the program are presented in viewgraph form.

  3. 31 CFR 545.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services. 545.204 Section 545.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services. Except as otherwise... States, or by a U.S. person, wherever located, of any goods, software, technology (including...

  4. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  5. Nano-Electric Field TechnologY (NEFTY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    The NEFTY SR&T grant was focused on the development of novel electric field boom systems for sounding rocket applications. A "yo-yo"-type boom that unwraps from a rotating and damped axel was analyzed through a simulation with Prof. Psiaki of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University. The basic parameters of the analysis were evaluated and validated on a spinning platform prototyping system developed at Cornell University. The full "yo-yo"-type boom system is being developing for the SIERRA sounding rocket flight scheduled for a January 2002 launch. The principal results from this study were published.

  6. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  7. Supplying Reliable Electricity and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Wind is the world's fastest growing electric energy source. Because it is intermittent, though, wind is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid is a simple and effective way of reducing deliverable wind power swings caused by wind intermittency. As more farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does the probability that all sites experience the same wind regime at the same time. Consequently, the array behaves more and more similarly to a single farm with steady wind speed and thus steady deliverable wind power. In this study, benefits of interconnecting wind farms were evaluated for 19 sites, located in the Midwestern United States, with annual average wind speeds at 80 m above ground, the hub height of modern wind turbines, greater than 6.9 m/s (class 3 or greater). It was found that an average of 33% and a maximum of 47% of yearly-averaged wind power from interconnected farms can be used as reliable, baseload electric power. Equally significant, interconnecting multiple wind farms to a common point, then connecting that point to a far-away city can allow the long-distance portion of transmission capacity to be reduced, for example, by 20% with only a 1.6% loss of energy. Although most parameters, such as intermittency, improved less than linearly as the number of interconnected sites increased, no saturation of the benefits was found. Thus, the benefits of interconnection continue to increase with more and more interconnected sites.

  8. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  9. Information technology and supply chain management: a study of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Hill, C A

    2000-08-01

    This paper's topic is the use of information technology (IT) for the development of supply chain management (SCM). In today's business environment, both in academics and industry, the term SCM has become a popular paradigm. In particular, the use of IT to facilitate the development of supply chain partners is gaining interest within industry. This paper develops the topic of SCM and further develops the relationship between the use of IT, in the form of electronic data interchange, and the development of supply chain integration. The goal of using SCM along with IT is to develop a supply chain that is capable of responding more quickly and efficiently in the meeting of consumer's requirements.

  10. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  11. Applications of advanced electric/electronic technology to conventional aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability of seven advanced technologies as applied to three commercial aircraft of 1985 to 1995 was investigated. Digital fly by wire, multiplexing, ring laser gyro, integrated avionics, all electric airplane, electric load management, and fiber optics were considered for 500 passenger, 50 passenger, and 30 passenger aircraft. The major figure of merit used was Net Value of Technology based on procurement and operating cost over the life of the aircraft. An existing computer program, ASSET, was used to resize the aircraft and evalute fuel usage and maintenance costs for each candidate configuration. Conclusions were that, for the 500 passenger aircraft, all candidates had a worthwhile payoff with the all electric airplane having a large payoff.

  12. 76 FR 22729 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ..., Supply Technologies, Aerotek, Securitas Security Services, and Volt Workforce Solutions, Osceola, WI... reports that workers leased from Volt Workforce Solutions were employed on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin... Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from Volt Workforce Solutions working...

  13. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  14. By-product metals are technologically essential but have problematic supply

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, N. T.; Graedel, T. E.; Harper, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The growth in technological innovation that has occurred over the past decades has, in part, been possible because an increasing number of metals of the periodic table are used to perform specialized functions. However, there have been increasing concerns regarding the reliability of supply of some of these metals. A main contributor to these concerns is the fact that many of these metals are recovered only as by-products from a limited number of geopolitically concentrated ore deposits, rendering their supplies unable to respond to rapid changes in demand. Companionality is the degree to which a metal is obtained largely or entirely as a by-product of one or more host metals from geologic ores. The dependence of companion metal availability on the production of the host metals introduces a new facet of supply risk to modern technology. We evaluated companionality for 62 different metals and metalloids, and show that 61% (38 of 62) have companionality greater than 50%. Eighteen of the 38—including such technologically essential elements as germanium, terbium, and dysprosium—are further characterized as having geopolitically concentrated production and extremely low rates of end-of-life recycling. It is this subset of companion metals—vital in current technologies such as electronics, solar energy, medical imaging, energy-efficient lighting, and other state-of-the-art products—that may be at the greatest risk of supply constraints in the coming decades. PMID:26601159

  15. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  16. 77 FR 13351 - Polaris Industries, Including On-site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ..., Supply Technologies, Aerotek Securitas Security Services, Volt Workforce Solutions and Select Staffing... of components for recreational vehicles. The company reports that workers leased from Select Staffing... leased from Select Staffing working on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin location of Polaris Industries....

  17. Cellular electrical impedance spectroscopy: an emerging technology of microscale biosensors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenwen; Zhao, Yi

    2010-11-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy, owing to its label-free, noninvasive and easy miniaturization nature, has shown great potential in cellular biochemical sensing and cell-based diagnostics. In this article, cutting-edge technologies of electrical impedance spectroscopy are reviewed according to different sensing mechanisms, including monitoring of ion release from live cells, utilization of nonconductive cellular membranes, and detection of the spatial distribution of cells. The most successful applications where the electrical impedance sensors have been proven effective are introduced, including investigation of anticancer drug therapies, wound healing, cytotoxicity evaluation and measurement of blood rheological behavior. Furthermore, the research advances that yield enhanced sensitivities and functionalities are introduced. Finally, the commercialization challenges and the critical barriers that hinder the sustaining development of cellular electrical impedance spectroscopy are discussed.

  18. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Control System for Microgrid Supplying Heat and Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Koshio, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shizuka

    Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbine (WT) generation systems are expected to offer solutions to reduce green house gases and become more widely used in the future. However, the chief technical drawback of using these kinds of weather-dependent generators is the difficulty of forecasting their output, which can have negative impacts on commercial grids if a large number of them are introduced. Thus, this problem may hinder the wider application of PV and WT generation systems. The Regional Power Grid with Renewable Energy Resources Project was launched to seek a solution to this problem. The scope of the project is to develop, operate, and evaluate a Dispersed Renewable Energy Supply System with the ability to adapt the total energy output in response to changes in weather and demand. Such a system would reduce the impact that PV and WT generation systems have on commercial grids and allow the interconnection of more Dispersed Energy Resources (DER). In other words, the main objective of this project is to demonstrate an integrated energy management system, or a type of microgrid [1], as a new way of introducing DERs. The system has been in operation since October 2005 and will continue operation until March 2008. Through the project period, the data on power quality, system efficiency, operation cost, and environmental burden will be gathered and a cost-benefit analysis of the system will be undertaken. In this paper, firstly we introduce the concept of microgrid for reducing negative impact of natural energy, and secondly illustrate the structure of electric and thermal supply control system for Microgrid, especially for the Hachinohe demonstration project. The control system consists of four stages; weekly operation planning, economic dispatching control, tie-line control and local frequency control. And finally demonstration results and evaluation results are shown.

  20. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies: Overview of the NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear electric propulsion workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  1. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Executive summary. [modeling spacecraft environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of studies conducted to establish the requirements for advanced subsystem analytical tools is presented. Modifications are defined for updating current computer programs used to analyze environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems so that consumables for future advanced spacecraft may be managed.

  2. Evaluation of solar electric propulsion technologies for discovery class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study examines the potential benefits that advanced electric propulsion (EP) technologies offer to the cost-capped missions in NASA's Discovery program. The study looks at potential cost and performance benefits provided by three EP technologies that are currently in development: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), an Enhanced NSTAR system, and a Low Power Hall effect thruster. These systems are analyzed on three straw man Discovery class missions and their performance is compared to a state of the art system using the NSTAR ion thruster. An electric propulsion subsystem cost model is used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for each option. The results show that each proposed technology offers a different degree of performance and/or cost benefit for Discovery class missions.

  3. Performance evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.; Kulaga, J. E.; Webster, C. E.; Gillie, K. R.; Hogrefe, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    At the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R&D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of two single cells and seven 3- to 960-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, lead-acid, and Zn/Br).

  4. Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R.; Swan, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

  5. Evaluation of solar electric propulsion technologies for discovery class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study examines the potential benefits that advanced electric propulsion (EP) technologies offer to the cost-capped missions in NASA's Discovery program. The study looks at potential cost and performance benefits provided by three EP technologies that are currently in development: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), an Enhanced NSTAR system, and a Low Power Hall effect thruster. These systems are analyzed on three straw man Discovery class missions and their performance is compared to a state of the art system using the NSTAR ion thruster. An electric propulsion subsystem cost model is used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for each option. The results show that each proposed technology offers a different degree of performance and/or cost benefit for Discovery class missions.

  6. Impact of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technologies on the Hospital Supply Chain: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Coustasse, Alberto; Tomblin, Shane; Slack, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Supply costs account for more than one-third of the average operating budget and constitute the second largest expenditure in hospitals. As hospitals have sought to reduce these costs, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has emerged as a solution. This study reviews existing literature to gauge the recent and potential impact and direction of the implementation of RFID in the hospital supply chain to determine current benefits and barriers of adoption. Findings show that the application of RFID to medical equipment and supplies tracking has resulted in efficiency increases in hospitals with lower costs and increased service quality. RFID technology can reduce costs, improve patient safety, and improve supply chain management effectiveness by increasing the ability to track and locate equipment, as well as monitoring theft prevention, distribution management, and patient billing. Despite ongoing RFID implementation in the hospital supply chain, barriers to widespread and rapid adoption include significant total expenditures, unclear return on investment, and competition with other strategic imperatives. PMID:24159272

  7. Assistive technologies along supply chains in health care and in the social services sector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Peter; Hauer, Katharina; Schloffer, Evelyn; Leyrer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in Austria and Slovenia are currently facing challenges due to scarce resources and demographic change which can be seen especially along the supply chains. The main objective of this paper is to present an option to improve the use of assistive technologies. An extensive literature research for the theoretic part as well as a qualitative survey for the empiric part focusing on short-term care were carried out. Results show that there is a lack of information and training on assistive technologies. As a consequence, their full potential cannot be exploited. Therefore a guideline for nursing consultations was developed. To conclude, both the literature research and the qualitative survey show that assistive technologies have high potentials to improve the supply chains in the health care and social services sector, but there is a lot of information and training on them needed.

  8. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  9. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  10. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  11. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  12. 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electric power generating system technology demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, R. E.; Peecher, S.; Rozman, G.

    1991-08-01

    The approach, system architecture, instrumentation, and performance of a technology demonstrator system for the application of 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generation and distribution to future military aircraft are examined. The design has focused on assembling a highly flexible test system. The loads are typical of those in a hybrid electrical system. The system consists of a single 3-phase, 115-Vac electrical generator whose output is rectified, filtered, and supplied through dc contactors to both a 270-Vdc load bus and to the input of an inverter, which supplies a 400-Hz, 115-Vac load bus. A variable-frequency, 115-Vac bus is also available directly from the generator. A prototype variable-speed constant-frequency 120-kVA generator is used. The test facility is designed to provide loads to all power types capable of being produced by the system. The system has provided particularly good insight into various aspects of 270-Vdc/115-Vac hybrid systems and their components.

  13. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    1992-10-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991-1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  14. Using engineering and assistive technologies for rehabilitation after electrical trauma.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C J

    1999-10-30

    A framework is presented for judging when, how, and why rehabilitation engineering and its related assistive technologies are appropriate interventions following electrically induced trauma or burns. Instead of relying on the World Health Organization's medically based classification scheme of "Impairment, Disability, and Handicap," this newer framework is built on a rational demarcation proposed by the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation and Research at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. This latter client-centered framework encompasses pathophysiology, impairment, functional limitations, "disability", and societal limitations. This framework is well suited to handle the varied sequelae of electrical trauma and burn injuries and provides guidance towards the most effective use of traditional rehabilitation interventions and of assistive technologies. For electrical injuries, rehabilitative technologies can be classified as those promoting job accommodations (i.e., that help an individual return to active employment, albeit possibly in a different role) or as aids to the other activities of daily living (ADLs) that provide an enhanced quality of life to the individual with disability. While the traditional rehabilitative focus has been on return-to-work, especially among professional tradesmen, a more productive rehabilitative effort in some cases may occur through psychosocial adjustments achieved via effective technological interventions that enhance ADLs.

