Science.gov

Sample records for electricity

  1. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  2. Electricity Customers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  3. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  4. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute "electrical and electronic devices", such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  5. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan; Seitz, Steffen

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute electrical and electronic devices, such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  6. Electrical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    The purpose of this electrical program is to prepare students for service, repair, and assembly of electrically driven or controlled devices. The program theory and application includes mechanical assemblies, electrical circuitry, and electronic principles including basic digital circuitry. The electrical program manual includes the following…

  7. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  8. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  9. Electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, R.L.

    1993-07-09

    This article is devoted entirely to the subject of electric cars. Some of the topics covered are alternate fuels in relation to development of electric cars, the impact of zero-emission laws, the range and performance of electric cars, historical aspects, legislative incentives, and battery technology.

  10. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  11. Electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  12. [Electric toothbrushes].

    PubMed

    Temmerman, A; Marcelis, K; Dekeyser, C; Declerck, D; Quirynen, M

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, the first electric toothbrush was introduced. As years gone by, the design and brushhead movements have been constantly changing. Companies claim that electric toothbrushes are more efficient than manual toothbrushes. In this literature review, the importance of the different brushhead movements, brushing time and brushing force and their impact on microbiology and gingival recession is pointed out. Furthermore, the efficiency of electric toothbrushes is evaluated through the available scientific evidence.

  13. Electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Philip W.

    1992-01-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) is an attractive option for unmanned orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's). Vehicles with solar electric propulsion (SEP) could be used routinely to transport cargo between nodes in Earth, lunar, and Mars orbit. Electric propulsion systems are low-thrust, high-specific-impulse systems with fuel efficiencies 2 to 10 times the efficiencies of systems using chemical propellants. The payoff for this performance can be high, since a principal cost for a space transportation system is that of launching to low Earth orbit (LEO) the propellant required for operations between LEO and other nodes. Several aspects of electric propulsion, including candidate systems and the impact of using nonterrestrial materials, are discussed.

  14. Electrical stator

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  15. Electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Philip W.

    Electric propulsion (EP) is an attractive option for unmanned orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's). Vehicles with solar electric propulsion (SEP) could be used routinely to transport cargo between nodes in Earth, lunar, and Mars orbit. Electric propulsion systems are low-thrust, high-specific-impulse systems with fuel efficiencies 2 to 10 times the efficiencies of systems using chemical propellants. The payoff for this performance can be high, since a principal cost for a space transportation system is that of launching to low Earth orbit (LEO) the propellant required for operations between LEO and other nodes. Several aspects of electric propulsion, including candidate systems and the impact of using nonterrestrial materials, are discussed.

  16. Teaching Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the meaning of electrical terms, a chart is used to compare electrical concepts and relationships with a more easily visualized system in which water flows from a hilltop reservoir through a pipe to drive a mill at the bottom of the hill. A diagram accompanies the chart. (Author/SK)

  17. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  18. Electric moped

    SciTech Connect

    Ferschl, M.S.

    1981-02-26

    Two electrically powered mopeds were designed and built. These vehicles offer single-person transportation which is convenient, quiet, low-cost, smooth, and pollution-free. The first moped has a 12 volt electrical system. The second has a 24 volt electrical system. They both have top speeds of about 20 miles per hour. They both use transistorized speed controls and deep-discharge, lead-acid batteries. These mopeds were put through a 750 mile test program. In this program, the 12 volt bike had an average range of nine miles. The 24 volt bike, with a smaller battery capacity, had an average range of six miles.

  19. Electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Dilliner, Jennifer L.; Baker, Thomas M.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2006-11-21

    An electrical connector includes a female component having one or more receptacles, a first test receptacle, and a second test receptacle. The electrical connector also includes a male component having one or more terminals configured to engage the one or more receptacles, a first test pin configured to engage the first test receptacle, and a second test pin configured to engage the second test receptacle. The first test receptacle is electrically connected to the second test receptacle, and at least one of the first test pin and the second test pin is shorter in length than the one or more terminals.

  20. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  1. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  2. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  3. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  4. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  5. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  6. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  7. Electricity unplugged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  8. Electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, M.

    1988-01-01

    This text examines the critical problems faced by the electric power industry, shown in the context of a detailed description of the history and development of the industry. A new industry initiative is proposed that will allow for a more effective response to industry fluctuations. Topics covered include developments in power technology federal nuclear power regulation and legislation, environmentalism and conservationism, industry financial problems, capital minimization, and responses to utility responsibility.

  9. Electric Car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  10. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  11. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, R.

    1993-06-22

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  12. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  13. Solar Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  14. Electrical receptacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fgeppert, E.

    1986-07-01

    This invention relates to an electrical receptacle containing a multiple number of pin-type connectors, wherein the receptacle housing is a tubular metal member susceptible to manufacture by low cost screw machine procedures. Most surfaces of the metal member are centered on the tube axis, except that a circular flange on the member has a localized flat surface machined thereon for anti-rotation lock action. The receptacle is designed to be secured in place by a concealed nut for protection against theft or vandalism.

  15. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  16. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  17. Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the atmosphere.

  18. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-30

    This document contains quarterly reports on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicles technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-93-1-0027.

  19. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  20. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  1. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  2. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  3. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  4. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  5. Electricity in the Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampath, S.; Kumar, V. Sasi

    1991-01-01

    The theory of the atmospheric electric circuit and a discussion of the fair-weather electrical are presented. The ion concentration, mobility, conductivity, and electric field altitudinal profiles are explained. An outline of the electrical processes inside thunderstorms along with a description of the lightning strike are included. (Author)

  6. Electricity in the Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampath, S.; Kumar, V. Sasi

    1991-01-01

    The theory of the atmospheric electric circuit and a discussion of the fair-weather electrical are presented. The ion concentration, mobility, conductivity, and electric field altitudinal profiles are explained. An outline of the electrical processes inside thunderstorms along with a description of the lightning strike are included. (Author)

  7. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  8. Electric potential and electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for "illuminating" volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e-Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  9. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by a number of sources of electricity, such as lightning, stun guns and contact with ... person who has been injured by contact with electricity should be seen by a doctor. Sometimes an ...

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  12. Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, R. T.

    2016-10-01

    1. Electrostatics: fundamental facts; 2. Electricity as a measurable quantity; 3. Measurement of electric force and potential; 4. Condensers; 5. Electrical machines; 6. Measurement of potential and electric force; 7. Magnetic attraction and repulsion; 8. Laws of magnetic force; 9. Experiments with magnets; 10. Magnetic calculations; 11. Magnetic measurements; 12. Terrestrial magnetism; 13. The electric current; 14. Relation between electromagnetic force and current; 15. Measurement of current; 16. Measurement of resistance and electromotive force; 17. Measurement of quantity of electricity, condensers; 18. Thermal activity of a current; 19. The voltaic cell (theory); 20. Electromagnetism; 21. Magnetisation of iron; 22. Electromagnetic instruments; 23. Electromagnetic induction; 24. Applications of electromagnetic induction; 25. Telegraphy and telephony; 26. Electric waves; 27. Transference of electricity through gases: corpuscles and electrons; Answers to examples; Index.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  14. Electricity, eels and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasnow, Brian

    2014-07-01

    William Turkel's Spark from the Deep is a fascinating book that explores a little-known aspect of how we came to understand and control electricity: the role played by electrogenic animals such as electric eels and rays.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  16. Electric current solves mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question: how can the electric current choose the right way and avoid dead ends?

  17. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  18. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  19. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  20. Electricity Serves Our Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Features a color poster entitled "Electricity Serves Our Community" and describes how the poster can be used to help teach about energy, electricity concepts, and types of electrical generation. Explains how teachers can obtain other resources such as posters, lesson plans, and kits from the National Energy Foundation. (PR)

  1. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  3. Electricity demand curtailment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J; Carroll, O; Schnader, M

    1980-01-01

    The state of electricity demand curtailment planning for long term electricity supply disruptions is reviewed. Legal, institutional and technological problems associated with demand curtailment plans are examined, and the existence of well defined social objectives on the part of planners is questioned. A linear programming approach to electricity demand curtailment planning is presented.

  4. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  5. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  6. Electricity Serves Our Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Features a color poster entitled "Electricity Serves Our Community" and describes how the poster can be used to help teach about energy, electricity concepts, and types of electrical generation. Explains how teachers can obtain other resources such as posters, lesson plans, and kits from the National Energy Foundation. (PR)

  7. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  8. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  9. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  10. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Electrical Equipment of Electrical Stations and Substations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-25

    possibility of the conversion of industry on the new, more advanced energy base . Thre-e-phasp current proved to be technically and economically more... energy up to large distances it was difficultly make as a result of the large heat losses in conduits/manifolds, then heat and power plants were...transmitted by the wires of smaller sections. Decrease energy losses in electric system. Since electric generators and receivers are constructed to the

  12. The model electric restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.J.; Oatman, P.A. ); Claar, C.N. )

    1989-12-01

    Restaurants are the most intensive users of energy of all types of commercial buildings. As a result, they have some of the highest energy costs. New and existing restaurants are important customers to electric utilities. Many opportunities exist to use electricity to improve restaurant energy performance. This report discusses a project in which computer simulations were used to investigate restaurant energy subsystem performance and to assess the potential for electric equipment to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak demand improve load factors, and reduce energy cost in new all-electric restaurants. The project investigated typical restaurant designs for all-electric and gas/electric facilities and compared them to high efficiency electric options in all-electric restaurants. This analysis determined which investiments in high-efficiency electric equipment are attractive for restaurant operators. Improved equipment for food preparation, heating and cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and lighting subsystem was studied in cafeteria, full menu, fast food, and pizza restaurants in Atlanta, Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Phoenix. In addition to the actual rate structures, four synthetic rate structures were used to calculate energy costs, so that the results can be applied to other locations. The results indicate that high efficiency and improved all-electric equipment have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption, peak demand, and operating costs in almost all restaurants in all locations. The all-electric restaurants, with a combination of improved equipment, also offer the customer a competitive choice in fuels in most locations. 12 refs., 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Economics of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, G.

    2015-08-01

    The following text is an introduction into the economic theory of electricity supply and demand. The basic approach of economics has to reflect the physical peculiarities of electric power that is based on the directed movement of electrons from the minus pole to the plus pole of a voltage source. The regular grid supply of electricity is characterized by a largely constant frequency and voltage. Thus, from a physical point of view electricity is a homogeneous product. But from an economic point of view, electricity is not homogeneous. Wholesale electricity prices show significant fluctuations over time and between regions, because this product is not storable (in relevant quantities) and there may be bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids. The associated non-homogeneity is the starting point of the economic analysis of electricity markets.

  14. Plant electrical memory.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap.

  15. An Elementary Treatise on Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Garnett, William

    2011-06-01

    Editor's preface; Fragment of author's preface; 1. Experiment 1; 2. On the charges of electrified bodies; 3. On electrical work and energy; 4. The electric field; 5. Faraday's law of lines of induction; 6. Particular cases of electrification; 7. Electrical images; 8. Capacity; 9. Electric current; 10. Phenomena of an electric current which flows through heterogeneous media; 11. Methods of maintaining an electric current; 12. On the measurement of electric resistance; 13. On the electric resistance of substances.

  16. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  17. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  18. Simulation of Electric Propulsion Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    to convert electrical power into thrust and in general provide superior specific impulse in comparison to chemical systems. Electric propulsion has...generates thrust primarily from electrical energy through a number of different mechanisms. In general, electric thrusters provide superior...specific impulse and thrust associated with several types of electric propulsion systems. In addition to superior propellant mass efficiency, electric

  19. Electrical system architecture

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  20. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  1. Integrated electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Ackler, Harold D.

    2005-05-24

    An electrical connector is formed from a sheet of electrically conductive material that lies in between the two layers of nonconducting material that comprise the casing of an electrical chip. The connector is electrically connected to an electrical element embedded within the chip. An opening in the sheet is concentrically aligned with a pair of larger holes respectively bored through the nonconducting layers. The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. However, the sheet is composed flexible material so that the opening adapts to the diameter of the pin when the pin is inserted therethrough. The periphery of the opening applies force to the sides of the pin when the pin is inserted, and thus holds the pin within the opening and in contact with the sheet, by friction. The pin can be withdrawn from the connector by applying sufficient axial force.

  2. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  3. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  4. Electrical control of superparamagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kihiro T.; Koyama, Tomohiro; Kakizakai, Haruka; Miwa, Kazumoto; Ando, Fuyuki; Ishibashi, Mio; Kim, Kab-Jin; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Shimpei; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2017-01-01

    The electric field control of superparamagnetism is realized using a Cu/Ni system, in which the deposited Ni shows superparamagnetic behavior above the blocking temperature. An electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with the Cu/Ni electrode and a nonmagnetic counter electrode is fabricated to examine the electric field effect on magnetism in the magnetic electrode. By changing the voltage applied to the EDLC, the blocking temperature of the system is clearly modulated.

  5. Electrical Stress Test (EST)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-11

    TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-053 Electrical Stress Test (EST) 5a...Technical Information Center (DTIC), AD No.: 14. ABSTRACT This document has been developed to address electrical stress tests for use in the...evaluation of weapon system fuzes and fuze components. The primary purpose of the test guideline is to standardize various credible stressing electrical

  6. Electric Power Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Control center for SAMAC (System Automatic Monitor and Control) is a sophisticated dispatch computer system, developed by Rockwell International and operated by Philadelphia Electric Co. SAMAC monitors and controls the generation and distribution of electric power throughout the Philadelphia electric network. With the assistance of NASA's Apollo computer system technology, it enables human operators to isolate and correct power distribution problems more rapidly than was possible with earlier dispatch systems without centralized computer control.

  7. Essays on electricity theft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Keva Ullanda

    Electricity theft is a relatively unknown crime with high economic costs. In this dissertation, I try to identify the factors that motivate persons to steal electricity. First, I use a panel dataset of 97 countries spanning the five year period 2003--2007 to estimate a model that describes the effect of the unemployment rate, GDP per capita, male population and urbanization on theft, robbery and homicide rates. The results are consistent with previous empirical work on crime and economic opportunity. The second and main contribution of this paper is to estimate the same model using distribution loss as a proxy for electricity theft. The results show that the unemployment rate, a key explanatory economic factor for crime, cannot explain variation in electricity theft, although there is some evidence, albeit weak, supporting correlation in rich countries. Therefore, policies that target the reduction of property crime through a reduction in unemployment will have no effect on electricity theft. The third contribution relates to the role that political institutions play in the incentives to steal electricity. After control for socioeconomic factors, I find that there is no relationship between political governance indicators and electricity theft. In the second and third chapters, I compare the United States, a high income, low electricity theft country with Jamaica, a middle income, high electricity theft country. The effect of unemployment on electricity theft mirrors the results found in the first chapter. In the United States, electricity theft is affected by changes in economic conditions but in Jamaica, it is not. These results suggest that the state of institutions plays a role in how social norms are determined. Poor countries will be more likely than rich countries to have weak institutions with social norms that encourage electricity theft.

