Science.gov

Sample records for electricity supply technologies

  1. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  2. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.E.

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  3. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  4. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  5. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hertwich, Edgar G.; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A.; Arvesen, Anders; Heath, Garvin A.; Bergesen, Joseph D.; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I.; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11–40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6–14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050. PMID:25288741

  6. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  7. Stand by electrical supply source

    SciTech Connect

    Mucsy, E.; Hoos, K.

    1985-06-25

    A stand-by electrical energy source for equipment to be operated with substantially continuous current supply, comprising three components one of which is at least one electric rotary machine, another of which is a flywheel and the third of which is an auxiliary energy source. Planetary gearing is provided, comprising a central shaft on which is mounted a sun gear, a planet gear and a ring gear, each of the three components being connected with a respective one of these gears. Two of the three components are interconnected by a drive with an infinitely variable transmission. In one embodiment, the electric rotary machine is connected to the planet gear, the flywheel is connected to the sun gear and the auxiliary energy source is connected with the ring gear. In another embodiment, the electric rotary machine is connected to the sun gear, the flywheel is connected to the ring gear, and the auxiliary energy source is connected to the planet gear.

  8. Use of the NII to study impacts of new technologies and policies on supply and demand of electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal to use an implementation of client-server technology on the Internet for simulating a number of aspects of electric power production, distribution, and consumption within a wholly new regulatory, financing, operating, and control environment. This approach would use a large number of people to generate strategies and decisions, in a real-time context, needed to drive the simulation. A World Wide Web server would provide background information about the simulation for those who chose to participate as actors in one of supported roles. Roles would be based on activities associated with different business areas and would include utility manager, independent power producer (entrepreneur), electric power futures trader, electric power futures investor, electric power wheeler, industrial customer, commercial customer, and residential customer. The simulation program would run on a system of high-performance computers (parallel computer system) that communicate between each other on a high speed communications bus. These computers would also be the server systems for the client programs used by the actors. People who want to be actors would be required to register before being given a client program, as a way to have some control over the simulation results. Each role will have its corresponding client program with graphical user interface. Each client program will support a common view of the simulation results and a role specific view.

  9. Advising and Optimizing the Deployment of Sustainability-Oriented Technologies in the Integrated Electricity, Light-Duty Transportation, and Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian

    The convergence of increasing populations, decreasing primary resource availability, and uncertain climates have drawn attention to the challenge of shifting the operations of key resource sectors towards a sustainable paradigm. This is prevalent in California, which has set sustainability-oriented policies such as the Renewable Portfolio Standards and Zero-Emission Vehicle mandates. To meet these goals, many options have been identified to potentially carry out these shifts. The electricity sector is focusing on accommodating renewable power generation, the transportation sector on alternative fuel drivetrains and infrastructure, and the water supply sector on conservation, reuse, and unconventional supplies. Historical performance evaluations of these options, however, have not adequately taken into account the impacts on and constraints of co-dependent infrastructures that must accommodate them and their interactions with other simultaneously deployed options. These aspects are critical for optimally choosing options to meet sustainability goals, since the combined system of all resource sectors must satisfy them. Certain operations should not be made sustainable at the expense of rendering others as unsustainable, and certain resource sectors should not meet their individual goals in a way that hinders the ability of the entire system to do so. Therefore, this work develops and utilizes an integrated platform of the electricity, transportation, and water supply sectors to characterize the performance of emerging technology and management options while taking into account their impacts on co-dependent infrastructures and identify synergistic or detrimental interactions between the deployment of different options. This is carried out by first evaluating the performance of each option in the context of individual resource sectors to determine infrastructure impacts, then again in the context of paired resource sectors (electricity-transportation, electricity

  10. 14 CFR 25.1362 - Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical supplies for emergency... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1362 Electrical supplies for emergency conditions. A suitable electrical supply must...

  11. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  12. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  13. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)…

  14. Building renewable electricity supply in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Bangladesh is experiencing a severe electric power capacity crisis that is only likely to worsen over the next 15 years. Further, over 80% of Bangladesh`s population still lives with no electricity, and the rate of grid expansion to connect rural villages is threatened by the looming capacity shortage. There are a number of underlying reasons for the crisis, but ultimately the country lacks the fossil fuel resources required to conduct a large scale grid-expansion program. Alternative approaches to electrifying the country must be found. This paper outlines the prospects for wind and solar power in Bangladesh, and estimates the potential for commercial applications now and in the future. This includes a technical assessment, a market assessment, an environmental assessment, and a policy assessment. The paper concludes that Bangladesh holds the potential to cost-effectively meet a significant fraction of its future electricity demand through the use of renewable generation technologies, possibly adding as much renewable capacity as the current overall electric power capacity of the country. Many parts of the country have favorable solar and wind conditions and there are many potentially cost-effective applications. But the country must develop a policy framework that allows and encourages private investors to develop renewable energy projects in order to realize the enormous potential of renewables.

  15. Science and precaution in the appraisal of electricity supply options.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A

    2001-09-14

    The technological risks associated with electricity generating options are a crucial consideration in the governance of energy strategies. Conversely, many central issues in the broader social debate over the governance of environmental risk (such as acid gas emissions, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety and global climate change) relate very strongly to technology choice in the electricity supply sector. The particularities of this field, therefore, offer a topical and pertinent case with which to explore the relationship between science and precaution in the governance of technological risk. By reference to the electricity sector, the present paper examines the contrasts between 'risk-based' and 'precautionary' approaches to the governance of risk, paying particular attention to the problems of intractable uncertainties and divergent values. A number of theoretical and methodological issues in conventional risk-assessment and cost-benefit analysis are examined and their practical implications for appraisal explored. Attention then turns to the form that might be taken by approaches to the governance of energy risks that are at the same time scientifically well-founded and precautionary. Conclusions are drawn for decision and policy making in this area.

  16. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  17. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-07-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  18. 8. VIEW OF THE SWITCHGEAR AND ELECTRICAL SUPPLY ROOM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE SWITCHGEAR AND ELECTRICAL SUPPLY ROOM IN BETWEEN SIDES A AND B OF BUILDING 883. EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE BUILDING REQUIRED AN EXTENSIVE AMOUNT OF POWER. THE ELECTRICAL SUPPLY ROOM IS ESSENTIALLY AN ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Factors affecting household satisfaction with electricity supply in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aklin, Michaël; Cheng, Chao-Yo; Urpelainen, Johannes; Ganesan, Karthik; Jain, Abhishek

    2016-11-01

    Electricity is an important component of socio-economic development, but most studies of household electricity access focus exclusively on the presence or absence of a connection. Here we reach beyond connectivity by examining the relationship between various dimensions of the quality of electricity supply and a household's subjective satisfaction with their electricity or lighting situation. Studying the results from a survey of 8,568 households in six large, energy-poor states from northern, central and eastern India, we find that household satisfaction responds strongly to the average hours of electricity available on a typical day. The positive effect of increasing the number of hours per day by one standard deviation on satisfaction is almost as large as that of electrifying a non-electrified household. These findings underscore the importance of moving from counting electricity connections to enhancing the quality of electricity supply.

  20. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  1. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  2. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  3. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  4. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  5. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  6. (Energy and electricity supply and demand)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1990-10-09

    At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), representing eleven international agencies which are sponsoring the 1991 Helsinki Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, I traveled to Brussels to participate in the second meeting of one of four advisory groups established to prepare for the Symposium. At the meeting, I was involved in a review of a draft issue paper being prepared for the Symposium and of the Symposium program.

  7. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  8. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  9. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  10. New England electricity supply outlook: Summer 1998 -- and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    New England is in the third summer of a protracted electricity supply shortage that began with the shutdown of a substantial quantity of nuclear generating capacity, particularly the 2,630 megawatts (MW) from the three Millstone units located in Connecticut and owned and operated by Northeast Utilities. This report was prepared in response to a request from Senator Christopher Dodd and Senator Joseph Lieberman, both of Connecticut, that the Department of Energy provide an update of its June 1997 report, New England Electricity Supply Outlook, Summer 1997--and Beyond, which examines measures that might be taken to ease the supply shortage, particularly measured to relieve transmission constraints that restrict the import of electricity into Connecticut. In the interval since the 1997 report, three changes have occurred in the region`s overall electric supply context that are particularly significant: the Millstone 3 nuclear unit (1,150 MW) has been put back into service at full capacity; electricity demand is higher, due primarily to regional economic growth. The region`s projected 1998 peak demand is 22,100 MW, 1,531 MW higher than the region`s 1997 peak; and many new additions to the region`s generating capacity have been announced, with projected completion dates varying between 1999 and 2002. If all of the announced projects were completed--which appears unlikely--the total additions would exceed 25,000 MW. A small number of new transmission projects have also been announced.

  11. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  12. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  13. Electric Field Containerless Processing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the science and technology base required to design and construct a high temperature electric field positioning module that could be used by materials scientists to conduct containerless science experiments in a low gravity environment. Containerless science modules that employ electric fields to position and manipulate samples offer several advantages over acoustic or electromagnetic systems. The electric field system will operate not only at atmospheric pressures but also in a vacuum, in contrast to the acoustic modules which can only operate in atmosphere where the acoustic forces are sufficient. The electric field technique puts minimum energy into the sample, whereas the electromagnetic system can deposit energy into the sample through eddy current heat as well as physical mixing in the sample. Two types of electric field modules have been constructed and tested to date. One employs a charged sample and uses electrostatic forces to position and control the sample. The second type of module induces electrical polarization of the sample and electric field gradients to position and control the sample.

  14. Effects of enterprise technology on supply chain collaboration: analysis of China-linked supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Supply chain collaboration has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners in recent years. However, our understanding of how enterprise information technology facilitates supply chain collaboration is still very limited, especially with regard to Chinese enterprise ownerships such as state-owned firms, joint-venture firms and local village-owned firms. This paper extends the theory established in enterprise information technology (IT) and supply chain collaboration literature and relates it with coordination in China-linked supply chain. Drawing upon an empirical study from 177 Chinese companies, we provide three major findings: (i) uncovered the importance of leveraging enterprise IT through supply chain collaboration; (ii) identified the relationship between enterprise ownership and enterprise technology use and supply chain collaboration in China-linked supply chain and (iii) illustrated effects of supply chain collaborative activities on operational and market performance.

  15. Climate Considerations Of The Electricity Supply Systems In Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asset, Khabdullin; Zauresh, Khabdullina

    2014-12-01

    The study is focused on analysis of climate considerations of electricity supply systems in a pellet industry. The developed analysis model consists of two modules: statistical data of active power losses evaluation module and climate aspects evaluation module. The statistical data module is presented as a universal mathematical model of electrical systems and components of industrial load. It forms a basis for detailed accounting of power loss from the voltage levels. On the basis of the universal model, a set of programs is designed to perform the calculation and experimental research. It helps to obtain the statistical characteristics of the power losses and loads of the electricity supply systems and to define the nature of changes in these characteristics. Within the module, several methods and algorithms for calculating parameters of equivalent circuits of low- and high-voltage ADC and SD with a massive smooth rotor with laminated poles are developed. The climate aspects module includes an analysis of the experimental data of power supply system in pellet production. It allows identification of GHG emission reduction parameters: operation hours, type of electrical motors, values of load factor and deviation of standard value of voltage.

  16. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  17. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  18. Features of an electricity supply system based on variable input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we analyse and present the major features of electricity production being based predominantly on variable wind onshore and offshore and on photovoltaic generation. Actual data are taken from the German demand and supply situation in 2010. On this basis, the generation capacities are scaled to higher installed powers. The main purpose of the paper is to show characteristic trends and the mostly system oriented consequences of large-scale wind and solar use with fluctuating input.

  19. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  20. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  1. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (<140kWe) to be economically attractive (suppliers made their money with maintenance contracts). In the Netherlands, most facilities were sized well above the economic size threshold of 100kWe (lower due to reduced operating and grid connection costs). Institutional players were key in improved sizing of DG. Aided by energy market and CO2 reduction regulatory policy, Dutch distributions utilities played a proactive role in DG. This involved joint ventures with engine cogen suppliers and users, offering improved electricity buy-back tariffs and lower connection costs. This has allowed flexible operation of distributed generation, especially in electricity sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  3. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  4. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  6. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  7. Space shuttle electrical power generation and reactant supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design philosophy and development experience of fuel cell power generation and cryogenic reactant supply systems are reviewed, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. Technology advancements span a period of 10 years from initial definition phase to the most recent space transportation system (STS) flights. The development program encompassed prototype, verification, and qualification hardware, as well as post-STS-1 design improvements. Focus is on the problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches employed to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained. Major technology barriers are discussed, and the evolving technology development paths are traced from their conceptual beginnings to the fully man-rated systems which are now an integral part of the shuttle vehicle.

  8. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  9. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This teaching guide is designed to help teachers develop lesson plans around nine chapters provided in the student textbook. Chapters focus on energy use, energy demand, energy supply, principles of electric power generation, today's generating options, future generating options, electricity storage and delivery, environmental concerns, and making…

  10. Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-05

    and lithium niobate is a promising technology for broadband electric field sensor arrays. The results of this research program advance the state-of...interfaces without the use of an intermediate layer. Direct bonding typically requires very flat surfaces, demanding process technology , and...REPORT Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We report the development of a broadband electric

  11. The evolving role of supply chain management technology in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The healthcare supply chain is a vast, disintegrated network of products and players, loosely held together by manual and people-intensive processes. Managing the flow of information, supplies, equipment, and services from manufacturers to distributors to providers of care is especially difficult in clinical supply chains, compared with more technology-intense industries like consumer goods or industrial manufacturing. As supplies move downstream towards hospitals and clinics, the quality and robustness of accompanying management and information systems used to manage these products deteriorates significantly. Technology that provides advanced planning, synchronization, and collaboration upstream at the large supply manufacturers and distributors rarely is used at even the world's larger and more sophisticated hospitals. This article outlines the current state of healthcare supply chain management technologies, addresses potential reasons for the lack of adoption of technologies and provides a roadmap for the evolution of technology for the future. This piece is based on both quantitative and qualitative research assessments of the healthcare supply chain conducted during the last two years.

  12. Electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electrical storage-supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R.J.; Ang, P.G.P.

    1984-11-27

    An electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electric storage-supply system and process is disclosed using a sodium or potassium sulfidepolysulfide anolyte reaction and an iodide-polyiodide, chloride-chlorine or bromide-bromine species catholyte reaction. The catholyte and anolyte are separated by an ion selective membrane permeable to positive sodium and potassium ions and substantially impermeable to negative bromide, chloride, iodide, sulfide and polysulfide ions. A flowing electrolyte system is disclosed with external electrolyte storage vessels. The apparatus and process provide an electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation system in which the electrolytes may be maintained at near neutral or slightly basic pH, with virtually no parasitic side reactions upon charging, such as hydrogen or oxygen evolution, and the disclosed storage and supply system provides higher energy densities than referenced prior art systems.

  13. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    automobile trips and most of these were short to access BART on the home end when a station car was used on the work end. BART pmt for the partici...to pay for a station car at the home-end, the work-end, and both home- and work-ends. They were also given the American Automobile Association’s...CONTENTS SIX MILITARY AND NINE COMMERCIAL EVS 1 U.S. ELECTRICAR SMART CHARGING KIOSKS 2 HUGHES LADWP S.F. BAY AREA ELECTRIC STATION CAR 4

  14. Electric Propulsion Technologies for Project Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, S.

    2004-11-01

    Last year NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, began efforts to develop technologies for nuclear systems for space use. Key to these developments are electric propulsion technologies that have been shown to enable new nuclear powered missions. A discussion of these mission applications and their projected requirements are discussed. This mission set is focused on a 100 kWe nuclear electric powered flagship science mission.. The corresponding electric propulsion technologies of interest and under development are discussed. These technologies include high power / high Isp gridded ion and Hall thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic, and other new concepts. Finally, base technology developments, such as long life components, electrodeless concepts, and alternate propellants are reviewed.

  15. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  16. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  17. Trends in electricity demand and supply in the developing countries, 1980--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Campbell, C.

    1992-11-01

    This report provides an overview of trends concerning electricity demand and supply in the developing countries in the 1980--1990 period, with special focus on 13 major countries for which we have assembled consistent data series. We describe the linkage between electricity demand and economic growth, the changing sectoral composition of electricity consumption, and changes in the mix of energy sources for electricity generation. We also cover trends in the efficiency of utility electricity supply with respect to power plant efficiency and own-use and delivery losses, and consider the trends in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity supply.

  18. Validating Advanced Supply-Chain Technology (VAST)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Use philosophy that is so important in today’s procurement environment. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and eCommerce is proving to be a major...the STEPwise methodology are particularly encouraging. These new EDI and eCommerce technologies are becoming more important with the customers who...critical assumption is based upon the 55 fact that eCommerce is growing throughout the commercial and military sector and those who are not

  19. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  20. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  1. Optimized Operation and Electrical Power Supply System of Ignitor*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, A.; Candela, G.; Coletti, R.; Costa, P.; Maffia, G.; Santinelli, M.; Starace, F.; Sforna, M.; Allegra, G.; Trevisan, L.; Florio, A.; Novaro, R.; Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    The performance of the control system for the position and shape of the elongated, tight aspect ratio plasma column of Two reference sets of parameters for the operation of Ignitor have been identified. One, the main set, involves plasma currents up to 11MA and toroidal fields up to 13T. The reduced parameter set corresponds to 7MA with fields of 9T and considerably longer pulse flat-tops. The evolution of the relevant currents in the toroidal and the poloidal field magnet systems has been optimized in order to minimize the requirements on the electrical power supply and cryogenic cooling systems. Thyristor amplifiers are adapted to drive both the toroidal and poloidal field magnet systems. The total installed power for these systems is 2400 MVA. The connection of this to the terminals, involving two nodes of the 400 kV grid, at the Caorso site, which houses a dismantled nuclear power station, has been analyzed and authorized by the TERNA- GRTN Agency. A particular consideration has been given to the problems involving the control of both the position and the shaping of the plasma column.*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. DOE.

  2. Recent Topics on Electrical Discharge Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Toshiki

    Resent topics on electrical-discharge-related technologies along with the research activities of the technical committee on electrical discharges (TC-ED) of IEEJ are presented briefly. Following the introduction of the major research subjects that TC-ED is responsible to cover, a few examples of the investigating R&D committees' (IRDCs) activity are mentioned.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    solenoid failure . As new instrumentation techniques such as high -speed video and laser interferometry have been introduced into our gun testing...Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply by Peter T. Bartkowski ARL-TR-6987 July 2014...Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply Peter T. Bartkowski Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  6. A Comparative Study of Power Supply Architectures In Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Bryan

    Wireless inductive power transfer is a transformational and disruptive technology that enables the reliable and efficient transfer of electrical power over large air gaps for a host of unique applications. One such application that is now gaining much momentum worldwide is the wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis examines two of the primary power supply topologies being predominantly used for EV charging, namely the SLC and the LCL resonant full bridge inverter topologies. The study of both of these topologies is presented in the context of designing a 3 kW, primary side controlled, wireless EV charger with nominal operating parameters of 30 kHz centre frequency and range of coupling in the neighborhood of .18-.26. A comparison of both topologies is made in terms of their complexity, cost, efficiency, and power quality. The aim of the study is to determine which topology is better for wireless EV charging.

  7. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  8. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  9. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  10. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  11. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  13. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  14. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  15. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  16. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms.

    PubMed

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schüngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics.

  17. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schüngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics.

  18. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    PubMed

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management.

  19. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Electrical Technology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides a model for organizing vocational instructional content for a postsecondary electrical technology program. It is divided into six sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophies, purposes, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a discussion of employability skills, description of…

  1. Technology opportunities in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Strategic Research & Development (SR&D) program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The intent of the program is to anticipate and shape the scientific and technological future of the electricity enterprise. SR&D serves those industry R&D needs that are more exploratory, precompetitive, and longer-term. To this end, SR&D seeks to anticipate technological change and, where possible, shape that change to the advantage of the electric utility enterprise and its customers. SR&D`s response to this challenge is research and development program that addresses the most probable future of the industry, but at the same time is robust against alternative futures. The EPRI SR&D program is organized into several vectors, each with a mission that relates directly to one or more EPRI industry goals, which are summarized in the paper. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  3. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  4. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  5. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  6. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  7. Simulation of switching overvoltages in the mine electric power supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, D. I.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overvoltages occur in mine power supply systems during switching off consumers with high inductive load, such as transformers, reactors and electrical machines. Overvoltages lead to an increase of insulation degradation rate and may cause electric faults, power outage, fire and explosion of methane and coal dust. This paper is dedicated to simulation of vacuum circuit breaker switching overvoltages in a mine power supply system by means of Simulink MATLAB. The model of the vacuum circuit breaker implements simulation of transient recovery voltage, current chopping and an electric arc. Obtained results were compared to available experimental data.

  8. Infrared Survey Techniques For An Electricity Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funnell, Ian R.

    1988-10-01

    The use of thermal imagers within the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to monitor plant performance is described. Helicopter-borne high resolution thermal imagers are used to monitor the transmission system and the range of defects that can be detected has been extended in recent years. Similar equipment is used to monitor cooling water discharge behaviour over a tidal cycle while satellite imagery is employed to analyse general warming of the water near a power station. The applications of fault detection and plant monitoring to electrical plant and heated surfaces within substations and power stations is described for several plant items.

  9. Rare resource supply crisis and solution technology for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Hu, Sophia; Yoo, Youngsun; Takahisa, Kenji; Enami, Tatsuo

    2016-03-01

    There are growing concerns over future environmental impact and earth resource shortage throughout the world and in many industries. Our semiconductor industry is not excluded. "Green" has become an important topic as production volume become larger and more powerful. Especially, the rare gases are widely used in semiconductor manufacturing because of its inertness and extreme chemical stability. One major component of an Excimer laser system is Neon. It is used as a buffer gas for Argon (Ar) and Krypton (Kr) gases used in deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography laser systems. Since Neon gas accounting for more than 96% of the laser gas mixture, a fairly large amount of neon gas is consumed to run these DUV lasers. However, due to country's instability both in politics and economics in Ukraine, the main producer of neon gas today, supply reduction has become an issue and is causing increasing concern. This concern is not only based on price increases, but has escalated to the point of supply shortages in 2015. This poses a critical situation for the semiconductor industry, which represents the leading consumer of neon gas in the world. Helium is another noble gas used for Excimer laser operation. It is used as a purge gas for optical component modules to prevent from being damaged by active gases and impurities. Helium has been used in various industries, including for medical equipment, linear motor cars, and semiconductors, and is indispensable for modern life. But consumption of helium in manufacturing has been increased dramatically, and its unstable supply and price rise has been a serious issue today. In this article, recent global supply issue of rare resources, especially Neon gas and Helium gas, and its solution technology to support semiconductor industry will be discussed.