  15. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  16. Results of advanced batter technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  17. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  18. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation...

  19. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation...

  20. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation...

  1. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation, sale...

  2. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation, sale...

  3. Influences of reverse outsourcing on green technological progress from the perspective of a global supply chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhong; Song, Malin

    2017-10-01

    As a newly appeared trade mode in recent years, reverse outsourcing has made a great impact on traditional trade modes. This paper researched the influences of reverse outsourcing on green technological progress from the perspective of a global supply chain by using micro-data of enterprises. It worked out the rate of green technological progress from two innovative concepts: potential production technology and practical production technology. The empirical analysis results indicated that reverse outsourcing stimulates, and enterprise size and ownership type potentially affects, green technological progress. State-owned or foreign enterprises with high income levels would pay more attention to environmental protection, energy saving, and emission reduction, while small and micro enterprises with low incomes would choose to ignore environmental protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrical Power Budgeting Analysis for LSA-02 UAV Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranoto, F. S.; Wirawan, A.; Purnamasari, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the calculation of the LSA-02 UAV electrical power requirement as a technology demonstrator. To answer this issue, the method from ASTM F2490 Standard is used. By adopting that method, the condition of aircraft operation must be defined. Therefore, there are 2 aircraft conditions that will be investigated further. First, the LSA-02 aircraft will be fitted with EO/IR camera and support payload for conducting real-time surveillance system. The other condition is conducting the aerial photography mission to investigate the vegetation condition by equipping the aircraft with a multispectral camera. The results show that the real-time mission will need bigger electrical power requirement comparing to aerial photography mission. To support the mission without sacrificing the other electrical equipment for functioning, the onboard power generator system inside LSA-02 aircraft should be upgraded, at least with 3.5 kVA capacity.

  5. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  6. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  7. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  8. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, T.Q.

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  9. The flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liwen; Yao, Bin; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao; Yao, Boshi

    2012-01-01

    A flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control is presented to resolve the problem of low rigidity of PCB during grinding, the thickness of which varies from 0.1mm up to 3.5 mm. The comparative results between the real-time current and the setting current in the process of grinding control the frequency and the number of servo pulse, and then the servo motor adjusts the grinding depth of brushing roller at several different rotational speeds, namely, realizing the constant grinding force during grinding. The results show that the PCB can be grinded efficiently and accurately by means of the flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control.

  10. Automotive Technology Evolved by Electrical and Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teratani, Tatsuo; Okuma, Shigeru

    Automotive electrical and electronic systems, e.g. EHV, FCV, future X-By-Wire, have recently been introduced or planned in place of mechanical systems. Drivers are demanding environmental performance (fuel consumption and weight reduction), safety and comfort. For general use of the new technologies, evolution of the automotive technology is required, including energy conversion efficiency improvement, size and weight reduction of components, cost reduction and high reliability. This paper discusses and summarizes the next generation power systems, the future vehicle image, power source combinations, and problems to be solved for development of automotive electronics.

  11. The specification and estimation of technological change in electricity production

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses on the rate of technological change in electricity production. The dominant role of fossil fuel-fired electricity production in the industry, coupled with the direct association with the emission of greenhouse gases, makes technology parameters particularly significant for several reasons. First, very long-run simulations of energy-economic paths at a global level require that technical progress occupy a place in the methodology for sound formulations that are vital in global emissions/energy policy analysis. Second, given the outlook for electricity generation being predominately coal-based, especially in developing economies around the world, the specification and measurement of technical change is essential for developing realistic long-run technology forecasts. Finally, industry or sector growth in productivity hinges partly on technical progress, and updated analysis will always be necessary to stay abreast of developments on this front, as well as for economic growth considerations in general. This study is based on empirical economic research on production functions in the electric utility industry. However, it advances a seldom used approach, called the {open_quotes}engineering-production function{close_quotes}, in contrast to the more common neoclassical approach used by economists. Combined with this approach is a major departure from the type of data used to conduct econometric estimations of production parameters. This research draws upon a consistent set of ex ante or {open_quotes}blueprint{close_quotes} data that better reflects planned, technical performance and cost data elements, in contrast to the more customary, expect type of data from actual firm/plant operations. The results from the examination of coal-fired technologies indicate the presence of technical change. Using data for the period from 1979 to 1989, we find technical change to be capital-augmenting at the rate of 1.8 percent per year.

  12. Shock and vibration technology with applications to electrical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of shock and vibration technology for electrical systems developed by the aerospace programs. The shock environment is surveyed along with new techniques for modeling, computer simulation, damping, and response analysis. Design techniques based on the use of analog computers, shock spectra, optimization, and nonlinear isolation are discussed. Shock mounting of rotors for performance and survival, and vibration isolation techniques are reviewed.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  14. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, M.P. )

    1993-01-10

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to achieve readiness of Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies of significant maturity: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nulcear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented herein for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  16. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  17. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  18. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  19. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  20. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  1. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  2. Federal/State Jurisdictional Split: Implications for Emerging Electricity Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Jeffery S.; Kelly, Suedeen G.; Nordhaus, Robert R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2016-12-01

    The first Administration-wide Quadrennial Energy Review (QER), released in April 2015, found that the “interacting and overlapping” division of authority between “federal, regional and state institutions and regulatory structures” for the electricity sector could “impede development of the grid of the future [and] . . . the development of markets that efficiently integrate” new and emerging technologies.1 While “technology is indifferent to state-Federal boundaries and jurisdictions,” the QER explained, “technology users cannot be.”2 The report concluded that “[b]oth Federal and state governments need to play constructive and collaborative roles in the future to ensure that consumers and industry are able to maximize the value of new technologies.”3 The QER recommended that the Department of Energy (“DOE”) facilitate such collaboration by playing a “convening role” to bring together state and federal regulators and other stakeholders to consider these issues.4 This paper provides background and analysis on these jurisdictional issues and the impact they may have on adoption of emerging energy technologies and coordination of markets for those technologies, in support of future dialogs on these subjects. In particular, this paper reviews the structure of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”),5 and compares the division of authority between the federal and state governments adopted there with other federal energy and energy-related statutes.

  3. Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Cantin, Luc; Deschenes, Mario; D'Amours, Mario

    1995-08-15

    A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

  4. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Aabakken, J.

    2006-08-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  5. Electric Power System for High Altitude UAV Technology Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Electric powertrain technologies with application to high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are assessed. One hundred twenty five solar electric UAV configurations and missions were simulated. Synergistic design opportunities were investigated with the premise that specific benefits may be realized, for example, if a single component can serve multiple functions, such as a battery being used for energy storage as well as for a structural component of the aircraft. For each UAV mission simulation, the airframe structure, powertrain configuration (type of solar cells, energy storage options) and performance baseline (1997 or 2001) were specified. It has been found that the use of the high efficiency (multijunction) solar cells or the use of the synergistic amorphous silicon solar cell configuration yields aircraft that can accomplish the majority of the missions of interest for any latitude between 0 deg and 55 deg, hence, a single versatile aircraft can be constructed and implemented to accomplish these missions.

  6. Stationary diesel engines for use with generators to supply electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The procurement of stationary diesel engines for on-site generation of electric power deals with technical criteria and policy relating to federal agency, not electrical components of diesel-generator sets or for the design of electric-power generating plants or their air-pollution or noise control equipment.

  7. Security applications of a remote electric-field sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prance, Robert J.; Harland, Christopher J.; Prance, Helen

    2008-10-01

    A new generation of electric field sensors developed at the University of Sussex is enabling an alternative to contact voltage and non-contact magnetic field measurements. We have demonstrated the capability of this technology in a number of areas including ECG through clothing, remote off-body ECG, through wall movement sensing and electric field imaging. Clearly, there are many applications for a generic sensor technology with this capability, including long term vital sign monitoring. The non-invasive nature of the measurement also makes these sensors ideal for man/machine and human/robot interfacing. In addition, there are obvious security and biometric possibilities since we can obtain physiological data remotely, without the knowledge of the subject. This is a clear advantage if such systems are to be used for evaluating the psychological state of a subject. In this paper we report the results obtained with a new version of the sensor which is capable of acquiring electrophysiological signals remotely in an open unshielded laboratory. We believe that this technology opens up a new area of remote biometrics which could have considerable implications for security applications. We have also demonstrated the ability of EPS to function in closely-packed one and two dimensional arrays for real-time imaging.

  8. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3. NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na2SO4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4, the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m(2).

  9. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  10. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  11. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  12. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  13. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  14. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  15. Distributed Electrical Power Generation: Summary of Alternative Available Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    13 Technology Overview ........................................................................................................ 13...26 Technology Overview ........................................................................................................ 26...35 Technology Overview

  16. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DST) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have required that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks and environmental effects associated with air toxic emissions (primarily mercury) from fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. EPRI has sponsored research on environmental mercury since 1983 to determine the factors that may influence human health, and to determine the role of electric power generating stations in contributing to those factors. Over the last four years, EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) has conducted EPRI and DOE sponsored testing to develop and demonstrate appropriate measurement methods and control technologies for power plant atmospheric mercury emissions. Building upon the experience and expertise of the EPRI ECTC, a test program was initiated at the Center in July to further evaluate dry sorbent-based injection technologies upstream of a cold-side ESP for mercury control, and to determine the effects of such sorbents on ESP performance. The results from this program will be compared to the results from previous DOE/EPRI demonstrations, and to other ongoing programs. The primary objectives of this test program are to: (1) Determine the levels of mercury removal achievable by dry sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The process parameters to be investigated include sorbent residence time, sorbent type, sorbent size, sorbent loading, and flue gas

  17. Strategic assessment of the availability of pediatric trauma care equipment, technology and supplies in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ankomah, James; Stewart, Barclay T; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Koranteng, Adofo; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Donkor, Peter; Abantanga, Francis; Mock, Charles

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the availability of pediatric trauma care items (i.e. equipment, supplies, technology) and factors contributing to deficiencies in Ghana. Ten universal and 9 pediatric-sized items were selected from the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care. Direct inspection and structured interviews with administrative, clinical and biomedical engineering staff were used to assess item availability at 40 purposively sampled district, regional and tertiary hospitals in Ghana. Hospital assessments demonstrated marked deficiencies for a number of essential items (e.g. basic airway supplies, chest tubes, blood pressure cuffs, electrolyte determination, portable X-ray). Lack of pediatric-sized items resulting from equipment absence, lack of training, frequent stock-outs and technology breakage were common. Pediatric items were consistently less available than adult-sized items at each hospital level. This study identified several successes and problems with pediatric trauma care item availability in Ghana. Item availability could be improved, both affordably and reliably, by better organization and planning (e.g. regular assessment of demand and inventory, reliable financing for essential trauma care items). In addition, technology items were often broken. Developing local service and biomedical engineering capability was highlighted as a priority to avoid long periods of equipment breakage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategic assessment of the availability of pediatric trauma care equipment, technology and supplies in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ankomah, James; Stewart, Barclay T; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Koranteng, Adofo; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Donkor, Peter; Abantanga, Francis; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the availability of pediatric trauma care items (i.e. equipment, supplies, technology) and factors contributing to deficiencies in Ghana. Methods Ten universal and 9 pediatric-sized items were selected from the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care. Direct inspection and structured interviews with administrative, clinical and biomedical engineering staff were used to assess item availability at 40 purposively sampled district, regional and tertiary hospitals in Ghana. Results Hospital assessments demonstrated marked deficiencies for a number of essential items (e.g. basic airway supplies, chest tubes, blood pressure cuffs, electrolyte determination, portable Xray). Lack of pediatric-sized items resulting from equipment absence, lack of training, frequent stock-outs and technology breakage were common. Pediatric items were consistently less available than adult-sized items at each hospital level. Conclusion This study identified several successes and problems with pediatric trauma care item availability in Ghana. Item availability could be improved, both affordably and reliably, by better organization and planning (e.g. regular assessment of demand and inventory, reliable financing for essential trauma care items). In addition, technology items were often broken. Developing local service and biomedical engineering capability was highlighted as a priority to avoid long periods of equipment breakage. PMID:25841284

  19. Electricity demand curtailment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J; Carroll, O; Schnader, M

    1980-01-01

    The state of electricity demand curtailment planning for long term electricity supply disruptions is reviewed. Legal, institutional and technological problems associated with demand curtailment plans are examined, and the existence of well defined social objectives on the part of planners is questioned. A linear programming approach to electricity demand curtailment planning is presented.