  8. The earth's electrical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lighting, cloud and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind.

  9. Expendable Electric Landrover (EEL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    DAHLGREN DIVISION NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER Panama City, Florida 32407-7001 NSWC PC/MP-04/07 EXPENDABLE ELECTRIC LANDROVER (EEL) MITCH GAVRILASH...COVERED JULY 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS EXPENDABLE ELECTRIC LANDROVER (EEL) 6. AUTHOR(S) MITCH GAVRILASH 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...generations of Expendable Electric Landrover (EEL) robots were developed during fiscal year 2003 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City (NSWC-PC

  10. Electric Drive Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Track-Laying Combat Vehicles , and (3) Parametric Study of Electric Drive Component Technologies. The technology survey results are given in a separate...and projections of future electric drive system improvements relative to combat vehicle applications. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...273 5.7.2.3.1 DC Homopolar Drum Machine, Design and Performance 5-278 APPENDIX A 19.5 TON AND 40.0 TON VEHICLE SPECIFICATION APPENDIX B ELECTRIC

  11. Electric vehicle's electricity consumption on a road with different slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Li, M.; Lin, Y.; Tang, T. Q.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model and an electricity consumption model to study the effects of the road's slope on the electric vehicle's electricity consumption. The numerical results show that each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's tilt angle and decreases with the downhill's tilt angle. In addition, each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's (downhill's) length under a certain tilt angle.

  12. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  13. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  14. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOEpatents

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  15. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  16. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  17. Electrical Power Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POWER SUPPLIES, TEST METHODS), ARMY EQUIPMENT, BATTERY COMPONENTS, ELECTRIC BATTERIES, VEHICLES, GENERATORS, FUEL CELLS, SEEBECK EFFECT , TEST EQUIPMENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, DATA PROCESSING

  18. Electricity market module: Electricity capacity planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe modifications to the Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule (ECP) for the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. It describes revisions to enhance the representation of planned maintenance, incorporate technological improvements in operating efficiencies, revise the algorithm for determining international firm power imports, and include risk premiums for new plant construction.

  19. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  20. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  1. Electricity Occupations Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Champaign, IL.

    The first of four main sections of the electrical occupations curriculum guide is an introduction which describes the design and use of the guide and which provides five pages of suggested curriculum resources. Section two contains job descriptions for 18 electrical occupations. For each occupation the guide explains industry's expectations of the…

  2. Electricity and Its Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with the use of electricity. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss consumer uses of electricity and understand increased usage and problems relating to needs for production expansion. Some topics covered are major…

  3. Electric Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having an annular discharge chamber housing an anode having a large surface area. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, a second electric propulsion thruster may be disposed in a cylindrical space disposed within an interior of the annulus.

  4. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  5. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  6. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  8. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  9. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne William; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg [East Lansing, MI; Fischer, Anne [Arlington, VA; Bennett, Jason [Lansing, MI; Lowe, Michael [Holt, MI

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  11. Atoms to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to meet the national energy demand. Major topic areas discussed include: the role of nuclear power; the role of electricity; generating electricity with the…

  12. Electrical Work in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Business and Finance Branch.

    Most buildings rely on electricity for lighting, power, signals, and other communications. Electric energy is also used for heating and year-round thermal conditioning of spaces. Its ease of transmission, simple control and measurement, and relative safety make it a useful source of energy. This publication is intended to provide those persons…

  13. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  14. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  16. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  17. Electric Power Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold.

  18. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  19. Efficient Use of Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickett, Arnold P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are advanced technologies which may offer an opportunity to meet the world's future energy needs while minimizing the environmental impact. Savings to both suppliers and consumers are described. International electricity usage is compared. Government standards for the manufacture of electrical products in the United States are…

  20. Efficient Use of Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickett, Arnold P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are advanced technologies which may offer an opportunity to meet the world's future energy needs while minimizing the environmental impact. Savings to both suppliers and consumers are described. International electricity usage is compared. Government standards for the manufacture of electrical products in the United States are…

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  3. Electricity and Its Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with the use of electricity. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss consumer uses of electricity and understand increased usage and problems relating to needs for production expansion. Some topics covered are major…

  4. Static and Current Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Murtha, Kathy T.

    This is a copy of the script for the electrical relationships unit in an auto-tutorial physical science course for non-science majors, offered at the University of Maine at Orono. The unit includes 15 simple experiments designed to allow the student to discover various fundamental electrical relationships. The student has the option of reading the…

  5. Pulsed electric fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  6. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  7. Electrical Networks: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, S.; Youssef, M.; Scoglio, C.

    A world without electricity is beyond our imagination. Starting from the prehistoric times, man has made much progress in every walk of life. We have become accustomed to getting everything at the flick of a switch, touch of a button, or turn of a knob. While we have become so used to enjoying the benefits of electricity, it is not easy to imagine how electricity travels from its source to our homes and offices. It sometimes has to cover large distances through a complex network of transmission lines and power substations to provide us the facilities and entertainment that we take for granted. This network which transports electricity from the source to the consumers is called the electrical network. The electrical network is a collective term for different components such as transformers, transmission lines, substations, and different stages and sub-networks devoted to generation, transmission, and distribution. Sometimes, there may be sub-transmission and secondary distribution networks too. A simple schematic of an electric network is shown in Fig. 8.1. In the past decade, analysis of the electrical power system as a complex network has been an evolving and challenging topic of research.

  8. Electricity and the heart.

    PubMed

    Kar, A K; Roy, D; Sinha, P K

    2005-12-01

    Understanding of cardiac rhythm requires application of physical principles governing electricity. Over a period of more than 100 years, application of the knowledge of electric current led to the gradual evolution of electrocardiogram, pacemaker, defibrillator, and ultimately electrophysiology. The discovery of electrocardiogram (ECG) by Einthoven in 1902 and that of pacing by Zoll in 1952 were two landmarks in this field.

  9. [Birth of medical electricity].

    PubMed

    Renner, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-eighteenth century Jallabert treated an hemiplegia using electrostatic electricity and published the patient's recovery. Immediately, physicians and clergymen started to use the Nollet's machine to treat many neurological diseases and published their results. The Galvani's constant was also a medical seism when he though the had discovered animal electricity. Galvanism entered immediately medical practice for a long time.

  10. Polymers that Conduct Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Edward

    1983-01-01

    Although polymers are regarded as electrical insulators, it was discovered that they can be made to conduct electricity. This discovery has opened vast new practical and theoretical areas for exploration by physicists and chemists. Research studies with these conducting polymers and charge-transfer salts as well as possible applications are…

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  12. The Theory of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livens, G. H.

    2016-10-01

    Preface; 1. The electric field; 2. Dielectric theory; 3. Electric currents; 4. The magnetic field; 5. The dynamics of the magnetic field; 6. Maxwell's electromagnetic theory; 7. Electromagnetic oscillations and waves; 8. The electrodynamics of moving media; Appendix 1. On the mechanism of magnetic induction; Appendix 2. On the mechanism of metallic conduction; Index.

  13. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  15. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  16. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  17. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels of net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  18. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in this EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  19. dc electric invisibility cloak.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Mei, Zhong Lei; Jin, Tian Yu; Cui, Tie Jun

    2012-08-03

    We present the first experimental demonstration of a dc electric cloak for steady current fields. Using the analogy between electrically conducting materials and resistor networks, a dc invisibility cloak is designed, fabricated, and tested using the circuit theory. We show that the dc cloak can guide electric currents around the cloaked region smoothly and keep perturbations only inside the cloak. Outside the cloak, the current lines return to their original directions as if nothing happens. The measurement data agree exceptionally well with the theoretical prediction and simulation result, with nearly perfect cloaking performance. The proposed method can be directly used to realize other dc electric devices with anisotropic conductivities designed by the transformation optics. Manipulation of steady currents with the control of anisotropic conductivities has a lot of potential applications, such as electric impedance tomography, graphene, natural resource exploration, and military camouflage.

  20. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  1. Flywheel electric transmission apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, D.H.

    1982-01-05

    In a preferred embodiment, the flywheel electric transmission system is made up of three electric machines and a flywheel and is adapted for use in an automobile. The first electric machine is driven or energized by a prime mover such as a heat engine and is selectively clutched to the second machine. The flywheel and the armatures for both the first and second machines rotate as a unit. The third machine is connected to the second machine through gearing and, under the control of a computer, supplies excess electrical power to or consumes excess electrical power from the first and second machines that are functioning as either a motor or generator as required. In a second embodiment, the energy source is a battery pack.

  2. The electric sense of weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Heiligenberg, W; Bastian, J

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies of electroreception have been particularly successful in three different areas: Electroreceptors are tuned to the dominant frequency of the animal's EOD, and their tuning follows natural and experimentally induced shifts in EOD frequency. Steroid hormones influence the electric organ pacemaker frequency in the genus Sternopygus, and the tuning of electroreceptors will follow hormone-induced frequency shifts only if the receptors experience the animal's EOD. The frequency tuning of electroreceptors reveals properties similar to those of cochlear hair cells, and electroreceptors may be suitable model systems for in vitro studies of cellular and molecular aspects of electrical filter mechanisms in hair cells. In contrast to the South American or gymnotoid electric fish, the African or mormyrid electric fish evaluate electroreceptive information with the help of corollary discharges of their electric-organ pacemaker. The corollary discharge inhibits input from knollenorgan receptors so that, in the context of social communication, the animal only perceives EODs of neighbors but not its own. The corollary discharge at the same time enhances input from most mormyromasts so that the animal, in the context of electrolocation, selectively receives feedback from its own EODs. Finally, responses of ampullary electroreceptors to the animal's own EODs are centrally nulled by an elaborate and modifiable efference copy so that the animal is only informed about "nontrivial", low-frequency events in its environment. Laminated and topographically organized structures in the hindbrain and midbrain of gymnotoid fish are being studied with regard to neuroanatomical fine structure and functional organization. Different laminae and cell types in the hindbrain are specialized for the extraction of specific stimulus features, such as modulations of phase or amplitude in a sinusoidal stimulus regime. This information is passed on to the midbrain for the computation of more

  3. Electricity from biogas

    SciTech Connect

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-12-31

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially {open_quotes}free{close_quotes} fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as {open_quotes}controlled landfilling{close_quotes}. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills.

  4. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  5. Electrical futures past.

    PubMed

    Gooday, Graeme J N

    2005-12-01

    Futurist writing about technology emerged in the late 19th century at the same time as new kinds of electrical technology were making utopian futures seem practically attainable. Electrical writers and novelists alike thus borrowed from the popular "science" fiction of Jules Verne, Edward Bellamy and others to try to create self-fulfilling prophecies of a future in which electrical gadgets and machines met all major practical needs of civilization. To the extent that many parts of our world are populated by the hardware that they forecast, they succeeded in their goal.

  6. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  7. Electric scooter pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Dedek, Jan; Golembiovsky, Matej

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the issue of electric scooter development for educational and demonstration purposes on the Technical University of Ostrava. Electric scooter is equipped with a brushless motor with permanent magnets and engine controller, measuring and monitoring system for speed regulation, energy flow control and both online and off-line data analysis, visualization system for real-time diagnostics and battery management with balancing modules system. Implemented device brings a wide area for the following scientific research. This article also includes some initial test results and electric vehicles experiences.

  8. Electric Propulsion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    DTIC FILE COPY AL-TR-89-040 AD: AD-A227 121 Final Report forteprod Electric Propulsion Study 21 Sep 1988 to 30 Nov 1989 DTIC ’ELECTE0OCT 0c 41990u... Electric Propulsion Study (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Cravens, Dennis J. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE...identif bv block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Inductive theories, electric propulsion, unified field 21 0- theories, Conservatc!±,n Laws, Dynamic

  9. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  11. Electrically controlled magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binek, Ch.; He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Sahoo, S.

    2008-08-01

    Manipulation of magnetically ordered states by electrical means is a promising approach towards novel spintronics devices. We report on the electric control of surface magnetism in Cr2O3 thin films and uniaxial anisotropy in ferroelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures, respectively. Artificial magnetoelectricity is realized in a BaTiO3/Fe heterostructure. Here, thermally induced coercivity changes of the Fe hysteresis loop are used to derive the stress imposed by the ferroelectric BaTiO3 substrate on the adjacent Fe film. Electrically induced coercivity changes give rise to a giant magnetoelectric susceptibility in the vicinity of the magnetic coercive field.

  12. Contactless Rotary Electrical Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Rotary electrical couplings based on induction (transformer action) rather than conduction between rotating and stationary circuitry have been invented. These couplings provide an alternative to slip rings and contact brushes. Mechanical imperfections of slip-ring and brush contact surfaces and/or dust particles trapped between these surfaces tend to cause momentary interruptions in electrical contact and thereby give rise to electrical noise. This source of noise can be eliminated in the inductive rotary couplings because no direct contact is necessary for transformer action.

  13. Dangerous Electric Waves,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-06

    AD-All 283 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFR OH F/6 19/5 DANGEROUS ELECTRIC WAVES,(U) JAN 82 F X IANCHENG UNCLASS IFI ED FTO-ID(RS)T-O 891...TECHNOLOGY DIVISION DANGEROUS ELECTRIC WAVES by Feng Xiancheng FEB 2 1982 A Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 82 02 01 070 AlH...FTD -ID(H ST-0891-81 EDITED TANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0891-81 6 January 1982 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-81-C-002058 DANGEROUS ELECTRIC WAVES

  14. Electrical Researches of Henry Cavendish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Cavendish, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; Account of Cavendish's writings on electricity; 1. First published papers on electricity; 2. Preliminary propositions; 3. Appendix; 4. Thoughts concerning electricity; 5. Account of the experiments; 6. Second published paper on electricity; 7. Experiments in 1771; 8. Experiments in 1772; 9. Index to electrical experiments, 1773; 10. Measures; 11. Experiments with the artificial torpedo; 12. Resistance to electricity; 13. Calibration of tubes; 14. Resistance of copper wire; 15. Result; 16. Results; Notes by the editor; Index.

  15. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  16. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  17. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Northrup, M. Allen

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  18. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  19. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  20. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  1. Electrical conductive composite lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarchuk, Bruce J.; Wehrman, Ken A.; Yang Zhang, Teh-Shing Lee, Krishnagopalan, Gopal A.

    1995-01-01

    In power and electronic systems, electrical contact resistance is a major issue. For mechanical connections and sliding contacts, power losses and electrical noise are critical concerns. These issues are of particular interest to all industrial members of the Auburn CCDS. Research has been conducted to develop a variety of contact materials, both for solid lubricant films and composite paper lubricants. A combination of low electrical resistance, good lubricating properties, long wear-life, and low sliding electrical noise was achieved using a metal-cellulose composite paper with dichalcogenide powders entrapped in the porous paper matrix. Advancements in developing these conductive lubricants can increase contact lifetime and reliability in many space and terrestrial applications.