  10. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  11. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  12. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  13. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  14. Models of supply function equilibrium with applications to the electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aromi, J. Daniel

    Electricity market design requires tools that result in a better understanding of incentives of generators and consumers. Chapter 1 and 2 provide tools and applications of these tools to analyze incentive problems in electricity markets. In chapter 1, models of supply function equilibrium (SFE) with asymmetric bidders are studied. I prove the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium in an asymmetric SFE model. In addition, I propose a simple algorithm to calculate numerically the unique equilibrium. As an application, a model of investment decisions is considered that uses the asymmetric SFE as an input. In this model, firms can invest in different technologies, each characterized by distinct variable and fixed costs. In chapter 2, option contracts are introduced to a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. The uniqueness of the equilibrium in the spot market is established. Comparative statics results on the effect of option contracts on the equilibrium price are presented. A multi-stage game where option contracts are traded before the spot market stage is considered. When contracts are optimally procured by a central authority, the selected profile of option contracts is such that the spot market price equals marginal cost for any load level resulting in a significant reduction in cost. If load serving entities (LSEs) are price takers, in equilibrium, there is no trade of option contracts. Even when LSEs have market power, the central authority's solution cannot be implemented in equilibrium. In chapter 3, we consider a game in which a buyer must repeatedly procure an input from a set of firms. In our model, the buyer is able to sign long term contracts that establish the likelihood with which the next period contract is awarded to an entrant or the incumbent. We find that the buyer finds it optimal to favor the incumbent, this generates more intense competition between suppliers. In a two period model we are able to completely characterize the optimal mechanism.

  15. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  16. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  17. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  18. Effect of residential solar and storage on centralized electricity supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Scott; Dargusch, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Residential solar photovoltaic systems combined with affordable battery storage are becoming increasingly likely to drive a consumer-led, low-emission evolution of modern electricity supply systems. In the past decade, a multi-billion-dollar boom in solar photovoltaic development across the globe has disrupted the way in which centralized electricity systems operate. At the same time, solar photovoltaic power has begun to make a material contribution to reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions. Viable electricity storage solutions are now on the cusp of a rapidly declining price trajectory. When coupled with solar photovoltaic systems, battery storage could become one of the most disruptive influences to impact the electricity sector in decades, yet governments and the broader power sector are poorly prepared. In this Perspective, we examine emerging trends and proffer a systems framework to analyse the disruptive influence of residential solar photovoltaic and storage systems on existing centralized electricity supply systems.

  19. Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. Occasional pub

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The expected future benefits of advanced supply technologies are identified using a competitive market model of gas supply and demand. The results show the relative value of the major components of GRI's supply R D program and the sensitivity of the results to changes in key technology and market assumptions.

  20. Transportation and dynamic networks: Models, theory, and applications to supply chains, electric power, and financial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zugang

    Network systems, including transportation and logistic systems, electric power generation and distribution networks as well as financial networks, provide the critical infrastructure for the functioning of our societies and economies. The understanding of the dynamic behavior of such systems is also crucial to national security and prosperity. The identification of new connections between distinct network systems is the inspiration for the research in this dissertation. In particular, I answer two questions raised by Beckmann, McGuire, and Winsten (1956) and Copeland (1952) over half a century ago, which are, respectively, how are electric power flows related to transportation flows and does money flow like water or electricity? In addition, in this dissertation, I achieve the following: (1) I establish the relationships between transportation networks and three other classes of complex network systems: supply chain networks, electric power generation and transmission networks, and financial networks with intermediation. The establishment of such connections provides novel theoretical insights as well as new pricing mechanisms, and efficient computational methods. (2) I develop new modeling frameworks based on evolutionary variational inequality theory that capture the dynamics of such network systems in terms of the time-varying flows and incurred costs, prices, and, where applicable, profits. This dissertation studies the dynamics of such network systems by addressing both internal competition and/or cooperation, and external changes, such as varying costs and demands. (3) I focus, in depth, on electric power supply chains. By exploiting the relationships between transportation networks and electric power supply chains, I develop a large-scale network model that integrates electric power supply chains and fuel supply markets. The model captures both the economic transactions as well as the physical transmission constraints. The model is then applied to the New

  1. Integrated Electrical Power Supply System for Propulsion and Service Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-16

    propellers with hydraulically controlled pitch for ship propulsion . In such arrangement of equipment, two gas turbines customarily drive each of two...availability of commercial technology presently utilized on cruise ships having service equipment loads larger than their ship propulsion loads. However...accentuated on naval combat ships wherein a larger proportion of the power is utilized for ship propulsion purposes and operational efficiency is of

  2. Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

    2001-04-01

    Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

  3. Electric propulsion flight experience and technology readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, J. E.; Jackson, D. E.; Marvin, D. C.; Jenkin, A. B.; Janson, S. W.

    1993-06-01

    Spacecraft electric propulsion technology is reviewed here to provide mission planners and potential users with a better appreciation of its capabilities and limitations. Flight experience provides the best measure of EP technology readiness. We describe and document the flight history and development status of EP in domestic, foreign, and commercial programs. Low-power resistojets, arcjets, ion engines, and plasma thrusters are applicable today for stationkeeping and drag compensation. Future high-power systems would enable large velocity-change maneuvers. The trade-space of EP encompasses significant performance benefits (reduced propellant mass, enhanced payload, system-level synergism), along with challenges (hardware development, system operations, non-technical issues). The choice of design parameters (thrust, specific impulse, input power) depends on how much of a change from traditional spacecraft operations is acceptable for a given mission - greater change will yield a greater payoff.

  4. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  5. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  6. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  7. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the...

  8. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  9. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Dong; Haas, Harry; Terricciano, Paul

    2015-09-30

    some real life experimentation and sporadic deployment of these technologies [14]. By many accounts, the second decade of the 21st Century is expected to be the time when mass volume production and popular usage of these AFV technologies, especially EV, will materialize. The current DOE request for proposals recognizes the need for major technological changes to ensure that the above national goal is realizable. Two major challenges have been identified: (1) major reduction in the cost of ownership of EVSEs, and (2) managing additional EV loads in the power grid while maintaining power quality, reliability, and affordability. We note that the two challenges are closely linked – A holistic approach to true lifecycle cost of EVSE ownership will certainly include any taxes and surcharges that can be put in place for major potential investments in the grid, and higher electricity charges in case of more frequent and longer peak periods. From a societal perspective, this cost could also include the lost GDP (computed on a local basis) and revenue for businesses at local and regional levels when the grid is no longer capable of meeting the demand and unexpected outages occur. A typical end-point electrical distribution system delivers power to a residential EVSE from the neighborhood distribution pole, as shown in Fig.1. This pole has a transformer (neighboring step-down transformer) that steps down the utility medium voltage to dual 120VAC single phase (also called 240VAC split phase). This voltage is fed through a meter into the residential load control center. The load control center consists of branch circuit breakers and distributes the power supply within various areas of the residential unit. One of the branch circuits from the load control center feeds EV charging station for the unit. An electric vehicle charger is plugged into the socket of the EV charging station and other end of this charger is connected to the vehicle during charging. Figure 1 illustrates a

  10. Supply Curves for Solar PV-Generated Electricity for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2008-11-01

    Energy supply curves attempt to estimate the relationship between the cost of an energy resource and the amount of energy available at or below that cost. In general, an energy supply curve is a series of step functions with each step representing a particular group or category of energy resource. The length of the step indicates how much of that resource is deployable or accessible at a given cost. Energy supply curves have been generated for a number of renewable energy sources including biomass fuels and geothermal, as well as conservation technologies. Generating a supply curve for solar photovoltaics (PV) has particular challenges due to the nature of the resource. The United States has a massive solar resource base -- many orders of magnitude greater than the total consumption of energy. In this report, we examine several possible methods for generating PV supply curves based exclusively on rooftop deployment.

  11. Electronic/electric technology benefits study. [avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howison, W. W.; Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits and payoffs of advanced electronic/electric technologies were investigated for three types of aircraft. The technologies, evaluated in each of the three airplanes, included advanced flight controls, advanced secondary power, advanced avionic complements, new cockpit displays, and advanced air traffic control techniques. For the advanced flight controls, the near term considered relaxed static stability (RSS) with mechanical backup. The far term considered an advanced fly by wire system for a longitudinally unstable airplane. In the case of the secondary power systems, trades were made in two steps: in the near term, engine bleed was eliminated; in the far term bleed air, air plus hydraulics were eliminated. Using three commercial aircraft, in the 150, 350, and 700 passenger range, the technology value and pay-offs were quantified, with emphasis on the fiscal benefits. Weight reductions deriving from fuel saving and other system improvements were identified and the weight savings were cycled for their impact on TOGW (takeoff gross weight) and upon the performance of the airframes/engines. Maintenance, reliability, and logistic support were the other criteria.

  12. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs.

  13. DC/DC Power Converter for Super-Capacitor Supplied by Electric Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubert, T.; Mindl, P.

    The aim of the article is design of DC/DC converter and discussing of problematic supply using electric power splitter. The electric power splitter with AC/DC converter is source for the DC/DC converter, which is dedicated for charging and discharging of hybrid car drive super-capacitor energy storage. The electric power splitter is synchronous machine with two rotating parts. First rotor contains permanent magnet and the second rotor contains three-phase windings. The amplitude of output voltage depends on difference between first and second rotor speed. The main role of the DC/DC converter is to optimize energy content in super-capacitor storage used to acceleration and deceleration driving period of the passenger car with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive system using electric power splitter.

  14. Hybrid Electric Propulsion Technologies for Commercial Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has set strategic research thrusts to address the major drivers of aviation such as growth in demand for high-speed mobility, addressing global climate and capitalizing in the convergence of technological advances. Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the key strategic research thrust and drives the search for alternative and greener propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The Hybrid Gas-Electric Subproject in the Advanced Air Transportation Project is energizing the transport class landscape by accepting the technical challenge of identifying and validating a transport class aircraft with net benefit from hybrid propulsion. This highly integrated aircraft of the future will only happen if airframe expertise from NASA Langley, modeling and simulation expertise from NASA Ames, propulsion expertise from NASA Glenn, and the flight research capabilities from NASA Armstrong are brought together to leverage the rich capabilities of U.S. Industry and Academia.

  15. The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity.

    PubMed

    Williams, James H; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S

    2012-01-06

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  16. The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James H.; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R.; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S.

    2012-01-01

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California’s goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  17. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview of the electric power industry, selected NASA contributions to progress in the industry, linkages affecting the transfer and diffusion of technology, and, finally, a perspective on technology transfer issues are presented.

  18. Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Melissa

    This thesis estimates available coal resources, recoverability, mining costs, environmental impacts, and environmental control costs for the United States under technological and environmental uncertainty. It argues for a comprehensive, well-planned research program that will resolve resource uncertainty, and innovate new technologies to improve recovery and environmental performance. A stochastic process and cost (constant 2005) model for longwall, continuous, and surface mines based on current technology and mining practice data was constructed. It estimates production and cost ranges within 5-11 percent of 2006 prices and production rates. The model was applied to the National Coal Resource Assessment. Assuming the cheapest mining method is chosen to extract coal, 250-320 billion tons are recoverable. Two-thirds to all coal resource can be mined at a cost less than 4/mmBTU. If U.S. coal demand substantially increases, as projected by alternate Energy Information Administration (EIA), resources might not last more than 100 years. By scheduling cost to meet EIA projected demand, estimated cost uncertainty increases over time. It costs less than 15/ton to mine in the first 10 years of a 100 year time period, 10-30/ton in the following 50 years, and 15-$90/ton thereafter. Environmental impacts assessed are subsidence from underground mines, surface mine pit area, erosion, acid mine drainage, air pollutant and methane emissions. The analysis reveals that environmental impacts are significant and increasing as coal demand increases. Control technologies recommended to reduce these impacts are backfilling underground mines, surface pit reclamation, substitution of robotic underground mining systems for surface pit mining, soil replacement for erosion, placing barriers between exposed coal and the elements to avoid acid formation, and coalbed methane development to avoid methane emissions during mining. The costs to apply these technologies to meet more stringent

  19. Solar sail-solar electric technology readiness and transfer assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of conducting a technology readiness assessment was developed. It uses existing OAST technology readiness and risk criteria to define a technology readiness factor that considers both the required gain in technology readiness level to achieved technology readiness plus the degree of effort associated with achieving the gain. The results indicate that Solar Electric Propulsion is preferred based on technology readiness criteria. Both Solar Sail and Solar Electric Propulsion have a high level of transfer potential for future NASA missions, and each has considerable technology spillover for non-NASA applications.

  20. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  1. Ship electric propulsion simulator based on networking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huayao; Huang, Xuewu; Chen, Jutao; Lu, Binquan

    2006-11-01

    According the new ship building tense, a novel electric propulsion simulator (EPS) had been developed in Marine Simulation Center of SMU. The architecture, software function and FCS network technology of EPS and integrated power system (IPS) were described. In allusion to the POD propeller in ship, a special physical model was built. The POD power was supplied from the simulative 6.6 kV Medium Voltage Main Switchboard, its control could be realized in local or remote mode. Through LAN, the simulated feature information of EPS will pass to the physical POD model, which would reflect the real thruster working status in different sea conditions. The software includes vessel-propeller math module, thruster control system, distribution and emergency integrated management, double closed loop control system, vessel static water resistance and dynamic software; instructor main control software. The monitor and control system is realized by real time data collection system and CAN bus technology. During the construction, most devices such as monitor panels and intelligent meters, are developed in lab which were based on embedded microcomputer system with CAN interface to link the network. They had also successfully used in practice and would be suitable for the future demands of digitalization ship.

  2. Investigations of the quality of hospital electric power supply and the tolerance of medical electric devices to voltage dips.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Eisuke; Itoga, Shuuya; Takano, Kyoko; Kudou, Takato

    2007-06-01

    Medical devices driven by electric power have come to be commonly used in hospitals, and rapid changes of voltage or current can easily cause them to fail. A stable and high quality power supply is indispensable in order to maintain safety in the modern clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the quality of the power supply in a hospital and determined the tolerance of 13 pieces of medical equipment to voltage dips. The results showed little distortion of the voltage wave. However, we found an approximately 7% momentary voltage dip caused by lightening and other problems, such as 2 to 5% periodic drops in voltage and voltage wave distortions caused by incorrect grounding. In a tolerance test, the settings of some medical devices were changed at the time of automatic reboot after a disturbance. For another device, trend information was initialized.

  3. Trends in the use of digital technology for control and regulation of power supplies.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1999-10-22

    Since the availability of computers, accelerator power supplies have relied on digital technology in some way, from such simple tasks as turning the supplies on and off to the supplying of computer-controlled references. However, advances in digital technology, both in performance and cost, allow considerably more than simple control and monitoring. This, coupled with increasing demand for higher performance and monitoring capabilities, has made it appealing to integrate such technology into power supply designs. This paper will review current trends in the use of such advanced technology as embedded DSP controllers, and the application of real-time algorithms to the regulation and control of power supplies for accelerators and other large-scale physics applications.

  4. The evolutionary development of high specific impulse electric thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Myers, Roger M.

    1992-01-01

    Electric propulsion flight and technology demonstrations conducted primarily by Europe, Japan, China, the U.S., and the USSR are reviewed. Evolutionary mission applications for high specific impulse electric thruster systems are discussed, and the status of arcjet, ion, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters and associated power processor technologies are summarized.

  5. A Gastrointestinal Electrical Stimulation System Based on Transcutaneous Power Transmission Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bingquan; Wang, Yongbing; Yan, Guozheng; Jiang, Pingping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been suggested as a possible treatment for various functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). This paper presents a transcutaneous power supplied implantable electrical stimulation system. This technology solves the problem of supplying extended power to an implanted electrical stimulator. After implantation, the stimulation parameters can be reprogrammed by the external controller and then transmitted to the implanted stimulator. This would enable parametric studies to investigate the efficacy of various stimulation parameters in promoting gastrointestinal contractions. A pressure detector in the internal stimulator can provide real-time feedback about variations in the gastrointestinal tract. An optimal stimulation protocol leading to cecal contractions has been proposed: stimulation bursts of 3 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude, 40 Hz frequency, and 20 s duration. The animal experiment demonstrated the functionality of the system and validated the effects of different stimulation parameters on cecal contractions. PMID:25053939

  6. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  7. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Electrical and Electronic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of twenty-three learning modules is equivalent to the content of two quarters of a five-credit hour class in electrical technology, electronic service technology, electronic engineering technology, or electromechanical…

  8. Studies of New Multistory House Electrical Supply Load and Determination Methods Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budahs, Martins; Vanzovichs, Edvins; Zviedritis, Mareks

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of work has devoted to electric supply system load determination. Most of the load calculation methods and values of the appropriate factors were found many years ago and are outdated, for example, electric supply system for new many dwelling houses. At this time, there is changed not only value of loads but also its character - thus leaving the impact on the calculation methodology and factors values. Employers of Latvenergo Distribution Network are realized wide range of load inspection in more then 24 commercial buildings and dwelling houses over two years. The results are presented in the form of official instruction. This paper is continuing the ongoing theme and dedicating improving possibilities of the calculation methodology. Particular attention has paid to existing methods of load calculation, physical interpretation of factors and possible character changes in the range. The method is designed for design engineers and engineering staff, working with the maintenance and control of apartment buildings. The methodology is not applicable in buildings with electric heating and hot water.

  9. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    SciTech Connect

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  10. Effect of a pulsed power supply on the spectral and electrical characteristics of HID lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chammam, Abdeljelil; Elloumi, Hatem; Mrabet, Brahim; Charrada, Kamel; Stambouli, Mongi; Damelincourt, Jean Jacques

    2005-04-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed power operated high intensity discharges (HIDs). This investigation is related to the application of a pulsed power supply for pile driving of HID lamps. Specifically, we are interested in controlling the spectral response radiation of visible and ultraviolet (UV) lines for tertiary treatment of water using UV radiation. Simulations based on a physical model of the lamps were conducted. These results relate to the radial temperature, line intensity and electrical properties (voltage, power and conductivity). Good agreement has been found between the results of the simulations and the experimental findings.

  11. Impact of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies on the hospital supply chain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Tomblin, Shane; Slack, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Supply costs account for more than one-third of the average operating budget and constitute the second largest expenditure in hospitals. As hospitals have sought to reduce these costs, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has emerged as a solution. This study reviews existing literature to gauge the recent and potential impact and direction of the implementation of RFID in the hospital supply chain to determine current benefits and barriers of adoption. Findings show that the application of RFID to medical equipment and supplies tracking has resulted in efficiency increases in hospitals with lower costs and increased service quality. RFID technology can reduce costs, improve patient safety, and improve supply chain management effectiveness by increasing the ability to track and locate equipment, as well as monitoring theft prevention, distribution management, and patient billing. Despite ongoing RFID implementation in the hospital supply chain, barriers to widespread and rapid adoption include significant total expenditures, unclear return on investment, and competition with other strategic imperatives.

  12. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  13. FY2014 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  14. FY2015 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-02-29

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  15. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-space Propulsion Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The solar electric propulsion technology area has been investing in NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Current status and expected capabilities of the solar electric propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  16. Natural graphite demand and supply - Implications for electric vehicle battery requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.; Virta, Robert L.; Mahdavi, Mahbood; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Fortier, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been promoted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lessen U.S. dependence on petroleum for transportation. Growth in U.S. sales of electric vehicles has been hindered by technical difficulties and the high cost of the lithium-ion batteries used to power many electric vehicles (more than 50% of the vehicle cost). Groundbreaking has begun for a lithium-ion battery factory in Nevada that, at capacity, could manufacture enough batteries to power 500,000 electric vehicles of various types and provide economies of scale to reduce the cost of batteries. Currently, primary synthetic graphite derived from petroleum coke is used in the anode of most lithium-ion batteries. An alternate may be the use of natural flake graphite, which would result in estimated graphite cost reductions of more than US$400 per vehicle at 2013 prices. Most natural flake graphite is sourced from China, the world's leading graphite producer. Sourcing natural flake graphite from deposits in North America could reduce raw material transportation costs and, given China's growing internal demand for flake graphite for its industries and ongoing environmental, labor, and mining issues, may ensure a more reliable and environmentally conscious supply of graphite. North America has flake graphite resources, and Canada is currently a producer, but most new mining projects in the United States require more than 10 yr to reach production, and demand could exceed supplies of flake graphite. Natural flake graphite may serve only to supplement synthetic graphite, at least for the short-term outlook.

  17. Electricity and the environment: Building partnerships through technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, K.E.; Torrens, I.

    1995-12-01

    The vision for electricity in the world today transcends its role as just an energy medium and focuses on its ability to furnish ever greater productivity of labor, capital and primary energy resources. Its efficiency and precision, through innovative technology, have become essential assets for resolving the interrelated economic, environmental and energy security issues facing the world. As a result, electricity has become a major differentiating factor in the global economy. For example, the fraction of all primary energy converted to electricity is typically used as a rough indication of regional prosperity. This index reflects the importance of electricity in both creating and harvesting technological innovation. Electricity`s advantages in focusing and amplifying physical power during the first century are being complemented in the second by its even greater advantages for focusing and amplifying the power of knowledge. As its importance grows, electricity will likely expand in the next half-century to provide over half the world`s energy demands while providing the means for the most effective conservation of natural resources. Collaborative R&D organizations such as EPRI are acting as new catalysts and partners to transfer technology on a world-wide basis. With respect to Central and Eastern Europe, this effort focuses on new, more cost-effective innovations for the generation and delivery of electricity because obsolete and inefficient technology is contrary to our mutual interest in achieving efficient and sustainable economic development. EPRI stands ready to assist in this international endeavor.

  18. Impacts of recent drought and warm years on water resources and electricity supply worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent droughts and heatwaves showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for thermoelectric power and hydropower generation in different regions. Here we use a global hydrological-electricity modelling framework to quantify the impacts of recent drought and warm years on hydropower and thermoelectric power usable capacity worldwide. Our coupled modelling framework consists of a hydrological model, stream temperature model, hydropower and thermoelectric power models, and was applied with data of a large selection of hydropower and thermoelectric power plants worldwide. Our results show that hydropower utilisation rates were on average reduced by 5.2% and thermoelectric power by 3.8% during the drought years compared to the long-term average for 1981-2010. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) impacts on both hydropower and thermoelectric power usable capacity were found during major drought years, e.g. 2003 in Europe (-6.6% in hydropower and -4.7% in thermoelectric power) and 2007 in Eastern North America (-6.1% in hydropower and -9.0% in thermoelectric power). Our hydrological-electricity modelling framework has potential for studying the linkages between water and electricity supply under climate variability and change, contributing to the quantification of the ‘water-energy nexus’.

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States: A Multi-Model Comparison

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares the climate change impacts on U.S. electricity demand and supply from three models: the Integrated Planning Model (IPM), the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, and GCAM. Rising temperatures cause an appreciable net increase in electricity demand....