  20. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  1. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (7)Development and Practical Application of Sodium-Sulfur Battery for Electric Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachi, Hideki

    Sodium-Sulfur battery (NAS battery), which has more than 3 times of energy density compared with the conventional lead-acid battery and can be compactly established, has a great installation effects as a distributed energy storage system in the urban area which consumes big electric power. For the power company, NAS battery contributes to the load leveling, the supply capability up at the peak period, the efficient operation of the electric power equipment and the reduction of the capital expenditure. And for the customer, it is possible to enjoy the reduction of the electricity charges by utilizing nighttime electric power and the securing of a security. The contribution to the highly sophisticated information society where the higher electric power quality is desired, mainly office buildings and factories by the progress of IT, is very big. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) developed the elementary technology of NAS battery from 1984 and ended the development of practical battery which has long-term durability and the safety and the performance verification of the megawatt scale. Finally TEPCO accomplished the practical application and commercialization of the stationary energy storage technology by NAS battery. In this paper, we introduces about conquered problems until practical application and commercialization.

  2. Utilizing Radiofrequency Identification Technology to Improve Safety and Management of Blood Bank Supply Chains.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Meadows, Pamela; Hall, Robert S; Hibner, Travis; Deslich, Stacie

    2015-11-01

    The importance of efficiency in the supply chain of perishable products, such as the blood products used in transfusion services, cannot be overstated. Many problems can occur, such as the outdating of products, inventory management issues, patient misidentification, and mistransfusion. The purpose of this article was to identify the benefits and barriers associated with radiofrequency identification (RFID) usage in improving the blood bank supply chain. The methodology for this study was a qualitative literature review following a systematic approach. The review was limited to sources published from 2000 to 2014 in the English language. Sixty-five sources were found, and 56 were used in this research study. According to the finding of the present study, there are numerous benefits and barriers to RFID utilization in blood bank supply chains. RFID technology offers several benefits with regard to blood bank product management, including decreased transfusion errors, reduction of product loss, and more efficient inventory management. Barriers to RFID implementation include the cost associated with system implementation and patient privacy issues. Implementation of an RFID system can be a significant investment. However, when observing the positive impact that such systems may have on transfusion safety and inventory management, the cost associated with RFID systems can easily be justified. RFID in blood bank inventory management is vital to ensuring efficient product inventory management and positive patient outcomes.

  3. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  4. Industrial water supply for the Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant with the ecological safety of the River Seim taken into account

    SciTech Connect

    Kyakk, V. A.

    2009-09-15

    The Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant is discussed as an illustration of preventing thermal contamination of its water supply (River Seim) by circulating water. An effective water supply system is taken to be one for which the overheating of the water at a monitoring site (near the outlet location) does not exceed an approved level for the water use conditions. The required cooling capacity of a spray pond for circulating and flow-through water supplies is determined.

  5. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE's Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  6. Electric Power Research Institute: environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-04

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved continued investigations into the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process for the production of Anhydrous Calcium Sulfate (Anhydrite). The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. From May 3-18, the NYSEG Kintigh Station and the ECTC were off-line for a two-week scheduled Station outage. During the ECTC outage, the major systems of the Center were inspected, and several preventive maintenance activities were completed. A listing of the major O&M outage activities completed during this period is presented in the Pilot/Mini-Pilot section of this report. In May 1997, an extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was started following the NYSEG outage. The extension to the Anhydrite Production test block is being funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high- efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite project was conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension mainly used the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot wet FGD unit to reduce operating costs. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a useable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). The original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved

  7. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  8. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  9. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited

  10. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jonathan; Khowailed, Gannate; Blackburn, Julia; Sikes, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary steps: (1

  11. Geological, technological, and political-economic constraints on future supplies of critical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, prices of most mineral commodities have risen significantly. This is primarily due to increased minerals demand from rapidly developing highly-populated nations and the inability of the global mining industry to keep pace. Many critical minerals, including rare earth elements, have undergone some of the largest price increases, resulting in considerable destruction of demand. Critical minerals have many highly valued uses, in particular for emerging energy and transportation technologies. Abundant supplies at relatively low prices would accelerate the introduction of many of these new energy-saving industries. Using rare earths as an example, transforming a small "boutique" mineral industry into a reliable supplier for rapidly developing markets faces numerous hurdles. The challenges begin with the geological occurrence of rare earth deposits, which rarely occur as economically mineable deposits despite their relatively high crustal abundance. The distribution of these deposits relative to modern political boundaries presents additional obstacles. The technological challenges to extracting and purifying rare earth elements at a reasonable cost have long been formidable. Developing new mining and mineral processing capacity has become more time-consuming and costly. The history of the molybdenum industry is analogous and illustrates the investment climate and research efforts required to transform an exotic element into a staple of industrial production: (1) secure access to high-quality mineral resources; (2) research on deposit occurrence and development of exploration technology; (3) research and investment into extraction and processing technology; (3) research into new applications; and (4) close cooperation between suppliers, consumers, and government.

  12. Product definition for future electricity supply auctions: the 2006 Illinois experience

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Luciano; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Gross, George

    2008-08-15

    Much of the discussion about new markets for electricity contracts focuses on the auction format to be used. Far less attention has been paid to the contract definition itself. An analysis of the 2006 Illinois Electricity Auction shows how a poorly formulated product definition can erode the performance of such markets. The authors propose an improved product definition to overcome the key problems they have identified. (author)

  13. Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

    1996-07-01

    In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processes—an electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

  14. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the DOE/PRDA Phase I investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production. The DOE/PRDA Phase I testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CH) was completed this month. This one-year tube wear analysis investigation was completed on 3/10/97, and a final inspection of the unit was made on 3/21/97. The CH unit and its related equipment are currently being removed from the ECTC test configuration, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analyses. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly.

  15. Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (DSEP) Technology Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The background, progress, and current state of the DOE-sponsored Advanced Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion Technology Development are presented. Three electric-drive vehicles were build as conversions of a commercial gasoline-powered van, using program-designed components and systems as required. The vehicles were tested primarily on dynamometer or test tract. Component and system testing represented a major portion of the development effort. Test data are summarized in this report, and an Appendix contains the final component design specifications. This major programmatic concerns were the traction battery, the battery management system, the dc-to-ac inverter, the drive motor, the transaxle and its ancillary equipment, and the vehicle controller. Additional effort was devoted to vehicle-related equipment: gear selector, power steering, power brakes, accelerator, dashboard instrumentation, and heater. Design, development, and test activities are reported for each of these items, together with an appraisal (lessons learned) and recommendations for possible further work. Other programmatic results include a Cost and Commercialization Analysis, a Reliability and Hazards Analysis Study, Technical Recommendations for Next-Generation Development, and an assessment of overall program efforts.

  16. The DOE solar thermal electric program concentrator technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, T. R.

    1991-01-01

    The project comprises the development of concentrating solar collectors, heliostats, and dishes, and the development of optical materials. Because the solar concentrator represents from 40 to 60 percent of the cost of a solar thermal electric system, the continued development of high-performance concentrators is very important to the commercial viability of these systems. The project is currently testing two large area heliostats, the SPECO 200 sq m heliostat and the ATS 150 sq m heliostat, and also trying to reduce the cost of the heliostats through the development of stretched-membrane heliostats. Stretched-membrane heliostats are made by attaching thin metal membranes to the two sides of a circular, metal ring. A slight vacuum in the plenum between the two membranes is used to focus the heliostat. The optical surface is provided by a silver-acrylic film, ECP 305. A prototype 100 sq m commercial unit has been built and is currently being tested. Parabolic dish concentrators are under development for use on dish-Stirling electric systems. The state-of-the-art dish is the McDAC/SCE faceted glass concentrator. Because of the success of stretched-membrane technology for heliostats, the project applied the technology to parabolic dish development and is currently designing a near-term, faceted, stretched-membrane dish. The current thrust of the program in optical materials development is the development of a low-cost, high-performance, silver-acrylic film. 3M's ECP 305 has demonstrated substantial improvement over previous films in its resistance to corrosion and its longer life. An experimental film, developed at SERI, has promise for further improving the lifetime of the ECP 305. The project is currently investigating solutions to the problem of separation between the silver and acrylic layers of the film in the presence of water.

  17. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  18. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  19. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  20. [Performance of Electricity Generation and Feasibility of Discontinuous Power Supply of MFC by Using Pretreated Excess Sludge as Fuel].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-hui; Zhao, Yang-guo; Guo, Liang

    2016-03-15

    The feasibility of treating pretreated excess sludge and capacity of supplying continuous power of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells were started up and operated by using thermal pretreated excess sludge as the substrate. Potential fluctuations were achieved by changing the cathode electron acceptor. During the changes of electron acceptor, the operational stability of MFCs was assessed. The results indicated that the MFCs started successfully with oxygen as the cathode electron acceptor and reached 0.24 V after 148 hours. When the cathode electron acceptor was replaced by potassium ferricyanide, MFCs could obtain the maximum output voltage and maximum power density of 0.66 V and 4.21 W · m⁻³, respectively. When the cathode electron acceptor was changed from oxygen to potassium ferricyanide or the MFCs were closed circuit, the output power of MFCs recovered rapidly. In addition, changes of electron acceptor showed no effect on the removal of COD and ammonia nitrogen. Their removal efficiencies approached to 70% and 80%, respectively. This study concluded that MFC could treat the pretreated excess sludge and produce electricity simultaneously with a high power density. The MFC could also achieve discontinuous electricity supply during operation.

  1. Emergency water supply: a review of potential technologies and selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Loo, Siew-Leng; Fane, Anthony G; Krantz, William B; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-15

    Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water technologies (WTs) that are modular, mobile or portable are suitable for emergency relief. This paper reviews WTs including membrane technologies that are suitable for use in emergencies. Physical, chemical, thermal- and light-based treatment methods, and membrane technologies driven by different driving forces such as pressure, temperature and osmotic gradients are reviewed. Each WT is evaluated by ten mutually independent criteria: costs, ease of deployment, ease of use, maintenance, performance, potential acceptance, energy requirements, supply chain requirements, throughput and environmental impact. A scoring system based on these criteria is presented. A methodology for emergency WT selection based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis is developed and discussed. Finally, critical research needs are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical and commercial aspects of the connection of wind turbines to electricity supply networks in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews some technical and commercial issues now topical for wind energy developments in Europe. The technical issues are important because of the weak nature of the existing electricity systems in rural or upland areas. Several commercial issues are considered which may improve the economics of wind energy as market incentives are gradually withdrawn. 9 refs.

  3. Assessment and Methods for Supply-Following Loads in Modern Electricity Grids with Deep Renewables Penetration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-18

    9 2.2 California electricity blend for a year, August 2010-August 2011. Note that biomass and biogas are combined...scaled to 60% renewables penetration with no baseload generation (B = 0). Note that biomass and biogas are combined...renewable sources of generation may be dispatchable – such as geothermal, biomass , biogas, and hydroelectric – non-dispatchable generation is the fastest

  4. Assessment of reforms in the electricity supply industry: A review of some recent empirical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peerbocus, Nash

    2007-03-15

    An empirical review suggests that progress has been made in bringing competition into the inherently complex and challenging electricity market, generating substantial efficiency gains. But the large disconnect between the wholesale and retail markets indicates that much effort is needed to allow consumers to optimally reap those gains. (author)

  5. Toward a 20% Wind Electricity Supply in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P.

    2007-05-01

    Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Wind Powering America (WPA) program in 1999, installed wind power capacity in the United States has increased from 2,500 MW to more than 11,000 MW. In 1999, only four states had more than 100 MW of installed wind capacity; now 16 states have more than 100 MW installed. In addition to WPA's efforts to increase deployment, the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is building a network of support across the country. In July 2005, AWEA launched the Wind Energy Works! Coalition, which is comprised of more than 70 organizations. In February 2006, the wind deployment vision was enhanced by President George W. Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative, which refers to a wind energy contribution of up to 20% of the electricity consumption of the United States. A 20% electricity contribution over the next 20 to 25 years represents 300 to 350 gigawatts (GW) of electricity. This paper provides a background of wind energy deployment in the United States and a history of the U.S. DOE's WPA program, as well as the program's approach to increasing deployment through removal of institutional and informational barriers to a 20% wind electricity future.

  6. Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) Technology Development for Potential Deep Space Scientific Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J.; Sievers, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) technology development effort over the past year. The vapor-vapor AMTEC cell technology is being developed for use with either a solar or nuclear heat sources for space.

  7. Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) Technology Development for Potential Deep Space Scientific Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J.; Sievers, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) technology development effort over the past year. The vapor-vapor AMTEC cell technology is being developed for use with either a solar or nuclear heat sources for space.

