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Sample records for electroantennogram flight orientation

  1. Electroantennogram, flight orientation and oviposition responses of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti to a fatty acid ester-propyl octadecanoate.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, Thangaraj; Sharma, Kavita R; Prakash, Shri

    2012-10-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the role of a C(21)-fatty acid ester; propyl octadecanoate (PO) for olfaction-mediated behavioral responses of urban malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes using electroantennogram (EAG), flight orientation and oviposition experiments. Dose dependent electrophysiological responses were recorded for PO from the antenna of both mosquito species in which 10(-5) g elicited significant EAG response. An. stephensi exhibited 2.4, 4.2 and 5.5 fold increased EAG response compared to control, while Ae. aegypti showed 1.9, 4.6 and 5.8 fold EAG responses respectively at 10(-7) g, 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g doses. In the Y-tube olfactometer, 77-80% gravid females of An. stephensi, and 64-77% of Ae. aegypti were caught in the chambers releasing 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g plume of PO. The synthetic fatty acid ester loaded onto an effervescent tablet at 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L elicited increased ovipositional responses from gravid mosquitoes compared to control. The oviposition activity indices (OAI) of An. stephensi females were +0.40, +0.51 and +0.58, whereas the OAI for Ae. aegypti females were +0.05, +0.36 and +0.57 respectively in 0.1, 1, 10 mg/L of PO; indicated concentration dependent increased egg deposition. Similarly, in the residual activity studies, oviposition substrates treated with PO on effervescent tablet at 1mg/L and 10mg/L received significantly increased egg deposition by gravid females of both mosquito species for up to 1 week compared to control substrates. PO can potentially be used in ovitraps to monitor An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti populations in the vector surveillance programs.

  2. Electroantennogram, flight orientation, and oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti to the oviposition pheromone n-heneicosane.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Sharma, Kavita R; Sekhar, K; Ganesan, K; Prakash, Shri; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2009-03-01

    Oviposition pheromones specifically influence the females of many insects to lay eggs in the sites resulting in more egg deposition. A previous report describes the principal role of n-heneicosane (C(21)) identified and characterized from the larval cuticle of Aedes aegypti (L.) in attracting the gravid mosquitoes to oviposit in treated substrates among other chemical components. However, the means by which this compound is perceived by the females for oviposition has not been reported. In this study, we have recorded the peripheral olfactory responses from the antenna of Ae. aegypti from 10(-7) g to 10(-3) g doses of n-heneicosane. The EAG response of female mosquitoes increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stimulus strength. In the orientation assay using Y-maze olfactometer, female mosquitoes were attracted to the odor plume of 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g dose, while the higher dose of 10(-3) g plume enforced repellency to gravid mosquitoes. The response to oviposition substrates by gravid Ae. aegypti females differed across the range of concentrations of n-heneicosane under multiple choice conditions, larger number of eggs were deposited in 10 ppm (10 mg/l) solutions compared to lower and higher concentrations indicating 10 ppm was most attractive. Application of n-heneicosane at 10 ppm in breeding habitats will be a useful method to attract the gravid mosquitoes using ovitraps for surveillance and monitoring. The possible use of this compound in monitoring of mosquito population in endemic areas in relevance to integrated vector management strategies is discussed in detail.

  3. Line-oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the concepts related to a line-oriented flight training program are discussed. The need to shift from training in manipulative skills to something closer to management skills is emphasized. The program is evaluated in terms of its realistic approaches which include the simulator's optimized motion and visual capabilities. The value of standard operating procedures as they affect the line pilot in everyday operations are also illustrated.

  4. Parabolic flight: loss of sense of orientation.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; Graybiel, A

    1979-11-30

    On the earth, or in level flight, a blindfolded subject being rotated at constant velocity about his recumbent long body axis experiences illusory orbital motion of his body in the opposite direction. By contrast, during comparable rotation in the free-fall phase of parabolic flight, no body motion is perceived and all sense of external orientation may be lost; when touch and pressure stimulation is applied to the body surface, a sense of orientation is reestablished immediately. The increased gravitoinertial force period of a parabola produces an exaggeration of the orbital motion experienced in level flight. These observations reveal an important influence of touch, pressure, and kinesthetic information on spatial orientation and provide a basis for understanding many of the postural illusions reported by astronauts in space flight.

  5. Xyleborus glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): electroantennogram responses to host-based attractants and temporal patterns in host-seeking flight.

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Deyrup, Mark A; Guillén, Larissa; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-12-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control programs for X. glabratus will require an understanding of the chemical ecology and host-seeking behaviors of this new invasive pest. This study 1) presents an electroantennography (EAG) method developed for assessment of olfactory responses in ambrosia beetles; 2) uses that new method to quantify EAG responses of X. glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus to volatiles from three host-based attractants: manuka oil (essential oil extract from Leptospermum scoparium Forst. & Forst.), phoebe oil (extract from Phoebe porosa Mex.), and wood from silkbay (Persea humilis Nash); and 3) documents temporal differences in host-seeking flight of the sympatric Xyleborus species. Field observations revealed that X. glabratus engages in flight several hours earlier than X. affinis and X. ferrugineus, providing a window for selective capture of the target pest species. In EAG analyses with X. glabratus, antennal response to phoebe oil was equivalent to response to host Persea wood, but EAG response elicited with manuka oil was significantly less. In comparative studies, EAG response of X. glabratus was significantly higher than response of either X. affinis or X. ferrugineus to all three host-based substrates. Future research will use this EAG method to measure olfactory responses to synthetic terpenoids, facilitating identification of the specific kairomones used by X. glabratus for host location. PMID:23321108

  6. Visual cues to geographical orientation during low-level flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    A field study of an operational Emergency Medical Service (EMS) unit was conducted to investigate the relationships among geographical orientation, pilot decision making, and workload in EMS flights. The map data collected during this study were compared to protocols gathered in the laboratory, where pilots viewed a simulated flight over different types of unfamiliar terrain and verbally identified the features utilized to maintain geographical orientation. The EMS pilot's questionnaire data were compared with data from non-EMS helicopter pilots with comparable flight experience.

  7. Line-oriented flight training: Northwest Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunn, H. T.

    1981-01-01

    An exemption from certain FAA regulations which stereotype simulator flight training was obtained and pilots with current line experience were used to prepare and develop scenarios for a program in which each crew member would be trained to recognize and properly use all available resouces. The development of the scenarios for training to proficiency and pilot reaction to the training sessions are discussed.

  8. Guidelines for line-oriented flight training, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Foushee, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    Current approaches to line-oriented flight training used by six American airlines are described. This recurrent training methodology makes use of a full-crew and full-mission simulation to teach and assess resource management skills, but does not necessarily fulfill requirements for the training and manipulation of all skills.

  9. Guidelines for Line-Oriented Flight Training, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Foushee, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) is a developing training technology which synthesizes high-fidelity aircraft simulation and high-fidelity line-operations simulation to provide realistic, dynamic pilot training in a simulated line environment. LOFT is an augmentation of existing pilot training which concentrates upon command, leadership, and resource management skills. This report, based on an NASA/Industry workshop held in January, 1981, is designed to serve as a handbook for LOFT users. In addition to providing background information, guidelines are presented for designing LOFT scenarios, conducting real-time LOFT operations, pilot debriefing, and instructor qualification and training. The final chapter addressed other uses of LOFT and line-operations (or full-mission) simulation.

  10. Piracetam and fish orientation during parabolic aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Homick, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Goldfish were flown in parabolic Keplerian trajectories in a KC-135 aircraft to assay both the effectiveness of piracetam as an antimotion sickness drug and the effectiveness of state-dependent training during periods of oscillating gravity levels. Single-frame analyses of infrared films were performed for two classes of responses - role rates in hypogravity or hypogravity orienting responses (LGR) and climbing responses in hypergravity or hypergravity orienting responses (HGR). In Experiment I, preflight training with the vestibular stressor facilitated suppression of LGR by the 10th parabola. An inverse correlation was found between the magnitudes of LGR and HGR. Piracetam was not effective in a state-dependent design, but the drug did significantly increase HGR when injected into trained fish shortly before flight. In Experiment II, injections of saline, piracetam, and modifiers of gamma-aminobutyric acid - aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and isonicotinic acid did not modify LGR. AOAA did significantly increase HGR. Thus, the preflight training has a beneficial effect in reducing disorientation in the fish in weightlessness, but the drugs employed were ineffective.

  11. The effects of acoustic orientation cues on instrument flight performance in a flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Lyons, T J; Gillingham, K K; Teas, D C; Ercoline, W R; Oakley, C

    1990-08-01

    An initial version of an acoustic orientation instrument (AOI), in which airspeed was displayed as sound frequency, vertical velocity as amplitude modulation rate, and bank angle as right-left lateralization, was evaluated in a T-40 (Link GAT-3) motion-based simulator. In this study, 15 pilots and 3 non-pilots were taught to use the AOI and flew simulated flight profiles under conditions of neither visual nor auditory instrumentation (NO INPUT), AOI signals only (AOI), T-40 simulator instrumentation only (VISUAL), and T-40 simulator instrumentation with AOI signals (BOTH). Bank control under AOI conditions was significantly better than under the NO INPUT condition for all flying tasks. Bank control under VISUAL conditions was significantly better than under the AOI condition only during turning and when performing certain complex secondary tasks. The pilots' ability to use the AOI to control vertical velocity and airspeed was less apparent. However, during straight-and-level flight, turns, and descents the AOI provided the pilots with sufficient information to maintain controlled flight. Factors of potential importance in using sound to convey aircraft attitude and motion information are discussed.

  12. Aspects of Applying AN Object Oriented Design to a Small Satellite Flight Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Ulrich; Baetz, Bastian; Klinkner, Sabine; Eickhoff, Jens

    2015-09-01

    As part of the small satellite program at the Institute of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart, an object oriented flight software was developed. This paper details aspects encountered during the development and experiences gained. It shows that object orientation might be a valuable tool in the development of future complex and autonomous flight software.

  13. Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Imraan

    Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

  14. Ontogeny of orientation flight in the honeybee revealed by harmonic radar.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, E A; Smith, A D; Osborne, J L; Fahrbach, S E; Farris, S M; Reynolds, D R; Edwards, A S; Martin, A; Robinson, G E; Poppy, G M; Riley, J R

    2000-02-01

    Cognitive ethology focuses on the study of animals under natural conditions to reveal ecologically adapted modes of learning. But biologists can more easily study what an animal learns than how it learns. For example, honeybees take repeated 'orientation' flights before becoming foragers at about three weeks of age. These flights are a prerequisite for successful homing. Little is known about these flights because orienting bees rapidly fly out of the range of human observation. Using harmonic radar, we show for the first time a striking ontogeny to honeybee orientation flights. With increased experience, bees hold trip duration constant but fly faster, so later trips cover a larger area than earlier trips. In addition, each flight is typically restricted to a narrow sector around the hive. Orientation flights provide honeybees with repeated opportunities to view the hive and landscape features from different viewpoints, suggesting that bees learn the local landscape in a progressive fashion. We also show that these changes in orientation flight are related to the number of previous flights taken instead of chronological age, suggesting a learning process adapted to changes in weather conditions, flower availability and the needs of bee colonies.

  15. Visual edge orientation shapes free-flight behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A; Dickinson, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Insects rely on visual cues to estimate and control their distance to approaching objects and their flight speed. Here we show that in free-flight, the motion cues generated by high-contrast vertical edges are crucial for these estimates. Within a visual environment dominated by high-contrast horizontal edges, flies fly unusually fast and barely avoid colliding with the walls of the enclosure. The disruption of flight behavior by horizontal edges provides insight into the structure of visually-mediated control algorithms.

  16. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  17. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests.

  18. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests. PMID:26549128

  19. Confronting the winds: orientation and flight behaviour of roosting swifts, Apus apus.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, J; Alerstam, T

    2001-05-22

    Swifts, Apus apus, spend the night aloft and this offers an opportunity to test the degree of adaptability of bird orientation and flight to different ecological situations. We predicted the swifts' behaviour by assuming that they are adapted to minimize energy expenditure during the nocturnal flight and during a compensatory homing flight if they become displaced by wind. We tested the predictions by recording the swifts' altitudes, speeds and directions under different wind conditions with tracking radar; we found an agreement between predictions and observations for orientation behaviour, but not for altitude and speed regulation. The swifts orientated consistently into the head wind, with angular concentration increasing with increasing wind speed. However, contrary to our predictions, they did not select altitudes with slow or moderate winds, nor did they increase their airspeed distinctly when flying into strong head winds. A possible explanation is that their head-wind orientation is sufficient to keep nocturnal displacement from their home area within tolerable limits, leaving flight altitude to be determined by other factors (correlated with temperature), and airspeed to show only a marginal increase in strong winds. The swifts were often moving "backwards", heading straight into the wind but being overpowered by wind speeds exceeding their airspeed. The regular occurrence of such flights is probably uniquely associated with the swifts' remarkable habit of roosting on the wing.

  20. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    Based on an analysis of previously developed test oriented languages and a study of test language requirements, a high order language was designed to enable test and flight engineers to checkout and operate the proposed space shuttle and other NASA vehicles and experiments. The language is called ALOFT (a language oriented to flight engineering and testing). The language is described, its terminology is compared to similar terms in other test languages, and its features and utilization are discussed. The appendix provides the specifications for ALOFT.

  1. Enhancements in Uav Flight Control and Sensor Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäumker, M.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Zurhorst, A.

    2013-08-01

    The acquisition of photogrammetric image data by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has developed in recent years to an interesting new measurement method especially for small to medium sizes of objects. In addition the latest developments in the field of navigation systems (GNSS), of inertial sensors and other sensors in combination with powerful and easy to program microcontrollers have made a major contribution to this. In particular, the development of MEMS sensors has triggered the boom of the UAV and has given decisively influence and it is still going on. The integration of sensors on a single board not only enables a cost-effective manufacturing and mass production, but also the use in accordance with small, lightweight UAV. The latest developments on a 50 mm × 50 mm-sized circuit board combine the sensors and the microcontroller for the flight control and flight navigation. Both the board and the microcontroller are easy to program and maintain several interfaces for connecting additional sensors, such as GNSS, ultrasonic sensors and telemetry. This article presents the UAV system of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences, the used sensors and the obtained results for accurate georeferencing.