  20. Development of effective power supply using electric double layer capacitor for static magnetic field coils in fusion plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, M; Abe, K; Yamada, T; Kuwahata, A; Kamio, S; Cao, Q H; Sakumura, M; Suzuki, N; Watanabe, T; Ono, Y

    2011-02-01

    A cost-effective power supply for static magnetic field coils used in fusion plasma experiments has been developed by application of an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). A prototype EDLC power supply system was constructed in the form of a series LCR circuit. Coil current of 100 A with flat-top longer than 1 s was successfully supplied to an equilibrium field coil of a fusion plasma experimental apparatus by a single EDLC module with capacitance of 30 F. The present EDLC power supply has revealed sufficient performance for plasma confinement experiments whose discharge duration times are an order of several seconds.

  1. Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters and Power Supplies for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Thomas M.

    1994-07-01

    Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters (FET) and Power Supplies (FPS) should occur at a lunar base because of the following: availability of helium-3, a vacuum better than on Earth, low K in shade reachable by radiant cooling, supply of ``high temp'' superconducting ceramic-metals, and a low G environment. The early FET will be much smaller than an Apollo engine, with specific impulse of 10,000-100,000-s. Solar power and low G will aid early development. To counter the effect of low G on humans, centrifuges will be employed for sleeping and resting. Work will be done by telerobotic view control. The FPS will be of comparable size, and will generate power mainly by having replaceable rectennas, resonant to the fusion synchrotron radiation. FPSs are used for house keeping power and initiating superconduction. Spaceships will carry up to ten FETs and two FPSs. In addition to fusion fuel, the FET will inject H or Li low mass propellant into the fusion chamber. Developing an FET would be difficult on Earth. FET spaceships will park between missions in L1, and an FET Bus will fetch humans/supplies from Moon and Earth. Someday FETs, with rocket assist, will lift spaceships from Earth, and make space travel to planets far cheaper, faster, and safer, than at present. Too long a delay due to the space station, or the huge cost of getting into space by current means, will damage the morale of the space program.

  2. Strategic information technology alliances for effective health-care supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Shih, Stephen C; Rivers, Patrick A; Hsu, H Y Sonya

    2009-08-01

    To gain and sustain competitive advantage, health-care providers have to continuously review and renovate their operational and information technology (IT) strategies through collaborative and cooperative endeavour with their supply chain channel members. This paper explores new ways of enhancing a health-care organization's responsiveness to changes and increasing its competitiveness through implementing strategic information technology alliances among channel members in a health-care supply chain network. An overview of issues and problems (e.g. bullwhip effect, negative externalities and free-riding phenomenon in multichannel supply chains) presented in the health-care supply chains is first delineated. This paper further goes over the issues of health-care supply chain coordination and integration for strategic IT alliances, followed by the discussion of the spillover effect of IT investments. A number of viable IT practices (such as information sharing and Internet-enabled supply chain portal) for effective health-care supply chain collaboration and coordination are then examined in this research. Finally, the paper discusses how strategic IT alliances can help improve the effectiveness of health-care supply chain management.

  3. Essays on Adoption and Diffusion of New Technology in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Daeheon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, network technologies across supply chains have been introduced and promoted with the premised benefits for all participants. However industry experience with an adoption process of some technology suggests that some firms have a great amount of uncertainty in estimating the benefits of its adoption. This uncertainty will…

  4. The Supply and Demand of Technology and Engineering Teachers in the United States: Who Knows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the supply and demand of technology and engineering teachers in the United States. Once gathered, the resulting data (that was available) was compared to previous studies to determine trends. The researcher reviewed the 2010-11 through 2015-16 Technology & Engineering Teacher Education Directories. To…

  5. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  6. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  8. Electrical Power and Illumination Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in electrical power and illumination systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  9. Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project Utilizing Gasification Technology: Feedstock Supply Plan; March 15, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The report describes a Feedstock Supply Plan for the proposed Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project to be located in the City of Gridley Industrial Park in Gridley, California. This report also includes information on the establishment of the required infrastructure required for collecting approximately 113,000 Bone Dry Tons (BDT) annually for the proposed facility. Using the Pearson Technology from Aberdeen, Mississippi, and the related engineering assumptions for required feedstock, it is estimated that the proposed Gridley Ethanol Project will use approximately 113,000 BDT of rice straw to produce approximately up to 20 million gallons of ethanol annually, and/or process steam and or electricity. Based on TSS's survey of planted rice acreage in the Sacramento Valley, a total of 379,765 acres of rice are grown within a 30-mile radius of the Gridley site and that 759,530 BDT of recoverable rice straw are generated annually. This volume of rice straw is 6.7 times the 113,000 BDT of tot al feedstock needed by the proposed Gridley facility. Sufficient infrastructure exists with additional market potential for further private market infrastructure expansion in California and the Northwest (Oregon, Washington and Idaho) to collect the annual feedstock requirement of 113,000 BDT for the proposed Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project. The projected feedstock cost for 113,000 BDT of rice straw delivered annually to the Gridley facility is approximately $35.00/BDT.

  10. Fiber optic electric field sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzynski, J.; De Paula, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of piezoactive plastics are reviewed as well as the fiber-optic electric field sensors studied so far. A particular configuration consisting of a concentric piezoactive jacket on the glass fiber is discussed in detail and the frequency response of this sensor is projected over a wide range of frequencies. The present design has the practical advantages of leading to a compact lightweight sensor; longer fiber lengths may be used to increase sensitivity. It is predicted that, at low frequencies, a fiber-optic antenna using a 1-km length of fiber would be capable of detecting a minimum electric field of 43 microV/m assuming a minimum phase sensitivity of 10 to the -6th radians for the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  11. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  12. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flows and water temperatures under future climate (2031-2060) in power production models, we show declines in both thermoelectric and hydropower generating potential for most parts of Europe, except for the most northern countries. Based on changes in power production potentials, we assess the cost-optimal use of power plants for each European country by taking electricity import and export constraints into account. Higher wholesale prices are projected on a mean annual basis for most European countries (except for Sweden and Norway), with strongest increases for Slovenia (12-15%), Bulgaria (21-23%) and Romania (31-32% for 2031-2060), where limitations in water availability mainly affect power plants with low production costs. Considering the long design life of power plant infrastructures, short-term adaptation strategies are highly recommended to prevent undesired distributional and allocative effects.

  13. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-07

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  14. Electrically Isolating Subsystems in SOAC Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. M.; Mojarradi, M. M.; Kuhn, W. B.; Shumaker, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Integrated circuit fabrication technology has evolved to the point that it is possible to construct complete systems, including power, data processing, and communications, on a single chip. Such System-on-a-chip (SOAC) technologies can enable drastic reductions in spacecraft size and weight, lowering the cost of missions and presenting new mission opportunities. This paper overviews some key enabling technologies unique to the needs of spacecraft for outer-planet exploration and missions requiring extreme resistance to radiation such as Europa orbiters and Europa Landers. The work is being carried out by Kansas State University (KSU) under direction of the Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional tomographic imaging of the human body using impedance mapping. This technology can be developed to evaluate health risks and provide appropriate medical care on the ISS, during space travel and on the ground.

  16. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  17. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  18. Electric Arc and Electrochemical Surface Texturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Snyder, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface texturing of conductive materials can readily be accomplished by means of a moving electric arc which produces a plasma from the environmental gases as well as from the vaporized substrate and arc electrode materials. As the arc is forced to move across the substrate surface, a condensate from the plasma re-deposits an extremely rough surface which is intimately mixed and attached to the substrate material. The arc textured surfaces produce greatly enhanced thermal emittance and hold potential for use as high temperature radiator surfaces in space, as well as in systems which use radiative heat dissipation such as computer assisted tomography (CAT) scan systems. Electrochemical texturing of titanium alloys can be accomplished by using sodium chloride solutions along with ultrasonic agitation to produce a random distribution of craters on the surface. The crater size and density can be controlled to produce surface craters appropriately sized for direct bone in-growth of orthopaedic implants. Electric arc texturing and electrochemical texturing techniques, surface properties and potential applications will be presented.

  19. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  20. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  1. BMDO Technology and the Electric Utility Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Compliance ■ Monitoring Emissions from Smokestacks 43 ■ Controlling Pollution in Smokestack Emissions 46 ■ Removing Zebra Mussels from Power Plant ...used to detect defects in power plant pipes. These are examples of technology transfer. I Since the early 1980s, the United States has encouraged...allocating its power plant resources to its own service area. In this less-competitive climate, power producers have been able to share information about

  2. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-08-03

    The nation's power system is facing a diverse and broad set of challenges. These range from restructuring and increased competitiveness in power production to the need for additional production and distribution capacity to meet demand growth, and demands for increased quality and reliability of power and power supply. In addition, there are growing concerns about emissions from fossil fuel powered generation units and generators are seeking methods to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission intensity of power generation. Although these challenges may create uncertainty within the financial and electricity supply markets, they also offer the potential to explore new opportunities to support the accelerated deployment of cleaner and cost-effective technologies to meet such challenges. The federal government and various state governments, for example, support the development of a sustainable electricity infrastructure. As part of this policy, there are a variety of programs to support the development of ''cleaner'' technologies such as combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration) and renewable energy technologies. Energy from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are considered carbon-neutral energy technologies. The production of renewable energy creates no incremental increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Electricity and thermal energy production from all renewable resources, except biomass, produces no incremental increase in air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. There are many more opportunities for the development of cleaner electricity and thermal energy technologies called ''recycled'' energy. A process using fossil fuels to produce an energy service may have residual energy waste streams that may be recycled into useful energy services. Recycled energy methods would capture energy from sources that would otherwise be unused and convert it to electricity or

  3. Advanced electric motor technology: Flux mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Brantley, Larry W.; Dean, Garvin

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the assumptions, mathematical models, design methodology, and design points involved with the design of an electromechanical actuator (EMA) suitable for directing the thrust vector of a large MSFC/NASA launch vehicle. Specifically the design of such an actuator for use on the upcoming liquid fueled National Launch System (NLS) is considered culminating in a point design of both the servo system and the electric motor needed. A major thrust of the work is in selecting spur gear and roller screw reduction ratios to achieve simultaneously wide bandwidth, maximum power transfer, and disturbance rejection while meeting specified horsepower requirements at a given stroking speed as well as a specified maximum stall force. An innovative feedback signal is utilized in meeting these diverse objectives.

  4. Electric propulsion on SMART-1 - a technology milestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estublier, Denis; Saccoccia, Giorgio; Gonzales Del Amo, Jose

    2007-02-01

    In December 2002, when France's Stentor satellite was all set to use electric propulsion for stationkeeping, ESA's SMART-1 was just completing its first end-to-end spacecraft test. Then Stentor was lost in the Ariane-5 launch failure, making SMART-1 the first and only technology demonstration mission with Hall-effect plasma propulsion. As a result, there was a great deal of interest in the electric propulsion community in SMART-1's flight.

  5. 31 CFR 545.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services. 545.204 Section 545.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services. Except as otherwise... States, or by a U.S. person, wherever located, of any goods, software, technology (including...

  6. Development of electric motor cycle technologies in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. T.; Kuo, C. C.; Pan, J. S.; Lin, B. M.

    1994-02-01

    The development of an electric motor cycle was initiated at the Industrial Technology Research Institute in 1990. Several types of experimental electric scooters have been developed and field-tested, but their individual performances are far from satisfactory. Thus, it has been decided to make improvements on both the key components (such as battery, motor and driver) and the structural designs. The targeted electric motor cycle will adopt well to city-driving conditions and will help to alleviate urban air-pollution problems. The impact of electric motor cycles on the improvement of urban air-pollution problem has been evaluated. It is found that if 20% of the total motor cycle population is replaced by electric versions, a tremendous improvement in air quality will result, but this will still not meet the air-regulation standard. At least a 50% replacement is required to prevent continuous degradation of air quality.

  7. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  8. Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel findings and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a triagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) panel on Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Technology. NEP has been identified as a candidate nuclear propulsion technology for exploration of the Moon and Mars as part of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The findings are stated in areas of system and subsystem considerations, technology readiness, and ground test facilities. Recommendations made by the panel are summarized concerning: (1) existing space nuclear power and propulsion programs, and (2) the proposed multiagency NEP technology development program.

  9. Electrical System Technology Working Group (WG) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S.; Ford, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology needs for space power systems (military, public, commercial) were assessed for the period 1995 to 2005 in the area of power management and distribution, components, circuits, subsystems, controls and autonomy, modeling and simulation. There was general agreement that the military requirements for pulse power would be the dominant factor in the growth of power systems. However, the growth of conventional power to the 100 to 250kw range would be in the public sector, with low Earth orbit needs being the driver toward large 100kw systems. An overall philosophy for large power system development is also described.

  10. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  12. Advanced electric motor technology flux mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Dean, Garvin

    1993-01-01

    Design of electric motors which fulfill the needs of Thrust Vector Control (TVC) actuators used in large rocket propelled launch vehicles is covered. To accomplish this end the methodology of design is laid out in some detail. In addition a point design of a motor to fulfill the requirements of a certain actuator specified by MSFC is accomplished and reported upon. In the course of this design great stress has been placed on ridding the actuator of internally generated heat. To conduct the heat out of the motor use is made of the unique properties of the in house MSFC designed driving electronics. This property is that as along as they are operated in a quasi-linear mode the electronics nullify the effects of armature inductance as far as the phase of the armature current versus the rotor position is concerned. Actually the additional inductance due to the extended end turns in this design is of benefit because in the shorted armature failure mode the armature current in the fault (caused by the rotor flux sweeping past the armature) is diminished at a given rotor speed when compared to a more conventional motor with lower inductance. The magnetic circuit is analyzed using electromagnetic finite element methods.

  13. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  14. Nano-Electric Field TechnologY (NEFTY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    The NEFTY SR&T grant was focused on the development of novel electric field boom systems for sounding rocket applications. A "yo-yo"-type boom that unwraps from a rotating and damped axel was analyzed through a simulation with Prof. Psiaki of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University. The basic parameters of the analysis were evaluated and validated on a spinning platform prototyping system developed at Cornell University. The full "yo-yo"-type boom system is being developing for the SIERRA sounding rocket flight scheduled for a January 2002 launch. The principal results from this study were published.

  15. Information technology and supply chain management: a study of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Hill, C A

    2000-08-01

    This paper's topic is the use of information technology (IT) for the development of supply chain management (SCM). In today's business environment, both in academics and industry, the term SCM has become a popular paradigm. In particular, the use of IT to facilitate the development of supply chain partners is gaining interest within industry. This paper develops the topic of SCM and further develops the relationship between the use of IT, in the form of electronic data interchange, and the development of supply chain integration. The goal of using SCM along with IT is to develop a supply chain that is capable of responding more quickly and efficiently in the meeting of consumer's requirements.

  16. Supplying Reliable Electricity and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Wind is the world's fastest growing electric energy source. Because it is intermittent, though, wind is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid is a simple and effective way of reducing deliverable wind power swings caused by wind intermittency. As more farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does the probability that all sites experience the same wind regime at the same time. Consequently, the array behaves more and more similarly to a single farm with steady wind speed and thus steady deliverable wind power. In this study, benefits of interconnecting wind farms were evaluated for 19 sites, located in the Midwestern United States, with annual average wind speeds at 80 m above ground, the hub height of modern wind turbines, greater than 6.9 m/s (class 3 or greater). It was found that an average of 33% and a maximum of 47% of yearly-averaged wind power from interconnected farms can be used as reliable, baseload electric power. Equally significant, interconnecting multiple wind farms to a common point, then connecting that point to a far-away city can allow the long-distance portion of transmission capacity to be reduced, for example, by 20% with only a 1.6% loss of energy. Although most parameters, such as intermittency, improved less than linearly as the number of interconnected sites increased, no saturation of the benefits was found. Thus, the benefits of interconnection continue to increase with more and more interconnected sites.

  17. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  18. 76 FR 22729 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ..., Supply Technologies, Aerotek, Securitas Security Services, and Volt Workforce Solutions, Osceola, WI... reports that workers leased from Volt Workforce Solutions were employed on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin... Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from Volt Workforce Solutions working...

  19. 77 FR 13351 - Polaris Industries, Including On-site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ..., Supply Technologies, Aerotek Securitas Security Services, Volt Workforce Solutions and Select Staffing... of components for recreational vehicles. The company reports that workers leased from Select Staffing... leased from Select Staffing working on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin location of Polaris Industries....

  20. By-product metals are technologically essential but have problematic supply

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, N. T.; Graedel, T. E.; Harper, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The growth in technological innovation that has occurred over the past decades has, in part, been possible because an increasing number of metals of the periodic table are used to perform specialized functions. However, there have been increasing concerns regarding the reliability of supply of some of these metals. A main contributor to these concerns is the fact that many of these metals are recovered only as by-products from a limited number of geopolitically concentrated ore deposits, rendering their supplies unable to respond to rapid changes in demand. Companionality is the degree to which a metal is obtained largely or entirely as a by-product of one or more host metals from geologic ores. The dependence of companion metal availability on the production of the host metals introduces a new facet of supply risk to modern technology. We evaluated companionality for 62 different metals and metalloids, and show that 61% (38 of 62) have companionality greater than 50%. Eighteen of the 38—including such technologically essential elements as germanium, terbium, and dysprosium—are further characterized as having geopolitically concentrated production and extremely low rates of end-of-life recycling. It is this subset of companion metals—vital in current technologies such as electronics, solar energy, medical imaging, energy-efficient lighting, and other state-of-the-art products—that may be at the greatest risk of supply constraints in the coming decades. PMID:26601159

  1. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  2. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  3. Applications of advanced electric/electronic technology to conventional aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability of seven advanced technologies as applied to three commercial aircraft of 1985 to 1995 was investigated. Digital fly by wire, multiplexing, ring laser gyro, integrated avionics, all electric airplane, electric load management, and fiber optics were considered for 500 passenger, 50 passenger, and 30 passenger aircraft. The major figure of merit used was Net Value of Technology based on procurement and operating cost over the life of the aircraft. An existing computer program, ASSET, was used to resize the aircraft and evalute fuel usage and maintenance costs for each candidate configuration. Conclusions were that, for the 500 passenger aircraft, all candidates had a worthwhile payoff with the all electric airplane having a large payoff.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Control System for Microgrid Supplying Heat and Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Koshio, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shizuka

    Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbine (WT) generation systems are expected to offer solutions to reduce green house gases and become more widely used in the future. However, the chief technical drawback of using these kinds of weather-dependent generators is the difficulty of forecasting their output, which can have negative impacts on commercial grids if a large number of them are introduced. Thus, this problem may hinder the wider application of PV and WT generation systems. The Regional Power Grid with Renewable Energy Resources Project was launched to seek a solution to this problem. The scope of the project is to develop, operate, and evaluate a Dispersed Renewable Energy Supply System with the ability to adapt the total energy output in response to changes in weather and demand. Such a system would reduce the impact that PV and WT generation systems have on commercial grids and allow the interconnection of more Dispersed Energy Resources (DER). In other words, the main objective of this project is to demonstrate an integrated energy management system, or a type of microgrid [1], as a new way of introducing DERs. The system has been in operation since October 2005 and will continue operation until March 2008. Through the project period, the data on power quality, system efficiency, operation cost, and environmental burden will be gathered and a cost-benefit analysis of the system will be undertaken. In this paper, firstly we introduce the concept of microgrid for reducing negative impact of natural energy, and secondly illustrate the structure of electric and thermal supply control system for Microgrid, especially for the Hachinohe demonstration project. The control system consists of four stages; weekly operation planning, economic dispatching control, tie-line control and local frequency control. And finally demonstration results and evaluation results are shown.

  5. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  6. Assistive technologies along supply chains in health care and in the social services sector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Peter; Hauer, Katharina; Schloffer, Evelyn; Leyrer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in Austria and Slovenia are currently facing challenges due to scarce resources and demographic change which can be seen especially along the supply chains. The main objective of this paper is to present an option to improve the use of assistive technologies. An extensive literature research for the theoretic part as well as a qualitative survey for the empiric part focusing on short-term care were carried out. Results show that there is a lack of information and training on assistive technologies. As a consequence, their full potential cannot be exploited. Therefore a guideline for nursing consultations was developed. To conclude, both the literature research and the qualitative survey show that assistive technologies have high potentials to improve the supply chains in the health care and social services sector, but there is a lot of information and training on them needed.

  7. Performance evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.; Kulaga, J. E.; Webster, C. E.; Gillie, K. R.; Hogrefe, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    At the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R&D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of two single cells and seven 3- to 960-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, lead-acid, and Zn/Br).

  8. Evaluation of solar electric propulsion technologies for discovery class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study examines the potential benefits that advanced electric propulsion (EP) technologies offer to the cost-capped missions in NASA's Discovery program. The study looks at potential cost and performance benefits provided by three EP technologies that are currently in development: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), an Enhanced NSTAR system, and a Low Power Hall effect thruster. These systems are analyzed on three straw man Discovery class missions and their performance is compared to a state of the art system using the NSTAR ion thruster. An electric propulsion subsystem cost model is used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for each option. The results show that each proposed technology offers a different degree of performance and/or cost benefit for Discovery class missions.

  9. Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R.; Swan, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

  10. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation,...

  11. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  12. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation,...

  13. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  14. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  15. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  16. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  17. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  18. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  19. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  20. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  1. Using engineering and assistive technologies for rehabilitation after electrical trauma.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C J

    1999-10-30

    A framework is presented for judging when, how, and why rehabilitation engineering and its related assistive technologies are appropriate interventions following electrically induced trauma or burns. Instead of relying on the World Health Organization's medically based classification scheme of "Impairment, Disability, and Handicap," this newer framework is built on a rational demarcation proposed by the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation and Research at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. This latter client-centered framework encompasses pathophysiology, impairment, functional limitations, "disability", and societal limitations. This framework is well suited to handle the varied sequelae of electrical trauma and burn injuries and provides guidance towards the most effective use of traditional rehabilitation interventions and of assistive technologies. For electrical injuries, rehabilitative technologies can be classified as those promoting job accommodations (i.e., that help an individual return to active employment, albeit possibly in a different role) or as aids to the other activities of daily living (ADLs) that provide an enhanced quality of life to the individual with disability. While the traditional rehabilitative focus has been on return-to-work, especially among professional tradesmen, a more productive rehabilitative effort in some cases may occur through psychosocial adjustments achieved via effective technological interventions that enhance ADLs.

  2. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    1992-10-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991-1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  3. Results of advanced batter technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  4. Electrical Power Budgeting Analysis for LSA-02 UAV Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranoto, F. S.; Wirawan, A.; Purnamasari, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the calculation of the LSA-02 UAV electrical power requirement as a technology demonstrator. To answer this issue, the method from ASTM F2490 Standard is used. By adopting that method, the condition of aircraft operation must be defined. Therefore, there are 2 aircraft conditions that will be investigated further. First, the LSA-02 aircraft will be fitted with EO/IR camera and support payload for conducting real-time surveillance system. The other condition is conducting the aerial photography mission to investigate the vegetation condition by equipping the aircraft with a multispectral camera. The results show that the real-time mission will need bigger electrical power requirement comparing to aerial photography mission. To support the mission without sacrificing the other electrical equipment for functioning, the onboard power generator system inside LSA-02 aircraft should be upgraded, at least with 3.5 kVA capacity.