  8. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" technologies and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H 2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H 2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. This study integrates and extends previous analyses of H 2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. Further, it uses a new electric-drive-vehicle and vehicular-distributed-generation model to estimate zero-emission-power versus zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. By framing market development in terms of new consumer value flowing from Me-, this study suggests a way to move beyond the battery versus fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. As one possible extension of this Me- product platform, H 2FCVs might supply clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature.

  9. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  10. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  11. Diesel plant retrofitting options to enhance decentralized electricity supply in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Barley, C D; Drouilhet, S

    1997-09-01

    Over the last 20 years, the government of Indonesia has undertaken an extensive program to provide electricity to the population of that country. The electrification of rural areas has been partially achieved through the use of isolated diesel systems, which account for about 20% of the country`s generated electricity. Due to many factors related to inefficient power production with diesels, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with PLN, the Indonesian national utility, Community Power Corporation, and Idaho Power Company, analyzed options for retrofitting existing diesel power systems. This study considered the use of different combinations of advanced diesel control, the addition of wind generators, photovoltaics and batteries to reduce the systems of overall cost and fuel consumption. This analysis resulted in a general methodology for retrofitting diesel power systems. This paper discusses five different retrofitting options to improve the performance of diesel power systems. The systems considered in the Indonesian analysis are cited as examples for the options discussed.

  12. Vulnerability of European and U.S. Electricity Supply to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Ludwig, F.; Vögele, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil fueled) power plants currently produce 78% of all electricity in the Europe and 91% in the United States. These power plants directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were forced to reduce production due to cooling water scarcity and environmental restrictions on thermal discharges. Due to climate change, periods with low flows in combination with high water temperatures could increase causing significant reductions in cooling water availability during summer. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the U.S. is vulnerable to climate change due to the combined impacts of lower summer flows and higher water temperatures. We used a physically-based hydrological and water temperature modeling framework (VIC - RBM) in combination with an electricity production model. Our modeling framework was forced with different climate change scenarios to quantify how climate change will affect daily river flow, water temperature, and subsequently electricity production potential over the next 20-50 years. A total number of 96 existing nuclear and fossil fueled power plants (with different cooling systems) in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were included in our analyses. The results show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the U.S. depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme reductions in thermoelectric power production are projected to increase substantially. Considering the projected decreases in cooling water availability during summer in combination with the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  13. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Sean W. D.; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-03-07

    Here, an important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction ofmore » change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~–5 to + 5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~ 5–20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~ 5–15%) without investing in new power generation facilities.« less

  14. Neurodegenerative disease and magnetic field exposure in UK electricity supply workers.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, T; Mohammed, N

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has suggested a possible link between neurodegenerative disease and exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. To investigate whether risks of Alzheimer's, motor neurone or Parkinson's disease are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. The mortality experienced by a cohort of 73051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales was investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82, were employed for at least 6 months and had some employment after 1 January 1973. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing any of the three diseases under investigation for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. No statistically significant trends were shown for risks of any of these diseases to increase with estimates of lifetime, recent or distant exposure to magnetic fields. There is no convincing evidence that UK electricity generation and transmission workers have suffered elevated risks from neurodegenerative diseases as a consequence of exposure to magnetic fields. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sean W D; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-07-15

    An important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction of change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~-5 to +5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~5-20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~5-15%) without investing in new power generation facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of the Independent Inventor in the Early Development of Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David Hendrick

    This account of invention and innovation in electrical technology places particular emphasis upon the contributions of Nathan B. Stubblefield, an independent electrical scientist. An overview of inventions in electrical communication as they influenced Stubblefield sets his work in perspective. The elements of invention that were identified in…

  17. New Electric Power Technologies: Problems and Prospects for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report responds to a request from the House Committee on Science and Technology and its Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications to analyze a range of new electric power generating, storage, and load management technologies. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examined these technologies in terms of their current and expected…

  18. Miniaturized Power Processing Unit Study: A Cubesat Electric Propulsion Technology Enabler Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghassemieh, Shakib M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates High Voltage Power Processing Unit (PPU) technology and driving requirements necessary to enable the Microfluidic Electric Propulsion technology research and development by NASA and university partners. This study provides an overview of the state of the art PPU technology with recommendations for technology demonstration projects and missions for NASA to pursue.

  19. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  20. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  1. Development of functional electrical stimulators utilizing cochlear implant technology.

    PubMed

    Davis, R; Patrick, J; Barriskill, A

    2001-01-01

    In 1983, R. Davis proposed the development of a functional electrical stimulator, based on multi-channel cochlear implant technology, for the restoration of function in spinal cord injured paraplegic subjects. In 1984, the US Veteran Administration funded the initial investigations including animal experiments and purchase of a FES stimulator based on the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant. In 1987, the US Food and Drug Administration approved an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE# G870142) for this FES project. In 1991, the first stimulator was implanted in a 21-year old male paraplegic subject (complete thoracic spinal cord lesion at level #10), who was subsequently able to stand and to perform one-handed tasks for up to 1h. In 1996-1997 development started on a new multi-function FES system. In 1998, a stimulator was implanted in a 35-year-old male paraplegic subject (complete thoracic spinal cord lesion at level #10). After 8 months of use providing multiple functions including bladder voiding, the implant's internal antenna wire broke. A modified implant (FES 24-B) is due to be implanted in July 2001.

  2. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  3. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  4. Potential production of biosurfactants under electric field supplied to clayey soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, L.; Elektorowicz, M.

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of the introduction of nutrients and bacteria into clayey soil using electrokinetic methodology makes bioremediation more popular. However, biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by their low solubility. The potential production of biosurfactants in clayey soil under the electric field was presented in this study. The electrokinetic cell tests were carried out to investigate the production of biosurfactants in the contaminated soil and soil without contaminants. The results showed that there was 1.5 times higher production in the soil contaminated by phenanthrene than that without it. In the middle of the electrokinetic cell, there are more biosurfactants produced than at the anode and the cathode areas. It was observed that there was migration of micelles with the electromigration and electroosmosis. In spite of the anionic properties of biosurfactant, the movement of the micelle was only partially directed to the anode. It was also observed that the electroosmosic flow transported micelles to the cathode. The results suggested the possibility of production of biosurfactants under the electric field and uniform distribution in the subsoil. The results could find a direct applicability in the enhanced remediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  5. Research on High-efficient Remanufacturing Technologies and Application of Electric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The energy conservation of electric motor system is the key of industrial energy conservation. With the implementation and acceleration of electric motor energy efficiency improvement plan, more and more electric motors are knocked out. High-efficient remanufacturing of electric motor refers to improving the efficiency of electric motor and recycling the resources by replacing the winding, iron core and other components of electric motor on the basis of the low-efficient/outdated electric motors, which conforms to China’s policy of circular economy and resource recovery. The remanufacturing of electric motor not only maximizes the use of resources, but also reduces the energy consumption generated by reprocessing of cast iron, silicon steel sheet and other materials in dismantling of electric motor. However, structures and iron core materials used in design and manufacture of electric motors are different, and the degrees of wear of electric motors are also different under different operating conditions, which further result in diversified design schemes, increased remanufacturing cost and reduced remanufacturing efficiency. This paper analyzes the key process technologies for remanufacturing of electric motors are researched by analyzing the remanufacturing technologies of electric motors, and presents the feasibility to replace the cast-aluminum rotor with cast-copper rotor in high-efficient remanufacturing process of electric motor.

  6. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  7. Conceptual Design of an Electric Sail Technology Demonstration Mission Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    There is great interest in examining the outer planets of our solar system and Heliopause region (edge of Solar System) and beyond regions of interstellar space by both the Planetary and Heliophysics communities. These needs are well docu-mented in the recent National Academy of Sciences Decadal Surveys. There is significant interest in developing revolutionary propulsion techniques that will enable such Heliopause scientific missions to be completed within 10 to15 years of the launch date. One such enabling propulsion technique commonly known as Electric Sail (E-Sail) propulsion employs positively charged bare wire tethers that extend radially outward from a rotating spacecraft spinning at a rate of one revolution per hour. Around the positively charged bare-wire tethers, a Debye Sheath is created once positive voltage is applied. This sheath stands off of the bare wire tether at a sheath diameter that is proportional to the voltage in the wire coupled with the flux density of solar wind ions within the solar system (or the location of spacecraft in the solar system. The protons that are expended from the sun (solar wind) at 400 to 800 km/sec are electrostatically repelled away from these positively charged Debye sheaths and propulsive thrust is produced via the resulting momentum transfer. The amount of thrust produced is directly proportional to the total wire length. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electric Sail team is currently funded via a two year Phase II NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) awarded in July 2015. The team's current activities are: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from the experimental data collected at MSFC's Solar Wind Facility on the interaction between simulated solar wind interaction with a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) The development of the necessary tether deployers and tethers to enable successful de-ployment of multiple, multi km length bare tethers

  8. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  9. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  10. Wind power systems for individual applications. [electric power supplies for homes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clews, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A small windpower system is described which is suitable for electrifying a house. The self-contained unit consists of a two kilowatt wind driven generator, a set of 19 storage batteries, a small dc to ac inverter, and a gasoline generator for use as an emergency backup system in case of prolonged calm periods. Cost effectiveness of the electricity generated by this windmill system comes out to about 15 cents per kilowatt hour - assuming a 10 year life for the batteries and a 20 year life for the other components. Some other small windpower systems are also described, and it is shown that a windpowered generator in the 15- to 25-kilowatt output range coupled to a direct heated water storage system is able to heat a typical New England home.

  11. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  12. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  13. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  14. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  15. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  16. Electric Propulsion Requirements and Mission Analysis Under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard a.; Pencil, Eric J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project (ISPT) is currently NASA's sole investment in electric propulsion technologies. This project is managed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The objective of the electric propulsion project area is to develop near-term and midterm electric propulsion technologies to enhance or enable future NASA science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Systems analysis activities sponsored by ISPT seek to identify future mission applications in order to quantify mission requirements, as well as develop analytical capability in order to facilitate greater understanding and application of electric propulsion and other propulsion technologies in the ISPT portfolio. These analyses guide technology investments by informing decisions and defining metrics for technology development to meet identified mission requirements. This paper discusses the missions currently being studied for electric propulsion by the ISPT project, and presents the results of recent electric propulsion (EP) mission trades. Recent ISPT systems analysis activities include: an initiative to standardize life qualification methods for various electric propulsion systems in order to retire perceived risk to proposed EP missions; mission analysis to identify EP requirements from Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship classes of missions; and an evaluation of system requirements for radioisotope-powered electric propulsion. Progress and early results of these activities is discussed where available.

  17. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  18. Magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in UK electricity supply workers.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether brain tumour risks are related to occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields. Brain tumour risks experienced by 73 051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales were investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82 and were employed for at least 6 months with some employment in the period 1973-82. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing a brain tumour (or glioma or meningioma) for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. Findings for glioma and for the generality of all brain tumours were unexceptional; risks were close to (or below) unity for all exposure categories and there was no suggestion of risks increasing with cumulative (or recent or distant) magnetic field exposures. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects shown for meningioma, but there was some evidence of elevated risks in the three highest exposure categories for exposures received >10 years ago. This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields is a risk factor for gliomas, and the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that both distant and recent magnetic field exposures are not causally related to gliomas. The limited positive findings for meningioma may be chance findings; national comparisons argue against a causal interpretation.

  19. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies - Overview of the NASA/DoE/DoD Nuclear Electric Propulsion Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, John W.

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, and DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  20. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies - Overview of the NASA/DoE/DoD Nuclear Electric Propulsion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, and DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  1. Electric vehicles: technology and introduction to the Arab world

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    The last decades provided an atmosphere that has been particularly suited to the development of new modes of transportation replacing noisy and dirty conventional vehicles. However, today electric vehicles are receiving intensive public interest with every gasoline shortage and price increase. In this paper, an introduction and history of electric vehicles has been provided. Details of electric motors have been given, together with their advantages and disadvantages for application to electric vehicles. The main (traction) batteries used with electric vehicles have been widely studied. The control system has been divided into three major types: rheostatic control, parallelseries battery connection control, and chopper control. The three types have been discussed with their advantages and disadvantages and their economical aspects. This paper also discusses the battery charger and the brake systems used with electric vehicles. Extra details on the specifications of the components, the meter, the battery and the control system have been provided and discussed. The instrumentation technique and tires used with electric vehicles also have been studied. Operational and environmental considerations have also been detailed, including a comparison of E V and I C E V systems and the consequences of employing them, and the most likely applications for electric vehicles.