  2. Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed

    Alerstam; Gudmundsson

    1999-12-22

    Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

  3. What can be learnt from analysing insect orientation flights using probabilistic SLAM?

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bartholomew; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Collett, Thomas; Husbands, Phillip

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of orientation flights in bumblebees, employing a novel technique based on simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) a probabilistic approach from autonomous robotics. We use SLAM to determine what bumblebees might learn about the locations of objects in the world through the arcing behaviours that are typical of these flights. Our results indicate that while the bees are clearly influenced by the presence of a conspicuous landmark, there is little evidence that they structure their flights to specifically learn about the position of the landmark. PMID:19639335

  4. What can be learnt from analysing insect orientation flights using probabilistic SLAM?

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bartholomew; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Collett, Thomas; Husbands, Phillip

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of orientation flights in bumblebees, employing a novel technique based on simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) a probabilistic approach from autonomous robotics. We use SLAM to determine what bumblebees might learn about the locations of objects in the world through the arcing behaviours that are typical of these flights. Our results indicate that while the bees are clearly influenced by the presence of a conspicuous landmark, there is little evidence that they structure their flights to specifically learn about the position of the landmark.

  5. NASA TSRV essential flight control system requirements via object oriented analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Keith S.; Hoza, Bradley J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the baseline flight control system of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) and to develop a system specification that offers high visibility of the essential system requirements in order to facilitate the future development of alternate, more advanced software architectures. The flight control system is defined to be the baseline software for the TSRV research flight deck, including all navigation, guidance, and control functions, and primary pilot displays. The Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) methodology developed is used to develop a system requirement definition. The scope of the requirements definition contained herein is limited to a portion of the Flight Management/Flight Control computer functionality. The development of a partial system requirements definition is documented, and includes a discussion of the tasks required to increase the scope of the requirements definition and recommendations for follow-on research.

  6. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  7. Using Insect Electroantennogram Sensors on Autonomous Robots for Olfactory Searches

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Dominique; Arhidi, Lotfi; Demondion, Elodie; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Robots designed to track chemical leaks in hazardous industrial facilities1 or explosive traces in landmine fields2 face the same problem as insects foraging for food or searching for mates3: the olfactory search is constrained by the physics of turbulent transport4. The concentration landscape of wind borne odors is discontinuous and consists of sporadically located patches. A pre-requisite to olfactory search is that intermittent odor patches are detected. Because of its high speed and sensitivity5-6, the olfactory organ of insects provides a unique opportunity for detection. Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones7 but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e.g., volatile compounds emanating from cancer cells8 or toxic and illicit substances9-11. We describe here a protocol for using insect antennae on autonomous robots and present a proof of concept for tracking odor plumes to their source. The global response of olfactory neurons is recorded in situ in the form of electroantennograms (EAGs). Our experimental design, based on a whole insect preparation, allows stable recordings within a working day. In comparison, EAGs on excised antennae have a lifetime of 2 hr. A custom hardware/software interface was developed between the EAG electrodes and a robot. The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical sensors12. The efficiency of EAG sensors for olfactory searches is further demonstrated in driving the robot toward a source of pheromone. By using identical olfactory stimuli and sensors as in real animals, our robotic platform provides a direct means for testing biological hypotheses about olfactory coding and search strategies13. It may also prove beneficial for detecting other odorants of interests by combining EAGs from different insect species in a bioelectronic nose configuration14 or using nanostructured gas sensors that mimic insect antennae15

  8. Using insect electroantennogram sensors on autonomous robots for olfactory searches.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Dominique; Arhidi, Lotfi; Demondion, Elodie; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2014-08-04

    Robots designed to track chemical leaks in hazardous industrial facilities or explosive traces in landmine fields face the same problem as insects foraging for food or searching for mates: the olfactory search is constrained by the physics of turbulent transport. The concentration landscape of wind borne odors is discontinuous and consists of sporadically located patches. A pre-requisite to olfactory search is that intermittent odor patches are detected. Because of its high speed and sensitivity, the olfactory organ of insects provides a unique opportunity for detection. Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e.g., volatile compounds emanating from cancer cells or toxic and illicit substances. We describe here a protocol for using insect antennae on autonomous robots and present a proof of concept for tracking odor plumes to their source. The global response of olfactory neurons is recorded in situ in the form of electroantennograms (EAGs). Our experimental design, based on a whole insect preparation, allows stable recordings within a working day. In comparison, EAGs on excised antennae have a lifetime of 2 hr. A custom hardware/software interface was developed between the EAG electrodes and a robot. The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical sensors. The efficiency of EAG sensors for olfactory searches is further demonstrated in driving the robot toward a source of pheromone. By using identical olfactory stimuli and sensors as in real animals, our robotic platform provides a direct means for testing biological hypotheses about olfactory coding and search strategies. It may also prove beneficial for detecting other odorants of interests by combining EAGs from different insect species in a bioelectronic nose configuration or using nanostructured gas sensors that mimic insect antennae.

  9. Using insect electroantennogram sensors on autonomous robots for olfactory searches.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Dominique; Arhidi, Lotfi; Demondion, Elodie; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Robots designed to track chemical leaks in hazardous industrial facilities or explosive traces in landmine fields face the same problem as insects foraging for food or searching for mates: the olfactory search is constrained by the physics of turbulent transport. The concentration landscape of wind borne odors is discontinuous and consists of sporadically located patches. A pre-requisite to olfactory search is that intermittent odor patches are detected. Because of its high speed and sensitivity, the olfactory organ of insects provides a unique opportunity for detection. Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e.g., volatile compounds emanating from cancer cells or toxic and illicit substances. We describe here a protocol for using insect antennae on autonomous robots and present a proof of concept for tracking odor plumes to their source. The global response of olfactory neurons is recorded in situ in the form of electroantennograms (EAGs). Our experimental design, based on a whole insect preparation, allows stable recordings within a working day. In comparison, EAGs on excised antennae have a lifetime of 2 hr. A custom hardware/software interface was developed between the EAG electrodes and a robot. The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical sensors. The efficiency of EAG sensors for olfactory searches is further demonstrated in driving the robot toward a source of pheromone. By using identical olfactory stimuli and sensors as in real animals, our robotic platform provides a direct means for testing biological hypotheses about olfactory coding and search strategies. It may also prove beneficial for detecting other odorants of interests by combining EAGs from different insect species in a bioelectronic nose configuration or using nanostructured gas sensors that mimic insect antennae. PMID:25145980

  10. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Cotesia plutellae to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, You-Nan; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Plant volatiles have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating the behavior of Cotesia plutellae, a major larval parasitoid of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, but little is currently known about the function of each volatile and their mixtures. We selected 13 volatiles of the DBM host plant, a cruciferous vegetable, to study the electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of C. plutellae. EAG responses to each of the compounds generally increased with concentration. Strong EAG responses were to 100 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and cis-3-hexenol, and 10 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde with the strongest response provoked by trans-2-hexenal at 100 μL/mL. In the Y-tube olfactometer, C. plutellae, was significantly attracted by 1 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde. β-caryophyllene, cis-3-hexenol or trans-2-hexenal significantly attracted C. plutellae at 10 μL/mL, while nonanal, benzyl alcohol, cis-3-hexenol or benzyl cyanide at 100 μL/mL significantly attracted C. plutellae. Trans-2-hexenal significantly repelled C. plutellae at 100 μL/mL. EAG of C. plutellae showed strong responses to all mixtures made of five various compounds with mixtures 3 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, cis-3-hexenol, benzyl cyanide, farnesene, eucalyptol) and 4 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, (R)-(+)-limonene, β-ionone, farnesene, eucalyptol) significantly attracting C. plutellae. These findings demonstrate that the behavior of C. plutellae can be affected either by individual compounds or mixtures of plant volatiles, suggesting a potential of using plant volatiles to improve the efficiency of this parasitoid for biocontrol of P. xylostella.

  11. Multisensory cueing for enhancing orientation information during flight.

    PubMed

    Albery, William B

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force still regards spatial disorientation (SD) and loss of situational awareness (SA) as major contributing factors in operational Class A aircraft mishaps ($1M in aircraft loss and/or pilot fatality). Air Force Safety Agency data show 71 Class A SD mishaps from 1991-2004 in both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. These mishaps resulted in 62 fatalities and an aircraft cost of over $2.OB. These losses account for 21 % of the USAF's Class A mishaps during that 14-yr period. Even non-mishap SD events negatively impact aircrew performance and reduce mission effectiveness. A multisensory system has been developed called the Spatial Orientation Retention Device (SORD) to enhance the aircraft attitude information to the pilot. SORD incorporates multisensory aids including helmet mounted symbology and tactile and audio cues. SORD has been prototyped and demonstrated in the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The technology has now been transitioned to a Rotary Wing Brownout program. This paper discusses the development of SORD and a potential application, including an augmented cognition application. Unlike automatic ground collision avoidance systems, SORD does not take over the aircraft if a pre-set altitude is broached by the pilot; rather, SORD provides complementary attitude cues to the pilot via the tactile, audio, and visual systems that allow the pilot to continue flying through disorienting conditions.

  12. Multisensory cueing for enhancing orientation information during flight.

    PubMed

    Albery, William B

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force still regards spatial disorientation (SD) and loss of situational awareness (SA) as major contributing factors in operational Class A aircraft mishaps ($1M in aircraft loss and/or pilot fatality). Air Force Safety Agency data show 71 Class A SD mishaps from 1991-2004 in both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. These mishaps resulted in 62 fatalities and an aircraft cost of over $2.OB. These losses account for 21 % of the USAF's Class A mishaps during that 14-yr period. Even non-mishap SD events negatively impact aircrew performance and reduce mission effectiveness. A multisensory system has been developed called the Spatial Orientation Retention Device (SORD) to enhance the aircraft attitude information to the pilot. SORD incorporates multisensory aids including helmet mounted symbology and tactile and audio cues. SORD has been prototyped and demonstrated in the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The technology has now been transitioned to a Rotary Wing Brownout program. This paper discusses the development of SORD and a potential application, including an augmented cognition application. Unlike automatic ground collision avoidance systems, SORD does not take over the aircraft if a pre-set altitude is broached by the pilot; rather, SORD provides complementary attitude cues to the pilot via the tactile, audio, and visual systems that allow the pilot to continue flying through disorienting conditions. PMID:17547319

  13. Bumblebee flight performance in cluttered environments: effects of obstacle orientation, body size and acceleration.

    PubMed

    Crall, James D; Ravi, Sridhar; Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2015-09-01

    Locomotion through structurally complex environments is fundamental to the life history of most flying animals, and the costs associated with movement through clutter have important consequences for the ecology and evolution of volant taxa. However, few studies have directly investigated how flying animals navigate through cluttered environments, or examined which aspects of flight performance are most critical for this challenging task. Here, we examined how body size, acceleration and obstacle orientation affect the flight of bumblebees in an artificial, cluttered environment. Non-steady flight performance is often predicted to decrease with body size, as a result of a presumed reduction in acceleration capacity, but few empirical tests of this hypothesis have been performed in flying animals. We found that increased body size is associated with impaired flight performance (specifically transit time) in cluttered environments, but not with decreased peak accelerations. In addition, previous studies have shown that flying insects can produce higher accelerations along the lateral body axis, suggesting that if maneuvering is constrained by acceleration capacity, insects should perform better when maneuvering around objects laterally rather than vertically. Our data show that bumblebees do generate higher accelerations in the lateral direction, but we found no difference in their ability to pass through obstacle courses requiring lateral versus vertical maneuvering. In sum, our results suggest that acceleration capacity is not a primary determinant of flight performance in clutter, as is often assumed. Rather than being driven by the scaling of acceleration, we show that the reduced flight performance of larger bees in cluttered environments is driven by the allometry of both path sinuosity and mean flight speed. Specifically, differences in collision-avoidance behavior underlie much of the variation in flight performance across body size, with larger bees

  14. Optimal search patterns in honeybee orientation flights are robust against emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Stephan; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Andrew M.; Wells, Patricia; Lim, Ka S.; Paxton, Robert J.; Osborne, Juliet L.

    2016-01-01

    Lévy flights are scale-free (fractal) search patterns found in a wide range of animals. They can be an advantageous strategy promoting high encounter rates with rare cues that may indicate prey items, mating partners or navigational landmarks. The robustness of this behavioural strategy to ubiquitous threats to animal performance, such as pathogens, remains poorly understood. Using honeybees radar-tracked during their orientation flights in a novel landscape, we assess for the first time how two emerging infectious diseases (Nosema sp. and the Varroa-associated Deformed wing virus (DWV)) affect bees’ behavioural performance and search strategy. Nosema infection, unlike DWV, affected the spatial scale of orientation flights, causing significantly shorter and more compact flights. However, in stark contrast to disease-dependent temporal fractals, we find the same prevalence of optimal Lévy flight characteristics (μ ≈ 2) in both healthy and infected bees. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of these surprising insights, arguing that Lévy search patterns are an emergent property of fundamental characteristics of neuronal and sensory components of the decision-making process, making them robust against diverse physiological effects of pathogen infection and possibly other stressors. PMID:27615605

  15. Optimal search patterns in honeybee orientation flights are robust against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephan; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Andrew M; Wells, Patricia; Lim, Ka S; Paxton, Robert J; Osborne, Juliet L

    2016-01-01

    Lévy flights are scale-free (fractal) search patterns found in a wide range of animals. They can be an advantageous strategy promoting high encounter rates with rare cues that may indicate prey items, mating partners or navigational landmarks. The robustness of this behavioural strategy to ubiquitous threats to animal performance, such as pathogens, remains poorly understood. Using honeybees radar-tracked during their orientation flights in a novel landscape, we assess for the first time how two emerging infectious diseases (Nosema sp. and the Varroa-associated Deformed wing virus (DWV)) affect bees' behavioural performance and search strategy. Nosema infection, unlike DWV, affected the spatial scale of orientation flights, causing significantly shorter and more compact flights. However, in stark contrast to disease-dependent temporal fractals, we find the same prevalence of optimal Lévy flight characteristics (μ ≈ 2) in both healthy and infected bees. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of these surprising insights, arguing that Lévy search patterns are an emergent property of fundamental characteristics of neuronal and sensory components of the decision-making process, making them robust against diverse physiological effects of pathogen infection and possibly other stressors. PMID:27615605

  16. Optimal search patterns in honeybee orientation flights are robust against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephan; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Andrew M; Wells, Patricia; Lim, Ka S; Paxton, Robert J; Osborne, Juliet L

    2016-01-01

    Lévy flights are scale-free (fractal) search patterns found in a wide range of animals. They can be an advantageous strategy promoting high encounter rates with rare cues that may indicate prey items, mating partners or navigational landmarks. The robustness of this behavioural strategy to ubiquitous threats to animal performance, such as pathogens, remains poorly understood. Using honeybees radar-tracked during their orientation flights in a novel landscape, we assess for the first time how two emerging infectious diseases (Nosema sp. and the Varroa-associated Deformed wing virus (DWV)) affect bees' behavioural performance and search strategy. Nosema infection, unlike DWV, affected the spatial scale of orientation flights, causing significantly shorter and more compact flights. However, in stark contrast to disease-dependent temporal fractals, we find the same prevalence of optimal Lévy flight characteristics (μ ≈ 2) in both healthy and infected bees. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of these surprising insights, arguing that Lévy search patterns are an emergent property of fundamental characteristics of neuronal and sensory components of the decision-making process, making them robust against diverse physiological effects of pathogen infection and possibly other stressors.