  2. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Calle

    2000-11-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  3. Electrically driven optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  4. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  5. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  6. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  7. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOEpatents

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  9. Electrically charged targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  10. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    axons within the hemisected spinal cord of the adult guinea pig (Borgens et al., 1986). b. That this electrically facilitated regeneration is...months after thoracic right lateral hemisection of the spinal cord (arrow). A) The back skin of the guinea pig shaved and marked with ink grid lines. B...Next page) (From Science article: Behavioral Recovery Induced by Applied Electric Fields After Spinal Cord Hemisection in Guinea Pig, Volume 238, PP

  11. ELECTRIC MOTOR CARS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The electric automobiles studied are designed as the equivalent of their gasoline-engine counterparts in size, comfort, performance, and initial...acceleration. Top speeds comparable to those of small present-day cars are shown to be realizable, though the range between refueling is not. Batteries...noise abatement. The lifetime costs derived can be somewhat lower than those of conventional cars ; therefore it is concluded that electric cars

  12. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  13. The electric vocabulary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article attempts, through historical illumination, to shine through the mist of electrostatic terminology and offer a clearer view of the classical model of electricity.

  14. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Theory. Course: Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Herb; Carey, John

    This individualized course on basic electricity covers the basic ideas of direct current and alternating current electricity. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Electrical Theory "B," and (2) Electrical Theory "A." Each unit is comprised of Learning Activity Packages (LAP) that provide specific information for completion…

  15. An Education in Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching electrical safety guidelines in the process of teaching the concepts related to electricity. Discusses household current; electrical insulation; and examples of electrical safety in the home related to appliances, the bathroom, the yard and the neighborhood. (10 references) (MDH)

  16. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  17. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  18. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  19. Source of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Marhanka, F.D.

    1983-06-28

    A source of electricity has a first electrode, a second electrode which is spaced from the first electrode and which is made from a metal that is displaced in the electromotive series from the metal of the first electrode, a first mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the first electrode, a second mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the second electrode and which has at least one particulate that is different from all of the particulates in the first mass, an interface between the confronting surfaces of the first and second masses, a polarity-imparting material in one of the masses, and that polarity-imparting material and the liquids enabling the masses to cause the electrodes to supply a unidirectional flow of current to any load which is connected across them.

  20. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  2. Positive fractional linear electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorek, Tadeusz

    2013-10-01

    The positive fractional linear systems and electrical circuits are addressed. New classes of fractional asymptotically stable and unstable electrical circuits are introduced. The Caputo and Riemann-Liouville definitions of fractional derivatives are used to analysis of the positive electrical circuits composed of resistors, capacitors, coils and voltage (current) sources. The positive fractional electrical and specially unstable different types electrical circuits are analyzed. Some open problems are formulated.

  3. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  4. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  5. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1986-07-08

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator is described comprising a magnet having a magnetic field, an elongate hollow housing containing an electrically conductive liquid and a thermoacoustic structure positioned in the liquid, heat exchange means thermally connected to the thermoacoustic structure for inducing the liquid to oscillate at an acoustic resonant frequency within the housing. The housing is positioned in the magnetic field and oriented such that the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid are substantially orthogonal to one another, first and second electrical conductor means connected to the liquid on opposite sides of the housing along an axis which is substantially orthogonal to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid, an alternating current output signal is generated in the conductor means at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of the oscillatory motion of the liquid.

  6. Electrification and Electric Guns,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-03

    1657-83F/203 N Si FIE FG2/ f i l l ’ I g u I 12 . 8 l . 11111.2 I.UJ M Lfl 00 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 0 .N ELECTRIFICATION AND ELECTRIC GUNS by A.A...available. i I Accessiton For I ’IS op:" I (31odes ELECTRIFICATION AND ELECTRIC GUNS DI t pe:i c A. A. Kr’vProf. Th .~Pis Presen~tly in the stage of...cor.sderaticn; the wrnd’o en "onrr-:- rea -nes the steady state are considered. ’her. se : " rren :n an electric gun is shorted, the power :s ex;end e

  7. Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.

  8. Electric fluid pump

    DOEpatents

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  9. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  10. Electric power emergency handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  11. Electrical percolation based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-10-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of "electrical percolation". In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a "gate" and SEB as an "actuator", it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create "biological central processing units (CPUs)" with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously.

  12. Electrical Percolation Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of “electrical percolation”. In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a “gate” and SEB as an “actuator”, it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create “Biological Central Processing Units (CPUs)” with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously. PMID:24041756

  13. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  14. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  15. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  16. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  17. Enhance separations with electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhara, H.S.

    1994-05-01

    To satisfy growing environmental regulations, control energy costs, or just to stay competitive, one must improve existing separation technologies and make them more efficient. New challenges in food processing and requirements for novel purification technologies in the biotech industry also will require more efficient separation techniques. This paper discusses some enhanced separation processes based on the application of an electric field in the combined-fields approach. In a combined-fields approach, the emphasis is on the generation of additional driving forces to work simultaneously with the conventional driving force of the process. Here the authors concentrate on the application of an electric field to generate the additional driving force.

  18. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  20. Electric explosion nickel nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, A. B.; Aliev, B. A.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and the morphology of the nickel nanopowders synthesized by an electric explosion of a metallic wire are comprehensively studied. The results of scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that the nickel nanoclusters have a spherical shape with an average diameter of 50 nm. An analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrates that the lattice parameter of the electric explosion nanopowder particles is larger than the standard parameter. The results of computer experiments agree well with the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction data. However, the causes of the lattice distortion in the nickel nanoclusters are still debatable.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  2. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  3. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  4. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  5. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  6. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  7. Electrically conductive composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  8. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Without doubt, the electrical signaling is costly, and the possible co-existence of such type of signals and photosynthesis in plant cell is discussed. PMID:21558815

  9. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  10. Electrically Driven Prosthetic Elbow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention relates to an improved electrically driven prosthetic elbow wherein the elbow is capable of being rigidly locked into place in any...desired position, and upon driving the arm to the fully extended position, the elbow is automatically unlocked.

  11. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  12. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  13. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  14. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  15. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  16. Basic Electricity. Part 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

  17. Electrifying Inquiry: Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Susan; Barnett, Jessica; Webster, Lois

    2005-01-01

    An activity involving parallel electrical circuits was modified to incorporate an open inquiry approach. Both the original and revised versions of the activity were tested in the middle school classroom. We present a comparison of the two versions of the activity in terms of facilitating learning and engaging students' interests.

  18. Implantable electrical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A fully implantable and self contained device is disclosed composed of a flexible electrode array for surrounding damaged nerves and a signal generator for driving the electrode array with periodic electrical impulses of nanoampere magnitude to induce regeneration of the damaged nerves.

  19. Introduction to Electrical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.; Balabanian, Norman

    This text (in mimeographed form) was developed under contract with the United States Office of Education and is intended as material of a first course in the electrical engineering sequence. Introductory concepts such as charge, fields, potential difference, current, and some of the basic physical laws are presented in Chapter I. Subsequent…

  20. Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical method originally developed within the mining industry where it has been used for decades to explore for and characterize subsurface mineral deposits. It is one of the oldest geophysical methods with the first documented usag...

  1. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  2. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  3. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  4. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  5. Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

  6. Solar Electricity for Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  7. Electric Guitar and Violin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    Almost all the instruments described in this book have their origins in historical cultures dating back over many centuries. In contrast, the electric guitar and violin are clearly twentieth-century innovations. They are products of the electronics age following invention of the rectifying thermionic valve (tube) by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904, the amplifying triode valve (tube) by Lee de Forest in 1907, and the vacuum-filled amplifying valve (tube) by Irving Langmuir in 1915. By 1916, such valves were already being used in radio receivers, and important advances were being made in microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker design. This, and the increasingly wide distribution of mains electricity in the 1920s, provided the technology and infrastructure for the development of the electric guitar and violin and their lower-pitched relations - the bass guitar, viola, cello, and string-bass. Although we focus here on the electric guitar and violin, almost everything discussed in this chapter is also relevant to their lower-pitched relations.

  8. Atoms to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to meet the national energy demand. Major topic areas discussed include: (1) "The Role of Nuclear Power"; (2) "The Role of Electricity"; (3)…

  9. Electrical Sensing Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This unit of instruction on electrical sensing devices is designed especially for use with freshman vocational agriculture students. A unit plan discusses the general aims and goals, lesson titles, student and teacher activities, and references. The unit consists of four lessons. A lesson plan for each lesson provides these components: need;…

  10. Electrical impedance of FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. S.

    1972-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of FCC are investigated in the context of multiple transmission lines theory. Analytical expressions for the coefficients of capacitance of conductors in a single cable are obtained. Numerical values calculated with these expressions are in good agreement with experimental data. Crosstalk, attenuation constants and phase angles of the current and voltage in flat conductor cable are also calculated.

  11. Electrical Maintenance Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 30 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of electrical maintenance technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  12. Lightweight Electric Power Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    8I~ .4 111 162 MICROCi Pi RL’ LUHION TESI CHARI "LIGHTWEIGHT ELECTRIC POWER CABLE" FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT SEPTEMBER 30, 1981 to SEPTEMBER 30, 1982... Vulcanized by heat to crosslink. TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer) - Polymers having elastomeric proper- ties. Used as thermoplastics - melt formed by

  13. Martian Electric Spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1962 show a three hundred-sixty ton spaceship, powered by a forty-megawatt nuclear-electric power plant, transporting a three-man crew to Mars. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center engineers, a five-ship convoy would make the round trip journey in about five hundred days.

  14. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  15. Electric-car simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Slusser, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    PARAMET, interactive simulation program for parametric studies of electric vehicles, guides user through simulation by menu and series of prompts for input parameters. Program considers aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, linear and rotational acceleration, and road gradient as forces acting on vehicle.

  16. Teaching Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellse, Mark D.

    1989-01-01

    An understanding of the important concepts of electrical safety can be developed without the concept of potential. Stresses the idea of current flow and the hazards involved. Discusses ground-fault circuit breakers. Includes diagrams on safe and faulty circuits which could lead to electrocution. (Author/MVL)

  17. Making Electricity with Fruit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispezio, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how electrochemical cells exploit reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions to produce electric current. Presents an activity using a paper clip, copper wire, an apple, and a voltmeter where students can measure the voltage from an apple cell. Describes variables that can be changed to assess the impact on the voltage produced. (PR)

  18. Electrical safety during transplantation.

    PubMed

    Amicucci, G L; Di Lollo, L; Fiamingo, F; Mazzocchi, V; Platania, G; Ranieri, D; Razzano, R; Camin, G; Sebastiani, G; Gentile, P

    2010-01-01

    Technologic innovations enable management of medical equipment and power supply systems, with improvements that can affect the technical aspects, economics, and quality of medical service. Herein are outlined some technical guidelines, proposed by Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro, for increasing the effectiveness of the power supply system and the safety of patients and surgeons in the operating room, with particular focus on transplantation. The dependence of diagnoses and therapies on operation of the electrical equipment can potentially cause great risk to patients. Moreover, it is possible that faulty electrical equipment could produce current that may flow through the patient. Because patients are particularly vulnerable when their natural protection is considerably decreased, as during transplantation or other surgery, power supply systems must operate with a high degree of reliability and quality to prevent risk, and must be designed to reduce hazards from direct and indirect contact. Reliability of the power supply system is closely related to the quality of the project, choice of materials, and management of the system (eg, quality and frequency of servicing). Among the proposed guidelines, other than normal referencing, are (1) adoption of a monitoring system to improve the quality of the electrical parameters in the operating room, (2) institution of emergency procedures for management of electrical faults, (3) a procedure for management of fires in the operating room, (4) and maintenance interventions and inspections of medical devices to maintain minimal requirements of safety and performance.

  19. Teaching Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellse, Mark D.

    1989-01-01

    An understanding of the important concepts of electrical safety can be developed without the concept of potential. Stresses the idea of current flow and the hazards involved. Discusses ground-fault circuit breakers. Includes diagrams on safe and faulty circuits which could lead to electrocution. (Author/MVL)

  20. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  1. Electric heating pad burns.

    PubMed

    Bill, T J; Edlich, R F; Himel, H N

    1994-01-01

    Patients with sensory deficits are especially prone to heating pad burns. Two cases are reported of patients with anesthetic skin who received partial and full-thickness burns of their feet from an electric heating pad. These burn injuries could have been prevented if the patients understood the potential hazard of heating pads.

  2. Electric-car simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Slusser, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    PARAMET, interactive simulation program for parametric studies of electric vehicles, guides user through simulation by menu and series of prompts for input parameters. Program considers aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, linear and rotational acceleration, and road gradient as forces acting on vehicle.

  3. Electrical Maintenance Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 30 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of electrical maintenance technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  4. Solar Electricity for Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  5. Electrical Wiring Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to screen handicapped students' interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic electricity. (The course is based on the entry level of an electrician helper.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for completing the…

  6. Experimenting with Electric Trains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

  7. The Electric Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This book is intended as an introduction to the television program, "The Electric Company," designed to help teach reading to children in grades 2-4 who are experiencing difficulty. Contents include: Sidney P. Marland, Jr.'s preface, "A Significant New Teaching Tool"; Joan Ganz Cooney's "Television and the Teaching of…

  8. Making Electricity with Fruit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispezio, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how electrochemical cells exploit reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions to produce electric current. Presents an activity using a paper clip, copper wire, an apple, and a voltmeter where students can measure the voltage from an apple cell. Describes variables that can be changed to assess the impact on the voltage produced. (PR)

  9. Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical method originally developed within the mining industry where it has been used for decades to explore for and characterize subsurface mineral deposits. It is one of the oldest geophysical methods with the first documented usag...

  10. Experimenting with Electric Trains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

  11. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  12. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  13. Electrifying Inquiry: Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Susan; Barnett, Jessica; Webster, Lois

    2005-01-01

    An activity involving parallel electrical circuits was modified to incorporate an open inquiry approach. Both the original and revised versions of the activity were tested in the middle school classroom. We present a comparison of the two versions of the activity in terms of facilitating learning and engaging students' interests.