  2. Homeostatic control: economic integration of solar technologies into electric power operations and planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tabors, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    The economic and technical interfaces between the electrical utility and the distributed, nondispatchable electric generation systems are only minimally understood at the present time. The economic issues associated with the interface of new energy technologies and the electric utility grid are discussed. Then the concept of Homeostatic Control is introduced and the use of such an economic concept applied to the introduction of nondispatchable technologies into the existing utility system is discussed. The transition and potential impact of a Homoeostatic Control system working with the existing electric utility system is discussed.

  3. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    The directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions in the most cost effective manner are determined. The mission set requirements, state of the art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system level electric propulsion parameters are discussed. The impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems is evaluated.

  4. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: WASTE VITRIFICATION THROUGH ELECTRIC MELTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of vitrification technology is to convert contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments into an oxide glass, rendering them suitable for landfilling as a nonhazardous material. The technology uses joule heating to melt the waste matrix, destroying organic compounds in ...

  7. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: WASTE VITRIFICATION THROUGH ELECTRIC MELTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of vitrification technology is to convert contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments into an oxide glass, rendering them suitable for landfilling as a nonhazardous material. The technology uses joule heating to melt the waste matrix, destroying organic compounds in ...

  8. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 30: Intermediate Power Supplies. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on intermediate power supplies is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included…

  9. Analysis of Electric Vehicle DC High Current Conversion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Jing-fen; Lin, Fan-tao; Lu, Da

    2017-05-01

    Based on the background of electric vehicles, it is elaborated the necessity about electric energy accurate metering of electric vehicle power batteries, and it is analyzed about the charging and discharging characteristics of power batteries. It is needed a DC large current converter to realize accurate calibration of power batteries electric energy metering. Several kinds of measuring methods are analyzed based on shunts and magnetic induction principle in detail. It is put forward power batteries charge and discharge calibration system principle, and it is simulated and analyzed ripple waves containing rate and harmonic waves containing rate of power batteries AC side and DC side. It is put forward suitable DC large current measurement methods of power batteries by comparing different measurement principles and it is looked forward the DC large current measurement techniques.

  10. Computers and the supply of radiology services: anatomy of a disruptive technology.

    PubMed

    Levy, Frank

    2008-10-01

    Over the next decade, computers will augment the supply of radiology services at a time when reimbursement rules are likely to tighten. Increased supply and slower growing demand will result in a radiology market that is more competitive, with less income growth, than the market of the past 15 years.

  11. The Technological Marketplace. Supply and Demand for Scientists and Engineers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    Studies of past, present and projected supplies of scientists and engineers and their utilization in science and engineering are reviewed in this report. It is the intent of the study to explain the differences of opinion about the future supply and utilization of scientists and engineers and also to provide an assessment. Contents discuss: (1)…

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Electronics & Electrical Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-05

    Sirena -1 Self-propelled Flaw Detector [PRIBORYI SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA, Jan 87] 14 Crane Strain-measurement Scales With Data Processing by a Microprocessor...was 3-5 m. 06415/06662 UDC 620.179.1:620.165.29 Algorithimization of Control of Electric Motor Drive of Sirena -1 Self-propelled Flaw Detector...The article describes one of the most optimum algorithms of control of the electric motor drive of the Sirena -1 self-propelled flaw detector

  13. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief.

  14. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Saur, G.; Penev, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  15. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  16. Life-cycle and freshwater withdrawal impact assessment of water supply technologies.

    PubMed

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2013-05-01

    Four alternative cases for water supply were environmentally evaluated and compared based on the standard environmental impact categories from the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology extended with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI). The cases were designed for Copenhagen, a part of Denmark with high population density and relatively low available water resources. FWI was applied at local groundwater catchments based on data from the national implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. The base case of the study was the current practice of groundwater abstraction from well fields situated near Copenhagen. The 4 cases studied were: Rain & stormwater harvesting from several blocks in the city; Today's groundwater abstraction with compensating actions applied in the affected freshwater environments to ensure sufficient water flow in water courses; Establishment of well fields further away from the city; And seawater desalination. The standard LCA showed that the Rain & stormwater harvesting case had the lowest overall environmental impact (81.9 μPET/m(3)) followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction (123.5-137.8 μPET/m(3)), and that desalination had a relatively small but still important increase in environmental impact (204.8 μPET/m(3)). Rain & stormwater harvesting and desalination had a markedly lower environmental impact compared to the base case, due to the reduced water hardness leading to e.g. a decrease in electricity consumption in households. For a relevant comparison, it is therefore essential to include the effects of water hardness when comparing the environmental impacts of water systems of different hardness. This study also emphasizes the necessity of including freshwater withdrawal respecting the relevant affected geographical scale, i.e. by focusing the assessment on the local groundwater catchments rather than on the regional catchments. Our work shows that freshwater withdrawal methods previously used on a regional

  17. THE ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY. PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARLOW, MELVIN L.; SCHILL, WILLIAM J.

    TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS FOR INSTRUCTION IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 51 TECHNICAL WORKERS, 51 JUNIOR COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS, AND 11 EXPERTS RATED 240 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AS TO THEIR VALUE IN A TECHNICIAN'S WORK. THE THREE GROUPS AGREED ON THE RANK ORDER OF 15 TOPICS--(1) CURRENT ELECTRICITY, (2)…

  18. Electric Materials in advance of Technologies for CO2 Emission Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuzo

    Electric materials for the CO2 emission reduction and the climate changes mitigation are reviewed for this special issue. In the diversified society and the climate changes in the global environment, the advanced electric materials and their effective application technologies are a significant and argent field. Proceedings of superconducting materials, fuel cell materials, solar cell materials etc. are spectacular.

  19. Blazing the trailway: Nuclear electric propulsion and its technology program plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of the plans for a program in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for space applications being considered by NASA, DOE, and DOD. Possible missions using NEP are examined, and NEP technology plans are addressed regarding concept development, systems engineering, nuclear fuels, power conversion, thermal management, power management and distribution, electric thrusters, facilities, and issues related to safety and environment. The programmatic characteristics are considered.

  20. Blazing the trailway - Nuclear electric propulsion and its technology program plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the plans for a program in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for outer space applications being considered by NASA, DOE, and DOD. Possible missions using NEP are examined, and NEP technology plans are addressed regarding concept development, systems engineering, nuclear fuels, power conversion, thermal management, power management and distribution, electric thrusters, facilities, and issues related to safety and environment. The programmatic characteristics are considered.

  1. Homeostatic control: Economic integration of solar technologies into electric power operations and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1981-07-01

    The economic issues associated with the interface of new energy technologies and the electric utility grid are discussed. The concept of homestatic control is introduced and the use of such an economic concept applied to the introduction of nondispatchable technologies into the existing utility system is examined. The transition and potential impact of a homeostatic control system working with the existing electric utility system is treated.

  2. Technology spin-off from space power automation to terrestrial electrical power distribution control and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callis, C. T.; Broadwater, R. P.; Chandrasekaran, A.

    Areas which hold potential for technology spin-off from space power automation into terrestrial electrical power distribution control and automation are investigated. Areas touched upon include load management, loss reduction, trend analysis, energy storage, and fault diagnosis and analysis with expert systems. A brief overview of terrestrial electric power technology and automation in terrestrial distribution is provided. Power handling capabilities, hardware, loads, and goals of terrestrial and space systems are compared.

  3. 25th anniversary article: organic photovoltaic modules and biopolymer supercapacitors for supply of renewable electricity: a perspective from Africa.

    PubMed

    Inganäs, Olle; Admassie, Shimelis

    2014-02-12

    The role of materials in civilization is well demonstrated over the centuries and millennia, as materials have come to serve as the classifier of stages of civilization. With the advent of materials science, this relation has become even more pronounced. The pivotal role of advanced materials in industrial economies has not yet been matched by the influence of advanced materials during the transition from agricultural to modern societies. The role of advanced materials in poverty eradication can be very large, in particular if new trajectories of social and economic development become possible. This is the topic of this essay, different in format from the traditional scientific review, as we try to encompass not only two infant technologies of solar energy conversion and storage by means of organic materials, but also the social conditions for introduction of the technologies. The development of organic-based photovoltaic energy conversion has been rapid, and promises to deliver new alternatives to well-established silicon photovoltaics. Our recent development of organic biopolymer composite electrodes opens avenues towards the use of renewable materials in the construction of wooden batteries or supercapacitors for charge storage. Combining these new elements may give different conditions for introduction of energy technology in areas now lacking electrical grids, but having sufficient solar energy inputs. These areas are found close to the equator, and include some of the poorest regions on earth.

  4. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  5. On Microwave Radio Scintillation Effects and Space Weather Impacts on Electric Power Supply Systems in Middle Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayev, E. S.; Hashimov, A. M.; Asgarov, A. B.; Yusifbeyli, N. A.; Shustarev, P. N.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper results of morphological studies and investigations on revealing of main characteristics of ionospheric scintillation effects experienced for microwave radio signals for the Space-Earth path, its impacts on navigation and communication systems, dependence on the solar and geomagnetic activity, geophysical and other processes/factors are briefly provided to help system designers who are involved in the activities related to the development and functioning of systems, particularly, for consumers in middle geographical latitudes. Ionospheric propagation model computer code was applied for studying of scintillation effects on microwave radio signals used in the area of Azerbaijan for worst case scenario of main space weather and ionosphere parameters. Part of main results of the complex investigations on possible impact of geomagnetic disturbances of various strengths on electric power supply systems in middle latitudes is described. Daily data on power failures and breakdowns that occurred in Baku capital city (Azerbaijan) and surrounded big urban area in years of descending phase of solar 11-year activity cycle was investigated and analyzed.

  6. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  7. Electricity decision-making: New techniques for calculating statewide economic impacts from new power supply and demand-side management programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegen, Suzanne Isabel Helmholz

    This dissertation introduces new techniques for calculating and comparing statewide economic impacts from new coal, natural gas and wind power plants, as well as from demand-side management programs. The impetus for this work was two-fold. First, reviews of current literature and projects revealed that there was no standard way to estimate statewide economic impacts from new supply- and demand-side electricity options. Second, decision-makers who were interviewed stated that they were overwhelmed with data in general, but also lacked enough specific information about economic development impacts to their states from electricity, to make informed choices. This dissertation includes chapters on electricity decision-making and on economic impacts from supply and demand. The supply chapter compares different electricity options in three states which vary in natural resource content: Arizona, Colorado and Michigan. To account for differing capacity factors, resources are compared on a per-megawatt-hour basis. The calculations of economic impacts from new supply include: materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, fuel transport, as well as property tax, financing and landowner revenues. The demand-side chapter compares residential, commercial and industrial programs in Iowa. Impact calculations include: incremental labor and materials for program planning, installation and operations, as well as sales taxes and electricity saved. Results from supply-side calculations in the three states analyzed indicate that adding new wind power can have a greater impact to a state's economy than adding new gas or coal power due to resource location, taxes and infrastructure. Additionally, demand-side management programs have a higher relative percentage of in-state dollar flow than supply-side solutions, though demand-side programs typically involve fewer MWh and dollars than supply-side generation. Methods for this dissertation include researching

  8. Analysis of Power Supply Heating Effect during High Temperature Experiments Based on the Electromagnetic Steel Teeming Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ming; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xin'an; Shi, Chunyang; Liu, Tie; He, Jicheng

    2017-04-01

    For further lowering inclusions and improving the quality of steel, a new electromagnetic steel-teeming technology based on electromagnetic induction heating was proposed. To assess the proposed technology, an experimental platform that imitates the actual production condition of steelmakers was established. High temperature experiments were performed to investigate the melting length of Fe-C alloy under different power and frequency conditions. The heating effect was analyzed, and the method of magnetic shielding to reduce the power loss of power supply was put forward. The results show that when the power is 40 kW and frequency is 25 kHz, the melting length of the Fe-C alloy is 89.2 mm in 120 s, which meets the requirements of steel teeming. In addition, when magnetic shielding material is installed under the induction coil, the power loss is reduced by about 64 %, effectively improving the heating effect of power supply.

  9. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua; Townsend, Aaron; Melaina, Marc

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: MIDWEST INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY, INC.'S EK35

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: MIDWEST INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY, INC.'S ENVIROKLEEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: MIDWEST INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY, INC.'S ENVIROKLEEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: MIDWEST INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY, INC.'S EK35

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  14. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  15. Explosive-metal composites and electrical switch technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, M. J.; Dibona, P. J.