  17. Virtual reality flight control display with six-degree-of-freedom controller and spherical orientation overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A virtual reality flight control system displays to the pilot the image of a scene surrounding a vehicle or pod having six degrees of freedom of acceleration or velocity control by the pilot and traveling through inertial space, the image itself including a superimposed figure providing the pilot an instant reference of orientation consisting of superimposed sets of geometric figures whose relative orientations provide the pilot an instantaneous feel or sense of orientation changes with respect to some fixed coordinate system. They include a first set of geometric figures whose orientations are fixed to the pilot's vehicle and a second set of geometric figures whose orientations are fixed with respect to a fixed or interstellar coordinate system. The first set of figures is a first set of orthogonal great circles about the three orthogonal axes of the flight vehicle or pod and centered at and surrounding the pilot's head, while the second set of figures is a second set of orthogonal great circles about the three orthogonal axes of a fixed or interstellar coordinate system, also centered at and surrounding the pilot's head.

  18. Conophthorin enhances the electroantennogram and field behavioral response of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol acts as a long range cue that aids Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) in locating living, but weakened trees. Conophthorin is associated with a variety of deciduous trees and enhances X. germanus’ attraction to vulnerable trees. Electroantennogram (EAG) and field trapping experiments were cond...

  19. An Electroantennogram Technique for the Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable electroantennogram (EAG) responses were obtained from the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), by using a whole-body mount with glass electrodes filled with KCl saturated AgCl solution that penetrated the antennal club (recording electrode) and the membrane attached to the cervic...

  20. An integrated user-oriented laboratory for verification of digital flight control systems: Features and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defeo, P.; Doane, D.; Saito, J.

    1982-01-01

    A Digital Flight Control Systems Verification Laboratory (DFCSVL) has been established at NASA Ames Research Center. This report describes the major elements of the laboratory, the research activities that can be supported in the area of verification and validation of digital flight control systems (DFCS), and the operating scenarios within which these activities can be carried out. The DFCSVL consists of a palletized dual-dual flight-control system linked to a dedicated PDP-11/60 processor. Major software support programs are hosted in a remotely located UNIVAC 1100 accessible from the PDP-11/60 through a modem link. Important features of the DFCSVL include extensive hardware and software fault insertion capabilities, a real-time closed loop environment to exercise the DFCS, an integrated set of software verification tools, and a user-oriented interface to all the resources and capabilities.

  1. Orientation of Culex mosquitoes to carbon dioxide-baited traps: flight manoeuvres and trapping efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cooperband, M F; Cardé, R T

    2006-03-01

    Females of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Culex tarsalis Coquillet (Diptera: Culicidae) in the host-seeking stage were released and video recorded in three dimensions in a large field wind tunnel as they flew to four kinds of CO2-baited mosquito traps. The trapping efficiency (number of mosquitoes approaching compared to the number caught) was determined for each trap type. The Encephalitis Virus Surveillance (EVS), Mosquito Magnet Freedom (MMF) and Mosquito Magnet Liberty (MML) traps captured only 13-16% of approaching Cx. quinquefasciatus females, whereas the Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) trap captured 58%. Similar results were obtained for Cx. tarsalis. Orientation behaviour and flight parameters of mosquitoes approaching the four traps were compared. Mosquitoes spent the most time orienting to the EVS trap. Flight speed decreased as mosquitoes entered the vicinity of each trap and a large portion of their time was spent within 30 cm downwind of the traps. Flights became highly tortuous downwind of the poorly performing traps and just upwind of the MMX trap. Differences between traps and possible explanations for the superior performance of the MMX trap are considered.

  2. Altered orientation and flight paths of pigeons reared on gravity anomalies: a GPS tracking study.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Meskenaite, Virginia; Kanevskyi, Valerii A; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.

  3. Altered Orientation and Flight Paths of Pigeons Reared on Gravity Anomalies: A GPS Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I.; Meskenaite, Virginia; Kanevskyi, Valerii A.; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The “gravity vector” theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates. PMID:24194860

  4. Flight, orientation, and homing abilities of honeybees following exposure to 2. 45-GHz CW microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, N.E.; Westerdahl, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    Foraging-experienced honeybees retained normal flight, orientation, and memory functions after 30 minutes' exposure to 2.45-GHz CW microwaves at power densities from 3 to 50 mW/cm2. These experiments were conducted at power densities approximating and exceeding those that would be present above receiving antennas of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) energy transmission system and for a duration exceeding that which honeybees living outside a rectenna might be expected to spend within the rectenna on individual foraging trips. There was no evidence that airborne invertebrates would be significantly affected during transient passage through microwaves associated with SPS ground-based microwave receiving stations.

  5. Spatial orientation of optokinetic nystagmus and ocular pursuit during orbital space flight.

    PubMed

    Moore, Steven T; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore; Berthoz, Alain; Clément, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    On Earth, eye velocity of horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) orients to gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA), the sum of linear accelerations acting on the head and body. We determined whether adaptation to micro-gravity altered this orientation and whether ocular pursuit exhibited similar properties. Eye movements of four astronauts were recorded with three-dimensional video-oculography. Optokinetic stimuli were stripes moving horizontally, vertically, and obliquely at 30 degrees/s. Ocular pursuit was produced by a spot moving horizontally or vertically at 20 degrees/s. Subjects were either stationary or were centrifuged during OKN with 1 or 0.5 g of interaural or dorsoventral centripetal linear acceleration. Average eye position during OKN (the beating field) moved into the quick-phase direction by 10 degrees during lateral and upward field movement in all conditions. The beating field did not shift up during downward OKN on Earth, but there was a strong upward movement of the beating field (9 degrees) during downward OKN in the absence of gravity; this likely represents an adaptation to the lack of a vertical 1-g bias in-flight. The horizontal OKN velocity axis tilted 9 degrees in the roll plane toward the GIA during interaural centrifugation, both on Earth and in space. During oblique OKN, the velocity vector tilted towards the GIA in the roll plane when there was a disparity between the direction of stripe motion and the GIA, but not when the two were aligned. In contrast, dorsoventral acceleration tilted the horizontal OKN velocity vector 6 degrees in pitch away from the GIA. Roll tilts of the horizontal OKN velocity vector toward the GIA during interaural centrifugation are consistent with the orientation properties of velocity storage, but pitch tilts away from the GIA when centrifuged while supine are not. We speculate that visual suppression during OKN may have caused the velocity vector to tilt away from the GIA during dorsoventral centrifugation

  6. Spatial orientation of optokinetic nystagmus and ocular pursuit during orbital space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Steven T.; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore; Berthoz, Alain; Clement, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    On Earth, eye velocity of horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) orients to gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA), the sum of linear accelerations acting on the head and body. We determined whether adaptation to micro-gravity altered this orientation and whether ocular pursuit exhibited similar properties. Eye movements of four astronauts were recorded with three-dimensional video-oculography. Optokinetic stimuli were stripes moving horizontally, vertically, and obliquely at 30 degrees/s. Ocular pursuit was produced by a spot moving horizontally or vertically at 20 degrees/s. Subjects were either stationary or were centrifuged during OKN with 1 or 0.5 g of interaural or dorsoventral centripetal linear acceleration. Average eye position during OKN (the beating field) moved into the quick-phase direction by 10 degrees during lateral and upward field movement in all conditions. The beating field did not shift up during downward OKN on Earth, but there was a strong upward movement of the beating field (9 degrees) during downward OKN in the absence of gravity; this likely represents an adaptation to the lack of a vertical 1-g bias in-flight. The horizontal OKN velocity axis tilted 9 degrees in the roll plane toward the GIA during interaural centrifugation, both on Earth and in space. During oblique OKN, the velocity vector tilted towards the GIA in the roll plane when there was a disparity between the direction of stripe motion and the GIA, but not when the two were aligned. In contrast, dorsoventral acceleration tilted the horizontal OKN velocity vector 6 degrees in pitch away from the GIA. Roll tilts of the horizontal OKN velocity vector toward the GIA during interaural centrifugation are consistent with the orientation properties of velocity storage, but pitch tilts away from the GIA when centrifuged while supine are not. We speculate that visual suppression during OKN may have caused the velocity vector to tilt away from the GIA during dorsoventral centrifugation

  7. Nasonov pheromone of the honeybee.Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) : IV. Comparative electroantennogram responses.

    PubMed

    Williams, I H; Pickett, J A; Martin, A P

    1982-02-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses from worker honeybee antennae were obtained for each Nasonov component. Response amplitudes to 10 μg of components correlated well with reported relative abilities to attract foragers in the field. EAG responses of worker, queen, and drone antennae to natural pheromone were consistently greater than to synthetic pheromone, a difference only partly explained by enzymic conversion of geraniol to (E)-citral during preparation of natural extracts.

  8. Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Claudia C; Robinson, Gene E

    2013-06-01

    The natural history of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of learning in an ecological context. Foragers must learn to navigate between the hive and floral locations that may be up to miles away. Young pre-foragers prepare for this task by performing orientation flights near the hive, during which they begin to learn navigational cues such as the appearance of the hive, the position of landmarks, and the movement of the sun. Despite well-described spatial learning and navigation behavior, there is currently limited information on the neural basis of insect spatial learning. We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation. This result is the first example of an Egr-1 homolog acting as a learning-related immediate-early gene in an insect and also demonstrates that honey bee orientation uses a molecular mechanism that is known to be involved in many other forms of learning. This transcriptional response occurred both in naïve bees and in foragers induced to re-orient. Further experiments suggest that visual environmental novelty, rather than exercise or memorization of specific visual cues, acts as the stimulus for Egr upregulation. Our results implicate the mushroom bodies in spatial learning and emphasize the deep conservation of Egr-related pathways in experience-dependent plasticity.

  9. Posture, locomotion, spatial orientation, and motion sickness as a function of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.; Layne, C.; McDonald, V.

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes a variety of newly published findings obtained by the Neuroscience Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, and attempts to place this work within a historical framework of previous results on posture, locomotion, motion sickness, and perceptual responses that have been observed in conjunction with space flight. In this context, we have taken the view that correct transduction and integration of signals from all sensory systems is essential to maintaining stable vision, postural and locomotor control, and eye-hand coordination as components of spatial orientation. The plasticity of the human central nervous system allows individuals to adapt to altered stimulus conditions encountered in a microgravity environment. However, until some level of adaptation is achieved, astronauts and cosmonauts often experience space motion sickness, disturbances in motion control and eye-hand coordination, unstable vision, and illusory motion of the self, the visual scene, or both. Many of the same types of disturbances encountered in space flight reappear immediately after crew members return to earth. The magnitude of these neurosensory, sensory-motor and perceptual disturbances, and the time needed to recover from them, tend to vary as a function of mission duration and the space travelers prior experience with the stimulus rearrangement of space flight. To adequately chart the development of neurosensory changes associated with space flight, we recommend development of enhanced eye movement systems and body position measurement. We also advocate the use of a human small radius centrifuge as both a research tool and as a means of providing on-orbit countermeasures that will lessen the impact of living for long periods of time with out exposure to altering gravito-inertial forces. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Prior classical olfactory conditioning improves odour-cued flight orientation of honey bees in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Chaffiol, Antoine; Laloi, David; Pham-Delègue, Minh-Hà

    2005-10-01

    Odours are key cues used by the honey bee in various situations. They play an important role in sexual attraction, social behaviour and location of profitable food sources. Here, we were interested in the role of odours in orientation at short distance, for instance the approach flight to a floral patch or in close proximity to the hive entrance. Using a newly designed wind tunnel, we investigated the orientation behaviour of the bee towards two different odours: a social odour and a floral component, linalool. We then tested the effect of prior olfactory conditioning (conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex) on subsequent flight orientation. We showed that both stimuli induced orientated behaviour (orientated flights, circling around the odour source) in up to 70% of the worker bees, social odour being slightly more attractive than the linalool. We found thereafter that orientation performance towards the floral compound can be significantly enhanced by prior classical olfactory learning. This type of information transfer, from a Pavlovian associative context to an orientation task, might allow future foragers to acquire, within the hive, relevant information about the odours and food they will encounter during their later foraging bouts.

  11. Improving target orientation discrimination performance in air-to-air flight simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfoss, Gary Lee

    Despite significant advances, state-of-the-art image projectors still lack the ability to display object detail equivalent to a 20/20 visual acuity capability. Unfortunately, for proper close-in air combat training in a flight simulator, this level of detail is necessary if a pilot is to accurately determine the orientation of another aircraft at realistic ranges. This investigation evaluates a possible interim solution to this problem that could be implemented until projectors are developed that can provide adequate resolution. The research methodology involves enlarging the "enemy" aircraft by various amounts as a function of distance-resulting in an aircraft that still always gets smaller as it moves farther away, but just not as quickly as a "non-enlarged" target. The results from 20 male F-16 pilots provided the distances where the orientation of aircraft in the simulator could be determined as well as similar aircraft under "real-world" conditions. By using these distances, it was possible to determine the amount of magnification needed to identify necessary details of the simulated aircraft at the same distances as they are under "real-world" conditions. The final product is a magnification curve that can be used to modify how the simulated target changes in size as a function of distance. Results seem to indicate that performance in the simulator might be enhanced to match real flying conditions without unacceptably (or perhaps even noticeably) altering the size of the target. These results should be applicable (with minor modification) to many other aircraft and perhaps ground targets as well. Furthermore, it is anticipated that application can be made beyond flight simulation to other types of simulation where performance is also currently inhibited due to lack of display resolution.