  14. Basic Electricity. Part 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

  15. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  16. Electrical Conductivity in Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Anil Kumar

    2003-03-01

    ABSTRACT In insulating solid(Plastic Sheet)of 0.73mm thickness, the conduction process was ohmic at low D.C. electric feilds, but the feild strength increased the conductivity became feild dependent at high feilds and it exhibited some conductivity and the variation in conduction current was none-ohmic.The mechanism of electron transfer between two metallic electrodes separated by insulating material has received considerable attention. The electron transfer current was studied on 0.73mm plastic sheet and(I-V),(log I-log V),(log J-E^1/2)and (log o- 1/T) relations have been studied and the value of slope,electronic dielectric constant and activation energy for nature of conduction mechanism and process have been determined.The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out at room temperature (32.5 celcius)under high D.C. electric feilds of the order of 10^6 volt/meter.The sample of insulator(plastic sheet) was sandwiched between the aluminium electrodes of designed experimental cell,The effect of very high varying feilds at 32.5 celcius temperature,the electrical conduction has been proposed on the data obtained.The non-ohmic behavior in the sample seemed to start at an electric feild 3x10^6 volt/meter.In this case on data obtained it was concluded that "SCHOTTKY EMISSION MECHANISM" has been proposed. The activation energy was calculated by plotting(log o-1/T)characterstics at running temperature and it was found 0.325ev which is less than 1.0,It confirms predominance of Electronic Conduction. I=current in ampere V=volt T=temperature O=conductivity

  17. Electric power monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  18. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  19. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Electrical Materials Research for NASAs Hybrid Electric Commercial Aircraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy

    2017-01-01

    A high-level description of NASA GRC research in electrical materials is presented with a brief description of the AATTHGEP funding project. To be presented at the Interagency Advanced Power Group Electrical Materials panel session.

  1. 44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  2. 8. North elevation of electric relay station showing electrical cable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. North elevation of electric relay station showing electrical cable connection to tower. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  3. Radius fracture from an electrical injury involving an electric guitar.

    PubMed

    Pappano, Dante

    2010-03-01

    Electrical injury ranges widely from simple shock and mild burns to more extensive superficial injury, internal injury, and mortality. Bony fracture from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contraction is a rare but recognized injury. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who suffered a minor burn and radius fracture related to an electrical injury involving his electric guitar. An interesting pattern is emerging from available case reports of similar injuries.

  4. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  5. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  6. All-Electric Concepts for Architecture. NECA Electrical Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Electrical Contractors Association, Washington, DC.

    In this monograph dealing with the suitability of electrically powered systems to emerging architectural trends, emphasis is upon the relationship of mechanical systems to overall building design. Topics discussed are--(1) All Electric Systems are Right for the Times, (2) Electric Systems Enlarge Freedom of Design, (3) Approaching the Question:…

  7. Method for protecting an electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  8. How Do You Picture Electricity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)

  9. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  10. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... appliances, or tools are used incorrectly or when electric current makes contact with water in which a child ... sturdy, dry, nonmetallic object that won't conduct electricity. Move the child as little as possible because ...

  11. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  12. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  13. Wind turbine electric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J. M.

    1985-04-02

    A wind-operated electric generator system of simple design including a stationary circular arrangement of segmental wind inlet passages extending around a vertical axis and having vertical inlet openings at the outer ends, the inlet openings having inwardly and upwardly curving walls extending from the inlet openings toward the central axis, the lower walls sloping upwardly an appreciably greater extent than the upper walls to form an inwardly and upwardly extending convergence with the inner portions of the upper walls to form constricted upwardly directed exit passages that merge into a Venturi throat in which a bladed impeller is mounted upon a vertical shaft which is connected to an electric generator, and the sides of the segmental inlet passages also converging toward the central axis and cooperating with the converging upper and lower walls to form an efficient Venturi effect to increase the speed of air currents directed to the impeller.

  14. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  15. Electrically driven optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-22

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  16. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  17. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  18. Electric utility franchise guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Through franchise agreements, municipalities grant energy providers the use of public easements for the transmission of electricity and natural gas from power sources to consumers. Generally, access to the public rights-of-way is generated in exchange for the payment to the City of a percentage of the gross revenues of the utility. This Guide presents a Model Electric Utility Franchise Agreement, structured by the city of Houston, to address cost-saving and revenue-enhancing issues that should be considered by any municipality in both the day-to-day administration of existing franchises, and at the time of franchise renewal and renegotiation. In addition to the model agreement this Guide includes Explanatory Comments that provide the basis and rationale for certain sections of the agreement as well as a Summary of Major Elements of franchise agreements in over sixty US municipalities.

  19. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  20. Quantized electric multipole insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-07-01

    The Berry phase provides a modern formulation of electric polarization in crystals. We extend this concept to higher electric multipole moments and determine the necessary conditions and minimal models for which the quadrupole and octupole moments are topologically quantized electromagnetic observables. Such systems exhibit gapped boundaries that are themselves lower-dimensional topological phases. Furthermore, they host topologically protected corner states carrying fractional charge, exhibiting fractionalization at the boundary of the boundary. To characterize these insulating phases of matter, we introduce a paradigm in which “nested” Wilson loops give rise to topological invariants that have been overlooked. We propose three realistic experimental implementations of this topological behavior that can be immediately tested. Our work opens a venue for the expansion of the classification of topological phases of matter.

  1. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  2. Turning tires into electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tikalsky, S.

    1991-05-01

    Nationally, nearly one million tires a day are retired from vehicles. With landfill space at a premium, old tires are usually heaped in growing piles across the country. Old tires have not only become a highly visible environmental problem, but a health menace as well. Mounds of discarded tires are perfect breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other insects. In addition, hazards to air and water quality from tire fires are well documented. At Wisconsin Power and Light Co, the author has been experimenting with using scrap tires as fuel to create electricity. In 1990, the utility burned 130,000 tons of tire chips in a cyclone furnace, saving about $75,000 in fuel cost. The project is a joint experiment with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to determine the feasibility of using old tires to create electricity.

  3. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-01-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors. PMID:27328976

  4. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  5. Gut feeling is electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Jide

    2011-06-01

    Although "gut feeling" is a cliché in English parlance, there are neuro-physiological basis for registration of emotions in the gut. Control of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is by an integration of neuro-hormonal factors from the local myogenic to the central nervous system. Gastric contractile activity, which is responsible for the motor properties of the stomach, is regulated by this integrated complex. Signatures of the activity include gastric electrical activity (GEA) and bowel sounds. GEA has two distinct components: a high-frequency spike activity or post depolarization potential termed the electrical response activity superimposed on a lower frequency, rhythmic depolarization termed the control activity. These signatures are measured in the clinic with contact sensors and well understood for diagnosis of gut dysmotility. Can these signatures be measured at standoff and employed for purposes of biometrics, malintent and wellness assessment?

  6. Electric discharge during electrosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I.; Keidar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 103 A/cm2. The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 1016 cm−3 and (1-2) Ohm−1cm−1, respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold. PMID:25880721

  7. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  8. Electrical safety device

    DOEpatents

    White, David B.

    1991-01-01

    An electrical safety device for use in power tools that is designed to automatically discontinue operation of the power tool upon physical contact of the tool with a concealed conductive material. A step down transformer is used to supply the operating power for a disconnect relay and a reset relay. When physical contact is made between the power tool and the conductive material, an electrical circuit through the disconnect relay is completed and the operation of the power tool is automatically interrupted. Once the contact between the tool and conductive material is broken, the power tool can be quickly and easily reactivated by a reset push button activating the reset relay. A remote reset is provided for convenience and efficiency of operation.

  9. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  10. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  11. Physical properties of electricity.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Angus J M

    2013-01-01

    Electricity is the flow of electrons through a conductor. The amount of current (amps) is related to the voltage (volts) pushing the electrons and the degree of resistance to flow (ohms). During their flow around a circuit, electrons can be used to create a number of useful byproducts such as heat and light. As electrons flow, they alter the charge of the matter they flow through, which may also generate electromagnetic effects.

  12. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-30

    the lesion. After electrical records were taken (by antidromic and orthodromio stimulation and recording across the lesions), the axons responsible for...lesion. Axons which conducted spikes antidromically across the lesion site were found to traverse it; in a few cases, terminate within the lesion. Few...Involve stimulating near the soma (or ganglion) and recording at the periphery. Antidromic stimulation and recording would be the reverse of this regimen. 17 I

  13. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  14. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  15. Electrical System Compliance Guideline.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    electrical tape (continuous wrapping), plastic pipe or tubing, dielectric sheathing , fiberglass , wood, etc. FIGURE 15 - DIELECTRIC SHIELDING ENVELOPE...Secondary Ignition Systems Sheath Shielding Short Circuits Soldered Connections Spark Plugs Strain Relief Straps Summary Supply Circuits 16...Assemblies". Applies to 183.440. ITS THE LAW 183.402 DEFINITIONS As used in this subpart — (h) " Sheath " means a material used as a continuous

  16. Electrical conductive coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Givaja, Gonzalo; Amo-Ochoa, Pilar; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Zamora, Félix

    2012-01-07

    Coordination polymers are currently one of the hottest topics in Inorganic and Supramolecular Chemistry. This critical review summarizes the current state-of-the-art on electrical conductive coordination polymers (CPs), also named metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The data were collected following two sort criteria of the CPs structure: dimensionality and bridging ligands (151 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  17. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  18. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    electrical field can facilitate the regeneration of severed axons within the hemisected spinal cord of adult mammals (Borgens, et al., 1986b). In...Borgens, et al., 1987). Right lateral hemisection of the adult guinea pig spinal cord produces a permanent defec-t in the functioning of this long tract... spinal cord hemisection ) produces a truly permanent defect in behavioral output of the CTM. There is hardly any need for statistical evaluation of the

  19. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    stimulation (B). 17 Anatomical Analysis of the Lesion and of Nerve Fibers The extent of the original injury is determined in histological sections of...number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Spinal cord regeneration nerve recovery 0 cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTM) behavioral 0 6 05RA II 19. ABSTRACT...S Applied electrical fields are known to be able to strikingly modify the - development and elongation of nerve processes in culture conditions and

  20. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  1. Electrical Connector Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    hereinafter 5 appear, a feature of the invention is the provision of an 6 electrical connector assembly including a female connector 7 assembly comprising...urging of the male connector assembly 3 into the female connector assembly, a leading edge of ehe 4 retention ring engages the claw fingers forcing...assembly barrel portion to pass through the female connector 3 assembly annular wall central opening, and permitting entry of 9 the pin into the sleeve

  2. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  3. QUICK DISCONNECT ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

    DOEpatents

    None

    1962-08-14

    A remotely actuated quick-dlsconnect electrical connector which comprises a pair of mating portrons releasably retained together by a bayonet- type joint with a rotatable sleeve on one of the mating portions providing for engagement and disengagement of the joint is described. A lanyard with ends passed through fulcrums and affixed to the sleeve erfects rotation of the sleeve and disengages the joint. (AEC)

  4. Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area is tasked to develop near and mid-term SEP technology to improve or enable science mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. The solar electric propulsion investments are primarily driven by SMD cost-capped mission needs. The technology needs are determined partially through systems analysis tasks including the recent "Re-focus Studies" and "Standard Architecture Study." These systems analysis tasks transitioned the technology development to address the near term propulsion needs suitable for cost-capped open solicited missions such as Discovery and New Frontiers Class missions. Major SEP activities include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), implementing a Standard Architecture for NSTAR and NEXT EP systems, and developing a long life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC). Lower level investments include advanced feed system development and xenon recovery testing. Future plans include completion of ongoing ISP development activities and evaluating potential use of commercial electric propulsion systems for SMD applications. Examples of enhanced mission capability and technology readiness dates shall be discussed.

  5. Electrical apparatus lockout device

    DOEpatents

    Gonzales, Rick

    1999-01-01

    A simple lockout device for electrical equipment equipped with recessed power blades is described. The device comprises a face-plate (12) having a threaded member (14) attached thereto and apertures suitable for accommodating the power blades of a piece of electrical equipment, an elastomeric nose (16) abutting the face-plate having a hole for passage of the threaded member therethrough and power blade apertures in registration with those of the face-plate, a block (20) having a recess (34) in its forward face for receiving at least a portion of the hose, a hole therein for receiving the threaded member and an integral extension (26) extending from its rear face. A thumb screw (22) suitable for turning with the hands and having internal threads suitable for engaging the threaded member attached to the face-plate is inserted into a passage in the integral extension to engage the threaded member in such a fashion that when the device is inserted over the recessed power blades of a piece of electrical equipment and the thumb screw (22) tightened, the elastomeric nose (16) is compressed between the face-plate (12) and the block (20) forcing it to expand laterally thereby securing the device in the recess and precluding the accidental or intentional energization of the piece of equipment by attachment of a power cord to the recessed power blades. Means are provided in the interval extension and the thumb screw for the attachment of a locking device (46) which will satisfy OSHA standards.

  6. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  7. Electrically Driven Supersonic Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, S.; Sabelnikov, V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers a new method of supersonic combustor steering under non-optimal conditions, specifically, at low gas temperature. The method is based on near-surface electrical discharge application for flow management and flameholding. The experimental results on flameholding at gas temperature T0=300-760K are presented. The hydrogen and ethylene were injected directly into the M=2 flow from the wall at overall ER<0.2. The electrical discharge of filamentary type between flush mounted electrodes on the wall is used for a flame promotion. The power deposited is Wpl/Htot<2-5% of flow total enthalpy. The fuel ignition, and flameholding are demonstrated experimentally at combustion completeness η>0.9. The pressure elevation due to combustion is measured in accordance with operation mode. The fact is specially pointed that the discharge switching off leads to immediate extinction of the hydrogen/ethylene flame. The power threshold of fuels ignition over the plane wall was measured by variation of power deposition and the fuel mass flow rate. Based on the experimental data a new scheme of supersonic combustor is proposed. Local zones of combustion in multiple directly wall-fueled sections are supported by electrical discharges. Cross- section's expansions are adjusted with those zones of intensive reactions. This scheme is supposed to be quite prospective for practical apparatuses.

  8. Electrically modulated magnetoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P.; Salzer, S.; Reermann, J.; Yarar, E.; Röbisch, V.; Piorra, A.; Meyners, D.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R.; Schmidt, G.; Quandt, E.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric thin film composites have demonstrated their potential to detect sub-pT magnetic fields if mechanical resonances (typically few hundred Hz to a few kHz) are utilized. At low frequencies (1-100 Hz), magnetic field-induced frequency conversion has enabled wideband measurements with resonance-enhanced sensitivities by using the nonlinear characteristics of the magnetostriction curve. Nevertheless, the modulation with a magnetic field with a frequency close to the mechanical resonance results in a number of drawbacks, which are, e.g., size and energy consumption of the sensor as well as potential crosstalk in sensor arrays. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of an electric frequency conversion of a magnetoelectric sensor which would overcome the drawbacks of magnetic frequency conversion. This magnetoelectric sensor consists of three functional layers: an exchange biased magnetostrictive multilayer showing a high piezomagnetic coefficient without applying a magnetic bias field, a non-linear piezoelectric actuation layer and a linear piezoelectric sensing layer. In this approach, the low frequency magnetic signal is shifted into the mechanical resonance of the sensor, while the electric modulation frequency is chosen to be either the difference or the sum of the resonance and the signal frequency. Using this electric frequency conversion, a limit of detection in the low nT/Hz1/2 range was shown for signals of low frequency.