    1981-04-01

    A number of different explosive opening switch concepts were investigated. The fabrication of a composite material by the impregnation of a porous metallic matrix by an explosive utilizing a vacuum melt cast technique was demonstrated. Successful initiation and steady detonation wave propagation was demonstrated with use of the Jacobs rapid framing camera while the electrical conductivity through the sample was measured with an oscilloscope. This type of switch is shown to have the potential of switching large electrical currents in times on the order of 10 microns with savings in weight and volume as compared to the geometries used in other explosive switches.

  16. Inductive High Power Transfer Technologies for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madzharov, Nikolay D.; Tonchev, Anton T.

    2014-03-01

    Problems associated with "how to charge the battery pack of the electric vehicle" become more important every passing day. Most logical solution currently is the non-contact method of charge, possessing a number of advantages over standard contact methods for charging. This article focuses on methods for Inductive high power contact-less transfer of energy at relatively small distances, their advantages and disadvantages. Described is a developed Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) system for fast charging of electric vehicles with nominal power of 30 kW over 7 to 9 cm air gap.

  17. Case studies in technology choice. Volume 1. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Lathrop, J.W.; Sicherman, A.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents an illustrative case study using the EPRI technology choice model (TCM). This model is designed to help individual utilities choose technologies and explain their choices. It allows utilities to compare the economic and environmental effects of different technologies using management's judgment about those effects. The study examines technology choice complexities, including multiple objectives, uncertainties, and the significance of timing. The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE) anticipates increased electricity demand and is considering several new coal-fired technologies for generating 600 MWe at its Perryman site in the 1990s. This case study examines the questions of which coal technology BGE should use and in which year the new facility should be scheduled for service. The technologies considered are a conventional coal-fired facility, an atmospheric fluidized-bed facility, a KILnGAS integrated coal gasification - combined-cycle (IGCC) facility, and a Texaco IGCC facility.

  18. A Comparative Study of Proficiencies Utilized by Electrical Engineering Graduates of the University of Alabama and the Core Curricula in Electrical Engineering and Electrical Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, William S.

    A survey of 531 electrical engineering graduates of the University of Alabama who had received bachelor's degrees in the years 1950 through 1974 showed that the educational needs of a majority of the respondents could have been adequately served by the mathematics levels present in the engineering technology program. In addition, certain subjects…

  19. Environmental policies to enhance technological change in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunol Del Rio, Eric

    International agreements on climate change mitigation set quantitative carbon emission reduction targets in a country for a given year with respect to a given base year. A central question is then on what time do the new clean and costly technologies need to start functioning to comply with the agreed targets, and under what incentive does the market implement them. The planner's economic problem is to design an incentive that makes the new clean technology less costly than the vintage polluting facility, at the precise time in order to comply with the agreements at minimum cost. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on efficient allocation of pollution, discussing its validity to explain induced technological change. It then presents a simple model of technological change showing that market power determes the optimal adoption time of a new technology. Chapter 2 analyzes the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change under different paths of technological progress. Furthermore, the paper examines the influence of market conditions. It shows that emission charges do reduce the firm's optimal adoption time when investment cost paths for the new technology are convex. On the contrary, emission charges may delay the optimal the switching time of a technology when the investment cost path is concave. Chapter 3 explores the results of Chapter 2 in an agent-based model. Simulations of firms adjusting their output a la Cournot show that the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change is highly dependant on the number of firms in the market. Moreover, the shape of the technological progress curve is determinant: the effects of carbon charges are not linear on carbon price, and become more uncertain the more concave the investment cost path is. These results show that policies aiming at internalizing pollution costs enhance technological change at very different rates, depending on the actual market conditions in the industry and

  20. Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

  1. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Zimmerle, D.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  2. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Zipperer, Adam; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Roche, Robin; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Dane; Bauleo, Pablo; Zimmerle, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  3. SEPS solar array design and technology evaluation. [Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The solar array system considered is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, and an array electrical harness. A technology evaluation is performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define the supporting effort necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) solar array design requirements. Details of mechanical design are discussed along with questions of electrical design, operational reliability advantages, and array assembly advantages.

  4. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  5. Advanced Electric Distribution, Switching, and Conversion Technology for Power Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, James V.

    1998-01-01

    The Electrical Power Control Unit currently under development by Sundstrand Aerospace for use on the Fluids Combustion Facility of the International Space Station is the precursor of modular power distribution and conversion concepts for future spacecraft and aircraft applications. This unit combines modular current-limiting flexible remote power controllers and paralleled power converters into one package. Each unit includes three 1-kW, current-limiting power converter modules designed for a variable-ratio load sharing capability. The flexible remote power controllers can be used in parallel to match load requirements and can be programmed for an initial ON or OFF state on powerup. The unit contains an integral cold plate. The modularity and hybridization of the Electrical Power Control Unit sets the course for future spacecraft electrical power systems, both large and small. In such systems, the basic hybridized converter and flexible remote power controller building blocks could be configured to match power distribution and conversion capabilities to load requirements. In addition, the flexible remote power controllers could be configured in assemblies to feed multiple individual loads and could be used in parallel to meet the specific current requirements of each of those loads. Ultimately, the Electrical Power Control Unit design concept could evolve to a common switch module hybrid, or family of hybrids, for both converter and switchgear applications. By assembling hybrids of a common current rating and voltage class in parallel, researchers could readily adapt these units for multiple applications. The Electrical Power Control Unit concept has the potential to be scaled to larger and smaller ratings for both small and large spacecraft and for aircraft where high-power density, remote power controllers or power converters are required and a common replacement part is desired for multiples of a base current rating.

  6. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Gorham, Bethany

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  7. Electrical Power Engineering Technology: Designing a New Two-Plus-Two Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, Jack

    1978-01-01

    An upper-division two-year program in electrical power engineering technology developed at Oklahoma State University is described. The typical two-plus-two program in mechanical, electronics, electromechanical, or other related technologies consists of two years of study at the associate level followed by two years at the bachelor's level. (MF)

  8. Electrical Power Engineering Technology: Designing a New Two-Plus-Two Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, Jack

    1978-01-01

    An upper-division two-year program in electrical power engineering technology developed at Oklahoma State University is described. The typical two-plus-two program in mechanical, electronics, electromechanical, or other related technologies consists of two years of study at the associate level followed by two years at the bachelor's level. (MF)

  9. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  10. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  11. The domestication of an everyday health technology: A case study of electric toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Simon; Green, Judith; Thorogood, Nicki

    2013-01-01

    Using the electric toothbrush as an example, this article examines the growing acceptability of domestic health technologies that blur the traditional boundaries between health, aesthetics and consumption. By using empirical material from individual and household interviews about people's oral health practices, this research explores the relationships between an everyday artefact, its users and their environments. It investigates the ways in which oral health technologies do, or do not, become domesticated in the home environment. We conclude that the domestication of oral health technologies is not inevitable, with the electric toothbrush often becoming an ‘unstable object' in the domestic setting. PMID:24260016

  12. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    16,000 square feet of manufacturing, laboratory and office space located in Linthicum, Maryland near the Baltimore Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI). RCT is an ISO 9001 :2008 registered company. ...Linthicum, MD ABSTRACT Future Military ground vehicle power trains can benefit from a hybrid-electric drive approach, particularly in packaging...flexibility where drive train components can be modular and conveniently distributed. This paper describes the development and testing of a suite of

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Electronics & Electrical Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    87] 7 JPRS-UEE-88-003 5 MAY 1988 2 USSR: Electronics & Electrical Engineering Antennas , Propagation Inverse Refraction Problem in Earth’s...Gutman; RADIOTEKHNIKA I ELEKTRONIKA, Jan 87] 9 Directional Characteristics of Antennas in Turbulent Medium: Resolution [A. G. Vinogradov and Z. I...Feyzulin; RADIOTEKHNIKA I ELEKTRONIKA, Jan 87] 9 Error of Antenna Radiation Pattern Reconstructed From Discrete Readings of Amplitude-Phase

  14. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  15. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  16. HTS machines as enabling technology for all-electric airborne vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, P. J.; Brown, G. V.; Soban, D. S.; Luongo, C. A.

    2007-08-01

    Environmental protection has now become paramount as evidence mounts to support the thesis of human activity-driven global warming. A global reduction of the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere is therefore needed and new technologies have to be considered. A large part of the emissions come from transportation vehicles, including cars, trucks and airplanes, due to the nature of their combustion-based propulsion systems. Our team has been working for several years on the development of high power density superconducting motors for aircraft propulsion and fuel cell based power systems for aircraft. This paper investigates the feasibility of all-electric aircraft based on currently available technology. Electric propulsion would require the development of high power density electric propulsion motors, generators, power management and distribution systems. The requirements in terms of weight and volume of these components cannot be achieved with conventional technologies; however, the use of superconductors associated with hydrogen-based power plants makes possible the design of a reasonably light power system and would therefore enable the development of all-electric aero-vehicles. A system sizing has been performed both for actuators and for primary propulsion. Many advantages would come from electrical propulsion such as better controllability of the propulsion, higher efficiency, higher availability and less maintenance needs. Superconducting machines may very well be the enabling technology for all-electric aircraft development.

  17. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C.

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  18. Emerging clean energy technology investment trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumpus, A.; Comello, S.

    2017-06-01

    Early-stage capital providers and clean energy technology incubators are supporting a new wave of innovations focused on end-use efficiency and demand control. This wave complements expanding investments in supply technologies required for electricity sector decarbonization.

  19. Enhancing Chinese Agribusiness Supply Chains with Internet Technologies: A Transnational Knowledge Transfer Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; Bentley, Yongmei; Fu, Zetian; Zografos, Konstantinos; Bemeleit, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports research findings from a project funded by the European Commission. The research used case studies and surveys to identify gaps between Europe and China in the level of Internet adoption in fresh-produce supply chains. The project reveals barriers to Internet adoption in China in this industry, and employs a transnational…

  20. Formation and Representation: Critical Analyses of Identity, Supply, and Demand in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research, policy, and programmatic efforts have been dedicated to addressing the participation of particular populations in STEM for decades. Each of these efforts claims equity-related goals; yet, they heavily frame the problem, through pervasive STEM pipeline model discourse, in terms of national needs, workforce supply, and…

  1. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    VA : Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Vols. 2013 Aviation Technical Committee Meetings, May 2012. 10. Dallas, A .,Block, J., Klick, P., Grove, B ...utilizing Fuel System Supply Point Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A . Approved for public release; distribution...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution Statement A . Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In June 2013

  2. Manufacturing Technology for High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPS). Volume II - Program Details.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    High Voltage Power Supplies ( HVPS ). This was accomplished by conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the materials, components and processes used to...produce HVPS . To demonstrate the benefits of the program the lessons learned were incorporated into two existing HVPS , ALQ-133 and AMRAAM. Several of

  3. Manufacturing Technology for High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPS). Volume IV. Reference Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    High Voltage Power Supplies ( HVPS ). This was accomplished by conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the materials, components and processes used to...produce HVPS . To demonstrate the benefits of the program the lessons learned were incorporated into two existing HVPS , ALQ-135 and AMRAAM. Several of

  4. Formation and Representation: Critical Analyses of Identity, Supply, and Demand in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research, policy, and programmatic efforts have been dedicated to addressing the participation of particular populations in STEM for decades. Each of these efforts claims equity-related goals; yet, they heavily frame the problem, through pervasive STEM pipeline model discourse, in terms of national needs, workforce supply, and…

  5. Enhancing Chinese Agribusiness Supply Chains with Internet Technologies: A Transnational Knowledge Transfer Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; Bentley, Yongmei; Fu, Zetian; Zografos, Konstantinos; Bemeleit, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports research findings from a project funded by the European Commission. The research used case studies and surveys to identify gaps between Europe and China in the level of Internet adoption in fresh-produce supply chains. The project reveals barriers to Internet adoption in China in this industry, and employs a transnational…

  6. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  7. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  8. Army Transitions Hybrid Electric Technology to FCS Manned Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    system consists of an engine, generator, generator dissipater controller, traction drive system, energy storage system and cooling system. The system is...completely new way of maneuvering on the battlefield. The system’s advanced energy storage, power generation, regenerative braking and power management...vehicles for more than 50 years. Propulsion technologies are the engines, transmissions, generators, air cleaners, cooling systems and energy

  9. A single-supply, monolithic, MIL-STD-1553 transceiver implemented in BiCMOS wafer fabrication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Thomas L.; Molinari, Lou

    An integrated circuit has been designed for use as a single supply, MIL-STD-1553 transceiver using BiCMOS technology. Use of the BiCMOS fabrication process has advantages over both Bipolar and CMOS technologies. These advantages include: reduced standby current drain, increased flexibility in mating the transceiver to various remote terminals, increased control over output amplitude and rise/fall times, easier methods for adjusting filter response and residual voltage, and reduced chip size (over a CMOS transceiver). Development of this monolithic transceiver opens the door to future advances in remote terminal design. By combining the current driving capacity of Bipolar with the digital design capability of CMOS, the next probable step in the progression of MIL-STD-1553 technology would be a fully monolithic remote terminal. This device would combine a transceiver with the encoder/decoder and protocol logic on a single semiconductor device.