  5. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  6. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  7. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, T.Q.

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  8. The flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liwen; Yao, Bin; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao; Yao, Boshi

    2012-01-01

    A flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control is presented to resolve the problem of low rigidity of PCB during grinding, the thickness of which varies from 0.1mm up to 3.5 mm. The comparative results between the real-time current and the setting current in the process of grinding control the frequency and the number of servo pulse, and then the servo motor adjusts the grinding depth of brushing roller at several different rotational speeds, namely, realizing the constant grinding force during grinding. The results show that the PCB can be grinded efficiently and accurately by means of the flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control.

  9. The specification and estimation of technological change in electricity production

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses on the rate of technological change in electricity production. The dominant role of fossil fuel-fired electricity production in the industry, coupled with the direct association with the emission of greenhouse gases, makes technology parameters particularly significant for several reasons. First, very long-run simulations of energy-economic paths at a global level require that technical progress occupy a place in the methodology for sound formulations that are vital in global emissions/energy policy analysis. Second, given the outlook for electricity generation being predominately coal-based, especially in developing economies around the world, the specification and measurement of technical change is essential for developing realistic long-run technology forecasts. Finally, industry or sector growth in productivity hinges partly on technical progress, and updated analysis will always be necessary to stay abreast of developments on this front, as well as for economic growth considerations in general. This study is based on empirical economic research on production functions in the electric utility industry. However, it advances a seldom used approach, called the {open_quotes}engineering-production function{close_quotes}, in contrast to the more common neoclassical approach used by economists. Combined with this approach is a major departure from the type of data used to conduct econometric estimations of production parameters. This research draws upon a consistent set of ex ante or {open_quotes}blueprint{close_quotes} data that better reflects planned, technical performance and cost data elements, in contrast to the more customary, expect type of data from actual firm/plant operations. The results from the examination of coal-fired technologies indicate the presence of technical change. Using data for the period from 1979 to 1989, we find technical change to be capital-augmenting at the rate of 1.8 percent per year.

  10. Shock and vibration technology with applications to electrical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of shock and vibration technology for electrical systems developed by the aerospace programs. The shock environment is surveyed along with new techniques for modeling, computer simulation, damping, and response analysis. Design techniques based on the use of analog computers, shock spectra, optimization, and nonlinear isolation are discussed. Shock mounting of rotors for performance and survival, and vibration isolation techniques are reviewed.

  11. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  12. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  14. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  15. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  16. Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Cantin, Luc; Deschenes, Mario; D'Amours, Mario

    1995-08-15

    A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

  17. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  18. Federal/State Jurisdictional Split: Implications for Emerging Electricity Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Jeffery S.; Kelly, Suedeen G.; Nordhaus, Robert R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2016-12-01

    The first Administration-wide Quadrennial Energy Review (QER), released in April 2015, found that the “interacting and overlapping” division of authority between “federal, regional and state institutions and regulatory structures” for the electricity sector could “impede development of the grid of the future [and] . . . the development of markets that efficiently integrate” new and emerging technologies.1 While “technology is indifferent to state-Federal boundaries and jurisdictions,” the QER explained, “technology users cannot be.”2 The report concluded that “[b]oth Federal and state governments need to play constructive and collaborative roles in the future to ensure that consumers and industry are able to maximize the value of new technologies.”3 The QER recommended that the Department of Energy (“DOE”) facilitate such collaboration by playing a “convening role” to bring together state and federal regulators and other stakeholders to consider these issues.4 This paper provides background and analysis on these jurisdictional issues and the impact they may have on adoption of emerging energy technologies and coordination of markets for those technologies, in support of future dialogs on these subjects. In particular, this paper reviews the structure of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”),5 and compares the division of authority between the federal and state governments adopted there with other federal energy and energy-related statutes.

  19. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3. NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na2SO4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4, the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m(2).

  20. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Aabakken, J.

    2006-08-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  1. Electric Power System for High Altitude UAV Technology Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Electric powertrain technologies with application to high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are assessed. One hundred twenty five solar electric UAV configurations and missions were simulated. Synergistic design opportunities were investigated with the premise that specific benefits may be realized, for example, if a single component can serve multiple functions, such as a battery being used for energy storage as well as for a structural component of the aircraft. For each UAV mission simulation, the airframe structure, powertrain configuration (type of solar cells, energy storage options) and performance baseline (1997 or 2001) were specified. It has been found that the use of the high efficiency (multijunction) solar cells or the use of the synergistic amorphous silicon solar cell configuration yields aircraft that can accomplish the majority of the missions of interest for any latitude between 0 deg and 55 deg, hence, a single versatile aircraft can be constructed and implemented to accomplish these missions.

  2. Security applications of a remote electric-field sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prance, Robert J.; Harland, Christopher J.; Prance, Helen

    2008-10-01

    A new generation of electric field sensors developed at the University of Sussex is enabling an alternative to contact voltage and non-contact magnetic field measurements. We have demonstrated the capability of this technology in a number of areas including ECG through clothing, remote off-body ECG, through wall movement sensing and electric field imaging. Clearly, there are many applications for a generic sensor technology with this capability, including long term vital sign monitoring. The non-invasive nature of the measurement also makes these sensors ideal for man/machine and human/robot interfacing. In addition, there are obvious security and biometric possibilities since we can obtain physiological data remotely, without the knowledge of the subject. This is a clear advantage if such systems are to be used for evaluating the psychological state of a subject. In this paper we report the results obtained with a new version of the sensor which is capable of acquiring electrophysiological signals remotely in an open unshielded laboratory. We believe that this technology opens up a new area of remote biometrics which could have considerable implications for security applications. We have also demonstrated the ability of EPS to function in closely-packed one and two dimensional arrays for real-time imaging.

  3. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  4. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  5. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  6. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  7. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  8. Electricity demand curtailment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J; Carroll, O; Schnader, M

    1980-01-01

    The state of electricity demand curtailment planning for long term electricity supply disruptions is reviewed. Legal, institutional and technological problems associated with demand curtailment plans are examined, and the existence of well defined social objectives on the part of planners is questioned. A linear programming approach to electricity demand curtailment planning is presented.

  9. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  10. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (7)Development and Practical Application of Sodium-Sulfur Battery for Electric Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachi, Hideki

    Sodium-Sulfur battery (NAS battery), which has more than 3 times of energy density compared with the conventional lead-acid battery and can be compactly established, has a great installation effects as a distributed energy storage system in the urban area which consumes big electric power. For the power company, NAS battery contributes to the load leveling, the supply capability up at the peak period, the efficient operation of the electric power equipment and the reduction of the capital expenditure. And for the customer, it is possible to enjoy the reduction of the electricity charges by utilizing nighttime electric power and the securing of a security. The contribution to the highly sophisticated information society where the higher electric power quality is desired, mainly office buildings and factories by the progress of IT, is very big. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) developed the elementary technology of NAS battery from 1984 and ended the development of practical battery which has long-term durability and the safety and the performance verification of the megawatt scale. Finally TEPCO accomplished the practical application and commercialization of the stationary energy storage technology by NAS battery. In this paper, we introduces about conquered problems until practical application and commercialization.

  11. Industrial water supply for the Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant with the ecological safety of the River Seim taken into account

    SciTech Connect

    Kyakk, V. A.

    2009-09-15

    The Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant is discussed as an illustration of preventing thermal contamination of its water supply (River Seim) by circulating water. An effective water supply system is taken to be one for which the overheating of the water at a monitoring site (near the outlet location) does not exceed an approved level for the water use conditions. The required cooling capacity of a spray pond for circulating and flow-through water supplies is determined.

  12. Geological, technological, and political-economic constraints on future supplies of critical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, prices of most mineral commodities have risen significantly. This is primarily due to increased minerals demand from rapidly developing highly-populated nations and the inability of the global mining industry to keep pace. Many critical minerals, including rare earth elements, have undergone some of the largest price increases, resulting in considerable destruction of demand. Critical minerals have many highly valued uses, in particular for emerging energy and transportation technologies. Abundant supplies at relatively low prices would accelerate the introduction of many of these new energy-saving industries. Using rare earths as an example, transforming a small "boutique" mineral industry into a reliable supplier for rapidly developing markets faces numerous hurdles. The challenges begin with the geological occurrence of rare earth deposits, which rarely occur as economically mineable deposits despite their relatively high crustal abundance. The distribution of these deposits relative to modern political boundaries presents additional obstacles. The technological challenges to extracting and purifying rare earth elements at a reasonable cost have long been formidable. Developing new mining and mineral processing capacity has become more time-consuming and costly. The history of the molybdenum industry is analogous and illustrates the investment climate and research efforts required to transform an exotic element into a staple of industrial production: (1) secure access to high-quality mineral resources; (2) research on deposit occurrence and development of exploration technology; (3) research and investment into extraction and processing technology; (3) research into new applications; and (4) close cooperation between suppliers, consumers, and government.

  13. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE's Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  14. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  15. Electric Power Research Institute: environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-04

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved continued investigations into the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process for the production of Anhydrous Calcium Sulfate (Anhydrite). The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. From May 3-18, the NYSEG Kintigh Station and the ECTC were off-line for a two-week scheduled Station outage. During the ECTC outage, the major systems of the Center were inspected, and several preventive maintenance activities were completed. A listing of the major O&M outage activities completed during this period is presented in the Pilot/Mini-Pilot section of this report. In May 1997, an extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was started following the NYSEG outage. The extension to the Anhydrite Production test block is being funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high- efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite project was conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension mainly used the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot wet FGD unit to reduce operating costs. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a useable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). The original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved

  16. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  17. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited

  18. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jonathan; Khowailed, Gannate; Blackburn, Julia; Sikes, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary steps: (1

  19. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  20. Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

    1996-07-01

    In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processes—an electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

  1. The DOE solar thermal electric program concentrator technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, T. R.

    1991-01-01

    The project comprises the development of concentrating solar collectors, heliostats, and dishes, and the development of optical materials. Because the solar concentrator represents from 40 to 60 percent of the cost of a solar thermal electric system, the continued development of high-performance concentrators is very important to the commercial viability of these systems. The project is currently testing two large area heliostats, the SPECO 200 sq m heliostat and the ATS 150 sq m heliostat, and also trying to reduce the cost of the heliostats through the development of stretched-membrane heliostats. Stretched-membrane heliostats are made by attaching thin metal membranes to the two sides of a circular, metal ring. A slight vacuum in the plenum between the two membranes is used to focus the heliostat. The optical surface is provided by a silver-acrylic film, ECP 305. A prototype 100 sq m commercial unit has been built and is currently being tested. Parabolic dish concentrators are under development for use on dish-Stirling electric systems. The state-of-the-art dish is the McDAC/SCE faceted glass concentrator. Because of the success of stretched-membrane technology for heliostats, the project applied the technology to parabolic dish development and is currently designing a near-term, faceted, stretched-membrane dish. The current thrust of the program in optical materials development is the development of a low-cost, high-performance, silver-acrylic film. 3M's ECP 305 has demonstrated substantial improvement over previous films in its resistance to corrosion and its longer life. An experimental film, developed at SERI, has promise for further improving the lifetime of the ECP 305. The project is currently investigating solutions to the problem of separation between the silver and acrylic layers of the film in the presence of water.

  2. [Performance of Electricity Generation and Feasibility of Discontinuous Power Supply of MFC by Using Pretreated Excess Sludge as Fuel].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-hui; Zhao, Yang-guo; Guo, Liang

    2016-03-15

    The feasibility of treating pretreated excess sludge and capacity of supplying continuous power of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells were started up and operated by using thermal pretreated excess sludge as the substrate. Potential fluctuations were achieved by changing the cathode electron acceptor. During the changes of electron acceptor, the operational stability of MFCs was assessed. The results indicated that the MFCs started successfully with oxygen as the cathode electron acceptor and reached 0.24 V after 148 hours. When the cathode electron acceptor was replaced by potassium ferricyanide, MFCs could obtain the maximum output voltage and maximum power density of 0.66 V and 4.21 W · m⁻³, respectively. When the cathode electron acceptor was changed from oxygen to potassium ferricyanide or the MFCs were closed circuit, the output power of MFCs recovered rapidly. In addition, changes of electron acceptor showed no effect on the removal of COD and ammonia nitrogen. Their removal efficiencies approached to 70% and 80%, respectively. This study concluded that MFC could treat the pretreated excess sludge and produce electricity simultaneously with a high power density. The MFC could also achieve discontinuous electricity supply during operation.

  3. Emergency water supply: a review of potential technologies and selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Loo, Siew-Leng; Fane, Anthony G; Krantz, William B; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-15

    Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water technologies (WTs) that are modular, mobile or portable are suitable for emergency relief. This paper reviews WTs including membrane technologies that are suitable for use in emergencies. Physical, chemical, thermal- and light-based treatment methods, and membrane technologies driven by different driving forces such as pressure, temperature and osmotic gradients are reviewed. Each WT is evaluated by ten mutually independent criteria: costs, ease of deployment, ease of use, maintenance, performance, potential acceptance, energy requirements, supply chain requirements, throughput and environmental impact. A scoring system based on these criteria is presented. A methodology for emergency WT selection based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis is developed and discussed. Finally, critical research needs are identified.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  5. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  6. Toward a 20% Wind Electricity Supply in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P.

    2007-05-01

    Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Wind Powering America (WPA) program in 1999, installed wind power capacity in the United States has increased from 2,500 MW to more than 11,000 MW. In 1999, only four states had more than 100 MW of installed wind capacity; now 16 states have more than 100 MW installed. In addition to WPA's efforts to increase deployment, the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is building a network of support across the country. In July 2005, AWEA launched the Wind Energy Works! Coalition, which is comprised of more than 70 organizations. In February 2006, the wind deployment vision was enhanced by President George W. Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative, which refers to a wind energy contribution of up to 20% of the electricity consumption of the United States. A 20% electricity contribution over the next 20 to 25 years represents 300 to 350 gigawatts (GW) of electricity. This paper provides a background of wind energy deployment in the United States and a history of the U.S. DOE's WPA program, as well as the program's approach to increasing deployment through removal of institutional and informational barriers to a 20% wind electricity future.

  7. Technical and commercial aspects of the connection of wind turbines to electricity supply networks in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews some technical and commercial issues now topical for wind energy developments in Europe. The technical issues are important because of the weak nature of the existing electricity systems in rural or upland areas. Several commercial issues are considered which may improve the economics of wind energy as market incentives are gradually withdrawn. 9 refs.

  8. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  9. Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) Technology Development for Potential Deep Space Scientific Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J.; Sievers, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) technology development effort over the past year. The vapor-vapor AMTEC cell technology is being developed for use with either a solar or nuclear heat sources for space.

  10. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" technologies and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H 2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H 2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. This study integrates and extends previous analyses of H 2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. Further, it uses a new electric-drive-vehicle and vehicular-distributed-generation model to estimate zero-emission-power versus zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. By framing market development in terms of new consumer value flowing from Me-, this study suggests a way to move beyond the battery versus fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. As one possible extension of this Me- product platform, H 2FCVs might supply clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature.

  11. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  12. Diesel plant retrofitting options to enhance decentralized electricity supply in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Barley, C D; Drouilhet, S

    1997-09-01

    Over the last 20 years, the government of Indonesia has undertaken an extensive program to provide electricity to the population of that country. The electrification of rural areas has been partially achieved through the use of isolated diesel systems, which account for about 20% of the country`s generated electricity. Due to many factors related to inefficient power production with diesels, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with PLN, the Indonesian national utility, Community Power Corporation, and Idaho Power Company, analyzed options for retrofitting existing diesel power systems. This study considered the use of different combinations of advanced diesel control, the addition of wind generators, photovoltaics and batteries to reduce the systems of overall cost and fuel consumption. This analysis resulted in a general methodology for retrofitting diesel power systems. This paper discusses five different retrofitting options to improve the performance of diesel power systems. The systems considered in the Indonesian analysis are cited as examples for the options discussed.

  13. Vulnerability of European and U.S. Electricity Supply to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Ludwig, F.; Vögele, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil fueled) power plants currently produce 78% of all electricity in the Europe and 91% in the United States. These power plants directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were forced to reduce production due to cooling water scarcity and environmental restrictions on thermal discharges. Due to climate change, periods with low flows in combination with high water temperatures could increase causing significant reductions in cooling water availability during summer. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the U.S. is vulnerable to climate change due to the combined impacts of lower summer flows and higher water temperatures. We used a physically-based hydrological and water temperature modeling framework (VIC - RBM) in combination with an electricity production model. Our modeling framework was forced with different climate change scenarios to quantify how climate change will affect daily river flow, water temperature, and subsequently electricity production potential over the next 20-50 years. A total number of 96 existing nuclear and fossil fueled power plants (with different cooling systems) in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were included in our analyses. The results show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the U.S. depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme reductions in thermoelectric power production are projected to increase substantially. Considering the projected decreases in cooling water availability during summer in combination with the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  14. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sean W D; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-07-15

    An important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction of change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~-5 to +5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~5-20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~5-15%) without investing in new power generation facilities.

  15. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Sean W. D.; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-03-07

    Here, an important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction ofmore » change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~–5 to + 5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~ 5–20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~ 5–15%) without investing in new power generation facilities.« less

  16. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  17. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  18. The Role of the Independent Inventor in the Early Development of Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David Hendrick

    This account of invention and innovation in electrical technology places particular emphasis upon the contributions of Nathan B. Stubblefield, an independent electrical scientist. An overview of inventions in electrical communication as they influenced Stubblefield sets his work in perspective. The elements of invention that were identified in…

  19. New Electric Power Technologies: Problems and Prospects for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report responds to a request from the House Committee on Science and Technology and its Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications to analyze a range of new electric power generating, storage, and load management technologies. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examined these technologies in terms of their current and expected…

  20. Miniaturized Power Processing Unit Study: A Cubesat Electric Propulsion Technology Enabler Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghassemieh, Shakib M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates High Voltage Power Processing Unit (PPU) technology and driving requirements necessary to enable the Microfluidic Electric Propulsion technology research and development by NASA and university partners. This study provides an overview of the state of the art PPU technology with recommendations for technology demonstration projects and missions for NASA to pursue.

  1. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  2. Potential production of biosurfactants under electric field supplied to clayey soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, L.; Elektorowicz, M.

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of the introduction of nutrients and bacteria into clayey soil using electrokinetic methodology makes bioremediation more popular. However, biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by their low solubility. The potential production of biosurfactants in clayey soil under the electric field was presented in this study. The electrokinetic cell tests were carried out to investigate the production of biosurfactants in the contaminated soil and soil without contaminants. The results showed that there was 1.5 times higher production in the soil contaminated by phenanthrene than that without it. In the middle of the electrokinetic cell, there are more biosurfactants produced than at the anode and the cathode areas. It was observed that there was migration of micelles with the electromigration and electroosmosis. In spite of the anionic properties of biosurfactant, the movement of the micelle was only partially directed to the anode. It was also observed that the electroosmosic flow transported micelles to the cathode. The results suggested the possibility of production of biosurfactants under the electric field and uniform distribution in the subsoil. The results could find a direct applicability in the enhanced remediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  3. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  4. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  5. Wind power systems for individual applications. [electric power supplies for homes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clews, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A small windpower system is described which is suitable for electrifying a house. The self-contained unit consists of a two kilowatt wind driven generator, a set of 19 storage batteries, a small dc to ac inverter, and a gasoline generator for use as an emergency backup system in case of prolonged calm periods. Cost effectiveness of the electricity generated by this windmill system comes out to about 15 cents per kilowatt hour - assuming a 10 year life for the batteries and a 20 year life for the other components. Some other small windpower systems are also described, and it is shown that a windpowered generator in the 15- to 25-kilowatt output range coupled to a direct heated water storage system is able to heat a typical New England home.

  6. Conceptual Design of an Electric Sail Technology Demonstration Mission Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    There is great interest in examining the outer planets of our solar system and Heliopause region (edge of Solar System) and beyond regions of interstellar space by both the Planetary and Heliophysics communities. These needs are well docu-mented in the recent National Academy of Sciences Decadal Surveys. There is significant interest in developing revolutionary propulsion techniques that will enable such Heliopause scientific missions to be completed within 10 to15 years of the launch date. One such enabling propulsion technique commonly known as Electric Sail (E-Sail) propulsion employs positively charged bare wire tethers that extend radially outward from a rotating spacecraft spinning at a rate of one revolution per hour. Around the positively charged bare-wire tethers, a Debye Sheath is created once positive voltage is applied. This sheath stands off of the bare wire tether at a sheath diameter that is proportional to the voltage in the wire coupled with the flux density of solar wind ions within the solar system (or the location of spacecraft in the solar system. The protons that are expended from the sun (solar wind) at 400 to 800 km/sec are electrostatically repelled away from these positively charged Debye sheaths and propulsive thrust is produced via the resulting momentum transfer. The amount of thrust produced is directly proportional to the total wire length. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electric Sail team is currently funded via a two year Phase II NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) awarded in July 2015. The team's current activities are: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from the experimental data collected at MSFC's Solar Wind Facility on the interaction between simulated solar wind interaction with a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) The development of the necessary tether deployers and tethers to enable successful de-ployment of multiple, multi km length bare tethers

  7. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  8. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  9. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  10. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  11. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  12. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  13. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  14. Electric Propulsion Requirements and Mission Analysis Under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard a.; Pencil, Eric J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project (ISPT) is currently NASA's sole investment in electric propulsion technologies. This project is managed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The objective of the electric propulsion project area is to develop near-term and midterm electric propulsion technologies to enhance or enable future NASA science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Systems analysis activities sponsored by ISPT seek to identify future mission applications in order to quantify mission requirements, as well as develop analytical capability in order to facilitate greater understanding and application of electric propulsion and other propulsion technologies in the ISPT portfolio. These analyses guide technology investments by informing decisions and defining metrics for technology development to meet identified mission requirements. This paper discusses the missions currently being studied for electric propulsion by the ISPT project, and presents the results of recent electric propulsion (EP) mission trades. Recent ISPT systems analysis activities include: an initiative to standardize life qualification methods for various electric propulsion systems in order to retire perceived risk to proposed EP missions; mission analysis to identify EP requirements from Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship classes of missions; and an evaluation of system requirements for radioisotope-powered electric propulsion. Progress and early results of these activities is discussed where available.