  9. The quantum electrical triangle.

    PubMed

    Gallop, John

    2005-09-15

    The past 35 years have seen the development of an unexpected plethora of quantum electrical standards based on just two fundamental constants, e and h. First came a voltage standard based on the Josephson a.c. effect, in terms of which most maintained primary standards of voltage are defined. This was followed a decade later by the quantized Hall effect, based on the von Klitzing constant which allows the ohm to be maintained very precisely. It became clear 20 years ago that there is also a possible quantum current standard. This third standard has yet to play a full part in practical electrical metrology. However, recent developments suggest that there are many different possible manifestations in which such a current standard might be realized. The three quantum standards, taken together, define the quantum electrical triangle of standards which would allow the units to be realized in terms of different combinations of e and h. We summarize the very different physics behind the three standards, reviewing the present state of development in all three. Implications for the future are also considered, especially relating to ultra-low temperature, nanoscale and truly quantum mechanical versions of the standards.

  10. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  11. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  12. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  13. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1963-01-01

    Common methods of measuring the moisture content of wood are described briefly, and a short historical account of the development of electric moisture meters is given. Electrical properties of wood are discussed briefly, and the basic operation of the resistance type and the radio- frequency types of moisture meter is outlined. Data relating the electrical resistance...

  14. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1988-01-01

    Electric moisture meters for wood measure electric conductance (resistance) or dielectric properties, which vary fairly consistently with moisture content when it is less than 30 percent. The two major classes of electric moisture meters are the conductance (resistance) type and the dielectric type. Conductance-t ype meters use penetrating electrodes that measure in a...

  15. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  16. Rural Electric Youth Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of materials provides information about tours for rural secondary students in Washington, D.C., sponsored jointly by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), state rural electric cooperatives, and statewide associations of rural electric systems. Since 1958 this program has selected high school students to visit…

  17. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  18. Battery-powered electric bicycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morchin, W.C.

    1994-12-31

    Electric bicycles powered with today`s nickel-metal hydride batteries offer a 100 km range between recharges and have a potential of 300 km when polymer batteries become available. The author discusses the development of the electric bicycle, presents a mathematical model, and considers general requirements. The available battery powered electric bicycles are listed and some test comparisons are given. 4 refs.

  19. It's Coming: Electricity For You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Karen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rural Electrification Act changed farm life dramatically. The miracle of electricity in rural East Texas is examined in "Electricity Comes to East Texas" (Brandi Anderson and others). Chronicled is a description of life without electricity and how everyday chores were done in its absence. Local citizens…

  20. Residential electricity demand in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resendez, Ileana M.

    This study analyzes residential electricity demand in Arkansas. Explanatory variables utilized include real per capita income, residential electricity price, heating degree days, cooling degree days, and residential natural gas price. The results indicate that the income effect dominates the substitution effect given a real personal income increase and a decline in real electricity rates in the state of Arkansas during the period under study.

  1. Electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua Reynolds

    The physical user interface is an increasingly significant factor limiting the effectiveness of our interactions with and through technology. This thesis introduces Electric Field Imaging, a new physical channel and inference framework for machine perception of human action. Though electric field sensing is an important sensory modality for several species of fish, it has not been seriously explored as a channel for machine perception. Technological applications of field sensing, from the Theremin to the capacitive elevator button, have been limited to simple proximity detection tasks. This thesis presents a solution to the inverse problem of inferring geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from electric field measurements. It also presents simple, inexpensive hardware and signal processing techniques for makin the field measurements, and several new applications of electric field sensing. The signal processing contribution includes synchronous undersampling, a narrowband, phase sensitive detection technique that is well matched to the capabilities of contemporary microcontrollers. In hardware, the primary contributions are the School of Fish, a scalable network of microcontroller-based transceive electrodes, and the LazyFish, a small footprint integrated sensing board. Connecting n School of Fish electrodes results in an array capable of making heterodyne measurements of any or all n(n - 1) off-diagonal entries in the capacitance matrix. The LazyFish uses synchronous undersampling to provide up to 8 high signal- to-noise homodyne measurements in a very small package. The inverse electrostatics portion of the thesis presents a fast, general method for extracting geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from field measurements. The method is based on the Sphere Expansion, a novel fast method for generating approximate solutions to the Laplace equation. Finally, the thesis describes a variety

  2. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  3. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  4. Overview - Electric fields. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauffman, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The electric fields session is designed to review progress in observation, theory, and modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, and to expose important new results. The present report comments on the state and prospects of electric field research, with particular emphasis on relevance to quantitative modeling of the magnetospheric processes. Attention is given to underlying theories and models. Modeling philosophy is discussed relative to explanatory models and representative models. Modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, while in its infancy, is developing rapidly on many fronts employing a variety of approaches. The general topic of magnetospheric electric fields is becoming of prime importance in understanding space plasmas.

  5. Cell injury by electric forces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raphael C

    2005-12-01

    The molecular architecture of biological systems is heavily influenced by the highly polar interactions of water. Thus, macromolecules such as proteins that are highly water soluble must be electrically polar. Energy generation methods needed to support cell metabolic processes depend on compartmentalizing mobile ions and thus require electrical ion transport barriers such as membranes. One consequence of these biological design constraints is vulnerability to injury by electrical forces. Supraphysiological electric forces cause damage to cells and tissues by disrupting cell membranes and altering the conformation of biomolecules. In addition, prolonged passage of electrical current leads to damage by thermal mechanisms. This review will focus on the non-thermal effects.

  6. Electric current induced ultrafast demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Richard B.; Yang, Yang; Gorchon, Jon; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    We report the magnetic response of Co/Pt multilayers to picosecond electrical heating. Using photoconductive Auston switches, we generate electrical pulses with 5.5 ps duration and hundreds of pico-Joules to pass through Co/Pt multilayers. The electrical pulse heats the electrons in the Co/Pt multilayers and causes an ultrafast reduction in the magnetic moment. A comparison between optical and electrically induced demagnetization of the Co/Pt multilayers reveals significantly different dynamics for optical vs electrical heating. We attribute the disparate dynamics to the dependence of the electron-phonon interaction on the average energy and the total number of initially excited electrons.

  7. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  8. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  9. Measurements of Atmospheric Electricity Aloft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, K. A.

    2012-09-01

    Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the atmosphere above the surface have been made for over 200 years, from a variety of different platforms, including kites, balloons, rockets and aircraft. From these measurements, a great deal of information about the electrical characteristics of the atmosphere has been gained, assisting our understanding of the global atmospheric electric circuit, thunderstorm electrification and lightning generation mechanisms, discovery of transient luminous events above thunderstorms and many other electrical phenomena. This paper surveys the history of atmospheric electrical measurements aloft, from the earliest manned balloon ascents to current day observations with free balloons and aircraft. Measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters in a range of meteorological conditions are described, including clear air conditions, polluted conditions, non-thunderstorm clouds, and thunderstorm clouds, spanning a range of atmospheric conditions, from fair weather to the most electrically active.

  10. Electric power monthly, July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and retail prices data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison.

  11. Electric Power Monthly, November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  12. Electric power monthly, September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-14

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 10 refs., 37 tabs.

  13. Electric power monthly, August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-14

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption fuel stocks, quantity and quality fuel, and cost of fuel. 10 refs., 1 fig., 40 tabs.

  14. Electric power monthly, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-15

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  15. Electric power monthly, June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  16. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Quanlu Wang; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-09-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, the authors analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. They consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. They find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the United States tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  17. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-08-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in Califormia for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the US tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  18. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  19. Modeling the electric field of weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Babineau, David; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E

    2006-09-01

    Weakly electric fish characterize the environment in which they live by sensing distortions in their self-generated electric field. These distortions result in electric images forming across their skin. In order to better understand electric field generation and image formation in one particular species of electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we have developed three different numerical models of a two-dimensional cross-section of the fish's body and its surroundings. One of these models mimics the real contour of the fish; two other geometrically simple models allow for an independent study of the effects of the fish's body geometry and conductivity on electric field and image formation. Using these models, we show that the fish's tapered body shape is mainly responsible for the smooth, uniform field in the rostral region, where most electroreceptors are located. The fish's narrowing body geometry is also responsible for the relatively large electric potential in the caudal region. Numerical tests also confirm the previous hypothesis that the electric fish body acts approximately like an ideal voltage divider; this is true especially for the tail region. Next, we calculate electric images produced by simple objects and find they vary according to the current density profile assigned to the fish's electric organ. This explains some of the qualitative differences previously reported for different modeling approaches. The variation of the electric image's shape as a function of different object locations is explained in terms of the fish's geometrical and electrical parameters. Lastly, we discuss novel cues for determining an object's rostro-caudal location and lateral distance using these electric images.

  20. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  1. Cut Electric Bills by Controlling Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumman, David L.

    1974-01-01

    Electric bills can be reduced by lowering electric consumption and by controlling demand -- the amount of electricity used at a certain point in time. Gives tips to help reduce electric demand at peak power periods. (Author/DN)

  2. Electricity generation and health.

    PubMed

    Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2007-09-15

    The provision of electricity has been a great benefit to society, particularly in health terms, but it also carries health costs. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows the health burdens to be greatest for power stations that most pollute outdoor air (those based on lignite, coal, and oil). The health burdens are appreciably smaller for generation from natural gas, and lower still for nuclear power. This same ranking also applies in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions and thus, potentially, to long-term health, social, and economic effects arising from climate change. Nuclear power remains controversial, however, because of public concern about storage of nuclear waste, the potential for catastrophic accident or terrorist attack, and the diversion of fissionable material for weapons production. Health risks are smaller for nuclear fusion, but commercial exploitation will not be achieved in time to help the crucial near-term reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. The negative effects on health of electricity generation from renewable sources have not been assessed as fully as those from conventional sources, but for solar, wind, and wave power, such effects seem to be small; those of biofuels depend on the type of fuel and the mode of combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage is increasingly being considered for reduction of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel plants, but the health effects associated with this technology are largely unquantified and probably mixed: efficiency losses mean greater consumption of the primary fuel and accompanying increases in some waste products. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the health effects of different methods of generating electricity.

  3. Electric climate-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koertvelyessy, L.

    Does the Sun heat variably by its varying magnetic fields? The main problem of all magnetic models is that SOHO found neither a "solar dynamo" nor "deep magnetic tubes". Also TRACE discovered too thin and straight filaments which could not have emerged through the boiling solar layers but grew out geyser-like from one foot-point. NASA stated some months ago that a "magnetic tube" would be unstable due to its own magnetic repulsion. A new, an electric climate-model is described based on the solar thermoelectric processes. TRACE- and LASCO-pictures show that solar filaments have an exact circular cross section i.e. they are electric direct currents shaped by the pinch-effect. Our climate is maximally correlated to the aa index of the magnetic storms which are the results of solar direct currents conducting by Earth. The burning out of the transformers of Hydro-Quebec (in 1989) is re-analysed on the base of these positive direct currents. The results are that the positive (active) Sun repulses the positive cosmic ray particles which are seeds of clouds. In addition, new movies show that this active Sun directly charges our clouds positively via red sprites during a proton storm. The hit clouds emit gamma rays and are perhaps diffused by this solar positive charge. Both effects could be responsible for the fact that the area of the clouds was found to be by 2-4.5 % lower in the middle magnetic latitudes during the last solar maximum. Parallel to both electric influences, the sunspots were re- discovered as "awesome solar hurricanes". ACRIM showed that their huge rotational energy can increase the solar irradiation . The present 88 year period will end in about 2045 probably with the highest irradiation of the last two millennia.

  4. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  5. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  6. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation (Complainants...

  7. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K.

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  8. Electricity Generation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; Marcy, Cara; McCall, James; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Bloom, Aaron; Aabakken, Jorn; Cole, Wesley; Jenkin, Thomas; Porro, Gian; Liu, Chang; Ganda, Francesco; Boardman, Richard; Tarka, Thomas; Brewer, John; Schultz, Travis

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of national laboratory analysts over the period October 2015 to May 2016 and is part of a series of studies that provide background material to inform development of the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). The report focuses specifically on U.S. power sector generation. The report limits itself to the generation sector and does not address in detail parallel issues in electricity end use, transmission and distribution, markets and policy design, and other important segments. The report lists 15 key findings about energy system needs of the future.

  9. ELECTRICAL COIL STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Hartwig, A.

    1962-09-25

    A compactly wound electrical coil is designed for carrying intense pulsed currents such as are characteristic of controlled thermonuclear reaction devices. A flat strip of conductor is tightly wound in a spiral with a matching flat strip of insulator. To provide for a high fluid coolant flow through the coil with minimum pumping pressure, a surface of the conductor is scored with parallel transverse grooves which form short longitudinal coolant pasaages when the conductor is wound in the spiral configuration. Owing to this construction, the coil is extremely resistant to thermal and magnetic shock from sudden high currents. (AEC)

  10. World's simplest electric train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physics of the "world's simplest electric train." The "train" consists of a AA battery with a strong magnet on each end that moves through a helical coil of copper wire. The motion of the train results from the interaction between the magnetic field created by the current in the wire and the magnetic field of the magnets. We calculate the force of this interaction and the terminal velocity of the train due to eddy currents and friction. Our calculations provide a good illustration of Faraday's and Lenz's laws, as well as of the concepts of the Lorentz force and eddy currents.

  11. Electric Utility Observers' Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, L.E.

    1982-05-13

    This second Observers' Forum of Public Utilities Fortnightly includes invited comments from 19 key legislators, utility consultants, and recognized figures in service industries on any subject to which the contributor wished to direct the attention of the industry leadership and which has a public-interest aspect. Participants were free to point to what they think the industry is doing, either right or wrong, and to areas where the industry might improve its performance. There is no single overriding message, but there is a prevalent mood that the electric-utility industry may have turned a corner despite some remaining problems.

  12. Miniature electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Casper, Robert F.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature coaxial cable electrical connector includes an annular compressible gasket in a receptacle member, the gasket having a generally triangular cross section resiliently engaging and encircling a conically tapered outer surface of a plug member to create an elongated current leakage path at their interface; means for preventing rotation of the plug relative to the receptacle; a metal sleeve forming a portion of the receptacle and encircling the plug member when interconnected; and a split ring in the plug having outwardly and rearwardly projecting fingers spaced from and encircling a portion of a coaxial cable and engageable with the metal sleeve to interlock the receptacle and plug.

  13. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  14. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  15. Electrically reconfigurable logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    To compose the complicated systems using algorithmically specialized logic circuits or processors, one solution is to perform relational computations such as union, division and intersection directly on hardware. These relations can be pipelined efficiently on a network of processors having an array configuration. These processors can be designed and implemented with a few simple cells. In order to determine the state-of-the-art in Electrically Reconfigurable Logic Array (ERLA), a survey of the available programmable logic array (PLA) and the logic circuit elements used in such arrays was conducted. Based on this survey some recommendations are made for ERLA devices.