  10. Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  11. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  12. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  13. Hybrid electric vehicle technology assessment : methodology, analytical issues, and interim results.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, M.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.

    2002-03-13

    This report presents the results of the first phase of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) examination of the costs and energy impacts of light-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We call this research an HEV Technology Assessment, or HEVTA. HEVs are vehicles with drivetrains that combine electric drive components (electric motor, electricity storage) with a refuelable power plant (e.g., an internal combustion engine). The use of hybrid drivetrains is widely considered a key technology strategy in improving automotive fuel efficiency. Two hybrid vehicles--Toyota's Prius and Honda's Insight--have been introduced into the U.S. market, and all three auto industry participants in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) have selected hybrid drivetrains for their prototype vehicles.

  14. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to determine the directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions of the next three decades in the most cost-effective manner. Discussed are the mission set requirements, state-of-the-art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost-optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system-level electric propulsion parameters. It is found that the efficiency-specific impulse characteristic generally has a more significant impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems.

  15. New Technology for Microfabrication and Testing of a Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    New Technology for Microfabrication and Testing of a Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power by Patrick J. Taylor... Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power Patrick J. Taylor, Brian Morgan, and Bruce Geil Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...testing of a thermoelectric power generation module. The module was fabricated using a new “flip-chip” module assembly technique that is scalable

  16. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  17. Twilight of the electric dinosaurs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L. Jr. )

    1990-11-22

    This article examines the future practicality of large electric generating plants and various technologies for transmitting energy other than electricity. The author describes advantages, cost and methods of chemical energy transmission in the form of methanol. Uses, production (including environmental impacts) and supply of methanol are also discussed.

  18. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  19. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  20. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  1. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Pengo, Martino F; Steier, Joerg

    2015-08-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA.

  2. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA. PMID:26380757

  3. NASA Technology Investments in Electric Propulsion: New Directions in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The last decade was a period of unprecedented acceptance of NASA developed electric propulsion by the user community. The benefits of high performance electric propulsion systems are now widely recognized, and new technologies have been accepted across the commonly. NASA clearly recognizes the need for new, high performance, electric propulsion technologies for future solar system missions and is sponsoring aggressive efforts in this area. These efforts are mainly conducted under the Office of Aerospace Technology. Plans over the next six years include the development of next generation ion thrusters for end of decade missions. Additional efforts are planned for the development of very high power thrusters, including magnetoplasmadynamic, pulsed inductive, and VASIMR, and clusters of Hall thrusters. In addition to the in-house technology efforts, NASA continues to work closely with both supplier and user communities to maximize the acceptance of new technology in a timely and cost-effective manner. This paper provides an overview of NASA's activities in the area of electric propulsion with an emphasis on future program directions.

  4. Electrically Heated Testing of the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) Experiment Using a Depleted Uranium Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sanzi, James

    2017-01-01

    The Kilopower project aims to develop and demonstrate scalable fission-based power technology for systems capable of delivering 110 kW of electric power with a specific power ranging from 2.5 - 6.5 Wkg. This technology could enable high power science missions or could be used to provide surface power for manned missions to the Moon or Mars. NASA has partnered with the Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration, Los Alamos National Labs, and Y-12 National Security Complex to develop and test a prototypic reactor and power system using existing facilities and infrastructure. This technology demonstration, referred to as the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY), will undergo nuclear ground testing in the summer of 2017 at the Nevada Test Site. The 1 kWe variation of the Kilopower system was chosen for the KRUSTY demonstration. The concept for the 1 kWe flight system consist of a 4 kWt highly enriched Uranium-Molybdenum reactor operating at 800 degrees Celsius coupled to sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes deliver heat to the hot ends of eight 125 W Stirling convertors producing a net electrical output of 1 kW. Waste heat is rejected using titanium-water heat pipes coupled to carbon composite radiator panels. The KRUSTY test, based on this design, uses a prototypic highly enriched uranium-molybdenum core coupled to prototypic sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes transfer heat to two Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E2s) and six thermal simulators, which simulate the thermal draw of full scale power conversion units. Thermal simulators and Stirling engines are gas cooled. The most recent project milestone was the completion of non-nuclear system level testing using an electrically heated depleted uranium (non-fissioning) reactor core simulator. System level testing at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) has validated performance predictions and has demonstrated system level operation and control in a test configuration that replicates the one

  5. Remediation of inorganic arsenic in groundwater for safe water supply: a critical assessment of technological solutions.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Chatterjee, Debashis; Figoli, Alberto; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic contaminations of groundwater in several parts of the world are the results of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, and have a large impact on human health. Millions of people from different countries rely on groundwater containing As for drinking purposes. This paper reviews removal technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane processes) with attention for the drawbacks and limitations of these applied technologies. The technologies suggested and applied for treatment of As rich water have various problems, including the need for further treatment of As containing secondary waste generated from these water treatment processes. More efficient technologies, with a lower tendency to generate waste include the removal of As by membrane distillation or forward osmosis, instead of using pressure driven membrane processes and subsequently reducing soluble As to commercially valuable metallic As are surveyed. An integrated approach of two or more techniques is suggested to be more beneficial than a single process. Advanced technologies such as membrane distillation, forward osmosis as well as some hybrid integrated techniques and their potentials are also discussed in this review. Membrane processes combined with other process (especially iron based technologies) are thought to be most sustainable for the removal of arsenic and further research allowing scale up of these technologies is suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of technology scaling on MOS electrical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Mohsen; Rios, Rafael

    1998-11-01

    Some shortcomings of the standard MOS device models and algorithms used for parametric characterization of the device in deep sub-micron technologies are discussed. These include field and channel length dependent mobility, un-pinned surface potential due to operation in weak inversion, Poly-depletion, quantum mechanical (QM) effects, and carrier velocity saturation. Enhancements to the basic model are proposed to account for these higher order effects to improve the accuracy of extracted parameters. Issues and challenges for evaluation of gate oxide parameters are also discussed. The effect of direct tunneling induced gate leakage is the most significant hurdle to overcome there. This leakage impacts many characterization methods as well as reliability evaluation methodologies. Scaling related issues in interconnect evaluation are also discussed. There, the main issues are in coping with narrow, high aspect ratio lines and spaces with varying thickness due to CMP.

  7. Use of membrane technology for producing electrical energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrateva, M. A.; Lobanova, O. N.; Orlov, K. A.; Panteleev, A. A.; Khoruzhiy, O. V.

    2015-09-01

    The most promising renewable energy sources are described, which are based on membrane processes with the usage of a water-salinity gradient. The energy is produced owing to the osmotic pressure difference which arises when water molecules pass through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low salt concentration to the more concentrated solution, which can be observed, e.g., in mixing of the river water and seawater. As a result, the volume flowrate of water increases and the energy is generated by releasing the pressure via a water turbine. The theoretical estimation of the maximum possible performance of the plant with application of currently available membranes is carried out. The simplest scheme is presented for converting osmotic energy to electricity. Two fundamental problems are identified that have to be solved in order to create a highly effective osmotic machine: firstly, to reduce engineering losses associated with mechanical losses in the pump and turbine and the cost of pretreatment of the river water and seawater; and, secondly, to find the optimal ratio of "freshwater-saltwater" fluxes. The expression is derived for determining a water flux through a membrane depending on the seawater flux with the given osmotic and working pressures. A range of the optimum ratio of "freshwater-saltwater" fluxes is found by constructing a model of flows in the membrane element. The ranges of parameters are defined within which the maximum power will be produced. The calculation of economic efficiency of an osmotic power station is presented by example of a station built in Norway. The analysis of this station is performed, and methods for improving its efficiency are proposed.

  8. A novel approach to smart grid technology for electrical power transmission lines by a self-organized optical network node based on optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Wakao

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a new smart grid model by our novel green photonics technology based on selforganized optical networks realizing an autonomous peer-to-peer electric power transmissions without centralized control for the power grid. In this optical network, we introduced an adaptive algorithm for concurrent peer-to-peer communications, by utilizing optical nonlinearity depending only on the signal strength passing through the network. This method is applicable for autonomous organization of functions for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems for the power grid. For this purpose, a simple optical- electrical hybrid bistable circuit composed of such as light emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD), has been incorporated into the network node. In the experiment, the method uses a simple, local adaptation of transmission weights at each network node, which enables self-organizing functions of the network, such as self-routing, self-optimization, self-recovery and self-protection. Based on this method, we have demonstrated experimentally a new smart grid model applicable for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems mediated by power comsumptions. In this model, electric power flow is controlled autonomously through the self-organized network nodes associated with individual power facilities having photovoltaics and electric storage devices, etc., and the nodes convert the amounts of electric power supply and/or comsumption to the light intensity values using above mentioned transmission weights at each node. As a consequence, we have experimentally demonstrated a simple shorthaul system model for ad-hoc electric power distribution with a self-organized optical network as a novel green photonics technology application for smart grid.

  9. Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2013-01-17

    Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suite—as well as potential future suites—of thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sector’s water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

  10. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    PubMed Central

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  11. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  12. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    turn helped fuel its highly efficient and effective distribution network. Wal-Mart has characteristically been at the forefront 2 of IT advances...identification technologies that is wireless and applied to tags and labels that capture a host of characteristics of objects. Within the supply chain...behavior, leading to faster processing and improved productivity. RFID technology can authenticate objects and monitor environmental characteristics

  13. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a subsequent human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion subsystem must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as an enabling element of an affordable beyond low-earth orbit human-crewed exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, a status on the NASA in-house thruster and power processing is provided, and an update on acquisition for flight provided.

  14. A Guide For Planning Facilities For Occupational Preparation Programs In Electrical Technology. Research 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitterlee, L.J.

    The major purpose of this guide is to elicit the information needed for the writing of educational specifications used in the planning of educational facilities for electrical technology programs. It is for use by instructors, supervisors, school plant planners, and local school officials. Part I is a discussion of the recent trends which were…

  15. Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Electrical Circuit Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozogul, G.; Johnson, A. M.; Moreno, R.; Reisslein, M.

    2012-01-01

    Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to non-engineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to non-engineering students. The goal of…

  16. Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Electrical Circuit Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozogul, G.; Johnson, A. M.; Moreno, R.; Reisslein, M.

    2012-01-01

    Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to non-engineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to non-engineering students. The goal of…

  17. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  18. Diesel Technology: Electrical and Electronic Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Allan; Kauffman, Ricky; Bogle, Jerry

    This document contains the materials for a competency-based course in diesel technology and electrical and electronic systems that is tied to measurable and observable learning outcomes identified and validated by an advisory committee of business and industry representatives and teachers. The competencies addressed align with the medium/heavy…

  19. Application of Molten Salt Reactor Technology to Nuclear Electric Propulsion Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Bruce; Sorensen, Kirk; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and planetary surface power missions require reactors that are lightweight, operationally robust, and scalable in power for widely varying scientific mission objectives. Molten salt reactor technology meets all of these requirements and offers an interesting alternative to traditional gas cooled, liquid metal, and heat pipe space reactors.

  20. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  1. APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF COSTS OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This appendix describes the development of a preliminary assessment of the performance and cost of mercury emission control technologies for utility boilers. It is to supplement an EPA examination of the co-benefits of potential pollution control options for the electric power in...

  2. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

  3. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G105 Aviation Electricity and Electronics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain five instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: determining the relationship of voltage, current, resistance, and power in electrical circuits; computing and measuring capacitance and inductance; measuring voltage, current, resistance, and…

  4. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G105 Aviation Electricity and Electronics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain five instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: determining the relationship of voltage, current, resistance, and power in electrical circuits; computing and measuring capacitance and inductance; measuring voltage, current, resistance, and…

  5. Evaluation and Dissemination of the Electrical Power Engineering Technology Curriculum Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Perry R.; And Others

    Described is a project initiated to evaluate and disseminate the Electrical Power Engineering Technology Curriculum developed at Oklahoma State University. The objective of the evaluation phase, to have the original model curriculum evaluated by both present and potential employers, was accomplished in a two-day workshop with participation of…

  6. Application of Neural Network Technologies for Price Forecasting in the Liberalized Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerikh, Valentin; Kolosok, Irina; Kurbatsky, Victor; Tomin, Nikita

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies concerning calculation of electricity prices in different price zones in Russia and Europe. The calculations are based on the intelligent software "ANAPRO" that implements the approaches based on the modern methods of data analysis and artificial intelligence technologies.