  15. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Electric vehicles: technology and introduction to the Arab world

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    The last decades provided an atmosphere that has been particularly suited to the development of new modes of transportation replacing noisy and dirty conventional vehicles. However, today electric vehicles are receiving intensive public interest with every gasoline shortage and price increase. In this paper, an introduction and history of electric vehicles has been provided. Details of electric motors have been given, together with their advantages and disadvantages for application to electric vehicles. The main (traction) batteries used with electric vehicles have been widely studied. The control system has been divided into three major types: rheostatic control, parallelseries battery connection control, and chopper control. The three types have been discussed with their advantages and disadvantages and their economical aspects. This paper also discusses the battery charger and the brake systems used with electric vehicles. Extra details on the specifications of the components, the meter, the battery and the control system have been provided and discussed. The instrumentation technique and tires used with electric vehicles also have been studied. Operational and environmental considerations have also been detailed, including a comparison of E V and I C E V systems and the consequences of employing them, and the most likely applications for electric vehicles.

  17. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    The directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions in the most cost effective manner are determined. The mission set requirements, state of the art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system level electric propulsion parameters are discussed. The impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems is evaluated.

  18. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 30: Intermediate Power Supplies. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on intermediate power supplies is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included…

  19. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief.

  20. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: WASTE VITRIFICATION THROUGH ELECTRIC MELTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of vitrification technology is to convert contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments into an oxide glass, rendering them suitable for landfilling as a nonhazardous material. The technology uses joule heating to melt the waste matrix, destroying organic compounds in ...

  1. Life-cycle and freshwater withdrawal impact assessment of water supply technologies.

    PubMed

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2013-05-01

    Four alternative cases for water supply were environmentally evaluated and compared based on the standard environmental impact categories from the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology extended with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI). The cases were designed for Copenhagen, a part of Denmark with high population density and relatively low available water resources. FWI was applied at local groundwater catchments based on data from the national implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. The base case of the study was the current practice of groundwater abstraction from well fields situated near Copenhagen. The 4 cases studied were: Rain & stormwater harvesting from several blocks in the city; Today's groundwater abstraction with compensating actions applied in the affected freshwater environments to ensure sufficient water flow in water courses; Establishment of well fields further away from the city; And seawater desalination. The standard LCA showed that the Rain & stormwater harvesting case had the lowest overall environmental impact (81.9 μPET/m(3)) followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction (123.5-137.8 μPET/m(3)), and that desalination had a relatively small but still important increase in environmental impact (204.8 μPET/m(3)). Rain & stormwater harvesting and desalination had a markedly lower environmental impact compared to the base case, due to the reduced water hardness leading to e.g. a decrease in electricity consumption in households. For a relevant comparison, it is therefore essential to include the effects of water hardness when comparing the environmental impacts of water systems of different hardness. This study also emphasizes the necessity of including freshwater withdrawal respecting the relevant affected geographical scale, i.e. by focusing the assessment on the local groundwater catchments rather than on the regional catchments. Our work shows that freshwater withdrawal methods previously used on a regional

  2. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  3. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Saur, G.; Penev, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  4. 25th anniversary article: organic photovoltaic modules and biopolymer supercapacitors for supply of renewable electricity: a perspective from Africa.

    PubMed

    Inganäs, Olle; Admassie, Shimelis

    2014-02-12

    The role of materials in civilization is well demonstrated over the centuries and millennia, as materials have come to serve as the classifier of stages of civilization. With the advent of materials science, this relation has become even more pronounced. The pivotal role of advanced materials in industrial economies has not yet been matched by the influence of advanced materials during the transition from agricultural to modern societies. The role of advanced materials in poverty eradication can be very large, in particular if new trajectories of social and economic development become possible. This is the topic of this essay, different in format from the traditional scientific review, as we try to encompass not only two infant technologies of solar energy conversion and storage by means of organic materials, but also the social conditions for introduction of the technologies. The development of organic-based photovoltaic energy conversion has been rapid, and promises to deliver new alternatives to well-established silicon photovoltaics. Our recent development of organic biopolymer composite electrodes opens avenues towards the use of renewable materials in the construction of wooden batteries or supercapacitors for charge storage. Combining these new elements may give different conditions for introduction of energy technology in areas now lacking electrical grids, but having sufficient solar energy inputs. These areas are found close to the equator, and include some of the poorest regions on earth.

  5. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: MIDWEST INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY, INC.'S ENVIROKLEEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: MIDWEST INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY, INC.'S EK35

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  8. Electricity decision-making: New techniques for calculating statewide economic impacts from new power supply and demand-side management programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegen, Suzanne Isabel Helmholz

    This dissertation introduces new techniques for calculating and comparing statewide economic impacts from new coal, natural gas and wind power plants, as well as from demand-side management programs. The impetus for this work was two-fold. First, reviews of current literature and projects revealed that there was no standard way to estimate statewide economic impacts from new supply- and demand-side electricity options. Second, decision-makers who were interviewed stated that they were overwhelmed with data in general, but also lacked enough specific information about economic development impacts to their states from electricity, to make informed choices. This dissertation includes chapters on electricity decision-making and on economic impacts from supply and demand. The supply chapter compares different electricity options in three states which vary in natural resource content: Arizona, Colorado and Michigan. To account for differing capacity factors, resources are compared on a per-megawatt-hour basis. The calculations of economic impacts from new supply include: materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, fuel transport, as well as property tax, financing and landowner revenues. The demand-side chapter compares residential, commercial and industrial programs in Iowa. Impact calculations include: incremental labor and materials for program planning, installation and operations, as well as sales taxes and electricity saved. Results from supply-side calculations in the three states analyzed indicate that adding new wind power can have a greater impact to a state's economy than adding new gas or coal power due to resource location, taxes and infrastructure. Additionally, demand-side management programs have a higher relative percentage of in-state dollar flow than supply-side solutions, though demand-side programs typically involve fewer MWh and dollars than supply-side generation. Methods for this dissertation include researching

  9. THE ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY. PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARLOW, MELVIN L.; SCHILL, WILLIAM J.

    TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS FOR INSTRUCTION IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 51 TECHNICAL WORKERS, 51 JUNIOR COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS, AND 11 EXPERTS RATED 240 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AS TO THEIR VALUE IN A TECHNICIAN'S WORK. THE THREE GROUPS AGREED ON THE RANK ORDER OF 15 TOPICS--(1) CURRENT ELECTRICITY, (2)…

  10. Electric Materials in advance of Technologies for CO2 Emission Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuzo

    Electric materials for the CO2 emission reduction and the climate changes mitigation are reviewed for this special issue. In the diversified society and the climate changes in the global environment, the advanced electric materials and their effective application technologies are a significant and argent field. Proceedings of superconducting materials, fuel cell materials, solar cell materials etc. are spectacular.

  11. Homeostatic control: Economic integration of solar technologies into electric power operations and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1981-07-01

    The economic issues associated with the interface of new energy technologies and the electric utility grid are discussed. The concept of homestatic control is introduced and the use of such an economic concept applied to the introduction of nondispatchable technologies into the existing utility system is examined. The transition and potential impact of a homeostatic control system working with the existing electric utility system is treated.

  12. Blazing the trailway: Nuclear electric propulsion and its technology program plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of the plans for a program in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for space applications being considered by NASA, DOE, and DOD. Possible missions using NEP are examined, and NEP technology plans are addressed regarding concept development, systems engineering, nuclear fuels, power conversion, thermal management, power management and distribution, electric thrusters, facilities, and issues related to safety and environment. The programmatic characteristics are considered.

  13. Technology spin-off from space power automation to terrestrial electrical power distribution control and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callis, C. T.; Broadwater, R. P.; Chandrasekaran, A.

    Areas which hold potential for technology spin-off from space power automation into terrestrial electrical power distribution control and automation are investigated. Areas touched upon include load management, loss reduction, trend analysis, energy storage, and fault diagnosis and analysis with expert systems. A brief overview of terrestrial electric power technology and automation in terrestrial distribution is provided. Power handling capabilities, hardware, loads, and goals of terrestrial and space systems are compared.

  14. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  15. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  16. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua; Townsend, Aaron; Melaina, Marc

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  17. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  18. Inductive High Power Transfer Technologies for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madzharov, Nikolay D.; Tonchev, Anton T.

    2014-03-01

    Problems associated with "how to charge the battery pack of the electric vehicle" become more important every passing day. Most logical solution currently is the non-contact method of charge, possessing a number of advantages over standard contact methods for charging. This article focuses on methods for Inductive high power contact-less transfer of energy at relatively small distances, their advantages and disadvantages. Described is a developed Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) system for fast charging of electric vehicles with nominal power of 30 kW over 7 to 9 cm air gap.

  19. Explosive-metal composites and electrical switch technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, M. J.; Dibona, P. J.

    1981-04-01

    A number of different explosive opening switch concepts were investigated. The fabrication of a composite material by the impregnation of a porous metallic matrix by an explosive utilizing a vacuum melt cast technique was demonstrated. Successful initiation and steady detonation wave propagation was demonstrated with use of the Jacobs rapid framing camera while the electrical conductivity through the sample was measured with an oscilloscope. This type of switch is shown to have the potential of switching large electrical currents in times on the order of 10 microns with savings in weight and volume as compared to the geometries used in other explosive switches.

  20. Environmental policies to enhance technological change in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunol Del Rio, Eric

    International agreements on climate change mitigation set quantitative carbon emission reduction targets in a country for a given year with respect to a given base year. A central question is then on what time do the new clean and costly technologies need to start functioning to comply with the agreed targets, and under what incentive does the market implement them. The planner's economic problem is to design an incentive that makes the new clean technology less costly than the vintage polluting facility, at the precise time in order to comply with the agreements at minimum cost. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on efficient allocation of pollution, discussing its validity to explain induced technological change. It then presents a simple model of technological change showing that market power determes the optimal adoption time of a new technology. Chapter 2 analyzes the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change under different paths of technological progress. Furthermore, the paper examines the influence of market conditions. It shows that emission charges do reduce the firm's optimal adoption time when investment cost paths for the new technology are convex. On the contrary, emission charges may delay the optimal the switching time of a technology when the investment cost path is concave. Chapter 3 explores the results of Chapter 2 in an agent-based model. Simulations of firms adjusting their output a la Cournot show that the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change is highly dependant on the number of firms in the market. Moreover, the shape of the technological progress curve is determinant: the effects of carbon charges are not linear on carbon price, and become more uncertain the more concave the investment cost path is. These results show that policies aiming at internalizing pollution costs enhance technological change at very different rates, depending on the actual market conditions in the industry and

  1. Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

  2. A Comparative Study of Proficiencies Utilized by Electrical Engineering Graduates of the University of Alabama and the Core Curricula in Electrical Engineering and Electrical Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, William S.

    A survey of 531 electrical engineering graduates of the University of Alabama who had received bachelor's degrees in the years 1950 through 1974 showed that the educational needs of a majority of the respondents could have been adequately served by the mathematics levels present in the engineering technology program. In addition, certain subjects…

  3. SEPS solar array design and technology evaluation. [Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The solar array system considered is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, and an array electrical harness. A technology evaluation is performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define the supporting effort necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) solar array design requirements. Details of mechanical design are discussed along with questions of electrical design, operational reliability advantages, and array assembly advantages.

  4. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Zimmerle, D.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  5. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Zipperer, Adam; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Roche, Robin; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Dane; Bauleo, Pablo; Zimmerle, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  6. Advanced Electric Distribution, Switching, and Conversion Technology for Power Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, James V.

    1998-01-01

    The Electrical Power Control Unit currently under development by Sundstrand Aerospace for use on the Fluids Combustion Facility of the International Space Station is the precursor of modular power distribution and conversion concepts for future spacecraft and aircraft applications. This unit combines modular current-limiting flexible remote power controllers and paralleled power converters into one package. Each unit includes three 1-kW, current-limiting power converter modules designed for a variable-ratio load sharing capability. The flexible remote power controllers can be used in parallel to match load requirements and can be programmed for an initial ON or OFF state on powerup. The unit contains an integral cold plate. The modularity and hybridization of the Electrical Power Control Unit sets the course for future spacecraft electrical power systems, both large and small. In such systems, the basic hybridized converter and flexible remote power controller building blocks could be configured to match power distribution and conversion capabilities to load requirements. In addition, the flexible remote power controllers could be configured in assemblies to feed multiple individual loads and could be used in parallel to meet the specific current requirements of each of those loads. Ultimately, the Electrical Power Control Unit design concept could evolve to a common switch module hybrid, or family of hybrids, for both converter and switchgear applications. By assembling hybrids of a common current rating and voltage class in parallel, researchers could readily adapt these units for multiple applications. The Electrical Power Control Unit concept has the potential to be scaled to larger and smaller ratings for both small and large spacecraft and for aircraft where high-power density, remote power controllers or power converters are required and a common replacement part is desired for multiples of a base current rating.

  7. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Gorham, Bethany

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  8. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  9. Electrical Power Engineering Technology: Designing a New Two-Plus-Two Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, Jack

    1978-01-01

    An upper-division two-year program in electrical power engineering technology developed at Oklahoma State University is described. The typical two-plus-two program in mechanical, electronics, electromechanical, or other related technologies consists of two years of study at the associate level followed by two years at the bachelor's level. (MF)

  10. Air Force Research Laboratory High Power Electric Propulsion Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-27

    are currently less mature than the Hall thruster variants. Comparisons of candidate technologies are evaluated with VASIMR , a well publicized high...propellants. However, FRCs are currently less mature than the Hall thruster variants. Comparisons of candidate technologies are evaluated with VASIMR ...publicized VASIMR VX-200, a nominal 200-kW dual thruster system currently in development by Ad Astra for the International Space Station. This

  11. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  12. The domestication of an everyday health technology: A case study of electric toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Simon; Green, Judith; Thorogood, Nicki

    2013-01-01

    Using the electric toothbrush as an example, this article examines the growing acceptability of domestic health technologies that blur the traditional boundaries between health, aesthetics and consumption. By using empirical material from individual and household interviews about people's oral health practices, this research explores the relationships between an everyday artefact, its users and their environments. It investigates the ways in which oral health technologies do, or do not, become domesticated in the home environment. We conclude that the domestication of oral health technologies is not inevitable, with the electric toothbrush often becoming an ‘unstable object' in the domestic setting. PMID:24260016

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Electronics & Electrical Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    87] 7 JPRS-UEE-88-003 5 MAY 1988 2 USSR: Electronics & Electrical Engineering Antennas , Propagation Inverse Refraction Problem in Earth’s...Gutman; RADIOTEKHNIKA I ELEKTRONIKA, Jan 87] 9 Directional Characteristics of Antennas in Turbulent Medium: Resolution [A. G. Vinogradov and Z. I...Feyzulin; RADIOTEKHNIKA I ELEKTRONIKA, Jan 87] 9 Error of Antenna Radiation Pattern Reconstructed From Discrete Readings of Amplitude-Phase

  14. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    16,000 square feet of manufacturing, laboratory and office space located in Linthicum, Maryland near the Baltimore Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI). RCT is an ISO 9001 :2008 registered company. ...325A peak, transient 1 pu continuous 2 pu, 5 sec, fault clearing 300ADC Efficiency (Full Power) ≥ 95% ≥ 96% ≥ 93% ≥ 91% Power Quality ...Electronic Systems Sector. He was the engineering manager of the electric bus programs and was responsible for the design, test and deployment of

  15. Electric technologies; Creative solutions to a clean environment

    SciTech Connect

    Peevey, M.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the challenging frontiers our industry will explore in the years ahead. Challenge is nothing new to us. Our industry has overcome challenges throughout its history Finding creative solutions is a constant challenge. Providing dependable, low-cost power for customers is the primary job. but, increasing public concern for the health of the planet has made the environment an important issue for electric utilities.

  16. Formation and Representation: Critical Analyses of Identity, Supply, and Demand in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research, policy, and programmatic efforts have been dedicated to addressing the participation of particular populations in STEM for decades. Each of these efforts claims equity-related goals; yet, they heavily frame the problem, through pervasive STEM pipeline model discourse, in terms of national needs, workforce supply, and…

  17. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    VA : Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Vols. 2013 Aviation Technical Committee Meetings, May 2012. 10. Dallas, A .,Block, J., Klick, P., Grove, B ...utilizing Fuel System Supply Point Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A . Approved for public release; distribution...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution Statement A . Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In June 2013

  18. Enhancing Chinese Agribusiness Supply Chains with Internet Technologies: A Transnational Knowledge Transfer Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; Bentley, Yongmei; Fu, Zetian; Zografos, Konstantinos; Bemeleit, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports research findings from a project funded by the European Commission. The research used case studies and surveys to identify gaps between Europe and China in the level of Internet adoption in fresh-produce supply chains. The project reveals barriers to Internet adoption in China in this industry, and employs a transnational…

  19. A single-supply, monolithic, MIL-STD-1553 transceiver implemented in BiCMOS wafer fabrication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Thomas L.; Molinari, Lou

    An integrated circuit has been designed for use as a single supply, MIL-STD-1553 transceiver using BiCMOS technology. Use of the BiCMOS fabrication process has advantages over both Bipolar and CMOS technologies. These advantages include: reduced standby current drain, increased flexibility in mating the transceiver to various remote terminals, increased control over output amplitude and rise/fall times, easier methods for adjusting filter response and residual voltage, and reduced chip size (over a CMOS transceiver). Development of this monolithic transceiver opens the door to future advances in remote terminal design. By combining the current driving capacity of Bipolar with the digital design capability of CMOS, the next probable step in the progression of MIL-STD-1553 technology would be a fully monolithic remote terminal. This device would combine a transceiver with the encoder/decoder and protocol logic on a single semiconductor device.

  20. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  1. HTS machines as enabling technology for all-electric airborne vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, P. J.; Brown, G. V.; Soban, D. S.; Luongo, C. A.

    2007-08-01

    Environmental protection has now become paramount as evidence mounts to support the thesis of human activity-driven global warming. A global reduction of the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere is therefore needed and new technologies have to be considered. A large part of the emissions come from transportation vehicles, including cars, trucks and airplanes, due to the nature of their combustion-based propulsion systems. Our team has been working for several years on the development of high power density superconducting motors for aircraft propulsion and fuel cell based power systems for aircraft. This paper investigates the feasibility of all-electric aircraft based on currently available technology. Electric propulsion would require the development of high power density electric propulsion motors, generators, power management and distribution systems. The requirements in terms of weight and volume of these components cannot be achieved with conventional technologies; however, the use of superconductors associated with hydrogen-based power plants makes possible the design of a reasonably light power system and would therefore enable the development of all-electric aero-vehicles. A system sizing has been performed both for actuators and for primary propulsion. Many advantages would come from electrical propulsion such as better controllability of the propulsion, higher efficiency, higher availability and less maintenance needs. Superconducting machines may very well be the enabling technology for all-electric aircraft development.

  2. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  3. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C.

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  4. Army Transitions Hybrid Electric Technology to FCS Manned Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    system consists of an engine, generator, generator dissipater controller, traction drive system, energy storage system and cooling system. The system is...completely new way of maneuvering on the battlefield. The system’s advanced energy storage, power generation, regenerative braking and power management...vehicles for more than 50 years. Propulsion technologies are the engines, transmissions, generators, air cleaners, cooling systems and energy

  5. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  6. Hybrid electric vehicle technology assessment : methodology, analytical issues, and interim results.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, M.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.

    2002-03-13

    This report presents the results of the first phase of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) examination of the costs and energy impacts of light-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We call this research an HEV Technology Assessment, or HEVTA. HEVs are vehicles with drivetrains that combine electric drive components (electric motor, electricity storage) with a refuelable power plant (e.g., an internal combustion engine). The use of hybrid drivetrains is widely considered a key technology strategy in improving automotive fuel efficiency. Two hybrid vehicles--Toyota's Prius and Honda's Insight--have been introduced into the U.S. market, and all three auto industry participants in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) have selected hybrid drivetrains for their prototype vehicles.

  7. Mobile Electric Power Technologies for the Army of the Future: Engines, Power Source, and Electrical Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    cobalt SOFC Solid oxide fuel cell SPE Sulfonic-acid polymer SPL Sound pressure level SR Switched reluctance SSDED Signature-suppressed Diesel Engine...of the committee’s analysis , including the committee’s major conclusions and recommendations. MOBILE ELECTRIC POWER IN THE ARMY The Army currently...operating on a Brayton, Rankine, or Stirling cycle. Based on considerations of cost, safety, and weight, the committee concluded that, below 1 MW , there is

  8. Twilight of the electric dinosaurs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L. Jr. )

    1990-11-22

    This article examines the future practicality of large electric generating plants and various technologies for transmitting energy other than electricity. The author describes advantages, cost and methods of chemical energy transmission in the form of methanol. Uses, production (including environmental impacts) and supply of methanol are also discussed.

  9. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  10. Remediation of inorganic arsenic in groundwater for safe water supply: a critical assessment of technological solutions.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Chatterjee, Debashis; Figoli, Alberto; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic contaminations of groundwater in several parts of the world are the results of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, and have a large impact on human health. Millions of people from different countries rely on groundwater containing As for drinking purposes. This paper reviews removal technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane processes) with attention for the drawbacks and limitations of these applied technologies. The technologies suggested and applied for treatment of As rich water have various problems, including the need for further treatment of As containing secondary waste generated from these water treatment processes. More efficient technologies, with a lower tendency to generate waste include the removal of As by membrane distillation or forward osmosis, instead of using pressure driven membrane processes and subsequently reducing soluble As to commercially valuable metallic As are surveyed. An integrated approach of two or more techniques is suggested to be more beneficial than a single process. Advanced technologies such as membrane distillation, forward osmosis as well as some hybrid integrated techniques and their potentials are also discussed in this review. Membrane processes combined with other process (especially iron based technologies) are thought to be most sustainable for the removal of arsenic and further research allowing scale up of these technologies is suggested.

  11. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  12. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  13. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  14. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA. PMID:26380757

  15. NASA Technology Investments in Electric Propulsion: New Directions in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The last decade was a period of unprecedented acceptance of NASA developed electric propulsion by the user community. The benefits of high performance electric propulsion systems are now widely recognized, and new technologies have been accepted across the commonly. NASA clearly recognizes the need for new, high performance, electric propulsion technologies for future solar system missions and is sponsoring aggressive efforts in this area. These efforts are mainly conducted under the Office of Aerospace Technology. Plans over the next six years include the development of next generation ion thrusters for end of decade missions. Additional efforts are planned for the development of very high power thrusters, including magnetoplasmadynamic, pulsed inductive, and VASIMR, and clusters of Hall thrusters. In addition to the in-house technology efforts, NASA continues to work closely with both supplier and user communities to maximize the acceptance of new technology in a timely and cost-effective manner. This paper provides an overview of NASA's activities in the area of electric propulsion with an emphasis on future program directions.

  16. Use of membrane technology for producing electrical energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrateva, M. A.; Lobanova, O. N.; Orlov, K. A.; Panteleev, A. A.; Khoruzhiy, O. V.