  16. Electrical leakage detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Arthur

    2006-09-05

    A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

  17. Solar Electric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

  18. Hybrid Electric Chemical Propulsion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    hybrid H2/02 cases. If nePe = 1 kW then the hybrid thruster uses 15.4 kg/day of propellant , which represents a 28% savings in propellant flow rate over...chosen amount of Ow or F - oxidizer to the propellant flow of a conventional H2 electrothermal thruster. A general method is given for selecting the...per Unit Mass of Propellant for H2/02 .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . ........... 12 2. Specific Impulse vs. Electrical Energy Deposited per Unit Mass

  19. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  20. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  1. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Undetermined Carbon benefit Carbon savings of non- fossil fuel based electrical generation Electrical output; standard CO2 emission from average...electricity generation activity using fossil fuels >100 tons of carbon emissions avoided annually Achievable carbon reduction on par with output...create the comparable amount of electricity. • Metric: Carbon savings of non- fossil fuel based electrical generation. • Data: Electrical output

  2. Zee electrical interconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, Thomas M. (Inventor); Gaddy, Edward M. (Inventor); Herriage, Michael J. (Inventor); Patterson, Robert E. (Inventor); Partin, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An interconnect, having some length, that reliably connects two conductors separated by the length of the interconnect when the connection is made but in which one length if unstressed would change relative to the other in operation. The interconnect comprises a base element an intermediate element and a top element. Each element is rectangular and formed of a conducting material and has opposed ends. The elements are arranged in a generally Z-shape with the base element having one end adapted to be connected to one conductor. The top element has one end adapted to be connected to another conductor and the intermediate element has its ends disposed against the other end of the base and the top element. Brazes mechanically and electrically interconnect the intermediate element to the base and the top elements proximate the corresponding ends of the elements. When the respective ends of the base and the top elements are connected to the conductors, an electrical connection is formed therebetween, and when the conductors are relatively moved or the interconnect elements change length the elements accommodate the changes and the associated compression and tension forces in such a way that the interconnect does not mechanically fatigue.

  3. TOPEX electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  4. Electrical Breakdown in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Zutavern, Fred; Kambour, Kenneth; Moore, Chris; Mar, Alan

    During electron breakdown of a solid subjected to a large electric field, impact ionization causes growth of an electron-hole plasma. This growth process is opposed by Auger recombination of the electron-hole pairs. In our work, such breakdown is investigated by obtaining steady-state solutions to the Boltzmann equation. In these calculations, the carriers are heated by the electric field and cooled by phonon emission. Our results imply that breakdown may lead to high carrier-density current filaments. Conductive filaments have been observed in optically-triggered, high-power photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices being developed at Sandia Labs. The relationship between the steady-state computed solutions to the observed filaments will be discussed in the presentation. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Electric vehicle almanac

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Electric Vehicle Almanac presents an overview of the current activity in electric vehicle development. Brief highlights are given for different types of vehicles--ranging from mini town cars to high tonnage industrial trucks--produced by 48 different EV developers around the world. Most of these vehicles are concept cars, prototypes and demonstration vehicles. However, a few are cars actually in modest-volume production in Europe. Extensively covered in the almanac are research and development activities for EV batteries. As widely attested, current battery state-of-the-art is--in terms of both energy storage capacity and instant power response--at least one order of magnitude shy of putting EVs in any sort of contention with internal combustion vehicles. Two sections are worth special mention. One is excerpted from an EV thermal management study by Arthur D. Little, a renowned consulting company. This study suggests that current technology exists to make EVs practical for cold weather driving, typical of the Northeastern US. The other highlights an examination by the US Environmental Protection Agency into the energy efficiencies and costs of EVs viz-a-viz internal combustion vehicles.

  6. Ocean wave electric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electricity from ocean waves. It consists of: 1.) a hollow buoyant duck positioned in the path of waves including a core about the center axis of which the duck rotates, a lower chamber portion having liquid therein and an upper chamber portion having air therein. The air is alternately compressed and expanded by the liquid in the chamber during the rotational motion of the duck caused by waves. A turbine mounted in the upper portion of the duck is driven by the compressed and expanded air. A generator is coupled to the turbine and operated to produce electrical energy and an air bulb; 2.) a spine having a transverse axial shaft anchoring the spine to the ocean floor. The upper portion of the spine engages the duck to maintain the duck in position. The spine has a curved configuration to concentrate and direct wave energy. The spine configuration acts as a scoop to increase the height of wave peaks and as a foil to increase the depth of wave troughs.

  7. Modeling skull electrical properties

    PubMed Central

    Sadleir, R. J.; Argibay, A.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate representations and measurements of skull electrical conductivity are essential in developing appropriate forward models for applications such as inverse EEG or Electrical Impedance Tomography of the head. Because of its layered structure, it is often assumed that skull is anisotropic, with an anisotropy ratio around 10. However, no detailed investigation of skull anisotropy has been performed. In this paper we investigate four-electrode measurements of conductivities and their relation to tissue anisotropy ratio (ratio of tangential to radial conductivity) in layered or anisotropic biological samples similar to bone. It is shown here that typical values for the thicknesses and radial conductivities of individual skull layers produce tissue with much smaller anisotropy ratios than 10. Moreover, we show that there are very significant differences between the field patterns formed in a three-layered isotropic structure plausible for bone, and those formed assuming that bone is homogeneous and anisotropic.We performed a measurement of conductivity using an electrode configuration sensitive to the distinction between three-layered and homogeneous anisotropic composition and found results consistent with the sample being three-layered. We recommend that the skull be more appropriately represented as three isotropic layers than as homogeneous and anisotropic. PMID:17629793

  8. Modeling skull electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Sadleir, R J; Argibay, A

    2007-10-01

    Accurate representations and measurements of skull electrical conductivity are essential in developing appropriate forward models for applications such as inverse EEG or Electrical Impedance Tomography of the head. Because of its layered structure, it is often assumed that skull is anisotropic, with an anisotropy ratio around 10. However, no detailed investigation of skull anisotropy has been performed. In this paper we investigate four-electrode measurements of conductivities and their relation to tissue anisotropy ratio (ratio of tangential to radial conductivity) in layered or anisotropic biological samples similar to bone. It is shown here that typical values for the thicknesses and radial conductivities of individual skull layers produce tissue with much smaller anisotropy ratios than 10. Moreover, we show that there are very significant differences between the field patterns formed in a three-layered isotropic structure plausible for bone, and those formed assuming that bone is homogeneous and anisotropic. We performed a measurement of conductivity using an electrode configuration sensitive to the distinction between three-layered and homogeneous anisotropic composition and found results consistent with the sample being three-layered. We recommend that the skull be more appropriately represented as three isotropic layers than as homogeneous and anisotropic.

  9. TOPEX electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  10. NEWS: Phased by electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    Magnets and electricity are the topics of the latest issue of Phases published by the Education Department at the UK Institute of Physics. A simple but effective classroom activity shows how magnetic force can be used to measure the thickness of paint, and a worksheet explaining domestic electricity - wiring, plugs, fuses and how a light bulb works - is also featured. A list of resources (publications, courses, workshops, references and websites) complements the activities. Mailed free of charge to all schools in the UK and Ireland, each issue of this lively publication is designed to support the teaching of physics to 11-14 year-olds and covers a particular area of physics along with ideas for lessons and teacher resource information, as well as career information for pupils. In the case of this particular issue, however, it has been pointed out that fuses are used to protect wiring and not appliances. Please note this when using the activities provided with `Grandad's Chair'. If you have not received your copy of Phases, please contact the IOP Education Department (education_schools@iop.org).

  11. The Electric Giant Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woude, A.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Experimental Methods to Study Giant Resonances * Introduction * The Tools * Introduction * Tools for Isoscalar Scattering * INELASTIC α-SCATTERING * INELASTIC PROTON SCATTERING * Tools for Isovector Excitations * γ-ABSORPTION AND PARTICLE CAPTURE REACTIONS * CHARGE EXCHANGE REACTIONS - THE (π+, π0) REACTION * Tools For Isoscalar And Isovector Excitations * INELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING * GIANT RESONANCE EXCITATION BY FAST HEAVY IONS * From Multipole Cross Section To Multipole Strength * The Electric Isoscalar Resonances * The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance * Systematics on the GMR * Compressibility and the Giant Monopole Resonance * Introduction * The Compressibility of nuclear matter from the GMR energies * Discussion * The Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance * General Trends In Medium-Heavy and Heavy Nuclei * The GQR In Light Nuclei * The Isoscalar 3- Strength, LEOR and HEOR * Isoscalar 4+ Strength * Miscellaneous; Isoscalar 1- and L > 4-Strength * The Electric Isovector Giant Resonances * The Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance: GDR * The Isovector Giant Monopole Resonances: IVGMR * The Isovector Quadrupole Resonance: IVGQR * The Effect of Ground State Deformation on the Shape of Giant Resonance: Microscopic Picture * Giant Resonances Built on Excited States * Introduction * Capture Reactions on Light Nuclei * Statistical decay of GDR γ Emission in Heavy Compound Systems * Introduction * Theoretical Predictions * Some Experimental Results * Summary and Outlook * Acknowledgements * General References * References

  12. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  13. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  14. Electrical spectrum analysis of operating Hydro Electric machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timperley, J. E.

    1981-12-01

    The electrical spectrum analysis of the operation of five pumped storage machines is discussed. It was found that machines without electrical problems produced little radio noise, although all machines produced some noise. Severe problems produced severe radio noise. If stator deterioration increases, the noise level increases. Similar machines produce similar electrical spectrum signatures. The general source of discharges can be located. A likelihood of failure can be calculated from spectrum analysis.

  15. Electrically driven and electrically tunable quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. P.; Murray, E.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Dangel, C.; Farrer, I.; Spencer, P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots in the neighbouring diode. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission from the neighbouring driven diode is tuned via the quantum confined Stark effect. We also show that we can electrically tune the fine structure splitting.

  16. Electrically small, complementary electric-field-coupled resonator antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, H.; Teixeira, F. L.; Guney, D. O.

    2013-02-01

    We study the radiation properties of electrically small resonant antennas (ka <1) composed of electric-field-coupled (ELC) and complementary electric-field-coupled (CELC) resonators and a monopole antenna. We use such parasitic ELC and CELC "metaresonators" to design various electrically small antennas. In particular, monopole-excited and bent-monopole-excited CELC resonator antennas are proposed that provide very low profiles on the order of λ0/20. We compare the performance of the proposed ELC and CELC antennas against more conventional designs based upon split-ring resonators.

  17. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.

  18. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  19. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  20. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  1. Solar thermal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  2. Electric motor analysis at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.; Morgan, V.A.; Nicholas, J.R. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Initiatives adopted by Dofasco to enhance electric motor reliability and availability include: Enhancement of the electrical repair shop testing and repair capabilities; More stringent standards for motor repair service vendors; Application of predictive technologies to motors in service within manufacturing units; Training of personnel in electrical predictive condition monitoring and analysis methods; and Periodic audit and comparison of central support and operating unit predictive technology application and integration. The basis for the initiative is discussed together with illustrative case histories.

  3. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to < or = 10(exp 9) Omega-cm. The present treatment does this. The treatment is a direct electrodeposition process in which the outer anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic

  5. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Tether electrical characteristics design report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.H.

    1989-03-24

    The design of a tether system for use in electric and magnetic fields requires an analysis of the equivalent electrical circuit of the baboon and tether. The response of this equivalent circuit to an electric or magnetic field is dependent on the connection of the tether system to the baboon. The tether will be designed so that the currents induced in the tethered baboon are approximately the same as those induce in an untethered baboon. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  8. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  9. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  10. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  11. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  12. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and four electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  13. Sparks fly over electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, V.

    1994-10-01

    While the US automobile industry scrambles to meet 1998 deadlines to put electric vehicles on the market, controversy about the environmental benefits and commercial viability of battery-operated cars is mounting. Circumstances in the US increasingly favor the electric car. Air quality laws in California and Massachusetts now demand that {open_quotes}zero-emission{close_quotes} vehicles comprise 2 percent of total sales in the car market by 1998. Electric cars are the only vehicles to meet such standards so far. Other states are considering similar laws. This article examines the pros and cons of electric vehicle use.

  14. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  15. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  16. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  17. Trends in international electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, P.; Vera, I.

    1995-12-31

    The electric power industry is expected to continue experiencing significant changes throughout the beginning of the next century as the world becomes increasingly dependent on electricity. Three major trends characterize the industry worldwide: growth in demand, changes in its structure, and shifts in generation fuel mix. Electricity will remain the fastest growing form of end-use energy worldwide throughout 2010. Non-OECD countries will experience the largest growth in electricity demand as governments attempt to satisfy electricity requirements indispensable to ensure economic development. Increasing world dependence on electricity is accompanied by dramatic changes in the electric power industry in key areas such as regulation structure, and ownership. These changes imply more competitive environments and greater efficiency. Another important trend expected to continue is the shifts in the fuel mix of world electricity generation. The next 15 years will be characterized by increasing shares of natural gas and renewable fuel consumption while nuclear, oil and coal shares will decrease. This paper summarizes major trends in international electricity markets and describes important developments in world regions such as North America, Europe, Asia and Central and South America.

  18. Electric power monthly, August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-21

    The Electric Power Monthly. (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of coal, Nuclear, Electric and alternate Fuels, Energy information Administration (EIA), Department of energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sold. data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  19. Electric power monthly, October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-22

    The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 37 tabs.

  20. An advanced electric vehicle powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, B.; Leslie, J.

    1982-08-01

    Limited range, marginal performance and high cost are the major factors impeding potential market acceptance of electric vehicles. Advancing the technology of electric vehicle powertrain motors, controllers and transmissions, will help reduce these objectionable electric vehicle characteristics. Ford Motor Company has been awarded a research and development program supported by the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center to develop an advanced electric vehicle powertrain which will be more energy efficient and cost effective than any known to be under development today. This paper discusses the NASA research contract, DEN 3-238, Advanced Electric Vehicle Powertrain Program, including technical characteristics of the powertrain concept being developed. The powertrain includes an ac induction motor, automatic transmission, final drive and differential integrated into a single unit mounted on the wheel axis, an electric subsystem, (the ac motor, dc-ac inverter and inverter/motor controller), and a microcomputer-based vehicle control system. The electric subsystem, which includes an advanced power transistor, is being developed by General Electric, a major subcontractor for the program.

  1. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  2. Electric propulsion and interstellar flight

    SciTech Connect

    Matloff, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Two general classes of interstellar space-flights are defined: endothermic and exothermic. Endothermic methods utilize power sources external to the vehicle and associated technology. Faster exothermic methods utilize on-board propulsive power sources or energy-beam technology. Various proposed endothermic electric propulsion methods are described. These include solar electric rockets, mass drivers, and ramjets. A review of previously suggested exothermic electric propulsion methods is presented. Following this review is a detailed discussion of possible near future application of the beamed-laser ramjet, mainly for ultimate relativistic travel. Electric/magnetic techniques offer an excellent possibility for decelerating an interstellar vehicle, regardless of the acceleration technique. 20 references.