  12. Aquarius' Object-Oriented, Plug and Play Component-Based Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alexander; Shahabuddin, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The Aquarius mission involves a combined radiometer and radar instrument in low-Earth orbit, providing monthly global maps of Sea Surface Salinity. Operating successfully in orbit since June, 2011, the spacecraft bus was furnished by the Argentine space agency, Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The instrument, built jointly by NASA's Caltech/JPL and Goddard Space Flight Center, has been successfully producing expectation-exceeding data since it was powered on in August of 2011. In addition to the radiometer and scatterometer, the instrument contains an command & data-handling subsystem with a computer and flight software (FSW) that is responsible for managing the instrument, its operation, and its data. Aquarius' FSW is conceived and architected as a Component-based system, in which the running software consists of a set of Components, each playing a distinctive role in the subsystem, instantiated and connected together at runtime. Component architectures feature a well-defined set of interfaces between the Components, visible and analyzable at the architectural level (see [1]). As we will describe, this kind of an architecture offers significant advantages over more traditional FSW architectures, which often feature a monolithic runtime structure. Component-based software is enabled by Object-Oriented (OO) techniques and languages, the use of which again is not typical in space mission FSW. We will argue in this paper that the use of OO design methods and tools (especially the Unified Modeling Language), as well as the judicious usage of C++, are very well suited to FSW applications, and we will present Aquarius FSW, describing our methods, processes, and design, as a successful case in point.

  13. Aquarius' Object-Oriented, plug and play component-based flight software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A.; Shahabuddin, M.

    The Aquarius mission involves a combined radiometer and radar instrument in low-Earth orbit, providing monthly global maps of Sea Surface Salinity. Operating successfully in orbit since June, 2011, the spacecraft bus was furnished by the Argentine space agency, Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The instrument, built jointly by NASA's Caltech/JPL and Goddard Space Flight Center, has been successfully producing expectation-exceeding data since it was powered on in August of 2011. In addition to the radiometer and scatterometer, the instrument contains an command & data-handling subsystem with a computer and flight software (FSW) that is responsible for managing the instrument, its operation, and its data. Aquarius' FSW is conceived and architected as a Component based system, in which the running software consists of a set of Components, each playing a distinctive role in the subsystem, instantiated and connected together at runtime. Component architectures feature a well-defined set of interfaces between the Components, visible and analyzable at the architectural level. As we will describe, this kind of an architecture offers significant advantages over more traditional FSW architectures, which often feature a monolithic runtime structure. Component-based software is enabled by Object-Oriented (OO) techniques and languages, the use of which again is not typical in space mission FSW. We will argue in this paper that the use of OO design methods and tools (especially the Unified Modeling Language), as well as the judicious usage of C++, are very well suited to FSW applications, and we will present Aquarius FSW, describing our methods, processes, and design, as a successful case in point.

  14. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls.

  15. MUST - An integrated system of support tools for research flight software engineering. [Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Foudriat, E. C.; Will, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program at Langley Research Center are to cut the cost of producing software which effectively utilizes digital systems for flight research. These objectives will be accomplished by providing an integrated system of support software tools for use throughout the research flight software development process. A description of the overall MUST program and its progress toward the release of a first MUST system will be presented. This release includes: a special interactive user interface, a library of subroutines, assemblers, a compiler, automatic documentation tools, and a test and simulation system.

  16. Electroantennograms by mountain pine beetles,Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, exposed to selected chiral semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, A T; Del Scott, T; Schmitz, R F; Mori, K

    1989-07-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded fromD. ponderosae to the enantiomers of the terpenoid bark-beetle pheromonestrans-verbenol,cis-verbenol, verbenone, and the bicyclic ketals frontalin,exo-brevicomin, andendo-brevicomin. Male and female responses to enantiomers of the terpenoids differed significantly only at the two highest concentrations. No sex differences were seen in response to the bicyclic ketals. Significantly different responses to the enantiomers of all the chemicals, except frontalin, were noted over at least part of the dosage-response ranges tested. The negative antipode for all of the terpenoids elicited higher responses, while for the bicyclic ketals, the positive antipode effected the largest responses except for the two highest concentrations ofexo-brevicomin.

  17. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. PMID:25368046

  18. Behavioral and Electroantennogram Responses of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Selected Noxious Plant Extracts and Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Gökçe, A.; Stelinski, L. L.; Nortman, D. R.; Bryan, W. W.; Whalon, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa—kaolin, H. lupulus—kaolin, and X. strumarium—kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract—kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. PMID:25368046

  19. Electroantennogram Responses of the Tea Slug Moth, Iragoides fasciata to Some Plant Volatiles Associated with Tea, Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, J ing; Han, Bao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species. PMID:23414096

  20. Student-Oriented versus Teacher-Centred: The Effect of Learning at Workstations about Birds and Bird Flight on Cognitive Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Heike; Bogner, Franz X.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated cognitive and motivational effects of two educational interventions, a conventional versus a student-oriented approach. We monitored the impact on the cognitive achievement outcome and the motivation of students. Both approaches dealt with the subject of birds and bird flight; the student-oriented approach consisted of a…

  1. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  2. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours. PMID:23737560

  3. Electroantennogram responses by mountain pine beetles,Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, exposed to selected semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, A T

    1986-07-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were obtained forD. ponderosae to the bark beetle pheromonestrans-verbenol,cis-verbenol,exo-brevicomin,endo-brevicomin, frontalin, verbenone; to the kairomones, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, limonene, myrcene; to a blend (1∶1∶1) oftrans-verbenol,exo-brevicomin, and myrcene; and to diacetone-alcohol. Male and female responses, in general, did not differ significantly over the whole EAG dose-response curves but differed at a few concentrations on many of the curves. There were more differences noted for pheromones than kairomones. The blend yielded among the largest EAGs in both sexes and appeared to show synergism. Responses of females were lower than those for males in most instances. Significant differences in responses by the two sexes were much fewer for the kairomones than the pheromones. EAG recovery rates tested at only one concentration showed significant differences between males and females for three pheromones,trans-verbenol,cis-verbenol, and verbenone, and two kairomones, camphene and Δ-3-carene. Thresholds were quite low for most of the odorants exceptcis-verbenol, camphene, verbenone, and diacetone-alcohol in females, andcis-verbenol, verbenone, α-pinene, and diacetone-alcohol in males. The results, using at least one EAG parameter, support behavioral and field studies involvingexo-brevicomin,trans-verbenol, frontalin, and the blend.

  4. Spatial orientation and dynamics in virtual reality systems - Lessons from flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Michael E.; Sharkey, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial representations of virtual worlds are becoming more common due to advances in the technology of image generation and display systems. Application areas include flight simulation, mission rehearsal, teleoperator systems, and virtual reality systems. System developers should be forewarned that some proportion of users will experience perceptual anomalies and symptoms of motion sickness as a result of travel through virtual space.

  5. Characteristics of heart rate fluctuations and respiratory movements during orienting, passive avoidance and flight-fight behaviour in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Schumann, N P; Zwiener, U

    1990-11-01

    In the present study different heart rate patterns were demonstrated to accompany flight-fight behaviour, orienting behaviour and passive avoidance in rabbits. Flight-fight behaviour was characterized by markedly increased heart rate and diminished overall heart rate variability. The effect was mediated by vagal inhibition and beta-adrenergic activation in a type-specific relation. Orienting behaviour was accompanied by a smaller heart rate increase and the exaggeration of slow heart rate fluctuations. The latter effect was absent during beta-adrenergic blockade suggesting a behaviourally provoked beta-adrenergic activation. Single beta-adrenergic blockade did not change the characteristics of the heart rate fluctuations at rest. During passive avoidance a vagally mediated heart rate deceleration was followed by a slow heart rate return toward the initial heart rate level. This level was not reached during beta-adrenergic blockade. The enhanced overall heart rate variability during passive avoidance was mainly caused by strengthened respiratory-induced heart rate fluctuations and, furthermore, by exaggerated slow rhythmical heart rate fluctuations. The latter effect was not observed during beta-adrenergic blockade and is referred to as an orienting component within passive avoidance. Three individual behavioural types may be differentiated in rabbits 'Weisses Gross-Silber' by stable behavioural characteristics i.e. spontaneous motor activities, preferred postures at rest and coping behaviour. The results of the present study suggest that different neurovegetative reaction types, i.e. dominating beta-adrenergic or vagal activation are correlated with stable behavioural characteristics, especially in terms of preferring active or passive coping behaviour, respectively.

  6. Probing orientation of immobilized humanized anti-lysozyme variable fragment by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baio, J E; Cheng, Fang; Ratner, Daniel M; Stayton, Patrick S; Castner, David G

    2011-04-01

    As methods to orient proteins are conceived, techniques must also be developed that provide an accurate characterization of immobilized protein orientation. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to probe the orientation of a surface immobilized variant of the humanized anti-lysozyme variable fragment (HuLys Fv, 26 kDa). This protein contained both a hexahistidine tag and a cysteine residue, introduced at opposite ends of the HuLys Fv, for immobilization onto nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and maleimide oligo(ethylene glycol) (MEG)-terminated substrates, respectively. The thiol group on the cysteine residue selectively binds to the MEG groups, while the his-tag selectively binds to the Ni-loaded NTA groups. XPS was used to monitor protein coverage on both surfaces by following the change in the nitrogen atomic %. SPR results showed a 10-fold difference in lysozyme binding between the two different HuLys Fv orientations. The ToF-SIMS data provided a clear differentiation between the two samples due to the intensity differences of secondary ions originating from asymmetrically located amino acids in HuLys Fv (histidine: 81, 82, and 110 m/z; phenylalanine: 120 and 131 m/z). An intensity ratio of the secondary ion peaks from the histidine and phenylalanine residues at either end of the protein was then calculated directly from the ToF-SIMS data. The 45% change in this ratio, observed between the NTA and MEG substrates with similar HuLys Fv surface coverages, indicates that the HuLys Fv fragment has opposite orientations on two different surfaces.

  7. Probing orientation of immobilized humanized anti-lysozyme variable fragment by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Baio, J. E.; Cheng, Fang; Ratner, Daniel M.; Stayton, Patrick S.; Castner, David G.

    2011-01-01

    As methods to orient proteins are conceived, techniques must also be developed that provide an accurate characterization of immobilized protein orientation. In this study, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface plasmon resonance, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to probe the orientation of a surface immobilized variant of the humanized anti-lysozyme variable fragment (HuLys Fv, 26kDa). This protein contained both a his-tag and a cysteine residue, introduced at opposite ends of the HuLys Fv, for immobilization onto nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and maleimide oligo(ethylene glycol) (MEG) terminated substrates, respectively. The thiol group on the cysteine residue selectively binds to the MEG groups, while the his-tag selectively binds to the Ni loaded NTA groups. XPS was used to monitor protein coverage on both surfaces by following the change in the nitrogen atomic %. SPR results showed a 10-fold difference in lysozyme binding between the two different HuLys Fv orientations. The ToF-SIMS data provided a clear differentiation between the two samples due to the intensity differences of secondary ions originating from asymmetrically located amino acids in HuLys Fv (Histidine: 81, 82, and 110 m/z; Phenylalanine: 120 and 131 m/z). An intensity ratio of the secondary-ion peaks from the histidine and phenylalanine residues at either end of the protein was then calculated directly from the ToF-SIMS data. The 45% change in this ratio, observed between the NTA and MEG substrates with similar HuLys Fv surface coverages, indicates the HuLys Fv fragment has opposite orientations on the two different surfaces. PMID:21308984

  8. Flight orientation behaviors promote optimal migration trajectories in high-flying insects.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Nesbit, Rebecca L; Burgin, Laura E; Reynolds, Don R; Smith, Alan D; Middleton, Douglas R; Hill, Jane K

    2010-02-01

    Many insects undertake long-range seasonal migrations to exploit temporary breeding sites hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, but the behavioral adaptations that facilitate these movements remain largely unknown. Using entomological radar, we showed that the ability to select seasonally favorable, high-altitude winds is widespread in large day- and night-flying migrants and that insects adopt optimal flight headings that partially correct for crosswind drift, thus maximizing distances traveled. Trajectory analyses show that these behaviors increase migration distances by 40% and decrease the degree of drift from seasonally optimal directions. These flight behaviors match the sophistication of those seen in migrant birds and help explain how high-flying insects migrate successfully between seasonal habitats.

  9. Extracting grain-orientation-dependent data from in situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction. I. Inverse pole figures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stoica, Grigoreta M.; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; An, Ke; Ma, Dong; Vogel, S. C.; Carpenter, J. S.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2014-11-28

    The problem of calculating the inverse pole figure (IPF) is analyzed from the perspective of the application of time-of flight neutron diffraction toin situmonitoring of the thermomechanical behavior of engineering materials. On the basis of a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) method, a consistent set of grain orientations is generated and used to compute the weighting factors for IPF normalization. The weighting factors are instrument dependent and were calculated for the engineering materials diffractometer VULCAN (Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The QMC method is applied to face-centered cubic structures and can be easily extended to other crystallographic symmetries. Examples includemore » 316LN stainless steelin situloaded in tension at room temperature and an Al–2%Mg alloy, substantially deformed by cold rolling and in situannealed up to 653 K.« less

  10. Reed warbler orientation: initiation of nocturnal migratory flights in relation to visibility of celestial cues at dusk.

    PubMed

    Åkesson, S.; Walinder, G.; Karlsson, L.; Ehnbom, S.