    2015-09-01

    The most promising renewable energy sources are described, which are based on membrane processes with the usage of a water-salinity gradient. The energy is produced owing to the osmotic pressure difference which arises when water molecules pass through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low salt concentration to the more concentrated solution, which can be observed, e.g., in mixing of the river water and seawater. As a result, the volume flowrate of water increases and the energy is generated by releasing the pressure via a water turbine. The theoretical estimation of the maximum possible performance of the plant with application of currently available membranes is carried out. The simplest scheme is presented for converting osmotic energy to electricity. Two fundamental problems are identified that have to be solved in order to create a highly effective osmotic machine: firstly, to reduce engineering losses associated with mechanical losses in the pump and turbine and the cost of pretreatment of the river water and seawater; and, secondly, to find the optimal ratio of "freshwater-saltwater" fluxes. The expression is derived for determining a water flux through a membrane depending on the seawater flux with the given osmotic and working pressures. A range of the optimum ratio of "freshwater-saltwater" fluxes is found by constructing a model of flows in the membrane element. The ranges of parameters are defined within which the maximum power will be produced. The calculation of economic efficiency of an osmotic power station is presented by example of a station built in Norway. The analysis of this station is performed, and methods for improving its efficiency are proposed.

  17. A New Device for Bimorph Mirrors Technology: the A1902BS Bipolar Power Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cautero, M.; Cautero, G.; Krastanov, B.; Billè, F.; Borghes, R.; Iviani, L.; Cocco, D.; Sostero, G.; Signorato, R.

    2007-01-01

    An important feature of X-ray Piezoelectric Bimorph Mirror (PBM) is the possibility to continuously vary its curvature (dynamical bending); this ability allows the precise adjustment of their optical properties to different beamline geometries and permits the variation of the grazing angle of incidence or to optimize the focal spot dimensions in the experimental chamber. When a driving voltage is applied at a particular position of the mirror, one of the piezo plates shrinks while the other one expands and, as an example, it can result in a purely spherical bending of the device if the same voltage is applied to all electrodes. The applied voltages have to be kept extremely stable on a very long time scale (weeks or even months). This means that the performance and the general behavior of the mirror are strongly dependent on the power supply used to drive it. For this challenging application, Sincrotrone Trieste developed a particularly stable high voltage bipolar power supply system (ranging from -2kV to + 2kV, zero crossing). This system is controlled by an Intel SBC board and accessible via Ethernet through any common web browser, Lab VIEW client or some of the most popular synchrotron facility control systems (Epics and Tango for instance). The maximum drain and source capabilities are 500uA per channel. Voltage monitoring is achieved by sensing the real output and feeding it to a true 16bit ADC. The voltage resolution achieved is about 60mV while the current resolution is about 60nA. Noise and residual ripple (rms) are better than 15ppm/FS and, most important, the long term stability (1 week observation) is better than 100ppm/FS. Some metrological measurements, on different bimorph mirrors, was carried out at the optical laboratory of Elettra. These measures demonstrate the high level of resolution and stability of the power supplies, able to change considerably the radius of curvature of the mirror and, in the meantime, correct even very small shape error.

  18. Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2013-01-17

    Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suite—as well as potential future suites—of thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sector’s water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

  19. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  20. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    PubMed Central

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  1. Appendix A: Energy storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial evaluation section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  2. Polymer waveguide based hybrid opto-electric integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jinbin; Deng, Lingling; Jiang, Xiyan; Ren, Rong; Zhai, Yumeng; Wang, Jin

    2014-10-01

    While monolithic integration especially based on InP appears to be quite an expensive solution for optical devices, hybrid integration solutions using cheaper material platforms are considered powerful competitors because of the high freedom of design, yield optimization and relative cost-efficiency. Among them, the polymer planar-lightwave circuit (PLC) technology is regarded attractive as polymer offers the potential of fairly simple and low-cost fabrication, and of low-cost packaging. In our work, polymer PLC was fabricated by using the standard reactive ion etching (RIE) technique, while other active and passive devices can be integrated on the polymer PLC platform. Exemplary polymer waveguide devices was a 13-channel arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) chip, where the central channel cross-talk was below -30dB and the polarization dependent frequency shift was mitigated by inserting a half wave plate. An optical 900 hybrid was also realized with one 2×4 multi-mode interferometer (MMI). The excess insertion losses are below 4dB for the C-band, while the transmission imbalance is below 1.2dB. When such an optical hybrid was integrated vertically with mesa-type photodiodes, the responsivity of the individual PD was around 0.06 A/W, while the 3 dB bandwidth reaches 24 ~ 27 GHz, which is sufficient for 100Gbit/s receivers. Another example of the hybrid integration was to couple the polymer waveguides to fiber by applying fiber grooves, whose typical loss value was 0.2 dB per-facet over a broad spectral range from 1200-1600 nm.

  3. Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Electrical Circuit Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozogul, G.; Johnson, A. M.; Moreno, R.; Reisslein, M.

    2012-01-01

    Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to non-engineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to non-engineering students. The goal of…

  4. Application of Molten Salt Reactor Technology to Nuclear Electric Propulsion Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Bruce; Sorensen, Kirk; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and planetary surface power missions require reactors that are lightweight, operationally robust, and scalable in power for widely varying scientific mission objectives. Molten salt reactor technology meets all of these requirements and offers an interesting alternative to traditional gas cooled, liquid metal, and heat pipe space reactors.

  5. Advanced Space Robotics and Solar Electric Propulsion: Enabling Technologies for Future Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.; Tadros, A.

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining answers to questions posed by planetary scientists over the next several decades will require the ability to travel further while exploring and gathering data in more remote locations of our solar system. Timely investments need to be made in developing and demonstrating solar electric propulsion and advanced space robotics technologies.

  6. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G105 Aviation Electricity and Electronics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain five instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: determining the relationship of voltage, current, resistance, and power in electrical circuits; computing and measuring capacitance and inductance; measuring voltage, current, resistance, and…

  7. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  8. Evaluation and Dissemination of the Electrical Power Engineering Technology Curriculum Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Perry R.; And Others

    Described is a project initiated to evaluate and disseminate the Electrical Power Engineering Technology Curriculum developed at Oklahoma State University. The objective of the evaluation phase, to have the original model curriculum evaluated by both present and potential employers, was accomplished in a two-day workshop with participation of…

  9. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  10. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a subsequent human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion subsystem must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as an enabling element of an affordable beyond low-earth orbit human-crewed exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, a status on the NASA in-house thruster and power processing is provided, and an update on acquisition for flight provided.

  11. A Guide For Planning Facilities For Occupational Preparation Programs In Electrical Technology. Research 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitterlee, L.J.

    The major purpose of this guide is to elicit the information needed for the writing of educational specifications used in the planning of educational facilities for electrical technology programs. It is for use by instructors, supervisors, school plant planners, and local school officials. Part I is a discussion of the recent trends which were…

  12. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

  13. Diesel Technology: Electrical and Electronic Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Allan; Kauffman, Ricky; Bogle, Jerry

    This document contains the materials for a competency-based course in diesel technology and electrical and electronic systems that is tied to measurable and observable learning outcomes identified and validated by an advisory committee of business and industry representatives and teachers. The competencies addressed align with the medium/heavy…

  14. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 5 Report Use of Fuel Cell Technology in Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the performance of high temperature membranes and observe the impact of different parameters, such as water-to-carbon ratio, carbon formation, hydrogen formation, efficiencies, methane formation, fuel and oxidant utilization, sulfur reduction, and the thermal efficiency/electrical efficiency relationship, on fuel cell performance. A 250 KW PEM fuel cell model was simulated [in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the help of the fuel cell computer software model (GCtool)] which would be used to produce power of 250 kW and also produce steam at 120oC that can be used for industrial applications. The performance of the system was examined by estimating the various electrical and thermal efficiencies achievable, and by assessing the effect of supply water temperature, process water temperature, and pressure on thermal performance. It was concluded that increasing the fuel utilization increases the electrical efficiency but decreases the thermal efficiency. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are optimum at ~85% fuel utilization. The low temperature membrane (70oC) is unsuitable for generating high-grade heat suitable for useful cogeneration. The high temperature fuel cells are capable of producing steam through 280oC that can be utilized for industrial applications. Increasing the supply water temperature reduces the efficiency of the radiator. Increasing the supply water temperature beyond the dew point temperature decreases the thermal efficiency with the corresponding decrease in high-grade heat utilization. Increasing the steam pressure decreases the thermal efficiency. The environmental impacts of fuel cell use depend upon the source of the hydrogen rich fuel used. By using pure hydrogen, fuel cells have virtually no emissions except water. Hydrogen is rarely used due to problems with storage and transportation, but in the future, the growth of a “solar hydrogen economy” has been projected

  15. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  16. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  17. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  18. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-07-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  19. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; ...

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effectsmore » of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.« less

  20. Strategic planning in electric utilities: Using wind technologies as risk management tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T E; Parsons, B

    1996-06-01

    This paper highlights research investigating the ownership of renewable energy technologies to mitigate risks faced by the electric utility industry. Renewable energy technology attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead time, modularity, and investment reversibility are discussed. Incorporating some of these attributes into an economic evaluation is illustrated using a municipal utility`s decision to invest in either wind generation or natural gas based generation. The research concludes that wind and other modular renewable energy technologies, such as photovoltaics, have the potential to provide decision makers with physical risk-management investments.

  1. Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies: (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R and D.

  2. Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R D. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-05-15

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

  4. Future U.S. supply of Mo-99 production through fission based LEU/LEU technology.

    PubMed

    Welsh, James; Bigles, Carmen I; Valderrabano, Alejandro

    Coquí RadioPharmaceuticals Corp. (Coquí) has the goal of establishing a medical isotope production facility for securing a continuous domestic supply of the radioisotope molybdenum-99 for U.S. citizens. Coquí will use an LEU/LEU proven and implemented open pool, light-water, 10 MW, reactor design. The facility is being designed with twin reactors for reliability an on-site hot lab chemical processing and a waste conditioning area and a possible generator producing radio-chemistry lab. Coquí identified a 25 acre site adjacent to an existing industrial park in northern central Florida. This land was gifted and transferred to Coquí by the University of Florida Foundation. We are in the process of developing licensing documents related to the facility. The construction permit application for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently being prepared. Submission is scheduled for mid to late 2015. Community reaction to the proposed development has been positive. We expect to create 220 permanent jobs and we have an anticipated to be operational by 2020.

  5. Formation and representation: Critical analyses of identity, supply, and demand in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandayam Doddamane, Prabha

    2011-12-01

    Considerable research, policy, and programmatic efforts have been dedicated to addressing the participation of particular populations in STEM for decades. Each of these efforts claims equity-related goals; yet, they heavily frame the problem, through pervasive STEM pipeline model discourse, in terms of national needs, workforce supply, and competitiveness. This particular framing of the problem may, indeed, be counter to equity goals, especially when paired with policy that largely relies on statistical significance and broad aggregation of data over exploring the identities and experiences of the populations targeted for equitable outcomes in that policy. In this study, I used the mixed-methods approach of critical discourse and critical quantitative analyses to understand how the pipeline model ideology has become embedded within academic discourse, research, and data surrounding STEM education and work and to provide alternatives for quantitative analysis. Using critical theory as a lens, I first conducted a critical discourse analysis of contemporary STEM workforce studies with a particular eye to pipeline ideology. Next, I used that analysis to inform logistic regression analyses of the 2006 SESTAT data. This quantitative analysis compared and contrasted different ways of thinking about identity and retention. Overall, the findings of this study show that many subjective choices are made in the construction of the large-scale datasets used to inform much national science and engineering policy and that these choices greatly influence likelihood of retention outcomes.

  6. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  7. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  8. Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

  9. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  10. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  11. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  12. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  13. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Electric Drive Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2015-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and representatives of the electric utility and petroleum industries. Known as U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability), it represents DOE’s commitment to developing public–private partnerships to fund high-risk–high-reward research into advanced automotive technologies. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the partnership known as FreedomCAR (derived from “Freedom” and “Cooperative Automotive Research”) that ran from 2002 through 2010 and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Electric Drive Technologies (EDT) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs. In supporting the development of advanced vehicle propulsion systems, the EDT subprogram fosters the development of technologies that will significantly improve efficiency, costs, and fuel economy

  15. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  16. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    PubMed

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  17. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  18. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  19. Load insensitive electrical device. [power converters for supplying direct current at one voltage from a source at another voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A class of power converters is described for supplying direct current at one voltage from a source at another voltage. It includes a simple passive circuit arrangement of solid-state switches, inductors, and capacitors by which the output voltage of the converter tends to remain constant in spite of changes in load. The switches are sensitive to the current flowing in the circuit and are employed to permit the charging of capacitance devices in accordance with the load requirements. Because solid-state switches (such as SCR's) may be used with relatively high voltage and because of the inherent efficiency of the invention that permits relatively high switching frequencies, power supplies built in accordance with the invention, together with their associated cabling, can be substantially lighter in weight for a given output power level and efficiency of operation than systems of the prior art.

  20. Methodolgy For Evaluation Of Technology Impacts In Space Electric Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holda, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Analysis and Management branch of the Power and Propulsion Office at NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for performing complex analyses of the space power and In-Space propulsion products developed by GRC. This work quantifies the benefits of the advanced technologies to support on-going advocacy efforts. The Power and Propulsion Office is committed to understanding how the advancement in space technologies could benefit future NASA missions. They support many diverse projects and missions throughout NASA as well as industry and academia. The area of work that we are concentrating on is space technology investment strategies. Our goal is to develop a Monte-Carlo based tool to investigate technology impacts in space electric power systems. The framework is being developed at this stage, which will be used to set up a computer simulation of a space electric power system (EPS). The outcome is expected to be a probabilistic assessment of critical technologies and potential development issues. We are developing methods for integrating existing spreadsheet-based tools into the simulation tool. Also, work is being done on defining interface protocols to enable rapid integration of future tools. Monte Carlo-based simulation programs for statistical modeling of the EPS Model. I decided to learn and evaluate Palisade's @Risk and Risk Optimizer software, and utilize it's capabilities for the Electric Power System (EPS) model. I also looked at similar software packages (JMP, SPSS, Crystal Ball, VenSim, Analytica) available from other suppliers and evaluated them. The second task was to develop the framework for the tool, in which we had to define technology characteristics using weighing factors and probability distributions. Also we had to define the simulation space and add hard and soft constraints to the model. The third task is to incorporate (preliminary) cost factors into the model. A final task is developing a cross-platform solution of this framework.

  1. Independent Power Generation in a Modern Electrical Substation Based on Thermoelectric Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. M.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Liu, W.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Lai, X. K.

    2016-10-01

    Because of many types of electrical equipment with high power in substations, the potentiality of energy conservation is quite large. From this viewpoint, thermoelectric materials may be chosen to produce electrical energy using the waste heat produced in substations. Hence, a thermoelectric generation system which can recycle the waste heat from electric transformers was proposed to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the burden of the oil cooling system. An experimental prototype was fabricated to perform the experiment and to verify the feasibility. The experimental results showed that the output power could achieve 16 W from waste heat of 900 W, and that the power conversion efficiency was approximately 1.8%. Therefore, power generation is feasible by using the waste heat from the transformers based on thermoelectric technology.

  2. Summary and recommendations on nuclear electric propulsion technology for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Holcomb, Robert S.

    1993-04-01

    A project in Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology is being established to develop the NEP technologies needed for advanced propulsion systems. A paced approach has been suggested which calls for progressive development of NEP component and subsystem level technologies. This approach will lead to major facility testing to achieve TRL-5 for megawatt NEP for SEI mission applications. This approach is designed to validate NEP power and propulsion technologies from kilowatt class to megawatt class ratings. Such a paced approach would have the benefit of achieving the development, testing, and flight of NEP systems in an evolutionary manner. This approach may also have the additional benefit of synergistic application with SEI extraterrestrial surface nuclear power applications.

  3. Summary and recommendations on nuclear electric propulsion technology for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Holcomb, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A project in Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology is being established to develop the NEP technologies needed for advanced propulsion systems. A paced approach has been suggested which calls for progressive development of NEP component and subsystem level technologies. This approach will lead to major facility testing to achieve TRL-5 for megawatt NEP for SEI mission applications. This approach is designed to validate NEP power and propulsion technologies from kilowatt class to megawatt class ratings. Such a paced approach would have the benefit of achieving the development, testing, and flight of NEP systems in an evolutionary manner. This approach may also have the additional benefit of synergistic application with SEI extraterrestrial surface nuclear power applications.

  4. Long-term CO2 Reduction Potential by Promoting Electric Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Ken-Ichiro

    This article reviews past studies on the long-term CO2 abatement strategy dealing with electric technologies and thereby attempts to draw sound understandings of effectiveness of those measures. It is widely known that electrification of final energy uses plays an important role to mitigate CO2 emissions through curbing fossil fuel consumption. Electrification of thermal demand by high-efficient heat-pump technologies is considered as a realistic example, while electric vehicles including plug-in hybrid vehicles are getting higher expectations as an alternative in the transportation sector. It is of crucial importance, therefore, to carefully analyze the potential of CO2 emission reductions by these measures and to establish viable long-term strategies taking them fully into consideration. The author provides a numerical representation of such strategy development up to the year 2050.

  5. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply; Executive Summary (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This document is a 21-page summary of the 200+ page analysis that explores one clearly defined scenario for providing 20% of our nation's electricity demand with wind energy by 2030 and contrasts it to a scenario of no new U.S. wind power capacity.

  6. Electric Propulsion Technology Development for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During 2004, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter project, a part of NASA's Project Prometheus, continued efforts to develop electric propulsion technologies. These technologies addressed the challenges of propelling a spacecraft to several moons of Jupiter. Specific challenges include high power, high specific impulse, long lived ion thrusters, high power/high voltage power processors, accurate feed systems, and large propellant storage systems. Critical component work included high voltage insulators and isolators as well as ensuring that the thruster materials and components could operate in the substantial Jupiter radiation environment. A review of these developments along with future plans is discussed.

  7. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  8. Strategic avionics technology definition studies. Subtask 3-1A: Electrical Actuation (ELA) systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Ben T. F.; Pond, Charles; Dermott, William

    1993-01-01

    This interim report presents the preliminary results of an electrical actuation (ELA) system study (subtask TA3-1A) to support the NASA strategic avionics technology definition studies. The final report of this ELA study is scheduled for September 30, 1993. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following ELA technology demonstration testing; ELA system baseline; power and energy requirements for shuttle effector systems; power efficiency and losses of ELA effector systems; and power and energy requirements for ELA power sources.

  9. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Burch, G.; Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  10. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Burch, G.D.; Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies (DOE, 1996). The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun-Lab (the cooperative Sandia National Laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capacity by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  11. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jan-Mou; Jones, Perry T; Onar, Omer C; Starke, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  12. Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

  13. Assessing the Long-Term System Value of Intermittent Electric Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A D

    2005-08-24

    This research investigates the economic penetration and system-wide effects of large-scale intermittent technologies in an electric generation system. The research extends the standard screening curve analysis to optimize the penetration and system structure with intermittent technologies. The analysis is based on hour-by-hour electric demands and intermittent generation. A theoretical framework is developed to find an expression for the marginal value of an intermittent technology as a function of the average system marginal cost, the capacity factor of the generator, and the covariance between the generator's hourly production and the hourly system marginal cost. A series of model runs are made examining the penetration of wind and photovoltaic in a simple electric generation system. These illustrate the conclusions in the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effects that large-scale intermittent penetration has on the structure of the generation system. In the long-term, adding intermittent generation to a system allows us to restructure the dispatchable generation capacity to a mix with lower capital cost. It is found that large scale intermittent generation tends to reduce the optimal capacity and production of baseload generators and increase the capacity and production of intermediate generators, although the extent to which this occurs depends strongly on the pattern of production from the intermediate generators. It is also shown that the marginal value of intermittent generation declines as it penetrates. The analysis investigates the specific mechanism through which this occurs.

  14. Electric propulsion for satellites and spacecraft: established technologies and novel approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouffre, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    This contribution presents a short review of electric propulsion (EP) technologies for satellites and spacecraft. Electric thrusters, also termed ion or plasma thrusters, deliver a low thrust level compared to their chemical counterparts, but they offer significant advantages for in-space propulsion as energy is uncoupled to the propellant, therefore allowing for large energy densities. Although the development of EP goes back to the 1960s, the technology potential has just begun to be fully exploited because of the increase in the available power aboard spacecraft, as demonstrated by the very recent appearance of all-electric communication satellites. This article first describes the fundamentals of EP: momentum conservation and the ideal rocket equation, specific impulse and thrust, figures of merit and a comparison with chemical propulsion. Subsequently, the influence of the power source type and characteristics on the mission profile is discussed. Plasma thrusters are classically grouped into three categories according to the thrust generation process: electrothermal, electrostatic and electromagnetic devices. The three groups, along with the associated plasma discharge and energy transfer mechanisms, are presented via a discussion of long-standing technologies like arcjet thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, pulsed plasma thrusters and ion engines, as well as Hall thrusters and variants. More advanced concepts and new approaches for performance improvement are discussed afterwards: magnetic shielding and wall-less configurations, negative ion thrusters and plasma acceleration with a magnetic nozzle. Finally, various alternative propellant options are analyzed and possible research paths for the near future are examined.

  15. Coproduction of acetic acid and electricity by application of microbial fuel cell technology to vinegar fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Takanori; Nara, Youhei; Tsujiguchi, Takuya; Ohshima, Takayuki

    2013-08-01

    The coproduction of a useful material and electricity via a novel application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology to oxidative fermentation was investigated. We focused on vinegar production, i.e., acetic acid fermentation, as an initial and model useful material that can be produced by oxidative fermentation in combination with MFC technology. The coproduction of acetic acid and electricity by applying MFC technology was successfully demonstrated by the simultaneous progress of acetic acid fermentation and electricity generation through a series of repeated batch fermentations. Although the production rate of acetic acid was very small, it increased with the number of repeated batch fermentations that were conducted. We obtained nearly identical (73.1%) or larger (89.9%) acetic acid yields than that typically achieved by aerated fermentation (75.8%). The open-cycle voltages measured before and after fermentation increased with the total fermentation time and reached a maximum value of 0.521 V prior to the third batch fermentation. The maximum current and power densities measured in this study (19.1 μA/cm² and 2.47 μW/cm², respectively) were obtained after the second batch fermentation.