  3. Empowerment at Pacific Gas & Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Steven B.

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric's employee involvement program aggressively focuses on customer service, performance measurement tied to management bonuses, and commitment to change in the organizational culture. (SK)

  4. Empowerment at Pacific Gas & Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Steven B.

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric's employee involvement program aggressively focuses on customer service, performance measurement tied to management bonuses, and commitment to change in the organizational culture. (SK)

  5. A surrealistic tale of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Hans U.

    1986-10-01

    Using thermodynamics as an analogy, an ``electricity machine'' is constructed and analyzed. This machine runs through a ``Carnot'' cycle. The analysis leads to the construction of a ``new'' quantity called ``reduced electricity'' (charge). The example shows what life in electrodynamics would be without the substancelike quantity which we call electrical charge. (This state of affairs is accepted in thermodynamics.) Imagine the development of the theory of electricity had fallen into the hands of the thermodynamicists. As fairy and other tales go, they have an air of surrealism surrounding them.

  6. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.; Rust, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful ground truth support of U-2 overflights was been accomplished. Data have been reduced for 4 June 1984 and some of the results have been integrated into some of MSFC's efforts. Staccato lightning (multiply branched, single stroke flash with no continuing current) is prevalent within the rainfree region around the main storm updraft and this is believed to be important, i.e., staccato flashes might be an important indicator of severe storm electrification. Results from data analysis from two stations appear to indicate that charge center heights can be estimated from a combination of intercept data with data from the fixed laboratory at NSSL. An excellent data base has been provided for determining the sight errors and efficiency of NSSL's LLP system. Cloud structures, observable in a low radar reflectivity region and on a scale smaller than is currently resolved by radar, which appear to be related to electrical activity are studied.

  7. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  8. Rural electric demand research

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, L.E.; Stark, G.L.

    1985-09-01

    In cooperative research with rural power suppliers in Nebraska, 35 recording demand meters were installed. The demand study was started in December of 1980 and concluded in March of 1983. Data collection in Nebraska was concentrated in a five-county area in eastcentral Nebraska. Customers were sampled based on a stratified randomized design. Electrical demands were recorded for 5-min intervals. Coincidental peak demands for 60-min intervals were determined for selected peak power use days in 1981 and 1982. In addition, 15-min coincidental demands showing maximum average and minimum demands for each month for the two-year study are presented. Demands predicted by the Rural Electrification Administration demand tables were generally lower than the measured demands while demands predicted by linear regression analysis were higher than the measured demands. Measured coincidental peak demands per customer for the total of all stratified groups ranged from 5.7 to 8.6 kW.

  9. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  10. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  11. Mobile electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, V.J.; Bloomfield, D.P.; Johnson, B.Q.

    1992-01-30

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 asf.

  12. Rotary electric device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madey, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An electric motor is described with a low speed shaft that rotates at a speed much slower than the speed of a high speed shaft. It is comprised of a stator having a cylindrical bore with a longitudinal axis and a rotor that carries the low speed shaft which rotates in the bore eccentrically about the axis. There is contact and no magnetic gap between a relatively small portion of the rotor periphery and the periphery of the bore. A magnetic field, rotating at the speed of the high speed shaft, is applied to the periphery of the bore. The field has longitudinally extending magnetic field components of opposite polarity so that around approximately 180 deg of the bore the field extends in one direction, while around the other 180 deg of the bore the field extends in the opposite direction. The rotor includes permanent magnet pole faces at opposite ends of the bore.

  13. Electrical stimulation of mechanoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echenique, A. M.; Graffigna, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Within the field of Rehabilitation Engineering, this work is aimed at identifying the optimal parameters of electric current stimulus which activate the nervous axons of mecanoreceptors found in the fingertip, allowing, this way, to resemble tactile senses. These sensorial feelings can be used by aiding technological means, namely, the sensorial substitution technology, in an attempt to render information to blind people through the tactile sense. The physical pressure on sensorial areas (fingertips) used for reading activities through the Braille System is the main effect that is imitated and studied in this research work. An experimental aiding prototype for Braille reading research has been developed and tested with blinds and reduced vision people, with highly satisfactory results.

  14. Mobile electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Valerie J.; Bloomfield, David P.; Johnson, Bradley Q.

    1992-01-01

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 ASF.

  15. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    , minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

  16. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Schink, S. W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R. S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2007-04-16

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance {rho} and the Hall voltage V{sub Hall} characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes {delta}{rho}/{rho} and {delta}V{sub Hall}/V{sub Hall} can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures.

  17. The electric Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, W. L.; Edge, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    An electromechanical actuator (EMA) system is described and compared to the baseline hydraulic system for the Shuttle. Employment of the EMA depends on minimal changes in the avionics and software, no change in the vehicle configuration, and satisfaction of performance requirements. There are 13 actuators on the Shuttle, all subject to the standard four (redundant) command channels. The actuator control units, motor control units, mechanical actuators, and motors are discussed, and system and sizing requirements are outlined. The effects on the displays and controls, the environmental control system, electrical power and distribution, and software are mentioned, and projected to be minimal. It is noted that although the EMA total systems' costs have not been calculated, substantial weight, turnaround time, and power savings are available by use of EMA.

  18. OTEC-1 - Electrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R. E.; Sonenshein, N.

    Electrical features of a U.S. DoE test ship for production of 1 MWth from an ocean thermal energy conversion system (OTEC) are described. The ship, in operation off Keahole Point, Hawaii, is anchored in 1372 m deep water, and is fitted with a 655 m polyethylene intake. Power for the operation of the ship is derived from an on-board 5.4 MW generator directly connected to a 7000 HP synchronous motor. Three 200 HP induction motors can also be powered by the generator for the cargo pumps. Adaptations necessary for the ship's wiring and load-handling equipment are outlined, including the maintenance of access to two 400 kW auxiliary generators.

  19. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-11-01

    , minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. &The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

  20. ELECTRIC PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Buntenbach, R.W.

    1959-06-01

    S>An electro-optical apparatus is described which produces electric pulses in programmed sequences at times and durations controlled with great accuracy. An oscilloscope CRT is supplied with signals to produce a luminous spot moving in a circle. An opaque mask with slots of variable width transmits light from the spot to a photoelectric transducer. For shorter pulse decay times a CRT screen which emits UV can be used with a UVtransmitting filter and a UV- sensitive photoelectric cell. Pulses are varied by changing masks or by using masks with variable slots. This device may be used in multiple arrangements to produce other pulse aT rangements, or it can be used to trigger an electronic pulse generator. (T.R.H.)

  1. Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.

  2. Optimal Electric Utility Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    1989-10-10

    SAGE-WASP is designed to find the optimal generation expansion policy for an electrical utility system. New units can be automatically selected from a user-supplied list of expansion candidates which can include hydroelectric and pumped storage projects. The existing system is modeled. The calculational procedure takes into account user restrictions to limit generation configurations to an area of economic interest. The optimization program reports whether the restrictions acted as a constraint on the solution. All expansion configurations considered are required to pass a user supplied reliability criterion. The discount rate and escalation rate are treated separately for each expansion candidate and for each fuel type. All expenditures are separated into local and foreign accounts, and a weighting factor can be applied to foreign expenditures.

  3. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  4. Section I: Basic Electricity. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    This section describes the first of a three part curriculum in trade electricity-electronics (each part is described in a separate volume). It presents a unit of 6 to 10 weeks duration which develops only those competencies necessary to all electricity or electronics employment. A flow chart indicates how an individual student's program can be…

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  6. Electrical Safety: Safety and Health for Electrical Trades. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Thaddeus W.; Miles, Karen K.

    This document is designed to teach learners in secondary and postsecondary electrical trades courses to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards associated with electrical work, The manual's eight sections each include some or all of the following components: instructional text; definitions; case studies illustrating key safety considerations;…

  7. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  8. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-08

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  10. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  11. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  12. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  13. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  14. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  15. Electrical utilities model for determining electrical distribution capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, R. L.

    1997-09-03

    In its simplest form, this model was to obtain meaningful data on the current state of the Site`s electrical transmission and distribution assets, and turn this vast collection of data into useful information. The resulting product is an Electrical Utilities Model for Determining Electrical Distribution Capacity which provides: current state of the electrical transmission and distribution systems; critical Hanford Site needs based on outyear planning documents; decision factor model. This model will enable Electrical Utilities management to improve forecasting requirements for service levels, budget, schedule, scope, and staffing, and recommend the best path forward to satisfy customer demands at the minimum risk and least cost to the government. A dynamic document, the model will be updated annually to reflect changes in Hanford Site activities.

  16. The Electric Field of a Weakly Electric Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasnow, Brian K.

    Freshwater fish of the genus Apteronotus (family Gymnotidae) generate a weak, high frequency electric field (<100 mV/cm, 0.5-10 kHz) which permeates their local environment. These nocturnal fish are acutely sensitive to perturbations in their electric field caused by other electric fish, and nearby objects whose impedance is different from the surrounding water. This thesis presents high temporal and spatial resolution maps of the electric potential and field on and near Apteronotus. The fish's electric field is a complicated and highly stable function of space and time. Its characteristics, such as spectral composition, timing, and rate of attenuation, are examined in terms of physical constraints, and their possible functional roles in electroreception. Temporal jitter of the periodic field is less than 1 musec. However, electrocyte activity is not globally synchronous along the fish's electric organ. The propagation of electrocyte activation down the fish's body produces a rotation of the electric field vector in the caudal part of the fish. This may assist the fish in identifying nonsymmetrical objects, and could also confuse electrosensory predators that try to locate Apteronotus by following its fieldlines. The propagation also results in a complex spatiotemporal pattern of the EOD potential near the fish. Visualizing the potential on the same and different fish over timescales of several months suggests that it is stable and could serve as a unique signature for individual fish. Measurements of the electric field were used to calculate the effects of simple objects on the fish's electric field. The shape of the perturbation or "electric image" on the fish's skin is relatively independent of a simple object's size, conductivity, and rostrocaudal location, and therefore could unambiguously determine object distance. The range of electrolocation may depend on both the size of objects and their rostrocaudal location. Only objects with very large dielectric

  17. Laboratory Manual, Electrical Engineering 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. Dept. of Electrical Engineering.

    Developed as part of a series of materials in the electrical engineering sequence developed under contract with the United States Office of Education, this laboratory manual provides nine laboratory projects suitable for a second course in electrical engineering. Dealing with resonant circuits, electrostatic fields, magnetic devices, and…

  18. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1996-04-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  19. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1995-11-07

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  20. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1998-04-14

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  1. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Basaran, Osman A.; Harris, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  2. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1998-06-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  3. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1996-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  4. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Basaran, Osman A.; Harris, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  5. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  6. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  7. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  8. Electric-Power System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, R. W.; Grumm, R. L.; Biedebach, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Shows different combinations of generation, storage, and load components: display, video monitor with keyboard input to microprocessor, and video monitor for display of load curves and power generation. Planning tool for electric utilities, regulatory agencies, and laymen in understanding basics of electric-power systems operation.

  9. VFDs: Are They Electrical Parasites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ned

    2013-01-01

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are electronic speed controllers used mainly to modulate and reduce the overall speed and power consumption of an electrical motor. They can be used as soft starters for equipment that has a large rotational mass, thus reducing belt ware and large electrical peaks when starting large pieces of equipment. VFDs have…

  10. Electricity Restructuring and Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Joseph Dean

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation research concentrates on the causes, motivations, and results of electricity restructuring, and research on the effectiveness of economic teaching and retention. The first chapter looks at motivations for electricity restructuring in the United States in terms of the Interest Group and Public Interest setting. The second chapter…

  11. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  12. Liquid gallium rotary electric contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1969-01-01

    Due to its low vapor pressure, gallium, when substituted for mercury in a liquid slip ring system, transmits substantial amounts of electrical current to rotating components in an ultrahigh vacuum. It features low electrical loss, little or no wear, and long maintenance-free life.

  13. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  14. NEW APPROACHES: The body electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walford, M. E. R.

    1996-07-01

    The human body makes widespread use of electrical signals and cell membranes have remarkable electrical properties. The conductivity of muscle tissue varies with frequency and this dependence can be measured with fairly simple equipment. Making measurements in this way may have important diagnostic implications.

  15. Electronics/Electrical Curriculum Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    Because of the continuing expansion and acceleration of technology related to the electronics/electrical field, it is necessary to periodically review and revise electronics/electrical curricula to reflect the state of the art. This curriculum guide is the result of such review and revision. Contained are suggested curricula by quarters, course…

  16. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  17. Electric power monthly, May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-14

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and retail prices data by one month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Electric power monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units.

  19. COMPUTER SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THE COMMITTEE ON COMPUTER SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (COSINE COMMITTEE) OF THE COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING REPORTS ITS EXPLORATION OF THE ROLE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN COMPUTER SCIENCES. GREATER FLEXIBILITY IN ENGINEERING CURRICULA IS FELT ESSENTIAL TO MEET THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS IN SUCH A RAPIDLY CHANGING AND DIVERSE FIELD. THE MAJOR…

  20. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  1. Learning the Ropes with Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah; Rex, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a lesson plan that uses materials such as rope, drinking water, and straws in a classroom activity to teach elementary students about electrical circuits in a "hands on/minds on" fashion. Students first experiment with bulbs, wires, and switches, then they do an activity with simulating electricity through a circuit…

  2. Very viscous electrically forced jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    The dynamics of an axisymmetric jet of a very viscous liquid issuing into a region of uniform electric field, which is of interest for electrospinning, is described numerically using the leaky dielectric model. The jet is continuously strained by surface electric stresses. The flow depends on a capillary number Ca based on the liquid flow rate; an electric Bond number that measures the ratio of electric to surface tension stresses; the dielectric constant of the liquid; and the ratio T of a mechanical (viscous-capillary) time to the electric relaxation time required for the charge that is brought to the surface by the electric field to screen the liquid from the field. The electric current and the radius of the jet increase with Ca and tend to well defined limits for large values of this parameter, whereas a stationary jet ceases to exist when Ca decreases below a certain minimum. The radius of the jet decreases when the electric Bond number increases, due to the increased straining, and also when the time ratio T increases, which suggests that charge relaxation effects are always important in the formation of the jet.