    2001-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to investigate the time of migratory flight initiation relative to available celestial orientation cues and departure direction of a nocturnal passerine migrant, the reed warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, during autumn migration. The study was carried out at Falsterbo, a coastal site in southwest Sweden. The warblers initiated migration from times well after local sunset and well into the night, corresponding to sun elevations between -4 degrees and -35 degrees, coinciding with the occurrence of stars at night. They departed in the expected migratory direction towards south of southwest with a few initiating migration in reverse directions towards northeast to east. Flight directions under overcast conditions (7-8/8) were more scattered than under clear sky conditions (0-4/8). There were fewer clouds on departure nights than on nights when the birds did not initiate migration. For birds staying longer than one night at stopover the horizontal visibility was higher and precipitation was less likely on departure nights than on the previous night. The results show that the visibility of celestial cues, and stars in particular, are important for the decision to initiate migration in reed warblers. However, cloud cover, horizontal visibility and precipitation might be correlated with other weather variables (i.e. wind or air pressure) that are also likely to be important for the decision to migrate. Copyright 2001 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  11. Olfaction in Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: flight orientation response to certain saturated carboxylic acids in human skin emanations.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Guha, Lopamudra; Parashar, B D; Agrawal, O P; Sukumaran, D

    2014-05-01

    The flight orientation response of nonblood-fed and hungry Aedes albopictus females was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer at 10(-6) to 10(-2) g odor plumes of saturated carboxylic acids (C1-C20), in which C2-C18 were the main constituents of human skin emanations. Thirteen acids viz C1, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8 C9, C10, C12, C14, C16, C18, and C20 showed attractance at odor plumes ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) g doses, while five acids viz C4, C7, C11, C15, and C19 showed repellence at 10(-4) to 10(-2) g to test mosquitoes. Tridecanoic acid (C13) showed attractance only at 10(-4) g dose while higher doses caused repellence. Dose-dependent reversal of orientation behavior from attractance to repellence was observed at 10(-2) g plumes of C5, C9, C10, C13, C17, C19, and C20 acids. The outcome of the study will help in the identification of odoriferous acids as potential attractants, repellents, or attraction inhibitors, which may find their application in the repellent formulations and odor-baited traps for surveillance and control of mosquitoes.

  12. Oviposition and flight orientation response of Aedes aegypti to certain aromatic aryl hydrazono esters.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Sathe, Manisha; Sharma, Pratibha; Parashar, B D; Kaushik, M P

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is a day-biting, highly anthropophilic mosquito and a potential vector of dengue and chikungunya in India. A. aegypti is a container breeder, generally oviposit in the stored and fresh water bodies, and discarded containers near residential areas that provide suitable habitats for oviposition by gravid females. The diurnal activity and endophilic nature of these mosquitoes have increased the frequency of contact with human being. Assured blood meal from human host in an infested area leads to increased disease occurrence. Gravid mosquitoes can potentially be lured to attractant-treated traps and could subsequently be killed with insecticides or growth regulators. In this direction, oviposition by A. aegypti females to aryl hydrazono esters (AHE)-treated bowls at 10 ppm concentration was tested in dual choice experiment, and their orientation response to these ester compounds was studied in Y-tube olfactometer. Among the esters tested, AHE-2, AHE-11 and AHE-12 elicited increased egg deposition with oviposition activity indices (OAI) of +0.39, +0.24 and +0.48, respectively, compared to control; in contrast, AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 showed negative oviposition response with OAI of -0.46, -0.35 and -0.29, respectively, at 10 mg/L. In the Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, AHE-2 attracted 60 % females compared to control, while to the odour of AHE-11 and AHE-12, about 70 % of the females were trapped in treated chambers. In contrast, only 27-30 % of gravid females entered the chamber releasing AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 odour plumes, while 70 % entered control chamber, evincing a possible non-preference of treatment odours as well as interference with olfactory receptors. These compounds have the potential for application as oviposition stimulants or deterrents for surveillance and control of mosquito population using ovitraps.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Alternative Relative Orientation Procedures for UAV-based Imagery with Prior Flight Trajectory Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Habib, A.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to recent advances at the hardware (e.g., emergence of reliable platforms at low cost) and software (e.g., automated identification of conjugate points in overlapping images) levels, UAV-based 3D reconstruction has been widely used in various applications. However, mitigating the impact of outliers in automatically matched points in UAV imagery, especially when dealing with scenes that has poor and/or repetitive texture, remains to be a challenging task. In spite of the fact that existing literature has already demonstrated that incorporating prior motion information can play an important role in increasing the reliability of the matching process, there is a lack of methodologies that are mainly suited for UAV imagery. Assuming the availability of prior information regarding the trajectory of a UAV-platform, this paper presents a two-point approach for reliable estimation of Relative Orientation Parameters (ROPs) of UAV-based images. This approach is based on the assumption that the UAV platform is moving at a constant flying height while maintaining the camera in a nadir-looking orientation. For this flight scenario, a closed-form solution that can be derived using a minimum of two pairs of conjugate points is established. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, experimental tests using real stereo-pairs acquired from different UAV platforms have been conducted. The derived results from the comparative performance analysis against the Nistér five-point approach demonstrate that the proposed two-point approach is capable of providing reliable estimate of the ROPs from UAV-based imagery in the presence of poor and/or repetitive texture with high percentage of matching outliers.

  14. Electrophysiological, flight orientation and oviposition responses of three species of mosquito vectors to hexadecyl pentanoate: residual oviposition repellent activity.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Sharma, Kavita R; Ganesan, K; Prakash, Shri

    2010-05-01

    Understanding on the chemical ecology of mosquito behavior is of paramount importance in developing control programs employing attractants and repellents. Several workers focused on topical repellents and oviposition attractants of mosquitoes, however, only limited work has been accomplished on mosquito oviposition repellents. The present systematic investigation provides evidence on the effectiveness of a C21 fatty acid ester- hexadecyl pentanoate, to stimulate antennal olfactory receptors of Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), and Anopheles stephensi (Liston) that mediate their long-range olfaction guided flight orientation behavior by repelling the gravid females of these mosquito vectors in the olfactometer. The compound loaded onto an effervescent tablet retained its repellent property in the treated substrates for up to 1 wk at 10 mg/L. In places, where the mosquito breeding habitats are near to human habitations, could be treated with hexadecyl pentanoate to repel the ovipositing gravid females as a component of the integrated approach for mosquito management by disrupting the mosquito life cycle and population growth.

  15. A review of the habitability aspects of prior space flights from the flight crew perspective with an orientation toward designing Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Habitability is a very important issue in long-duration spaceflight. With this concern, a review of much of the existing U.S. Skylab, Spacelab, and some Soviet literature on habitability aspects of long-duratioin space flight was completed for the Astronaut Space Station Support Office. The data were organized to follow as closely as possible the SSF distributed systems, such as Life Support, Data Management, etc. A new definition of habitability is proposed.

  16. Activation, orientation and landing of female Culex quinquefasciatus in response to carbon dioxide and odour from human feet: 3-D flight analysis in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Lacey, E S; Cardé, R T

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the interaction between carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) and human foot odour on activation, upwind orientation and landing of host-seeking female Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a wind tunnel. More mosquitoes landed on warmed glass beads coated with foot odour than on clean beads; adding a plume of 4% CO(2) did not influence the proportion of mosquitoes landing. A second experiment used 3-dimensional video tracking to assess flight performance. Activation was more rapid with CO(2) and with CO(2) + foot odour than with clean air or with foot odour alone. Upwind flights were fastest with CO(2) and with clean air, and slowest with foot odour; the CO(2) + foot odour treatment overlapped the previous three treatments in significance. Flight headings tended more towards due upwind with CO(2) and with clean air than with CO(2) + foot odour or with foot odour alone. In both experiments, many mosquitoes flew upwind in clean air. There was little evidence of females changing course upon entering or exiting the CO(2) plume or reacting to foot odour during flight.

  17. The Generalized Support Software (GSS) Domain Engineering Process: An Object-Oriented Implementation and Reuse Success at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Steven; Hendrick, Robert; Stark, Michael E.; Steger, Warren

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) recently embarked on a far-reaching revision of its process for developing and maintaining satellite support software. The new process relies on an object-oriented software development method supported by a domain specific library of generalized components. This Generalized Support Software (GSS) Domain Engineering Process is currently in use at the NASA GSFC Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The key facets of the GSS process are (1) an architecture for rapid deployment of FDD applications, (2) a reuse asset library for FDD classes, and (3) a paradigm shift from developing software to configuring software for mission support. This paper describes the GSS architecture and process, results of fielding the first applications, lessons learned, and future directions

  18. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, to an alarm pheromone component and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Guan, Di; Lu, Yong-Yue; Liao, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Li

    2014-12-10

    A characteristic behavior in ants is to move rapidly to emission sources of alarm pheromones. The addition of ant alarm pheromones to bait is expected to enhance its attractiveness. To search for candidate compounds for bait enhancement in fire ant control, 13 related alkylpyrazine analogues in addition to synthetic alarm pheromone component were evaluated for electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral activities in Solenopsis invicta. Most compounds elicited dose-dependent EAG and behavioral responses. There exists a correlation between the EAG and behavioral responses. Among the 14 tested alkylpyrazines, three compounds, 2-ethyl-3,6(5)-dimethyl pyrazine (1), 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (7), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (12), elicited significant alarm responses at a dose range of 0.1-1000 ng. Further bait discovery bioassay with the three most active alkylpyrazines demonstrated that food bait accompanied by sample-treated filter paper disk attracted significantly more fire ant workers in the first 15 min period. EAG and behavioral bioassays with pure pheromone isomers accumulated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine was significantly more active than 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. PMID:25415443

  19. Electroantennogram and behavioural responses of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to human-specific sweat components.

    PubMed

    Costantini, C; Birkett, M A; Gibson, G; Ziesmann, J; Sagnon, N F; Mohammed, H A; Coluzzi, M; Pickett, J A

    2001-09-01

    Afrotropical malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae), particularly An. gambiae sensu stricto, are attracted mainly to human hosts. A major source of human volatile emissions is sweat, from which key human-specific components are the carboxylic acids (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid and 7-octenoic acid. Electrophysiological studies on the antennae of An. gambiae s.s. showed selective sensitivity to these compounds, with a threshold at 10(-6) g comparable to that of known olfactory stimulants 1-octen-3-ol, p-cresol, isovaleric acid, and lower than threshold sensitivity to L-lactic acid and the synthetic mosquito repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET). A combination of the acids released at concentrations > 10(-5) g in wind tunnel bioassays significantly reduced the response to CO2, the major attractant released by human hosts, for strains of An. gambiae s.s. originating from East and West Africa. Field trials with odour-baited entry traps (OBETs) in Burkina Faso showed that 7-octenoic acid significantly increased (by 1.7-fold) the catch of females of An. gambiae sensu lato (comprising two sibling species: An. arabiensis Patton and An. gambiae s.s.) in OBETs baited with CO2, whereas combinations of the acids significantly reduced the catch in CO2-baited traps (by 2.1-fold) and in whole human odour-baited traps (by 1.5-fold). The pure (E) and (Z) geometric isomers of 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid gave comparable results to the (EIZ) isomer mixture. These results provide the first experimental evidence that human-specific compounds affect the behaviour of highly anthropophilic An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes. The compounds appear to inhibit the upwind flight' response to known long-range attractants, and may serve either to mask' the attractants present or, more probably, to 'arrest' upwind flight when mosquitoes arrive at a host under natural conditions. In the final approach to hosts, vectors are known to reduce their flight speed and increase

  20. Use of bilateral information to determine the walking direction during orientation to a pheromone source in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tetsuya; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-04-01

    Odor source localization is an important animal behavior. Male moths locate mates by tracking sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females. During this type of behavior, males exhibit a combination of upwind surge and zigzagging flight. Similarly, the male walking moth Bombyx mori responds to transient pheromone exposure with a surge in movement, followed by sustained zigzagging walking. The initial surge direction is known to be influenced by the pheromone input pattern. Here, we identified the sensory input patterns that determine the initial walking direction of males. We first quantified the stimulus by measuring electroantennogram values, which were used as a reference for subsequent tests. We used a brief stimulus pulse to examine the relationship between sensory stimulus patterns and the turning direction of initial surge. We found that the difference in input timing and intensity between left and right antennae affected the walking direction, indicating that B. mori integrate bilateral pheromone information during orientation behavior. When we tested pheromone stimulation for longer periods, turning behavior was suppressed, which was induced by stimulus cessation. This study contributes toward understanding efficient strategies for odor-source localization that is utilized by walking insects.

  1. Extracting grain-orientation-dependent data from in situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction. I. Inverse pole figures

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Grigoreta M.; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; An, Ke; Ma, Dong; Vogel, S. C.; Carpenter, J. S.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2014-11-28

    The problem of calculating the inverse pole figure (IPF) is analyzed from the perspective of the application of time-of flight neutron diffraction toin situmonitoring of the thermomechanical behavior of engineering materials. On the basis of a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) method, a consistent set of grain orientations is generated and used to compute the weighting factors for IPF normalization. The weighting factors are instrument dependent and were calculated for the engineering materials diffractometer VULCAN (Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The QMC method is applied to face-centered cubic structures and can be easily extended to other crystallographic symmetries. Examples include 316LN stainless steelin situloaded in tension at room temperature and an Al–2%Mg alloy, substantially deformed by cold rolling and in situannealed up to 653 K.

  2. Probing the orientation of electrostatically immobilized cytochrome C by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baio, Joe E; Weidner, Tobias; Ramey, Dennis; Pruzinsky, Leah; Castner, David G

    2013-12-01

    By taking advantage of the electron pathway through the heme group in cytochrome c (CytoC) electrochemists have built sensors based upon CytoC immobilized onto metal electrodes. Previous studies have shown that the electron transfer rate through the protein is a function of the position of this heme group with respect to the electrode surface. In this study a detailed examination of CytoC orientation when electrostatically immobilized onto both amine (NH3(+)) and carboxyl (COO(-)) functionalized gold is presented. Protein coverage, on both surfaces, was monitored by the change in the atomic % N, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Spectral features within the in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectra, acquired for the protein interacting with positively and negatively charged surfaces, indicates that these electrostatic interactions do induce the protein into a well ordered film. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry data demonstrated a clear separation between the two samples based on the intensity differences of secondary ions stemming from amino acids located asymmetrically within CytoC (cysteine: C2H6NS(+); glutamic acid: C4H6NO(+) and C4H8NO2 (+); leucine: C5H12N(+)). For a more quantitative examination of orientation, we developed a ratio comparing the sum of the intensities of secondary-ions stemming from the amino acid residues at either end of the protein. The 50 % increase in this ratio, observed between the protein covered NH3 (+) and COO(-) substrates, indicates opposite orientations of the CytoC on the two different surfaces.