  7. APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF COSTS OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This appendix describes the development of a preliminary assessment of the performance and cost of mercury emission control technologies for utility boilers. It is to supplement an EPA examination of the co-benefits of potential pollution control options for the electric power in...

  8. Diesel Technology: Electrical and Electronic Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Allan; Kauffman, Ricky; Bogle, Jerry

    This document contains the materials for a competency-based course in diesel technology and electrical and electronic systems that is tied to measurable and observable learning outcomes identified and validated by an advisory committee of business and industry representatives and teachers. The competencies addressed align with the medium/heavy…

  9. Advanced Space Robotics and Solar Electric Propulsion: Enabling Technologies for Future Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.; Tadros, A.

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining answers to questions posed by planetary scientists over the next several decades will require the ability to travel further while exploring and gathering data in more remote locations of our solar system. Timely investments need to be made in developing and demonstrating solar electric propulsion and advanced space robotics technologies.

  10. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  11. Appendix A: Energy storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial evaluation section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  12. Polymer waveguide based hybrid opto-electric integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jinbin; Deng, Lingling; Jiang, Xiyan; Ren, Rong; Zhai, Yumeng; Wang, Jin

    2014-10-01

    While monolithic integration especially based on InP appears to be quite an expensive solution for optical devices, hybrid integration solutions using cheaper material platforms are considered powerful competitors because of the high freedom of design, yield optimization and relative cost-efficiency. Among them, the polymer planar-lightwave circuit (PLC) technology is regarded attractive as polymer offers the potential of fairly simple and low-cost fabrication, and of low-cost packaging. In our work, polymer PLC was fabricated by using the standard reactive ion etching (RIE) technique, while other active and passive devices can be integrated on the polymer PLC platform. Exemplary polymer waveguide devices was a 13-channel arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) chip, where the central channel cross-talk was below -30dB and the polarization dependent frequency shift was mitigated by inserting a half wave plate. An optical 900 hybrid was also realized with one 2×4 multi-mode interferometer (MMI). The excess insertion losses are below 4dB for the C-band, while the transmission imbalance is below 1.2dB. When such an optical hybrid was integrated vertically with mesa-type photodiodes, the responsivity of the individual PD was around 0.06 A/W, while the 3 dB bandwidth reaches 24 ~ 27 GHz, which is sufficient for 100Gbit/s receivers. Another example of the hybrid integration was to couple the polymer waveguides to fiber by applying fiber grooves, whose typical loss value was 0.2 dB per-facet over a broad spectral range from 1200-1600 nm.

  13. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 5 Report Use of Fuel Cell Technology in Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the performance of high temperature membranes and observe the impact of different parameters, such as water-to-carbon ratio, carbon formation, hydrogen formation, efficiencies, methane formation, fuel and oxidant utilization, sulfur reduction, and the thermal efficiency/electrical efficiency relationship, on fuel cell performance. A 250 KW PEM fuel cell model was simulated [in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the help of the fuel cell computer software model (GCtool)] which would be used to produce power of 250 kW and also produce steam at 120oC that can be used for industrial applications. The performance of the system was examined by estimating the various electrical and thermal efficiencies achievable, and by assessing the effect of supply water temperature, process water temperature, and pressure on thermal performance. It was concluded that increasing the fuel utilization increases the electrical efficiency but decreases the thermal efficiency. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are optimum at ~85% fuel utilization. The low temperature membrane (70oC) is unsuitable for generating high-grade heat suitable for useful cogeneration. The high temperature fuel cells are capable of producing steam through 280oC that can be utilized for industrial applications. Increasing the supply water temperature reduces the efficiency of the radiator. Increasing the supply water temperature beyond the dew point temperature decreases the thermal efficiency with the corresponding decrease in high-grade heat utilization. Increasing the steam pressure decreases the thermal efficiency. The environmental impacts of fuel cell use depend upon the source of the hydrogen rich fuel used. By using pure hydrogen, fuel cells have virtually no emissions except water. Hydrogen is rarely used due to problems with storage and transportation, but in the future, the growth of a “solar hydrogen economy” has been projected

  14. A New Device for Bimorph Mirrors Technology: the A1902BS Bipolar Power Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cautero, M.; Cautero, G.; Krastanov, B.; Billè, F.; Borghes, R.; Iviani, L.; Cocco, D.; Sostero, G.; Signorato, R.

    2007-01-01

    An important feature of X-ray Piezoelectric Bimorph Mirror (PBM) is the possibility to continuously vary its curvature (dynamical bending); this ability allows the precise adjustment of their optical properties to different beamline geometries and permits the variation of the grazing angle of incidence or to optimize the focal spot dimensions in the experimental chamber. When a driving voltage is applied at a particular position of the mirror, one of the piezo plates shrinks while the other one expands and, as an example, it can result in a purely spherical bending of the device if the same voltage is applied to all electrodes. The applied voltages have to be kept extremely stable on a very long time scale (weeks or even months). This means that the performance and the general behavior of the mirror are strongly dependent on the power supply used to drive it. For this challenging application, Sincrotrone Trieste developed a particularly stable high voltage bipolar power supply system (ranging from -2kV to + 2kV, zero crossing). This system is controlled by an Intel SBC board and accessible via Ethernet through any common web browser, Lab VIEW client or some of the most popular synchrotron facility control systems (Epics and Tango for instance). The maximum drain and source capabilities are 500uA per channel. Voltage monitoring is achieved by sensing the real output and feeding it to a true 16bit ADC. The voltage resolution achieved is about 60mV while the current resolution is about 60nA. Noise and residual ripple (rms) are better than 15ppm/FS and, most important, the long term stability (1 week observation) is better than 100ppm/FS. Some metrological measurements, on different bimorph mirrors, was carried out at the optical laboratory of Elettra. These measures demonstrate the high level of resolution and stability of the power supplies, able to change considerably the radius of curvature of the mirror and, in the meantime, correct even very small shape error.

  15. Educational-research laboratory "electric circuits" on the base of digital technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteyev, V. I.; Florentsev, V. V.; Florentseva, N. I.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of research activity of trainees' activation in the educational-research laboratory "Electric Circuits" using innovative methodological solutions and digital technologies is considered. The main task is in creation of the unified experimental research information-educational environment "Electrical Engineering". The problems arising during the developing and application of the modern software and hardware, experimental and research stands and digital control and measuring systems are presented. This paper presents the main stages of development and creation of educational-research laboratory "Electrical Circuits" at the Department of Electrical Engineering of NRNU MEPhI. The authors also consider the analogues of the described research complex offered by various educational institutions and companies. The analysis of their strengths and weaknesses, on which the advantages of the proposed solution are based, is held.

  16. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  17. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  18. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; ...

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effectsmore » of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.« less

  19. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-07-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  20. Strategic planning in electric utilities: Using wind technologies as risk management tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T E; Parsons, B

    1996-06-01

    This paper highlights research investigating the ownership of renewable energy technologies to mitigate risks faced by the electric utility industry. Renewable energy technology attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead time, modularity, and investment reversibility are discussed. Incorporating some of these attributes into an economic evaluation is illustrated using a municipal utility`s decision to invest in either wind generation or natural gas based generation. The research concludes that wind and other modular renewable energy technologies, such as photovoltaics, have the potential to provide decision makers with physical risk-management investments.

  1. Secure Integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology into a Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Considerations[2]. RFID Tag suppliers include: Alien Technology – http://www.alientechnology.com Avery Dennison – http://www.averydennison.com...durable than bar code labels[1]. However, both rely on the some sort of adhesive to attach them to the item. The most vulnerable portion of an RFID tag is

  2. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume IV. The supply of electric power and natural gas fuel as possible constraints on uranium production

    SciTech Connect

    Page, G.B.

    1980-04-01

    The report contained in this volume considers the availability of electric power to supply uranium mines and mills. The report, submited to Sandia Laboratories by the New Mexico Department of Energy and Minerals (EMD), is reproduced without modification. The state concludes that the supply of power, including natural gas-fueled production, will not constrain uranium production.

  3. Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies: (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R and D.

  4. Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R D. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-05-15

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

  6. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research.

  7. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  8. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  9. Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

  10. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  11. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  12. Formation and representation: Critical analyses of identity, supply, and demand in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandayam Doddamane, Prabha

    2011-12-01

    Considerable research, policy, and programmatic efforts have been dedicated to addressing the participation of particular populations in STEM for decades. Each of these efforts claims equity-related goals; yet, they heavily frame the problem, through pervasive STEM pipeline model discourse, in terms of national needs, workforce supply, and competitiveness. This particular framing of the problem may, indeed, be counter to equity goals, especially when paired with policy that largely relies on statistical significance and broad aggregation of data over exploring the identities and experiences of the populations targeted for equitable outcomes in that policy. In this study, I used the mixed-methods approach of critical discourse and critical quantitative analyses to understand how the pipeline model ideology has become embedded within academic discourse, research, and data surrounding STEM education and work and to provide alternatives for quantitative analysis. Using critical theory as a lens, I first conducted a critical discourse analysis of contemporary STEM workforce studies with a particular eye to pipeline ideology. Next, I used that analysis to inform logistic regression analyses of the 2006 SESTAT data. This quantitative analysis compared and contrasted different ways of thinking about identity and retention. Overall, the findings of this study show that many subjective choices are made in the construction of the large-scale datasets used to inform much national science and engineering policy and that these choices greatly influence likelihood of retention outcomes.

  13. Future U.S. supply of Mo-99 production through fission based LEU/LEU technology.

    PubMed

    Welsh, James; Bigles, Carmen I; Valderrabano, Alejandro

    Coquí RadioPharmaceuticals Corp. (Coquí) has the goal of establishing a medical isotope production facility for securing a continuous domestic supply of the radioisotope molybdenum-99 for U.S. citizens. Coquí will use an LEU/LEU proven and implemented open pool, light-water, 10 MW, reactor design. The facility is being designed with twin reactors for reliability an on-site hot lab chemical processing and a waste conditioning area and a possible generator producing radio-chemistry lab. Coquí identified a 25 acre site adjacent to an existing industrial park in northern central Florida. This land was gifted and transferred to Coquí by the University of Florida Foundation. We are in the process of developing licensing documents related to the facility. The construction permit application for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently being prepared. Submission is scheduled for mid to late 2015. Community reaction to the proposed development has been positive. We expect to create 220 permanent jobs and we have an anticipated to be operational by 2020.

  14. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB): Cost and Performance Data for Electricity Generation Technologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hand, Maureen; Augustine, Chad; Feldman, David; Kurup, Parthiv; Beiter, Philipp; O'Connor, Patrick

    2017-08-21

    Each year since 2015, NREL has presented Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) in a spreadsheet that contains detailed cost and performance data (both current and projected) for renewable and conventional technologies. The spreadsheet includes a workbook for each technology. This spreadsheet provides data for the 2017 ATB. In this edition of the ATB, offshore wind power has been updated to include 15 technical resource groups. And, two options are now provided for representing market conditions for project financing, including current market conditions and long-term historical conditions. For more information, see https://atb.nrel.gov/.

  15. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  16. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  17. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  18. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Electric Drive Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2015-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and representatives of the electric utility and petroleum industries. Known as U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability), it represents DOE’s commitment to developing public–private partnerships to fund high-risk–high-reward research into advanced automotive technologies. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the partnership known as FreedomCAR (derived from “Freedom” and “Cooperative Automotive Research”) that ran from 2002 through 2010 and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Electric Drive Technologies (EDT) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs. In supporting the development of advanced vehicle propulsion systems, the EDT subprogram fosters the development of technologies that will significantly improve efficiency, costs, and fuel economy

  20. Optimal design of ethanol supply chains considering carbon trading effects and multiple technologies for side-product exploitation.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, R A; Giarola, S; Bezzo, F

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a spatially explicit mixed integer linear programming modelling framework representing the dynamic evolution of a bioethanol supply chain (SC) under increasing biofuel demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings over time. Key features of the proposed framework comprise: (i) the incorporation of available set-aside rural surfaces for energy crop cultivation; (ii) the acknowledgement ofan economic value to the overall GHG emissions through the introduction of an Emission Trading System. Multiple technological options are assessed to exploit the co-product Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles either as animal fodder (standard usage) or as fuel for heat and power generation or as raw material for biogas production (and hence heat and power). Bioethanol production in Northern Italy is chosen as a demonstrative case study.