  3. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  4. Electricity Restructuring and Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Joseph Dean

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation research concentrates on the causes, motivations, and results of electricity restructuring, and research on the effectiveness of economic teaching and retention. The first chapter looks at motivations for electricity restructuring in the United States in terms of the Interest Group and Public Interest setting. The second chapter…

  5. VFDs: Are They Electrical Parasites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ned

    2013-01-01

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are electronic speed controllers used mainly to modulate and reduce the overall speed and power consumption of an electrical motor. They can be used as soft starters for equipment that has a large rotational mass, thus reducing belt ware and large electrical peaks when starting large pieces of equipment. VFDs have…

  6. Laboratory Manual, Electrical Engineering 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. Dept. of Electrical Engineering.

    Part of a series of materials in the electrical engineering sequence developed under contract with the United States Office of Education, this laboratory manual provides 10 projects dealing with basic electrical instrumentation and measurement that would be appropriate for a first course. Exercises include activities involving (1) voltmeters,…

  7. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  8. Electric vortex in MHD flow

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.

    1995-05-01

    An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low {beta} flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion.

  9. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  10. Learning Electricity in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Ibtisam; Bar, Varda; Galili, Igal

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated elementary school pupils' ideas concerning the concept of electricity and the effect of school instruction on the pupil's views. Pupils of different cultural backgrounds were assessed to ascertain their knowledge in four areas: Relation of certain natural phenomena to electricity; Mental models (images) of direct current in…

  11. Electricity for Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1965

    1965-01-01

    This special magazine issue contains a series of articles on the use of electricity in school and college buildings. Subject areas include--(1) heating, (2) air conditioning, (3) automated controls, (4) lighting and its effects on learning, (5) lighting outdoor areas, (6) stage lighting, (7) power supply and electrical service, and (8) food…

  12. Drive axle for electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, J.M.

    1981-06-02

    An electric powered vehicle drive axle is disclosed. The axle of the present invention comprises a ring gear; a first pinion gear for rotating the ring gear; a differential carried by the ring gear; a pair of axle shafts driven by the differential for rotatably driving a pair of drive wheels; the device supported and enclosed by a housing. A second pinion gear is employed which rotatably engages the ring gear. A first electric motor rotatably connected to the first pinion gear is connected to a power source for rotatably driving the vehicle. A second electric motor/generator is connected to the second pinion gear and electrically connected to the power source. The second electric motor/generator selectively powers the differential or derives power from the differential to recharge the power source as dictated by the power needs of the electric vehicle. A plurality of bevel gears are deployed along the length of the axles. Each bevel gear is rotatably connected to a pair of opposed bevel gears, each opposed bevel gear is rotatably connected to an electric motor/generator. By selectively and electrically causing the plurality of motors/generators to either power the axle or be powered by the axle optimum efficiency and recharging of the battery over a range of vehicle operating conditions is obtained.

  13. POWER SOURCES FOR ELECTRIC CARS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An extrapolation, based on extensive experience with battery and fuel cell power sources during various Army programs, is made into the future world...of the electric car and speculates on the power sources most suited as the electrical energy source. The conclusion is that both the battery and the

  14. Learning Electricity in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Ibtisam; Bar, Varda; Galili, Igal

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated elementary school pupils' ideas concerning the concept of electricity and the effect of school instruction on the pupil's views. Pupils of different cultural backgrounds were assessed to ascertain their knowledge in four areas: Relation of certain natural phenomena to electricity; Mental models (images) of direct current in…

  15. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  16. Twilight of the electric dinosaurs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L. Jr. )

    1990-11-22

    This article examines the future practicality of large electric generating plants and various technologies for transmitting energy other than electricity. The author describes advantages, cost and methods of chemical energy transmission in the form of methanol. Uses, production (including environmental impacts) and supply of methanol are also discussed.

  17. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  18. Learning the Ropes with Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah; Rex, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a lesson plan that uses materials such as rope, drinking water, and straws in a classroom activity to teach elementary students about electrical circuits in a "hands on/minds on" fashion. Students first experiment with bulbs, wires, and switches, then they do an activity with simulating electricity through a circuit…

  19. Construction Cluster Volume 5 [Electrical].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the fifth of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on electrical work and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study: (1) safety precautions and first aid for electrical workers; (2) planning a simple installation;…

  20. Essays on pricing electricity and electricity derivatives in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Julia

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is composed of four essays on the behavior of wholesale electricity prices and their derivatives. The first essay provides an empirical model that takes into account the spatial features of a transmission network on the electricity market. The spatial structure of the transmission grid plays a key role in determining electricity prices, but it has not been incorporated into previous empirical models. The econometric model in this essay incorporates a simple representation of the transmission system into a spatial panel data model of electricity prices, and also accounts for the effect of dynamic transmission system constraints on electricity market integration. Empirical results using PJM data confirm the existence of spatial patterns in electricity prices and show that spatial correlation diminishes as transmission lines become more congested. The second essay develops and empirically tests a model of the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. I link a model of the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to a model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. Empirical results using PJM data support the model's predictions that gas storage inventories sharply reduce the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. The third essay examines the efficiency of PJM electricity markets. A market is efficient if prices reflect all relevant information, so that prices follow a random walk. The hypothesis of random walk is examined using empirical tests, including the Portmanteau, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, and multiple variance ratio tests. The results are mixed though evidence of some level of market efficiency is found. The last essay investigates the possibility that previous researchers have drawn spurious conclusions based on classical unit root tests incorrectly applied to

  1. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  2. Heat operated cryogenic electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Saffren, M. M.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An electrical generator useful for providing electrical power in deep space, is disclosed. The electrical generator utilizes the unusual hydrodynamic property exhibited by liquid helium as it is converted to and from a superfluid state to cause opposite directions of rotary motion for a rotor cell thereof. The physical motion of the rotor cell was employed to move a magnetic field provided by a charged superconductive coil mounted on the exterior of the cell. An electrical conductor was placed in surrounding proximity to the cell to interact with the moving magnetic field provided by the superconductive coil and thereby generate electrical energy. A heat control arrangement was provided for the purpose of causing the liquid helium to be partially converted to and from a superfluid state by being cooled and heated, respectively.

  3. Environmental implications of electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; McMichael, F.C.

    1995-05-19

    California and the Northeast states have passed laws requiring 2% of 1998 cars be `0` emissions vehicles such as electric cars. Electric vehicle technology also can move emissions to less crowd and less polluted locations. However, some other problems remain. The authors focus on the environmental consequences of producing and reprocessing large quantities of batteries to power electric cars, including discussions of both characteristics of Electric Vehicles and batteries and the life cycle of lead and the problems of environmental releases. The authors conclude that electric vehicles will not be in the public interest until they pose no greater threat to public health and the environment than do alternative technologies such as vehicles using low-emission gasoline. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Electric power monthly, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  5. Electric power monthly. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels of net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  6. Electric power monthly. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in this EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  7. Electric Power Monthly, April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  8. Electric power monthly, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  9. Electric power monthly, February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-22

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  10. Electric Power Monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  11. Electric fences and accidental death.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Odell, Morris; Bouwer, Heinrich; Murdoch, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Deaths which occur in association with agricultural electric fences are very rare. In fact, electric fences have undoubtedly saved numerous human and animal lives by safely and reliably keeping livestock confined to their fields and enclosures and thus preventing motor vehicle incidents when livestock get onto roads and highways. Accidental and intentional human contact with electric fences occurs regularly and causes little more than transient discomfort, however, on exceptional occasions, contact with electric fences appears to be directly related to the death of the individual. The precise pathophysiological cause of these deaths is unclear. We present two cases of deaths associated with electric fences, discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms in these cases, and suggest a universal approach to the medico-legal investigation and documentation of these deaths.

  12. Electric organ discharges and electric images during electrolocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, C.; Rasnow, B.; Stoddard, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Weakly electric fish use active electrolocation - the generation and detection of electric currents - to explore their surroundings. Although electrosensory systems include some of the most extensively understood circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system, relatively little is known quantitatively about how fish electrolocate objects. We believe a prerequisite to understanding electrolocation and its underlying neural substrates is to quantify and visualize the peripheral electrosensory information measured by the electroreceptors. We have therefore focused on reconstructing both the electric organ discharges (EODs) and the electric images resulting from nearby objects and the fish's exploratory behaviors. Here, we review results from a combination of techniques, including field measurements, numerical and semi-analytical simulations, and video imaging of behaviors. EOD maps are presented and interpreted for six gymnotiform species. They reveal diverse electric field patterns that have significant implications for both the electrosensory and electromotor systems. Our simulations generated predictions of the electric images from nearby objects as well as sequences of electric images during exploratory behaviors. These methods are leading to the identification of image features and computational algorithms that could reliably encode electrosensory information and may help guide electrophysiological experiments exploring the neural basis of electrolocation.

  13. Space Electric Research Test in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-21

    Technicians prepare the Space Electric Research Test (SERT-I) payload for a test in Tank Number 5 of the Electric Propulsion Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis researchers had been studying different methods of electric rocket propulsion since the mid-1950s. Harold Kaufman created the first successful engine, the electron bombardment ion engine, in the early 1960s. These electric engines created and accelerated small particles of propellant material to high exhaust velocities. Electric engines have a very small amount of thrust, but once lofted into orbit by workhorse chemical rockets, they are capable of small, continuous thrust for periods up to several years. The electron bombardment thruster operated at a 90-percent efficiency during testing in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory. The package was rapidly rotated in a vacuum to simulate its behavior in space. The SERT-I mission, launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, was the first flight test of Kaufman’s ion engine. SERT-I had one cesium engine and one mercury engine. The suborbital flight was only 50 minutes in duration but proved that the ion engine could operate in space. The Electric Propulsion Laboratory included two large space simulation chambers, one of which is seen here. Each uses twenty 2.6-foot diameter diffusion pumps, blowers, and roughing pumps to remove the air inside the tank to create the thin atmosphere. A helium refrigeration system simulates the cold temperatures of space.

  14. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  15. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Taylor, W.; Arnold, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Severe storms and lightning were measured with a NASA U2 and ground based facilities, both fixed base and mobile. Aspects of this program are reported. The following results are presented: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2. These measurements include flash type identification, electric field changes, optical waveforms, and ground strike location; (2) simultaneous extremely low frequency (ELF) waveforms for cloud to ground (CG) flashes; (3) the CG strike location system (LLP) using a combination of mobile laboratory and television video data are assessed; (4) continued development of analog-to-digital conversion techniques for processing lightning data from the U2, mobile laboratory, and NSSL sensors; (5) completion of an all azimuth TV system for CG ground truth; (6) a preliminary analysis of both IC and CG lightning in a mesocyclone; and (7) the finding of a bimodal peak in altitude lightning activity in some storms in the Great Plains and on the east coast. In the forms on the Great Plains, there was a distinct class of flash what forms the upper mode of the distribution. These flashes are smaller horizontal extent, but occur more frequently than flashes in the lower mode of the distribution.

  16. America's Electricity Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2006-03-01

    Where will America's future electricity supply come from? According to Vice President Cheney's energy task force, the U.S. needs to build about one 1 GW generating facilty a week in perpetuity.^(1) What sort of facilities will they be? Can the economy sustain such growth? Are there other possibilities? One possibility that strikes a chord with physicists is conservation as a source of energy. In this regard, Vice President Cheney famously said that conservation is``a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis---all by itself---for a sound, comprehensive energy policy,''^(2) echoing the Ayn Rand Instituite's view that ``Conservation is not a long- or short-term solution to the energy crisis. Conservation is the un-American idea of resigning oneself to doing with less.''^(3) This poster will explore the possible energy futures, their advantages and disadvantages, with and without conservation. 1. National Energy Policy Development Group (R. Cheney, C. L. Powell, P. O'Neill, G. Norton, A. M. Veneman, D. L. Evans, N. Y. Mineta, S. Abraham, J. M. Allbaugh, C. T. Whitman, J. B. Bolten, M. E. Daniels, L. B. Lindsey, and R. Barrales), National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001). 2. M. Allen, ``Bush energy plan will emphasize production,'' The Washington Post, 1 May 2001 3. R. Pool, ``Saving power deemed immoral,'' The Los Angeles Times, 12 May 2001.

  17. Shuttle electrical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiddy, M.; Sullivan, W. P.; Girouard, D.; Anderson, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    Part of an AFGL payload flown on the STS-4 mission consisted of experiments to measure in-situ electric fields, electron densities, and vehicle charging. During this flight some 11 hours of data were acquired ranging from 5 minute snapshots up to continuous half-orbits. These experiments are described and results presented for such vehicle induced events as a main engine burn, thruster firings and water dumps in addition to undisturbed periods. The main characteristic of all the vehicle induced events is shown to be an enhancement in the low frequency noise (less than 2 kHz), in both the electrostatic and electron irregularity (delta N/N) spectra. The non-event results indicate that the electrostatic broadband emissions show a white noise characteristic in the low frequency range up to 2 kHz at an amplitude of 10 db above the shuttle design specification limit, falling below that limit above 10 kHz. The vehicle potential remained within the range of -3 to +1 volt throughout the flight which exhibits normal behavior for a satellite in a low equatorial orbit.

  18. The electric Moho.

    PubMed

    Jones, A G; Ferguson, I J

    2001-01-18

    Since Mohorovicić discovered a dramatic increase in compressional seismic velocity at a depth of 54 km beneath the Kulpa Valley in Croatia, the 'Moho' has become arguably the most important seismological horizon in Earth owing to its role in defining the crust-mantle boundary. It is now known to be a ubiquitous feature of the Earth, being found beneath both the continents and the oceans, and is commonly assumed to separate lower-crustal mafic rocks from upper-mantle ultramafic rocks. Electromagnetic experiments conducted to date, however, have failed to detect a corresponding change in electrical conductivity at the base of the crust, although one might be expected on the basis of laboratory measurements. Here we report electromagnetic data from the Slave craton, northern Canada, which show a step-change in conductivity at Moho depths. Such resolution is possible because the Slave craton is highly anomalous, exhibiting a total crustal conductance of less than 1 Siemens--more than an order of magnitude smaller than other Archaean cratons. We also found that the conductivity of the uppermost continental mantle directly beneath the Moho is two orders of magnitude more conducting than laboratory studies on olivine would suggest, inferring that there must be a connected conducting phase.

  19. Electrically switched ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  20. Solar electric state

    SciTech Connect

    Bumke, D.

    1982-05-01

    The booming sales of photovoltaic (PV) equipment in California is described. Three types of markets appear to exist. These are: (1) people who want to electrify a remote home and avoid the large expense of a utility hook-up; (2) suburban renegades who are reluctant to depend on the grid; and (3) the marijuana farmers of northern California who do not want public exposure. Several PV systems and homes are described and illustrated. Various options of electrical systems (ac generators versus electronic inverters) are discussed and the merits of each system are pointed out. Expenses involved in PV systems are described and various voltage and battery options (12, 24, 36, or 48 volts) are discussed. Specific use of ac or dc for particular appliances is considered in detail. It is estimated that in California more than 500 homes are being powered by over 130,000 watts of PV power. It is predicted that the use of PV's will double in the next year. Sources of information on PV's (catalogs and books) are given. (MJJ)