  3. Probing the orientation of electrostatically immobilized cytochrome C by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and sum frequency generation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baio, Joe E; Weidner, Tobias; Ramey, Dennis; Pruzinsky, Leah; Castner, David G

    2013-01-01

    By taking advantage of the electron pathway through the heme group in cytochrome c (CytoC) electrochemists have built sensors based upon CytoC immobilized onto metal electrodes. Previous studies have shown that the electron transfer rate through the protein is a function of the position of this heme group with respect to the electrode surface. In this study a detailed examination of CytoC orientation when electrostatically immobilized onto both amine (NH3+) and carboxyl (COO-) functionalized gold is presented. Protein coverage, on both surfaces, was monitored by the change in the atomic % N, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Spectral features within the in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectra, acquired for the protein interacting with positively and negatively charged surfaces, indicates that these electrostatic interactions do induce the protein into a well ordered film. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry data demonstrated a clear separation between the two samples based on the intensity differences of secondary ions stemming from amino acids located asymmetrically within CytoC (cysteine: C2H6NS+; glutamic acid: C4H6NO+ and C4H8NO2+; leucine: C5H12N+). For a more quantitative examination of orientation, we developed a ratio comparing the sum of the intensities of secondary-ions stemming from the amino acid residues at either end of the protein. The 50 % increase in this ratio, observed between the protein covered NH3+ and COO- substrates, indicates opposite orientations of the CytoC on the two different surfaces. PMID:24706131

  4. Long-term but not short-term blockade of dopamine release in Drosophila impairs orientation during flight in a visual attention paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yizhou; Xi, Wang; Peng, Yueqing; Wang, Yizheng; Guo, Aike

    2004-08-01

    Dopamine is a major neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and has profound effects on many physiological processes, including the regulation of attention. Most studies of the functions of dopamine use models with long-term blockade of dopamine release and few effects of transient blockade have yet been reported. The goal of the present study was to determine the role of dopamine in attention-like behavior in Drosophila by taking advantage of the fly's orientation behavior during flight. The examination of several different transgenic flies in a single-target visual attention paradigm showed that flies lost their orientation ability if dopamine release was blocked from the beginning of the development of dopaminergic neurons. This is similar to the attention loss in mammals. However, if the blockade of dopamine release was induced during the experimental procedure, flies performed normally. Statistical analysis of the behavioral assessment showed a significant difference between long-term and transient blockade. Using the RNA interference approach, we generated flies with down-regulated J-domain protein, which is a potential cochaperone in synaptic vesicle release, to make an alternative form of long-term dopamine-blockade mutant. Behavioral assays revealed that flies with permanent J-domain protein down-regulation specifically in dopaminergic neurons have an attention defect similar to that induced by long-term blockade of dopamine release. Furthermore, dopamine depletion beginning at eclosion also caused an attention deficit. Our results indicate that prolonged but not transient blockade of dopamine release impairs visual attention-like behavior in Drosophila.

  5. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the orientation of a bifunctional diblock copolymer attached to a solid substrate.

    PubMed

    Jasieniak, Marek; Suzuki, Shuko; Monteiro, Michael; Wentrup-Byrne, Edeline; Griesser, Hans J; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2009-01-20

    A block copolymer consisting of a phosphate-containing moiety (poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphate], PMOEP) and a keto-containing moiety (poly[2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate], PAAEMA) showed good stability after attachment to an APS amine-modified glass slide, as did both of the respective homopolymers. The PAAEMA homopolymer can attach to the APS amine groups via covalent linkages, while the PMOEP homopolymer most likely attaches through electrostatic interactions involving deprotonated phosphate and protonated amine groups. To elucidate the conformation of the block copolymer after attachment, particularly with respect to the PMOEP segment orientation, principal component analysis (PCA) of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) spectra of the surface-attached polymer layers was performed. Comparison with the pure homopolymer spectra and interpretation after PCA indicate that the adsorbed conformation is not random. Rather, the copolymer is adsorbed in a conformation that preferentially exposes the PMOEP block toward the outer surface. We thus conclude that the most likely conformation of PMOEP-b-PAAEMA immobilized onto the APS-modified glass slide is via covalent interfacial linkages involving the PAAEMA block with the result that the surface is enriched in PMOEP tails. This in turn implies that under the conditions applied (dry DMF) the covalent coupling of keto groups to the amine groups of the aminated slide is more efficient than the proton transfer required for the generation of electrostatic attractions. This (partially) preferential orientation of the PMOEP-b-PAAEMA copolymer could have significant implications on interfacial interactions such as those involved in nucleation and the subsequent mineralization sequence of events in hydroxyapatite formation. The present study demonstrates that ToF-SIMS is a powerful tool not only for the investigation of the surface composition of adsorbed layers, but also for probing the molecular

  6. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Miller, Mark S.; Reedy, Mary C.; Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-02-02

    X-ray diffraction of the indirect flight muscle (IFM) in living Drosophila at rest and electron microscopy of intact and glycerinated IFM was used to compare the effects of mutations in the regulatory light chain (RLC) on sarcomeric structure. Truncation of the RLC N-terminal extension (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}) or disruption of the phosphorylation sites by substituting alanines (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I{sub 20}/I{sub 10}), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments. Phosphorylation site disruption (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}), but not N-terminal extension truncation (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}), decreased the 14.5 nm reflection intensity, indicating a spread of the axial distribution of the myosin heads. The arrangement of thick filaments and myosin heads in electron micrographs of the phosphorylation mutant (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) appeared normal in the relaxed and rigor states, but when calcium activated, fewer myosin heads formed cross-bridges. In transgenic flies with both alterations to the RLC (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46; S66A, S67A}), the effects of the dual mutation were additive. The results suggest that the RLC N-terminal extension serves as a 'tether' to help pre-position the myosin heads for attachment to actin, while phosphorylation of the RLC promotes head orientations that allow optimal interactions with the thin filament.

  7. Xyleborus glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Electroantennogram responses to host-based attractants and temporal patterns in host-seeking flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control p...

  8. Miracle Flights

    MedlinePlus

    ... the perfect solution for your needs. Book A Flight Request a flight now Click on the link ... Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights ...

  9. New Approach to Evaluate the Antennal Response of an Adult Predator Insect to Different Volatile Chemical Compounds by using Electroantennogram Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.

    The antennal response of adult syrphid flies to selected plant volatile chemical compounds was investigated in the present study. The main chemical classes and their chemical compounds were aldehydes (nonanal and benzaldehyde), monoterpene-alcohols (linalool and alpha-terpineol), ketones (6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and 2-undecanone), hydrocarbons (tetradecane) and benzoids (methyl salicylate). Electroantennogram (EAG) records showed that the syrphid antennae were strongly responded to linalool, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and methyl salicylate even at low concentrations, in addition to the high dose concentration of nonanal comparably to the other chemical compounds. The antennae of old syrphid adults were more responsive and elicited higher levels of responses to all compounds rather than young syrphid adults. The antennal sensitivity may differ from one compound to another according to the sex. The difference in responses could be attributed to the sensitivity of olfactory receptors and/or the characterization of binding protein(s). The quality of biocontrol agent could be improved if the chemical interaction between beneficial natural enemies and the surrounding environment is intensively studied and we clearly understand the chemical ecology of each natural enemy.

  10. A procedure for accurate calibration of the orientation of the three sensors in a vector magnetometer. [at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for the calibration of a vector magnetometer of high absolute accuracy. It is assumed that the calibration will be performed in the magnetic test facility of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The first main section of the report describes the test equipment and facility calibrations required. The second presents procedures for calibrating individual sensors. The third discusses the calibration of the sensor assembly. In a final section recommendations are made to GSFC for modification of the test facility required to carry out the calibration procedures.

  11. Probing the orientation of electrostatically immobilized Protein G B1 by time-of-flight secondary ion spectrometry, sum frequency generation, and near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baio, Joe E; Weidner, Tobias; Baugh, Loren; Gamble, Lara J; Stayton, Patrick S; Castner, David G

    2012-01-31

    To fully develop techniques that provide an accurate description of protein structure at a surface, we must start with a relatively simple model system before moving to increasingly complex systems. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG), near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to probe the orientation of Protein G B1 (6 kDa) immobilized onto both amine (NH(3)(+)) and carboxyl (COO(-)) functionalized gold. Previously, we have shown that we could successfully control orientation of a similar Protein G fragment via a cysteine-maleimide bond. In this investigation, to induce opposite end-on orientations, a charge distribution was created within the Protein G B1 fragment by first substituting specific negatively charged amino acids with neutral amino acids and then immobilizing the protein onto two oppositely charged self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces (NH(3)(+) and COO(-)). Protein coverage, on both surfaces, was monitored by the change in the atomic % N, as determined by XPS. Spectral features within the SFG spectra, acquired for the protein adsorbed onto a NH(3)(+)-SAM surface, indicates that this electrostatic interaction does induce the protein to form an oriented monolayer on the SAM substrate. This corresponded to the polarization dependence of the spectral feature related to the NEXAFS N(1s)-to-π* transition of the β-sheet peptide bonds within the protein layer. ToF-SIMS data demonstrated a clear separation between the two samples based on the intensity differences of secondary ions stemming from amino acids located asymmetrically within Protein G B1 (methionine: 62 and 105 m/z; tyrosine: 107 and 137 m/z; leucine: 86 m/z). For a more quantitative examination of orientation, we developed a ratio comparing the sum of the intensities of secondary-ions stemming from the amino acid residues at either end

  12. Flight Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  13. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  14. Topography and pigeon orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, G.

    1972-01-01

    Two types of homing experiments with pigeons to determine the influence of topographical features on the orientation behavior of the birds are discussed. The releases and following were conducted by ground experiments in which the birds are tracked by visual observation at points of topographical interest and the helicopter method by which the birds are tracked throughout the entire flight. The ground experiments showed a strong influence of topographical features on initial orientation. The helicopter experiments showed that the ground experiments do not provide adequate information on the manner in which homing occurs.

  15. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  16. Applying data mining techniques to detect abnormal flight characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslaner, H. E.; Unal, Cagri; Iyigun, Cem

    2016-05-01

    This paper targets to highlight flight safety issues by applying data mining techniques to recorded flight data and proactively detecting abnormalities in certain flight phases. For this purpose, a result oriented method is offered which facilitates the process of post flight data analysis. In the first part of the study, a common time period of flight is defined and critical flight parameters are selected to be analyzed. Then the similarities of the flight parameters in time series basis are calculated for each flight by using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) method. In the second part, hierarchical clustering technique is applied to the aggregate data matrix which is comprised of all the flights to be studied in terms of similarities among chosen parameters. Consequently, proximity levels among flight phases are determined. In the final part, an algorithm is constructed to distinguish outliers from clusters and classify them as suspicious flights.

  17. Statistical Detection of Atypical Aircraft Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving; Chidester, Thomas; Shafto, Michael; Ferryman, Thomas; Amidan, Brett; Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Willse, Alan; Cooley, Scott; Jay, Joseph; Rosenthal, Loren; Swickard, Andrea; Bates, Derrick; Scherrer, Chad; Webb, Bobbie-Jo; Lawrence, Robert; Mosbrucker, Chris; Prothero, Gary; Andrei, Adi; Romanowski, Tim; Robin, Daniel; Prothero, Jason; Lynch, Robert; Lowe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A computational method and software to implement the method have been developed to sift through vast quantities of digital flight data to alert human analysts to aircraft flights that are statistically atypical in ways that signify that safety may be adversely affected. On a typical day, there are tens of thousands of flights in the United States and several times that number throughout the world. Depending on the specific aircraft design, the volume of data collected by sensors and flight recorders can range from a few dozen to several thousand parameters per second during a flight. Whereas these data have long been utilized in investigating crashes, the present method is oriented toward helping to prevent crashes by enabling routine monitoring of flight operations to identify portions of flights that may be of interest with respect to safety issues.

  18. The flight planning - flight management connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne flight management systems are currently being implemented to minimize direct operating costs when flying over a fixed route between a given city pair. Inherent in the design of these systems is that the horizontal flight path and wind and temperature models be defined and input into the airborne computer before flight. The wind/temperature model and horizontal path are products of the flight planning process. Flight planning consists of generating 3-D reference trajectories through a forecast wind field subject to certain ATC and transport operator constraints. The interrelationships between flight management and flight planning are reviewed, and the steps taken during the flight planning process are summarized.

  19. Whose Orientations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutoff, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." While the "menu" Levisohn describes in his groundbreaking work on orientations to the teaching of rabbinic texts will almost certainly be refined over time, even as it stands this article should be of…

  20. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  1. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  2. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  3. [Spatial orientation under microgravity].

    PubMed

    Koizuka, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    On Earth, humans are constantly exposed to the gravity. During head and body tilts, the otolith organs sense changes in head orientation with respect to the gravitational vertical. These graviceptors also transduce transient linear acceleration generated by translational head motion and centripetal acceleration during rotation about a distant axis. When individuals are rotated at a constant velocity in a centrifuge, they sense the direction of the summed gravitational and centripetal acceleration as the vertical in the steady state. Consequently they experience a roll-tilt of the body when upright and oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out. This perception of tilt has been called the somatogravic illusion. Under the microgravity, the graviceptors no longer respond during static tilt of the head or head and body, but they are still activated by linear acceleration. Adaptation to weightlessness early in space flight has been proposed to entail a reinterpretation of the signals from the graviceptors (primarily the otolith organs), so that on return to Earth pitch or roll of the head with respect to the vertical is sensed as fore-aft or left-right translation. In this article, formulation of the spatial orientation on the earth and under microgravity was described.

  4. Flight projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the activities of the Flight Projects Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Information is given on space research and technology strategy, current space flight experiments, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the Orbiter Experiment Program, the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System, the Arcjet Flight Experiment, the Telerobotic Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment, the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment, the Industry/University In-Space Flight Experiments, and the Aeroassist Flight Experiment.

  5. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  6. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  7. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  8. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis.