  16. COMMERCIALIZATION DEMONSTRATION OF MID-SIZED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC UTILITYAPPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CHARLES M. WEBER

    2008-06-24

    As an outgrowth of the Technology Reinvestment Program of the 1990’s, an Agreement was formed between BWXT and the DOE to promote the commercialization of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology. Business and marketing studies showed that the performance of electric transmission lines could be improved with this SMES technology by stabilizing the line thereby allowing the reserved stability margin to be used. One main benefit sought was to double the capacity and the amount of energy flow on an existing transmission line by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin, thereby doubling revenue. Also, electrical disturbances, power swings, oscillations, cascading disturbances and brown/black-outs could be mitigated and rendered innocuous; thereby improving power quality and reliability. Additionally, construction of new transmission lines needed for increased capacity could be delayed or perhaps avoided (with significant savings) by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin of the existing lines. Two crucial technical aspects were required; first, a large, powerful, dynamic, economic and reliable superconducting magnet, capable of oscillating power flow was needed; and second, an electrical power interface and control to a transmission line for testing, demonstrating and verifying the benefits and features of the SMES system was needed. A project was formed with the goals of commercializing the technology by demonstrating SMES technology for utility applications and to establish a domestic capability for manufacturing large superconducting magnets for both commercial and defense applications. The magnet had very low AC losses to support the dynamic and oscillating nature of the stabilizing power flow. Moreover, to economically interface to the transmission line, the magnet had the largest operating voltage ever made. The manufacturing of that design was achieved by establishing a factory with newly designed and acquired equipment

  17. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    because of their outstanding electrochemical characteristics. Lithium - ion batteries with a liquid electrolyte potentially fulfill the energy storage...24 illustrates the available power vs. energy for various storage technologies. Lithium -ion batteries with a liquid electrolyte promise to fulfill...kilometer kW/kg kilowatts per kilogram KPP key performance parameter KSA key system attribute kw kilowatt LCC life cycle costs Li-Ion lithium

  18. Connections beyond the margins of the power grid Information technology and the evolution of off-grid solar electricity in the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstone, Peter Michael

    This work explores the intersections of information technology and off-grid electricity deployment in the developing world with focus on a key instance: the emergence of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solar household-scale energy systems. It is grounded in detailed field study by my research team in Kenya between 2013-2014 that included primary data collection across the solar supply chain from global businesses through national and local distribution and to the end-users. We supplement the information with business process and national survey data to develop a detailed view of the markets, technology systems, and individuals who interact within those frameworks. The findings are presented in this dissertation as a series of four chapters with introductory, bridging, and synthesis material between them. The first chapter, Decentralized Energy Systems for Clean Electricity Access, presents a global view of the emerging off-grid power sector. Long-run trends in technology create "a unique moment in history" for closing the gap between global population and access to electricity, which has stubbornly held at 1-2 billion people without power since the initiation of the electric utility business model in the late 1800's. We show the potential for widespread near-term adoption of off-grid solar, which could lead to ten times less inequality in access and also ten times lower household-level climate impacts. Decentralized power systems that replace fuel-based incumbent lighting can advance the causes of climate stabilization, economic and social freedom and human health. Chapters two and three are focused on market and institutional dynamics present circa 2014 in for off-grid solar with a focus on the Kenya market. Chapter 2, "Off-grid Power and Connectivity", presents our findings related to the widespread influence of information technology across the supply chain for solar and in PAYG approaches. Using digital financing and embedded payment verification technology, PAYG

  19. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  20. Analysis of recent projections of electric power demand

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Jr, D V

    1993-08-01

    This report reviews the changes and potential changes in the outlook for electric power demand since the publication of Review and Analysis of Electricity Supply Market Projections (B. Swezey, SERI/MR-360-3322, National Renewable Energy Laboratory). Forecasts of the following organizations were reviewed: DOE/Energy Information Administration, DOE/Policy Office, DRI/McGraw-Hill, North American Electric Reliability Council, and Gas Research Institute. Supply uncertainty was briefly reviewed to place the uncertainties of the demand outlook in perspective. Also discussed were opportunities for modular technologies, such as renewable energy technologies, to fill a potential gap in energy demand and supply.

  1. The DOE SunShot Initiative: Science and Technology to enable Solar Electricity at Grid Parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2012-02-01

    The SunShot Initiative's mission is to develop solar energy technologies through a collaborative national push to make solar Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) energy technologies cost-competitive with fossil fuel based energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by ˜ 75 percent before 2020. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour (1/Watt) without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States and the world. Achieving this goal will require significant reductions and technological innovations in all PV system components, namely modules, power electronics, and balance of systems (BOS), which includes all other components and costs required for a fully installed system including permitting and inspection costs. This investment will re-establish American technological and market leadership, improve the nation's energy security, strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness and catalyze domestic economic growth in the global clean energy race. SunShot is a cooperative program across DOE, involving the Office of Science, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and ARPA-E.

  2. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2013-06-04

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  3. Short and long term energy source technologies for electrically-heated catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, E.A.; Johnston, R.; Hunt, B.; Rodriguez, G.; Gottberg, I.; Ishizuka, A.; Hall, W.

    1996-12-31

    A consortium of six companies formed by Southwest Research Institute conducted an investigation into alternative electric power supplies for electrically heated catalysts (EHCs). Previous studies showed that, due to their high power and energy requirements upon engine start, battery-powered EHCs would cause premature failure of common lead-acid batteries. This project identified and characterized several alternative electric energy sources. Production starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries were evaluated along with lead-acid electric vehicle batteries, nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries, prototype ultracapacitors, and a modified alternator. Battery Council International and US Advanced Battery Consortium test methods were employed where applicable. Evaluations included ambient and low-temperature ({minus}18 C) constant-current discharge characterization, low-temperature peak-power determination, self-discharge, and passenger car Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy. As demonstrated by discharge-energy and peak-power tests, some EV batteries may have potential for the EHC/SLI application. Other appeared to be poorly suited due to low-temperature problems. The best low-temperature performance was observed with ultracapacitors. These units were also the least to be affected by the power versus energy trade-off. The problems with these prototype storage units were high cost and self-discharge rate. Alternator power for EHCs as an alternative to energy storage devices was successfully demonstrated on a vehicle. Power produced was a linear function of engine speed and EHC load. High-voltage switching devices will be necessary for successful use of alternator power on EHCs. A fuel economy penalty was expected, but not observed during the FTP vehicle demonstration.

  4. Optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region as a basis for an efficient electricity supply to europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamwi, Alaa; Kleinhans, David; Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Renewable Energy sources are gaining importance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region, taking Morocco as a case study. Based on hourly meteorological data and load data, a 100% solar-plus-wind only scenario for Morocco is investigated. For the optimal mix analyses, a mismatch energy modelling approach is adopted with the objective to minimise the required storage capacities. For a hypothetical Moroccan energy supply system which is entirely based on renewable energy sources, our results show that the minimum storage capacity is achieved at a share of 63% solar and 37% wind power generations.

  5. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer: A Novel Neuromodulation Technology in Alzheimer’s and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Salvatore; Calzà, Laura; Giardino, Luciana; Biella, Gabriele E. M.; Zippo, Antonio G.; Fontani, Vania

    2015-01-01

    Global research in the field of pharmacology has not yet found effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, alternative therapeutic strategies are under investigation, such as neurostimulation by physical means. Radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) is one of these technologies and has, until now, been used in clinical studies on several psychiatric and neurological disorders with encouraging results in the absence of side effects. Moreover, studies at the cellular level have shown that REAC technology, with the appropriate protocols, is able to induce neuronal differentiation both in murine embryonic cells and in human adult differentiated cells. Other studies have shown that REAC technology is able to positively influence senescence processes. Studies conducted on AD patients and in transgenic mouse models have shown promising results, suggesting REAC could be a useful therapy for certain components of AD. PMID:25741289

  6. Radio electric asymmetric conveyer: a novel neuromodulation technology in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Salvatore; Calzà, Laura; Giardino, Luciana; Biella, Gabriele E M; Zippo, Antonio G; Fontani, Vania

    2015-01-01

    Global research in the field of pharmacology has not yet found effective drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, alternative therapeutic strategies are under investigation, such as neurostimulation by physical means. Radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) is one of these technologies and has, until now, been used in clinical studies on several psychiatric and neurological disorders with encouraging results in the absence of side effects. Moreover, studies at the cellular level have shown that REAC technology, with the appropriate protocols, is able to induce neuronal differentiation both in murine embryonic cells and in human adult differentiated cells. Other studies have shown that REAC technology is able to positively influence senescence processes. Studies conducted on AD patients and in transgenic mouse models have shown promising results, suggesting REAC could be a useful therapy for certain components of AD.

  7. Investigation of a generator system for generating electrical power, to supply directly to the public network, using a windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromp, C.

    1979-01-01

    A windpowered generator system is described which uses a windmill to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy for a three phase (network) voltage of constant amplitude and frequency. The generator system controls the windmill by the number of revolutions so that the power drawn from the wind for a given wind velocity is maximum. A generator revolution which is proportional to wind velocity is achieved. The stator of the generator is linked directly to the network and a feed converter at the rotor takes care of constant voltage and frequency at the stator.

  8. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Electricity end-use efficiency: Experience with technologies, markets, and policies throughout the world

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.; Price, L.; Geller, H.; Nadel, S.

    1992-03-01

    In its August meeting in Geneva, the Energy and Industry Subcommittee (EIS) of the Policy Response Panel of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified a series of reports to be produced. One of these reports was to be a synthesis of available information on global electricity end-use efficiency, with emphasis on developing nations. The report will be reviewed by the IPCC and approved prior to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Brazil, June 1992. A draft outline for the report was submitted for review at the November 1991 meeting of the EIS. This outline, which was accepted by the EIS, identified three main topics to be addressed in the report: status of available technologies for increasing electricity end-use efficiency; review of factors currently limiting application of end-use efficiency technologies; and review of policies available to increase electricity end-use efficiency. The United States delegation to the EIS agreed to make arrangements for the writing of the report.

  10. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric cconversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Price, T.W.; Shain, T.W.; Bryant, J.A.

    1981-02-15

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, an electric vehicle manufactured by South Coast Technology of Santa Barbara, California was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility in Pasadena and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS) located near Lancaster, California. The tests were conducted between April and July, 1979. These tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near-term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document State of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  11. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Mitch

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  12. The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

  13. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  14. Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

  15. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The

  16. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center monthly report to the Steering Committee, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-02

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot FGD unit continued this month with High Velocity Scrubbing and the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Tailored Collaboration test block. Additionally, Phase III of the Toxics Removal/Carbon Injection test block was conducted concurrently with FGD testing. At the beginning of the month, a second phase of third-party testing began for Suncor, Inc. The Suncor Gypsum Sample Collection test block (MSUN) began on June 5 on the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet FGD unit. Testing was completed on June 13. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, testing continued this month as ammonia slip measurements were conducted under low catalyst inlet temperatures and at baseline conditions.

  17. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  18. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bog; Delventhal, Rex; Frye, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest within the aerospace community to develop space based nuclear power conversion technologies especially for exploring the outer planets of our solar system where the solar energy density is very low. To investigate these technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC).The investigation performed included BPCS (Brayton Power Conversion System) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to be capable of operation in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments surrounding Jupiter. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NEP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future missions with a sound technology plan for technology readiness level (TRL) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature approx. 100 C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues and related development tasks identified. Analyses and evaluations of six different HRS (heat rejection system) designs and three primary power management and distribution (PMAD) configurations will be discussed in the paper.

  19. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Technology Applications to a Titan Orbiter/Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion technology options were assessed for a conceptual Titan Orbiter/Lander mission. For convenience of presentation, the mission was broken into two phases: interplanetary and Titan capture. The interplanetary phase of the mission was evaluated for an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), while the Titan capture phase was evaluated for state-of-art chemical propulsion (NTO/Hydrazine), three advanced chemical propulsion options (LOX/Hydrazine, Fluorine/Hydrazine, high Isp mono-propellant), and advanced tank technologies. Hence, this study was referred to as a SEPS/Chemical based option. The SEPS/Chemical study results were briefly compared to a 2002 NASA study that included two general propulsion options for the same conceptual mission: an all propulsive based mission and a SEPS/Aerocapture based mission. The SEP/Chemical study assumed identical science payload as the 2002 NASA study science payload. The SEPS/Chemical study results indicated that the Titan mission was feasible for a medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 8 years, an advanced SEPS (30 kW), and current chemical engine technology (yet with advanced tanks) for the Titan capture. The 2002 NASA study showed the feasibility of the mission based on a somewhat smaller medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 5.9 years, an advanced SEPS (24 kW), and advanced Aerocapture based propulsion technology for the Titan capture. Further comparisons and study results were presented for the advanced chemical and advanced tank technologies.

  20. Informed public preferences for electricity portfolios with CCS and other low-carbon technologies.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Lauren A; De Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Morgan, M Granger

    2010-09-01

    Public perceptions of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and other low-carbon electricity-generating technologies may affect the feasibility of their widespread deployment. We asked a diverse sample of 60 participants recruited from community groups in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to rank 10 technologies (e.g., coal with CCS, natural gas, nuclear, various renewables, and energy efficiency), and seven realistic low-carbon portfolios composed of these technologies, after receiving comprehensive and carefully balanced materials that explained the costs and benefits of each technology. Rankings were obtained in small group settings as well as individually before and after the group discussions. The ranking exercise asked participants to assume that the U.S. Congress had mandated a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from power plants to be built in the future. Overall, rankings suggest that participants favored energy efficiency, followed by nuclear power, integrated gasification combined-cycle coal with CCS and wind. The most preferred portfolio also included these technologies. We find that these informed members of the general public preferred diverse portfolios that contained CCS and nuclear over alternatives once they fully understood the benefits, cost, and limitations of each. The materials and approach developed for this study may also have value in educating members of the general public about the challenges of achieving a low-carbon energy future.

  1. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    SciTech Connect

    Fezzler, Raymond

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  2. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.; Porro, G.

    2007-03-01

    This paper documents the approach taken to characterize and represent an updated assessment of U.S. geothermal supply for use in forecasting the penetration of geothermal electrical generation in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This work is motivated by several factors: The supply characterization used as the basis of several recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts of geothermal capacity is outdated; additional geothermal resource assessments have been published; and a new costing tool that incorporates current technology, engineering practices, and associated costs has been released.

  3. Planetary mission requirements, technology and design considerations for a solar electric propulsion stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Menard, W. A.; Olson, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    High energy planetary missions such as comet rendezvous, Saturn orbiter and asteroid rendezvous require development of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) for augmentation of the Shuttle-IUS. Performance and functional requirements placed on the SEPS are presented. These requirements will be used in evolution of the SEPS design, which must be highly interactive with both the spacecraft and the mission design. Previous design studies have identified critical SEPS technology areas and some specific design solutions which are also presented in the paper.

  4. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee, July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-15

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System and the Pulse Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B and W/CHX Heat Exchanger project. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Inspections of these idled systems were conducted this month.

  5. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Systems for SMD Mission Needs. Technology Infusion Study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David

    2014-01-01

    Two presentations for SBAG and OPAG meetings: 1) Solar Electric Propulsion Systems for SMD Missions, and 2) Technology Infusion Study - Draft Findings Recommendation Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) meeting is January 9th in Washington D.C., and the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) meeting is January 23-14 in Tucson, AZ. NASA sponsors these assessment groups, through the NRC, for the science community to assess and provide advice. These talks are to provide a status of 2 NASA activities, and to seek feedback from the respective science communities.

  6. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  7. Environmental Impacts of Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies: A Life Cycle Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-13

    All energy systems impact the environment. Much has been learned about these environmental impacts from decades of research. Through systematic reviews, meta-analysis and original research, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been building knowledge about environmental impacts of both renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies. Evidence for greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use will be reviewed mostly from the perspective of life cycle assessment. Impacts from oil and natural gas systems will be highlighted. Areas of uncertainty and challenge will be discussed as suggestions for future research, as well as career opportunities in this field.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-04-14

    This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

  9. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    PubMed

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process.

  10. Differentiable Technology, the Curvature of the Profit Function, and the Response of Supply to Own-Price Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The author establishes a property of supply for a competitive firm: Assuming differentiability of the production frontier, linearly independent price vectors have disjoint image sets under the supply mapping. This property supports the main results. First, the author drew a simple proof of McFadden's proposition that differentiability of the…

  11. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  12. Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for “Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model”. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

  13. The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

  14. Primary electric propulsion technology study. [for thruster wear-out mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Beattie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation of the 30-cm engineering-model-thruster technology with emphasis placed on the development of models for understanding and predicting the operational characteristics and wear-out mechanisms of the thruster as a function of operating or design parameters is presented. The task studies include: (1) the wear mechanisms and wear rates that determine the useful lifetime of the thruster discharge chamber; (2) cathode lifetime as determined by the depletion of barium from the barium-aluminate-impregnated-porous-tungsten insert that serves as a barium reservoir; (3) accelerator-grid-system technology; (4) a verification of the high-voltage propellant-flow-electrical-isolator design developed under NASA contract NAS3-20395 for operation at 10-kV applied voltage and 10-A equivalent propellant flow with mercury and argon propellants. A model was formulated for predicting performance.

  15. Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The use of solar electric propulsion as a means of exploring space beyond the reach of ballistic missions was investigated. The method used was to study the application of this new propulsion technology to a future flight project. A 1980 Encke rendezvous mission was chosen because a design successful for Encke could be used for less difficult, but scientifically rewarding, missions. Design points for the mission and for the thrust subsystem were specified. The baseline-vehicle design was defined. A preliminary functional description document for the thrust subsystem was originated. Analyses were performed in support of the design point selection for the SEP-module thrust subsystem to specify parameters, to clarify and optimize the interface requirements, and to assure feasibility of some of the more critical technological aspects of SEP application.

  16. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  17. Technological requirements of nuclear electric propulsion systems for fast Earth-Mars transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, N.; Epenoy, R.; Cliquet, E.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Avril, S.

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in electric propulsion technologies such as magnetoplasma rockets gave a new momentum to the study of nuclear electric propulsion concepts for Mars missions. Some recent works have been focused on very short Earth-to-Mars transfers of about 40 days with high-power, variable specific impulse propulsion systems [1]. While the interest of nuclear electric propulsion appears clearly with regard to the payload mass ratio (due to a high level of specific impulse), its interest with regard to the transfer time is more complex to define, as it depends on many design parameters. In this paper, a general analysis of the capability of nuclear electric propulsion systems considering both criteria (the payload mass ratio and the transfer time) is performed, and the technological requirements for fast Earth-Mars transfers are studied. This analysis has been performed in two steps. First, complete trajectory optimizations have been performed by CNES-DCT in order to obtain the propulsion requirements of the mission for different technological hypotheses regarding the engine technology (specific impulse levels and the throttling capability) and different mission requirements. The methodology used for designing fuel-optimal heliocentric trajectories, based on the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle will be presented. Trajectories have been computed for various power levels combined with either variable or fixed Isp. The second step consisted in evaluating a simpler method that could easily link the main mission requirements (the transfer time and the payload fraction) to the main technological requirements (the specific mass of the power generation system and the structure mass ratio of the whole vehicle, excluding the power generation system). Indeed, for power-limited systems, propulsion requirements can be characterized through the "trajectory characteristic" parameter, defined as the integral over time of the squared thrust acceleration. Technological requirements for

  18. Development of a Questionnaire To Survey Graduates of the Electrical Systems Specialization in the Industrial Technology Department (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanella, Deborah J.

    A questionnaire was developed to survey recent graduates of the electrical systems specialization in the Industrial Technology program at the Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) School of Technology. First, the pertinent literature was reviewed and a formative committee consisting of CCSU faculty and staff and the board of trustees of…

  19. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  20. New Technology for Microfabrication and Testing of a Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Taylor, Patrick J.; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power generation is an increasingly important power generation technology. Major advantages include: no moving parts, low-weight, modularity, covertness/silence, high power density, low amortized cost, and long service life with minimum or no required maintenance. Despite low efficiency of power generation, there are many specialized needs for electrical power that TE technologies can uniquely and successfully address. Recent advances in thermoelectric materials technology have rekindled acute interest in thermoelectric power generation. We have developed single crystalline n- and p- type PbTe crystals and are also, developing PbTe bulk nanocomposites using PbTe nano powders and emerging filed assisted sintering technology (FAST). We will discuss the materials requirements for efficient thermoelectric power generation using waste heat at intermediate temperature range (6500 to 8500 K). We will present our recent results on production of n- and p- type PbTe crystals and their thermoelectric characterization. Relative characteristics and performance of PbTe bulk single crystals and nano composites for thermoelectric power generation will be discussed.

  1. Scope for future CO{sub 2} emission reductions from electricity generation through the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Gibbins; Stuart Haszeldine; Sam Holloway; Jonathan Pearce; John Oakey; Simon Shackley; Carol Turley

    2006-02-15

    Ongoing work on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) from fossil fuel power stations in the UK suggests that this technology may be capable of supplying significant amounts of low-emission electricity within one or two decades. Renewable generation is also planned to increase over similar time scales and there is the additional possibility of nuclear replacements being built. If the political justification for significant UK CO{sub 2} emission reductions emerges from global post-Kyoto negotiations, it is therefore possible that large ({approximately}45%) reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from UK electricity generation could be achieved by as early as 2020. Both the technical and the political aspects are, however, changing rapidly, with perhaps the conclusion of the post-Kyoto negotiations in 2007 as the first clear pointer for the future. CCS technologies also have considerable potential for future emission reductions world wide, especially in regions where large numbers of new fossil fuel power plants are being built within {approximately}500 km of sedimentary basins. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  3. Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  4. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W.; Tesche, F.M.; Vance, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  5. Biomass power: An old resource for a new technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-05-01

    As many as 50,000 MW of electricity could be generated by biomass power plants in the year 2010 with advanced technologies and improved feedstock supplies. This pamphlet describes the current status and capacity of biomass power plants in the US, advanced technologies under development, a way to guarantee a dedicated fuel supply, and sources for further information.

  6. Electrical safety during transplantation.

    PubMed

    Amicucci, G L; Di Lollo, L; Fiamingo, F; Mazzocchi, V; Platania, G; Ranieri, D; Razzano, R; Camin, G; Sebastiani, G; Gentile, P

    2010-01-01

    Technologic innovations enable management of medical equipment and power supply systems, with improvements that can affect the technical aspects, economics, and quality of medical service. Herein are outlined some technical guidelines, proposed by Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro, for increasing the effectiveness of the power supply system and the safety of patients and surgeons in the operating room, with particular focus on transplantation. The dependence of diagnoses and therapies on operation of the electrical equipment can potentially cause great risk to patients. Moreover, it is possible that faulty electrical equipment could produce current that may flow through the patient. Because patients are particularly vulnerable when their natural protection is considerably decreased, as during transplantation or other surgery, power supply systems must operate with a high degree of reliability and quality to prevent risk, and must be designed to reduce hazards from direct and indirect contact. Reliability of the power supply system is closely related to the quality of the project, choice of materials, and management of the system (eg, quality and frequency of servicing). Among the proposed guidelines, other than normal referencing, are (1) adoption of a monitoring system to improve the quality of the electrical parameters in the operating room, (2) institution of emergency procedures for management of electrical faults, (3) a procedure for management of fires in the operating room, (4) and maintenance interventions and inspections of medical devices to maintain minimal requirements of safety and performance.

  7. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.; Hawsey, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1996 Annual Program Review held July 31 and August 1, 1996. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  8. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  9. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Turner, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1995 Annual Program Review held August 1-2, 1995. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  10. Optical and electrical interfacing technologies for living cell bio-chips.