  9. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  10. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly’s orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly’s orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly’s flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26173128

  11. X-33 Flight Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

  12. Human Factors in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  13. Curved paths in raptor flight: Deterministic models.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, John W

    2006-10-21

    Two deterministic models for flight of Peregrine Falcons and possibly other raptors as they approach their prey are examined mathematically. Both models make two assumptions. The first, applicable to both models, is that the angle of sight between falcon and prey is constant, consistent with observations that the falcon keeps its head straight during flight and keeps on course by use of the deep foveal region in its eye which allows maximum acuity at an angle of sight of about 45 degrees . The second assumption for the first model (conical spiral), is that the initial direction of flight determines the overall path. For the second model (flight constrained to a tilted plane), a parameter that fixes the orientation of the plane is required. A variational calculation also shows that the tilted plane flight path is the shortest total path, and, consequently, the conical spiral is another shortest total path. Numerical calculations indicate that the flight paths for the two models are very similar for the experimental conditions under which observations have been made. However, the angles of flight and bank differ significantly. More observations are needed to investigate the applicability of the two models.

  14. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  15. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  16. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  17. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  18. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  19. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  20. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  1. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  2. Coordinating compass-based and nest-based flight directions during bumblebee learning and return flights.

    PubMed

    Collett, Thomas S; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Philippides, Andrew

    2013-03-15

    Bumblebees tend to face their nest over a limited range of compass directions when learning the nest's location on departure and finding it on their approach after foraging. They thus obtain similar views of the nest and its surroundings on their learning and return flights. How do bees coordinate their flights relative to nest-based and compass-based reference frames to get such similar views? We show, first, that learning and return flights contain straight segments that are directed along particular compass bearings, which are independent of the orientation of a bee's body. Bees are thus free within limits to adjust their viewing direction relative to the nest, without disturbing flight direction. Second, we examine the coordination of nest-based and compass-based control during likely information gathering segments of these flights: loops during learning flights and zigzags on return flights. We find that bees tend to start a loop or zigzag when flying within a restricted range of compass directions and to fly towards the nest and face it after a fixed change in compass direction, without continuous interactions between their nest-based and compass-based directions of flight. A preferred trajectory of compass-based flight over the course of a motif, combined with the tendency of the bees to keep their body oriented towards the nest automatically narrows the range of compass directions over which bees view the nest. Additionally, the absence of interactions between the two reference frames allows loops and zigzags to have a stereotyped form that can generate informative visual feedback.

  3. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  4. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  5. Visual-Vestibular Responses During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Paloski, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Given the documented disruptions that occur in spatial orientation during space flight and the putative sensory-motor information underlying eye and head spatial coding, the primary purpose of this paper is to examine components of the target acquisition system in subjects free to make head and eye movements in three dimensional space both during and following adaptation to long duration space flight. It is also our intention to suggest a simple model of adaptation that has components in common with cerebellar disorders whose neurobiological substrate has been identified.

  6. Functional categories for future flight deck designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1993-01-01

    With the addition of each new system on the flight deck, the danger of increasing overall operator workload while reducing crew understanding of critical mission information exists. The introduction of more powerful onboard computers, larger databases, and the increased use of electronic display media may lead to a situation of flight deck 'sophistication' at the expense of losses in flight crew capabilities and situational awareness. To counter this potentially negative impact of new technology, research activities are underway to reassess the flight deck design process. The fundamental premise of these activities is that a human-centered, systems-oriented approach to the development of advanced civil aircraft flight decks will be required for future designs to remain ergonomically sound and economically competitive. One of the initial steps in an integrated flight deck process is to define the primary flight deck functions needed to support the mission goals of the vehicle. This would allow the design team to evaluate candidate concepts in relation to their effectiveness in meeting the functional requirements. In addition, this would provide a framework to aid in categorizing and bookkeeping all of the activities that are required to be performed on the flight deck, not just activities of the crew or of a specific system. This could then allow for a better understanding and allocation of activities in the design, an understanding of the impact of a specific system on overall system performance, and an awareness of the total crew performance requirements for the design. One candidate set of functional categories that could be used to guide an advanced flight deck design are described.

  7. Orientation and disorientation in aviation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    On the ground, the essential requirement to remain orientated is a largely unconscious activity. In flight, orientation requires a conscious effort by the pilot particularly when the visual environment becomes degraded and a deceptive force environment becomes the frame of reference. Furthermore, an unusual force environment can determine the apparent location of objects within a limited visual scene, sometimes with disastrous consequences. This review outlines the sources of pilot disorientation that arise from the visual and force environment of flight and their interaction. It challenges the value of the traditional illusion-based approach to the subject both to aircrew and to surveys of disorientation. Also, it questions the emphasis on the shortcomings of vestibular function as the physiological basis for disorientation. While military accidents from all causes have shown a decline, there has been no corresponding reduction in accidents involving disorientation, 85% of which are the results of unrecognised disorientation. This finding has implications for the way in which pilots are taught about disorientation in the interest of enhanced flight safety. It argues for a greater use of conventional fixed base simulators to create disorientating scenarios rather than complex motion devices to create unusual sensations. PMID:23849216

  8. Bumblebee calligraphy: the design and control of flight motifs in the learning and return flights of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Philippides, Andrew; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Collett, Thomas S

    2013-03-15

    Many wasps and bees learn the position of their nest relative to nearby visual features during elaborate 'learning' flights that they perform on leaving the nest. Return flights to the nest are thought to be patterned so that insects can reach their nest by matching their current view to views of their surroundings stored during learning flights. To understand how ground-nesting bumblebees might implement such a matching process, we have video-recorded the bees' learning and return flights and analysed the similarities and differences between the principal motifs of their flights. Loops that take bees away from and bring them back towards the nest are common during learning flights and less so in return flights. Zigzags are more prominent on return flights. Both motifs tend to be nest based. Bees often both fly towards and face the nest in the middle of loops and at the turns of zigzags. Before and after flight direction and body orientation are aligned, the two diverge from each other so that the nest is held within the bees' fronto-lateral visual field while flight direction relative to the nest can fluctuate more widely. These and other parallels between loops and zigzags suggest that they are stable variations of an underlying pattern, which enable bees to store and reacquire similar nest-focused views during learning and return flights.

  9. Bumblebee calligraphy: the design and control of flight motifs in the learning and return flights of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Philippides, Andrew; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Collett, Thomas S

    2013-03-15

    Many wasps and bees learn the position of their nest relative to nearby visual features during elaborate 'learning' flights that they perform on leaving the nest. Return flights to the nest are thought to be patterned so that insects can reach their nest by matching their current view to views of their surroundings stored during learning flights. To understand how ground-nesting bumblebees might implement such a matching process, we have video-recorded the bees' learning and return flights and analysed the similarities and differences between the principal motifs of their flights. Loops that take bees away from and bring them back towards the nest are common during learning flights and less so in return flights. Zigzags are more prominent on return flights. Both motifs tend to be nest based. Bees often both fly towards and face the nest in the middle of loops and at the turns of zigzags. Before and after flight direction and body orientation are aligned, the two diverge from each other so that the nest is held within the bees' fronto-lateral visual field while flight direction relative to the nest can fluctuate more widely. These and other parallels between loops and zigzags suggest that they are stable variations of an underlying pattern, which enable bees to store and reacquire similar nest-focused views during learning and return flights. PMID:23447668

  10. Cooperative random Lévy flight searches and the flight patterns of honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2006-06-01

    The most efficient Lévy flight (scale-free) searching strategy for N independent searchers to adopt when target sites are randomly and sparsely distributed is identified. For N=1, it is well known that the optimal searching strategy is attained when μ=2, where the exponent μ characterizes the Lévy distribution, P(l)=l, of flight-lengths. For N>1, the optimal searching strategy is attained as μ→1. It is suggested that the orientation flights of honeybees can be understood within the context of such an optimal cooperative random Lévy flight searching strategy. Upon returning to their hive after surveying a landscape honeybees can exchange information about the locations of target sites through the waggle dance. In accordance with observations it is predicted that the waggle dance can be disrupted without noticeable influence on a hive's ability to maintain weight when forage is plentiful.

  11. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  12. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  13. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  14. Effects of Space Flight on Rodent Tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.

    1997-01-01

    As the inevitable expression of mankind's search for knowledge continues into space, the potential acute and long-term effects of space flight on human health must be fully appreciated. Despite its critical role relatively little is known regarding the effects of the space environment on the ocular system. Our proposed studies were aimed at determining whether or not space flight causes discernible disruption of the genomic integrity, cell kinetics, cytoarchitecture and other cytological parameters in the eye. Because of its defined and singular biology our main focus was on the lens and possible changes associated with its primary pathology, cataract. We also hoped to explore the possible effect of space flight on the preferred orientation of dividing cells in the perilimbal region of conjunctiva and cornea.

  15. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    PubMed

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  16. Numerical study of insect free hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Lim, Tee Tai; Fluid lab, Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore Team

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present the computational fluid dynamics study of three-dimensional flow field around a free hovering fruit fly integrated with unsteady FSI analysis and the adaptive flight control system for the first time. The FSI model being specified for fruitfly hovering is achieved by coupling a structural problem based on Newton's second law with a rigorous CFD solver concerning generalized finite difference method. In contrast to the previous hovering flight research, the wing motion employed here is not acquired from experimental data but governed by our proposed control systems. Two types of hovering control strategies i.e. stroke plane adjustment mode and paddling mode are explored, capable of generating the fixed body position and orientation characteristic of hovering flight. Hovering flight associated with multiple wing kinematics and body orientations are shown as well, indicating the means by which fruitfly actually maintains hovering may have considerable freedom and therefore might be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements. Additionally, both the near- and far-field flow and vortex structure agree well with the results from other researchers, demonstrating the reliability of our current model.

  17. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  18. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  19. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  20. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  1. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher engines of the prototype Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo of the aircraft during a 1996 research flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  2. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher propeller-driven engines of the Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken during a 1996 research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  3. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus research aircraft in flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Edwards, California, during a 1996 research flight. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

  4. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its unique design as it flies low over Rogers Dry Lake during a 1996 test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global

  5. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  6. Digital flight control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  7. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  8. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  9. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  10. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1988-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic R and D chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing have been the crucible in which aeronautical concepts have advanced and been proven to the point that engineers and companies have been willing to stake their future to produce and design new aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress made and the challenges to come.

  11. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  12. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user

  13. Ecological causes and consequences of bird orientation.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, T

    1991-01-01

    An advanced orientation capability offers possibilities for birds to optimize movement patterns in a wide variety of ecological situations. The adaptive significance of various patterns of angular dispersion and of orientation responses to topography and sociality are elucidated. The orientation capacity is characterized by flexibility, exemplified by reorientation, promoting safety and restoration of fat reserves during migration. There are also limitations to the orientation process, leading to costs of migration through mis- or disorientation, and to constraints on the evolution of routes and timing of migratory flights. Young migrants may acquire an erroneous compass sense, and misorient several thousands of kilometers off their normal course. Widespread and dense fog of long duration causes disorientation and mortality among land birds migrating over the sea. Orientational constraints in the evolution of migration routes may be most easily disclosed at high geographic and magnetic latitudes. Here the birds are faced with special difficulties in using their celestial as well as their magnetic compasses. The sun compass could be used for great circle orientation, but observed spring flight trajectories of high-arctic waders and geese seem to conform with rhumbline routes. PMID:1838516

  14. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  15. X-43A Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  16. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted on crewmembers. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  17. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted after astronauts return to Earth. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  18. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  19. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  20. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  1. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  2. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  3. Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), an experiment with the objective of investigating critical vehicle design and environmental technologies applicable to the design of aeroassisted space transfer vehicles. Information is given on design, simulation, flight regime, mission requirements and objectives, instrumentation, and the project schedule.

  4. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  5. Vortex attenuation flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.

  6. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  7. A conditioned visual orientation requires the ellipsoid body in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm based on a flight simulator in which a stationary flying fly could control the rotation of a visual object. By coupling aversive heat shocks to a fly's orientation toward one side of the visual object, we found that the fly could be conditioned to orientate toward the left or right side of the frontal visual object and retain this conditioned visual orientation. The lower and upper visual fields have different roles in conditioned visual orientation. Transfer experiments showed that conditioned visual orientation could generalize between visual targets of different sizes, compactness, or vertical positions, but not of contour orientation. Rut-Type I adenylyl cyclase and Dnc-phosphodiesterase were dispensable for visual orientation conditioning. Normal activity and scb signaling in R3/R4d neurons of the ellipsoid body were required for visual orientation conditioning. Our studies established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm and examined the behavioral properties and neural circuitry of visual orientation, an important component of the insect's spatial navigation.

  8. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestnutt, D.

    1982-09-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  9. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chestnutt, D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  10. Crew member and instructor evaluations of line oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, John

    1991-01-01

    Results obtained from the NASA/UT/LOFT survey of 8300 crew members from four airlines is presented. As simulator training is very expensive and excellence in training is the objective, some effort is justified in evaluating LOFT and in determining what it is about the best scenarios that creates positive effects. Attention is given to the effects of different scenarios, self reports of crew resource management behaviors, organization, fleet and crew position differences.

  11. Magnesium and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  12. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  13. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil

  14. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil

  15. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  16. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  17. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  18. Toward intelligent flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Flight control systems can benefit by being designed to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories: declarative, procedural, and reflexive. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are more-or-less spontaneous and are similar to inner-loop control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems will contain a hierarchy of expert systems, procedural algorithms, and computational neural networks, each expanding on prior functions to improve mission capability to increase the reliability and safety of flight and to ease pilot workload.

  19. Columbia's first shakedown flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The space shuttle orbiter Columbia, first of the planned fleet of spacecraft in the nation's space transportation system, will liftoff on its first orbital shakedown flight on or about the 10th of April 1981. Launch will be from the NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A, no earlier than 45 minutes after sunrise. Crew for the first orbital flight will be John W. Young, commander, veteran of two Gemini and two Apollo space flights, and U.S. Navy Capt. Robert L. Crippen, pilot. Crippen has not flown in space.

  20. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  1. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  2. CID flight/impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned versus the actual results of the controlled impact demonstration of a transport aircraft are discussed. Remote control systems, site selection, manned flight tests, and wreckage distribution are discussed.

  3. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  4. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  5. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  6. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  7. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  8. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  9. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  10. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  11. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  12. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  13. Approach for Improving the Integrated Sensor Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Ercolin Filho, L.; Graça, N.; Centeno, J.