    PubMed

    Shacham-Diamand, Y; Belkin, S; Rishpon, J; Elad, T; Melamed, S; Biran, A; Yagur-Kroll, S; Almog, R; Daniel, R; Ben-Yoav, H; Rabner, A; Vernick, S; Elman, N; Popovtzer, R

    2010-06-01

    Whole-cell bio-chips for functional sensing integrate living cells on miniaturized platforms made by micro-system-technologies (MST). The cells are integrated, deposited or immersed in a media which is in contact with the chip. The cells behavior is monitored via electrical, electrochemical or optical methods. In this paper we describe such whole-cell biochips where the signal is generated due to the genetic response of the cells. The solid-state platform hosts the biological component, i.e. the living cells, and integrates all the required micro-system technologies, i.e. the micro-electronics, micro-electro optics, micro-electro or magneto mechanics and micro-fluidics. The genetic response of the cells expresses proteins that generate: a. light by photo-luminescence or bioluminescence, b. electrochemical signal by interaction with a substrate, or c. change in the cell impedance. The cell response is detected by a front end unit that converts it to current or voltage amplifies and filters it. The resultant signal is analyzed and stored for further processing. In this paper we describe three examples of whole-cell bio chips, photo-luminescent, bioluminescent and electrochemical, which are based on the genetic response of genetically modified E. coli microbes integrated on a micro-fluidics MEMS platform. We describe the chip outline as well as the basic modeling scheme of such sensors. We discuss the highlights and problems of such system, from the point of view of micro-system-technology.

  11. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems: Annual report for FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.; O`Hara, L.M.; Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and developments activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1997 Annual Program Review held July 21--23, 1997. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  12. ORNL superconducting technology program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are conductor development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1993 Annual Program Review held July 28--29, 1993. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to industrial competitiveness projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  13. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems--Annual Report for FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, RA

    2002-02-18

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. A new part of the wire research effort was the Accelerated Coated Conductor Initiative. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 2001 Annual Program Review held August 1-3, 2001. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference/Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 2001) are included in this report as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  14. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems, Annual Report for FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W

    2000-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26--28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  15. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems: Annual Report for FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    2000-06-13

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26-28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  16. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems, Annual Report for FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W.

    1999-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1998 Annual Program Review held July 20-22, 1998. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the Applied Superconductivity Conference (September 1998) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  17. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems. Annual report for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE`s Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  18. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion - Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-06

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature {approx} 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  19. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  20. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  1. Energy 101: Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-11

    Learn how fuel cell technology generates clean electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation-while emitting nothing but water. This video illustrates the fundamentals of fuel cell technology and its potential to supply our homes, offices, industries, and vehicles with sustainable, reliable energy.

  2. Energy 101: Fuel Cell Technology

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Learn how fuel cell technology generates clean electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation-while emitting nothing but water. This video illustrates the fundamentals of fuel cell technology and its potential to supply our homes, offices, industries, and vehicles with sustainable, reliable energy.

  3. NASA/General Electric broad-specification fuels combustion technology program - Phase I results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Bahr, D. W.; Fear, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop the technology required to utilize fuels with broadened properties in aircraft gas turbine engines. The first phase of this program consisted of the experimental evaluation of three different combustor concepts to determine their potential for meeting several specific emissions and performance goals, when operated on broadened property fuels. The three concepts were a single annular combustor; a double annular combustor; and a short single annular combustor with variable geometry. All of these concepts were sized for the General Electric CF6-80 engine. A total of 24 different configurations of these concepts were evaluated in a high pressure test facility, using four test fuels having hydrogen contents between 11.8 and 14%. Fuel effects on combustor performance, durability and emissions, and combustor design features to offset these effects were demonstrated.

  4. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing.

    PubMed

    Reig, Candid; Cubells-Beltran, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications.

  5. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental control technology. Final technical monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block. A second phase of the lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG) was also conducted simultaneously on the Pilot System this month. This month the ECTC was off-line from 6/9 through 6/19 to complete a Facility retrofit project. During this brief outage, modifications were made to the ECTC Flue Gas Handling System to enhance the facility capabilities, and to prepare for future High Velocity Wet FGD Testing. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the low temperature performance testing resumed this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the new SCR catalysts.

  6. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Candid; Cubells-Beltran, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications. PMID:22408486

  7. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  8. A technology transfer plan for the US Department of Energy's Electric Energy Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Hurwitch, J.W.; Davis, L.J.

    1986-11-01

    The major objective of this study was to develop a technology transfer plan that would be both practical and effective in promoting the transfer of the products of DOE/EES research to appropriate target audiences. The study drew upon several major components of the marketing process in developing this plan: definition/charcterization of the products being produced by the DOE/EES program, identification/characterization of possible users of the products being produced by the program, and documentation/analysis of the methods currently being used to promote the adoption of DOE/EES products. Fields covered include HVDC, new materials, superconductors, electric field effects, EMP impacts, battery storage/load leveling, automation/processing concepts, normal/emergency operating concepts, Hawaii deep water cable, and failure mechanisms.

  9. EPS (Electric Particulate Suspension) Microgravity Technology Provides NASA with New Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Greene, Nate; Xu, Hua

    2004-01-01

    The Electric Particulate Suspension is a fire safety ignition test system being developed at Iowa State University with NASA support for evaluating combustion properties of powders, powder-gas mixtures, and pure gases in microgravity and gravitational atmospheres (quenching distance, ignition energy, flammability limits). A separate application is the use of EPS technology to control heat transfer in vacuum and space environment enclosures. In combustion testing, ignitable powders (aluminum, magnesium) are introduced in the EPS test cell and ignited by spark, while the addition of inert particles act as quenching media. As a combustion research tool, the EPS method has potential as a benchmark design for quenching powder flames that would provide NASA with a new fire safety standard for powder ignition testing. The EPS method also supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as an important parameter in laminar flame theory since it is closely related to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. In heat transfer applications, inert powder suspensions (copper, steel) driven by electric fields regulate heat flow between adjacent surfaces enclosures both in vacuum (or gas) and microgravity. This simple E-field control can be particularly useful in space environments where physical separation is a requirement between heat exchange surfaces.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  11. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  12. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  13. Westinghouse programs in pulsed homopolar power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litz, D. C.; Mullan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This document details Westinghouse's ongoing study of homopolar machines since 1929 with the major effort occurring in the early 1970's to the present. The effort has enabled Westinghouse to develop expertise in the technology required for the design, fabrication and testing of such machines. This includes electrical design, electromagnetic analysis, current collection, mechanical design, advanced cooling, stress analysis, transient rotor performance, bearing analysis and seal technology. Westinghouse is using this capability to explore the use of homopolar machines as pulsed power supplies for future systems in both military and commercial applications.

  14. Electrical Power System Architectures for In-House NASA/GSFC Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Diane D.

    2006-01-01

    This power point presentation reviews the electrical power system (EPS) architecture used for a few NASA GSFC's missions both current and planned. Included in the presentation are reviews of electric power systems for the Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). There is a slide that compares the three missions' electrical supply systems.

  15. Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.

  16. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the potential to capitalize on more efficient and effective management of their respective supply chains . Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the...transformation efforts have the potential to create a more agile, flexible and resilient supply chain that is responsive to Commanders and sensitive to...optimizing their supply chain to remain viable and create competitive advantage. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is grounded in the field of logistics

  17. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization and Representation for Market Penetration Model Input

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) tasked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with conducting the annual geothermal supply curve update. This report documents the approach taken to identify geothermal resources, determine the electrical producing potential of these resources, and estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs from these geothermal resources at present and future timeframes under various GTP funding levels. Finally, this report discusses the resulting supply curve representation and how improvements can be made to future supply curve updates.

  18. High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion technology of oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Yang, Yang; Lopatin, Vladimir; Guo, Wei; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong

    2014-05-01

    With the depletion of conventional energy sources,oil shale has got much attention as a new type of energy resource,which is rich and widespread in the world.The conventional utilization of oil shale is mainly focused on resorting to produce shale oil and fuel gas with low extraction efficiency about one in a million due to many shortcomings and limitations.And the in-situ conversion of oil shale,more environmentally friendly,is still in the experimental stage.High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion of oil shale is a new type of in-situ pyrolysis technology.The main equipment includes a high voltage-power frequency generator and interior reactor. The high voltage-power frequency generator can provide a voltage between 220-8000 V which can be adjusted in real time according to the actual situation.Firstly,high voltage is used to breakdown the oil shale to form a dendritic crack between two electrodes providing a conductive channel inside the oil shale rock.And then the power frequency(220V) is used to generate the electric current for heating the internal surface of conductive channel,so that the energy can be transmitted to the surrounding oil shale.When the temperature reaches 350 degree,the oil shale begins to pyrolysis.In addition,the temperature in the conductive channel can be extremely high with high voltage,which makes the internal surface of conductive channel graphitization and improves its heat conduction performance.This technology can successfully make the oil shale pyrolysis, based on a lot of lab experiments,and also produce the combustible shale oil and fuel gas.Compared to other in-situ conversion technology,this method has the following advantages: high speed of heating oil shale,the equipment underground is simple,and easy to operate;it can proceed without the limitation of shale thickness, and can be used especially in the thin oil shale reservoir;the heating channel is parallel to the oil shale layers,which has more

  19. Gasification and combustion technologies of agro-residues and their application to rural electric power systems in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Anshu

    Biomass based power generation has the potential to add up to 20,000 MW of distributed capacity in India close to the rural load centers. However, the present production of biomass-based electricity is modest, contributing a mere 300 MW of installed capacity. In this thesis, we shall examine some of the scientific, technological and policy issues concerned with the generation and commercial viability of biomass-based electric power. We first consider the present status of biomass-based power in India and make an attempt to understand the reasons for low utilization. Our analysis suggests that the small-scale biomass power plants (<100 kW) when used for village electrification have a low Plant Load Factor (PLF) that adversely affects their economic viability. Medium Scale units (0.5 MW--5 MW) do not appear attractive because of the costs involved in the biomass transportation. There is thus a merit in considering power plants that use biomass available in large quantities in agro-processing centers such as rice or sugar mills where power plants of capacities in excess of 5 MW are possible without biomass transportation. We then simulate a biomass gasification combustion cycle using a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine since it can run totally on biomass gas. The gasifier and engine are modeled using the chemical equilibrium approach. The simulation is used to study the impact of fuel moisture and the performance of different biomass feedstock. Biomass power plants when used for decentralized power generation; close to the rural load centers can solve some of the problems of rural power supply: provide voltage support, reactive power and peak shaving. We consider an innovative option of setting up a rural electricity micro-grid using a decentralized biomass power plant and selected a rural feeder in Tumkur district, Karnataka for three-phase AC load flow studies. Our results suggest that this option significantly reduces the distribution losses and improves

  20. Helmholtz in Gilded-Age America: The International Electrical Congress of 1893 and the Relations of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, David

    2010-01-01

    This essay recounts Hermann von Helmholtz's trip to represent Germany at the International Electrical Congress in Chicago in 1893 as well as his reception by various members of the American scientific, technological, and cultural elite in several other American cities. In doing so, it seeks to portray something of the vitality of the youthful and…

  1. Research Group Introduction : Welfare System Laboratory, Dept.of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    関, 弘和

    Welfare system laboratory in Chiba Institute of Technology consists of twenty students. The research subjects include the driving control system of electric powered wheelchairs, myoelectric hand control based on EMG signal analysis and non-daily behavior detection monitoring system for elderly people.

  2. Influences of Inadequate Instructional Materials and Facilities in Teaching and Learning of Electrical/Electronics Technology Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbu, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of inadequate instructional materials and facilities in the teaching and learning of electrical/electronics (E/E) technology education courses. The study was guided by two research questions and two null hypotheses which were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design employed was descriptive survey…

  3. The Supply and Demand of High Technology Skills in United Kingdom, Norway and Netherlands: A Report from the European Science and Technology Observatory (ESTO).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekeland, Anders; Tomlinson, Mark

    This document reports a study of the possibility of making indicators of demand and supply of high skilled labor based on the Labor Force Survey (LFS), a data source available in all European countries. Part 1 is a summary of a pilot study of three countries: United Kingdom (UK), Netherlands, and Norway. It concludes LFS is a limited data source…

  4. Final Report to the National Energy Technology Laboratory on FY09-FY13 Cooperative Research with the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vittal, Vijay

    2015-11-04

    The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) was formed in 1999 in response to a call from U.S. Congress to restart a federal transmission reliability R&D program to address concerns about the reliability of the U.S. electric power grid. CERTS is a partnership between industry, universities, national laboratories, and government agencies. It researches, develops, and disseminates new methods, tools, and technologies to protect and enhance the reliability of the U.S. electric power system and the efficiency of competitive electricity markets. It is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE). This report provides an overview of PSERC and CERTS, of the overall objectives and scope of the research, a summary of the major research accomplishments, highlights of the work done under the various elements of the NETL cooperative agreement, and brief reports written by the PSERC researchers on their accomplishments, including research results, publications, and software tools.

  5. Steel Casing Resistivity Technology (SCRT): Innovative Applications of Electrical Methods for Buried Tank Leak Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J. B.; Levitt, M. T.; Gee, G. W.

    2002-12-01

    The need for non-invasive leak detection methods is extremely important for monitoring cleanup efforts of nuclear waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Facility in Washington. Drilling is both very expensive and undesirable in the tank farms. Various geophysical imaging methods were evaluated over the past two years at two "cold" sites but within geologic conditions similar to the tank farms. The "cold" sites consisted of 1. a dense array of 32 steel casings, and 2. a "mock tank" in which various controlled leaks (injections) of a saturated aqueous solution of Na2S2O35H20 were metered. Nearly all methods required invasive drilling for subsurface placement of sensors. An innovative direct-current electrical method using existing infrastructure as grounding electrodes, such as steel casings and steel tanks, has shown very promising results and is undergoing further testing. The most useful results have been obtained by using multiple grounding points for spatial determinations and continuous time-series monitoring for temporal variations. Although the large size of tanks and lengths of casings make discrete volume estimations difficult, data acquired for test leaks to date have shown a surprising correlation between leak rates and the rate-of-change of specific electrical measurements. First order volume approximations can be made based on existing knowledge of the geologic environment and hydraulic parameters. Spatial data provide general leak location and gross flow characteristics, whereas temporal data indicate test leak commencement, cessation, and approximate leak rates. On-going testing is providing quantitative calibration information that is expected to transfer to the tank farm environments. Procedures are being developed that will simplify the installation and operation of the system in the tank-farm environments. Implementation of the technology necessitated remote operation and monitoring of the electrical system

  6. Nickel/metal hydride technology for consumer and electric vehicle batteries—a review and up-date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, S. K.; Ovshínsky, S. R.; Gifford, P. R.; Corrigan, D. A.; Fetcenko, M. A.; Venkatesan, S.

    Nickel/metal hydride batteries today represent the fastest growing market segment for rechargeable batteries due to the high energy density and more environmentally acceptable chemistry offered by this technology. The high energy density of nickel/metal hydride batteries coupled with high power density and long cycle life make this battery chemistry a key enabling technology for practical electric vehicles, including cars, vans, trucks, and other forms of transportation such as scooters, bicycles, and three-wheelers. This paper provides a review of Ovonic technology and up-dates recent developments in materials and cell development for both consumer electronic and EV applications, and highlights areas for future development.

  7. Controlling supply expenses through capitated supply contracting.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, J C

    1997-07-01

    Some providers dealing with the financial challenges of managed care are attempting to control supply expenses through capitated supply contracting and similar risk/reward sharing arrangements. Under such arrangements, a supplier sells products and services to a provider for a fixed, prospective price in exchange for the provider's exclusive business. If expenses exceed the prospectively established amount, the supplier and provider share the loss. Conversely, if expenses are less than the fixed amount, they share the savings. For a capitated supply arrangement to be successful, providers must be able to identify and track supply expense drivers, such as clinical pathways, technology utilization, and product selection and utilization. Sophisticated information systems are needed to capture data, such as total and per-transaction product usage/volume; unit price per item; average and cost per item; average and total cost per transaction; and total cost per outcome. Providers also will need to establish mutually cooperative relationships with the suppliers with whom they contract.

  8. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    context of Supply Chain Management ( SCM ), it is quite apparent that Strategic Supply cannot be classified as a particular industry; but rather, as an...Management ( SCM ), it is quite apparent that Strategic Supply cannot be classified as a particular industry; but rather, as an enabler across all...advantage in the global marketplace. The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as, “…encompassing the planning

  9. Multi-Disciplinary Research for High Energy Chemical Lasers, Closed-Cycle ElectricOIL Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    electrodynamic model predictions a laser system model was utilized to predict the scalability of the system; results indicate that theoretical electrical ...multidisciplinary research program for a high energy closed-cycle laser that is derived from the Electrically assisted Oxygen Iodine Laser (ElectricOlU (EOIL...flow iodine from one reservoir and trap it in another. The principal advantage of the hybrid EOIL system is trading a small fixed mass in electrical

  10. Verification Tests of the South Coast Technology Electric VW Rabbit Pickup Truck.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Suite 606 Jack Hooker Washington, DC 20036 Electric Motor Cars 1701 North Greenville Ave F. J. Liles Dallas, TX 75081 705 Buffalo Drive Arlington, TX...Philadelphia Electric Co 2301 Market St (SIb-i) Post Office Box 8699 Philadelphia, PA 19 101 George Thiess Electric Motor Cars 1701 North Greenville Ave

  11. Conserving Electrical Energy in Commerce and Industry. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module contains readings which explain the need to conserve electricity and describe how major electric energy users (the industrial and commercial groups) use and conserve electricity. The module also contains 10 self-check questions (with answers) and a list of references. Students completing the module should be able to: (1) compare the…

  12. Real-time monitoring of flavivirus induced cytopathogenesis using cell electric impedance technology.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Ye, Peifang; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xiao; Reisen, William

    2011-05-01

    A real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system based on cell-substrate electric impedance technology was used to monitor cytopathic effects (CPE) in Vero cell cultures infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) at infectious doses ranging from 10(1) to 10(6) plaque forming units (PFU) of virus. A kinetic parameter characterizing virus-induced CPE, CIT(50) or the time to 50% decrease in cell impedance, was inversely proportional to virus infectious dose. In WNV-infected cells, the onset and rate of CPE was earlier and faster than in SLEV-infected cells, which was consistent with viral cytolytic activity. A mathematical model simulating impedance-based CPE kinetic curves indicated that the replication rate of WNV was about 3 times faster than SLEV. The RTCA system also was used for quantifying the level of cell protection by specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV and SLEV. The onset of WNV or SLEV-induced CPE was delayed in the presence of specific anti-sera, and this delay in the CIT(50) was well correlated with the titer of the neutralizing antibody as measured independently by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). The RTCA system provided a high throughput and quantitative method for real-time monitoring viral growth in cell culture and its inhibition by neutralizing antibodies.

  13. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  14. Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies Being Designed for Orbit Transfer Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Falck, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing interest in employing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for new missions requiring transfer from low Earth orbit to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L1. Mission architecture plans place the Gateway Habitat at L1 in the 2011 to 2016 timeframe. The Gateway Habitat is envisioned to be used for Lunar exploration, space telescopes, and planetary mission staging. In these scenarios, an SEP stage, or "tug," is used to transport payloads to L1--such as the habitat module, lunar excursion and return vehicles, and chemical propellant for return crew trips. SEP tugs are attractive because they are able to efficiently transport large (less than 10,000 kg) payloads while minimizing propellant requirements. To meet the needs of these missions, a preliminary conceptual design for a general-purpose SEP tug was developed that incorporates several of the advanced space power and in-space propulsion technologies (such as high-power gridded ion and Hall thrusters, high-performance thin-film photovoltaics, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced high-voltage power processing) being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A spreadsheet-based vehicle system model was developed for component sizing and is currently being used for mission planning. This model incorporates a low-thrust orbit transfer algorithm to make preliminary determinations of transfer times and propellant requirements. Results from this combined tug mass estimation and orbit transfer model will be used in a higher fidelity trajectory model to refine the analysis.

  15. Information and Communication Technology and Electric Vehicles — Paving the Way towards a Smart Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Kenichi

    A smart community can be considered an essential component to realize a sustainable, low-carbon, and disaster-tolerant society, thereby providing a base for community inhabitants to lead a simple, healthy, and energy-saving way of life as well as ensuring safety, security, and a high quality-of-life in the community. In particular, a smart community can be essential for senior citizens in an aging society. Smart community enablers such as information and communication technology (ICT) and electric vehicles (EVs) can perform essential roles to realize a smart community. With regard to ICT, the necessity of a dedicated wireless sensor backbone has been identified. With regard to EV, a small-sized EV with one or two seats (Mini-EV) has been identified as an emerging player to support personal daily mobility in an aged society. The Mini-EV may be powered by a solar battery, thereby mitigating vehicular maintenance burden for the elderly. It is essential to realize a dependable ICT network and communication service for a smart community. In the study, we present the concept of trans-locatable design to achieve this goal. The two possible roles of EVs in contributing to a dependable ICT network are highlighted; these include EV charging of the batteries of the base stations in the network, and the creation of a Mini-EV based ad-hoc network that can enable applications such as safe driving assistance and secure neighborhoods.

  16. New Technology for Microfabrication and Testing of a Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narashimha S.; Taylor, Patrick J.; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of fabrication and testing of a thermoelectric power generation module. The module was fabricated using a new "flip-chip" module assembly technique that is scalable and modular. This technique results in a low value of contact resistivity ( < or = 10(exp 5) Ohms-sq cm). It can be used to leverage new advances in thin-film and nanostructured materials for the fabrication of new miniature thermoelectric devices. It may also enable monolithic integration of large devices or tandem arrays of devices on flexible or curved surfaces. Under mild testing, a power of 22 mW/sq cm was obtained from small (<100 K) temperature differences. At higher, more realistic temperature differences, approx.500 K, where the efficiency of these materials greatly improves, this power density would scale to between 0.5 and 1 Watt/cm2. These results highlight the excellent potential for the generation and scavenging of electrical power of practical and usable magnitude for remote applications using thermoelectric power generation technologies.

  17. 46 CFR 169.688 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 169.688 Section 169.688 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.688 Power supply. (a) The... provide electric power for any vital system listed in § 169.642 of this subchapter, at least...

  18. 46 CFR 169.688 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power supply. 169.688 Section 169.688 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.688 Power supply. (a) The... provide electric power for any vital system listed in § 169.642 of this subchapter, at least...

  19. 46 CFR 169.688 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power supply. 169.688 Section 169.688 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.688 Power supply. (a) The... provide electric power for any vital system listed in § 169.642 of this subchapter, at least...

  20. Manufacturing Technology Support (MATES) II Task Order 0006: Air Force Technology and Industrial Base Research and Analysis. Subtask Order 0004: Study on Supply Chains and Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    tapping into the volume and tone of conversations within the ESN platform as well as across the internet . Finally, current industrial base analysis...preferred method of connection, conversation and collaboration for millions of people worldwide – and the number one use of the Internet by far. The...class performers are “…currently leveraging supplier B2B social efforts to improve intelligence and supply chain operations” (Aberdeen Group, 2012