    2016-06-01

    The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOP) of aerial images via integration of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and GPS is often used in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. The accuracies of the EOP depend on the accurate parameters related to sensors mounting when the job is performed (offsets of the IMU relative to the projection centre and the angles of boresigth misalignment between the IMU and the photogrammetric coordinate system). In principle, when the EOP values do not achieve the required accuracies for the photogrammetric application, the approach, known as Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO), is used to refine the direct EOP. ISO approach requires accurate Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP) and standard deviation of the EOP under flight condition. This paper investigates the feasibility of use the in situ camera calibration to obtain these requirements. The camera calibration uses a small sub block of images, extracted from the entire block. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to APPLANIX POS AVTM system was used to get two small blocks of images that were use in this study. The blocks have different flight heights and opposite flight directions. The proposed methodology improved significantly the vertical and horizontal accuracies of the 3D point intersection. Using a minimum set of control points, the horizontal and vertical accuracies achieved nearly one image pixel of resolution on the ground (GSD). The experimental results are shown and discussed.

  14. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This publication provides guidelines for teachers using the Aerospace Education II series publication entitled "Theory of Aircraft Flight." The organization of the guide for each chapter is according to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching, instructional aids,…

  15. Human Requirements of Flight. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Arthur D.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Human Requirements of Flight." It provides specific guidelines for teachers using the textbook. The guidelines for each chapter are organized according to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  16. Post Flight Dynamic Analysis Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, B. R.

    1970-01-01

    Digital six-degrees-of-freedom, open loop Saturn 5 first stage flight evaluation simulation program obtains post flight simulation of the launch vehicle using actual flight data as input. Results are compared with measured data. For preflight analysis, the program uses predicted flight data as input.

  17. Feeding flights of nesting wading birds at a Virginia colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Feeding flights of Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula), Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor), Little Blue Herons (E. caerulea), and Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) were monitored at a small nesting colony near Chincoteague, Virginia during late May and June 1979. All four species varied their flight directions over a series of days. Cattle Egrets oriented in a different direction (toward uplands) from the other three wetland-feeding species, which oriented toward Spartina marsh areas. None of the species showed a tendency to form groups while departing from or arriving at the colony. Tide level had little influence on flight directions used. Comparisons are made between these results and those from a similar study in coastal North Carolina.

  18. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  19. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  20. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  1. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  2. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  3. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  4. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  5. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  6. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  7. Flight Research and Validation Formerly Experimental Capabilities Supersonic Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Experimental Capabilities Supersonic project, that is being reorganized into Flight Research and Validation. The work of Experimental Capabilities Project in FY '09 is reviewed, and the specific centers that is assigned to do the work is given. The portfolio of the newly formed Flight Research and Validation (FRV) group is also reviewed. The various projects for FY '10 for the FRV are detailed. These projects include: Eagle Probe, Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment (CCIE), Supersonic Boundary layer Transition test (SBLT), Aero-elastic Test Wing-2 (ATW-2), G-V External Vision Systems (G5 XVS), Air-to-Air Schlieren (A2A), In Flight Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS), Dynamic Inertia Measurement Technique (DIM), and Advanced In-Flight IR Thermography (AIR-T).

  8. Optic flow stabilizes flight in ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ros, Ivo G; Biewener, Andrew A

    2016-08-15

    Flying birds rely on visual cues for retinal image stabilization by negating rotation-induced optic flow, the motion of the visual panorama across the retina, through corrective eye and head movements. In combination with vestibular and proprioceptive feedback, birds may also use visual cues to stabilize their body during flight. Here, we test whether artificially induced wide-field motion generated through projected visual patterns elicits maneuvers in body orientation and flight position, in addition to stabilizing vision. To test this hypothesis, we present hummingbirds flying freely within a 1.2 m cylindrical visual arena with a virtual surround rotated at different speeds about its vertical axis. The birds responded robustly to these visual perturbations by rotating their heads and bodies with the moving visual surround, and by adjusting their flight trajectories, following the surround. Thus, similar to insects, hummingbirds appear to use optic flow cues to control flight maneuvers as well as to stabilize their visual inputs.

  9. Geomagnetic disturbance and the orientation of nocturnally migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Moore, F R

    1977-05-01

    Free-flying passerine migrants respond to natural fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field. The variability in flight directions of nocturnal migrants is significantly correlated with increasing geomagnetic disturbance as measured by both the K index and various components of the earth's magnetic field. The results indicate that such disturbances influence the orientation of free-flying migrants, but the evidence is not sufficient to show that geomagnetism is a cue in their orientation system. PMID:854743

  10. Spatial orientation in weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements were used, including eye movements, postural control, perception of orientation, and susceptibility to space sickness.

  11. Spatial orientation in weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity.

    PubMed

    Young, L R; Oman, C M; Watt, D G; Money, K E; Lichtenberg, B K

    1984-07-13

    Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements were used, including eye movements, postural control, perception of orientation, and susceptibility to space sickness.

  12. Shuttle flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walberg, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    As the STS moves into routine operations, the direction of the work is shifting to an in-depth assessment of performance and its impact on the design and development of a future generation of vehicles. Particular emphasis is placed on providing an accurate physical explanation of anomalies, assessing the quality of simulation provided by the ground test facilities utilized, understanding the ground to flight extrapolation procedures, and the limitations of theoretical prediction techniques. The results are expected to provide direction and focus for future research and technology programs to enable substantial technological improvements in the next generation vehicles. The recent approval of the Orbital Experiments (OEX) Program's Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS), Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS), and Shuttle Upper Atmospheric Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiments to be integrated for flight on OV-102 in late 1985 is a firm indication of a strong commitment to a continuing and vigorous program in shuttle flight data analysis.

  13. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  14. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  15. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  16. Soaring flight in Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idrac, P

    1920-01-01

    The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.

  17. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  18. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  19. In-flight measurement of upwind dynamic soaring in albatrosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2016-03-01

    In-flight measurement results on upwind flight of albatrosses using dynamic soaring are presented. It is shown how the birds manage to make progress against the wind on the basis of small-scale dynamic soaring maneuvers. For this purpose, trajectory features, motion quantities and mechanical energy relationships as well as force characteristics are analyzed. The movement on a large-scale basis consists of a tacking type flight technique which is composed of dynamic soaring cycle sequences with alternating orientation to the left and right. It is shown how this is performed by the birds so that they can achieve a net upwind flight without a transversal large-scale movement and how this compares with downwind or across wind flight. Results on upwind dynamic soaring are presented for low and high wind speed cases. It is quantified how much the tacking trajectory length is increased when compared with the beeline distance. The presented results which are based on in-flight measurements of free flying albatrosses were achieved with an in-house developed GPS-signal tracking method yielding the required high precision for the small-scale dynamic soaring flight maneuvers.

  20. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  1. Lateral orientation (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest, and the ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the body. An example of medial orientation is the eyes, which are medial to the ears on the head.

  2. They Call it Orienteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Mark

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of personal anecdotes, the author details his initial experience with orienteering, a sport rapidly increasing in popularity that teaches people not to get lost in the woods. Sources of information about orienteering are provided. (BT)

  3. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  6. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  7. F-106 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Convair NF-106B designated #816 in level flight over cloud cover. This side view shows the tandem seating arrangement in the cockpit for two pilots and the relationship of the inlet to the cockpit area and leading edge of the wing.

  8. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  9. F-104 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    F-104G N826NA during a 1993 flight over the Mojave desert, outfitted with an experiment pylon under the center fuselage and wing racks. The F-104 was originally designed by Kelly Johnson of the Lockheed Skunk Works as a day fighter. The aircraft soon proved ideal for both research and training. For instance, a modified F-104 tested the reaction control jets for the X-15. The F-104's short wings and low lift to drag ratio made it ideal to simulate the X-15 landing profile, which the F-104s often undertook before X-15 flights in order to acquaint pilots with the rocket plane's landing characteristics. This training role continued with the lifting bodies. NASA F-104s were also used for high-speed research after the X-1E was retired. Finally, the F-104s were also used as chase planes for research missions. The F-104G was a late model designed as a fighter bomber for low-level strike missions. It was built for use by the West German Air Force and other foreign governments. N826NA accomplished a wide-range of research activities, including tests of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles. The aircraft made 1,415 flights before being retired. It is now on display at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  10. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  11. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  12. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies.

    PubMed

    McLaren, James D; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Bouten, Willem

    2014-10-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity. PMID:25056213

  13. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies.

    PubMed

    McLaren, James D; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Bouten, Willem

    2014-10-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity.

  14. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, James D.; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity. PMID:25056213

  15. Spacewedge #1 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Spacewedge subscale model, built to help develop potential autonomous recovery systems for spacecraft as well as methods for delivering large Army cargo loads to precision landings, maneuvers through the air under its steerable parafoil during 1992 flight testing. From October 1991 to December 1996, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) conducted a research program know as the Spacecraft Autoland Project. This Project was designed to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of flight, including a precision landing. The Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Army participated in various phases of the program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory developed the software for Wedge 3 under contract to the Army. Four generic spacecraft (each called a Spacewedge or simply a Wedge) were built; the last one was built to test the feasibility of a parafoil for delivering Army cargoes. Technology developed during this program has applications for future spacecraft recovery systems, such as the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle demonstrator. The Spacewedge program demonstrated precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. The program showed that a flexible, deployable system using autonomous navigation and landing was a viable and practical way to recover spacecraft. NASA researchers conducted flight tests of the Spacewedge at three sites near Dryden, a hillside near Tehachapi, the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, and the California City Airport Drop Zone. During the first phase of testing 36 flights were made. Phase II consisted of 45 flights using a smaller parafoil. A third Phase of 34 flights was conducted primarily by the Army and resulted in the development of an Army guidance system for precision offset cargo delivery. The wedge used during the Army phase was not called a Spacewedge but simply a

  16. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft heads for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  17. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  18. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  19. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  20. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-06-01

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack.

  1. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-06-01

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack. PMID:24855051

  2. NASA Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory. The capabilities and research interests of the lab are: Structural, thermal, & dynamic analysis; Structural, thermal, & dynamic ground-test techniques; Advanced structural instrumentation; and Flight test support.

  3. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  4. Aerospace-Oriented Units for Use in Secondary School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; And Others

    This set of nine units is intended to furnish aerospace-oriented resource material to help teachers include recent scientific and technological advances in the secondary school science curriculum. The units provided are as follows: history of astronomy, the solar system, beyond the solar system, history of flight, spaceflight facts, aerology,…

  5. Understanding macrophage differentiation during space flight: The importance of ground-based experiments before space flight.

    PubMed

    Chapes, Stephen K; Ortega, M Teresa

    2013-06-01

    In preparation for a space flight on STS-126, two in vitro culture systems were used to investigate macrophage colony stimulating factor-dependent macrophage differentiation from mouse primary bone marrow cells. The patented Techshot Cell Cult Bioreactor and the BioServe Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) were operated in different orientations to determine their impact on macrophage growth and differentiation. Bone marrow cell parameters were determined after cells were grown in FPAs incubated at 37°C in vertical or horizontal orientations, and macrophage cell recovery was significantly higher from FPAs that were incubated in the horizontal orientation compared to "vertical" FPAs. Similarly, when bone marrow cells were grown in the Techshot bioreactor, there were significant differences in the numbers of macrophages recovered after 7 days, depending on movement and orientation of the bioreactor. Macrophage recovery was highest when the patented bioreactor was rotated in the horizontal, x-axis plane (merry-go-round fashion) compared to static and vertically, y-axis plane rotated (Ferris wheel fashion) bioreactors. In addition, the expression of F4/80 and other differentiation markers varied depending on whether macrophages differentiated in FPAs or in bioreactors. After 7 days, significant differences in size, granularity and molecule expression were seen even when the same primary bone marrow cells were used to seed the cultures. These data show that culture outcomes are highly dependent on the culture device and device orientation. Moreover, the impact of the culture system needs to be understood in order to interpret space flight data.

  6. Understanding macrophage differentiation during space flight: The importance of ground-based experiments before space flight

    PubMed Central

    Chapes, Stephen K.; Ortega, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a space flight on STS-126, two in vitro culture systems were used to investigate macrophage colony stimulating factor-dependent macrophage differentiation from mouse primary bone marrow cells. The patented Techshot Cell Cult Bioreactor and the BioServe Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA)1 were operated in different orientations to determine their impact on macrophage growth and differentiation. Bone marrow cell parameters were determined after cells were grown in FPAs incubated at 37°C in vertical or horizontal orientations, and macrophage cell recovery was significantly higher from FPAs that were incubated in the horizontal orientation compared to “vertical” FPAs. Similarly, when bone marrow cells were grown in the Techshot bioreactor, there were significant differences in the numbers of macrophages recovered after 7 days, depending on movement and orientation of the bioreactor. Macrophage recovery was highest when the patented bioreactor was rotated in the horizontal, x-axis plane (merry-go-round fashion) compared to static and vertically, y-axis plane rotated (Ferris wheel fashion) bioreactors. In addition, the expression of F4/80 and other differentiation markers varied depending on whether macrophages differentiated in FPAs or in bioreactors. After 7 days, significant differences in size, granularity and molecule expression were seen even when the same primary bone marrow cells were used to seed the cultures. These data show that culture outcomes are highly dependent on the culture device and device orientation. Moreover, the impact of the culture system needs to be understood in order to interpret space flight data. PMID:24432200

  7. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  8. YF-12 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the Blackbirds, were designed by Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. They were constructed mostly of titanium to withstand aerodynamic heating. Fueled by JP-7, the Blackbirds were capable of cruising at Mach 3.2 and attaining altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet. The first version, a CIA reconnaissance aircraft that first flew in April 1962 was called the A-12. An

  9. Automated flight path planning for virtual endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Paik, D S; Beaulieu, C F; Jeffrey, R B; Rubin, G D; Napel, S

    1998-05-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for rapid and automatic computation of flight paths for guiding virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images is described. While manually planning flight paths is a tedious and time consuming task, our algorithm is automated and fast. Our method for positioning the virtual camera is based on the medial axis transform but is much more computationally efficient. By iteratively correcting a path toward the medial axis, the necessity of evaluating simple point criteria during morphological thinning is eliminated. The virtual camera is also oriented in a stable viewing direction, avoiding sudden twists and turns. We tested our algorithm on volumetric data sets of eight colons, one aorta and one bronchial tree. The algorithm computed the flight paths in several minutes per volume on an inexpensive workstation with minimal computation time added for multiple paths through branching structures (10%-13% per extra path). The results of our algorithm are smooth, centralized paths that aid in the task of navigation in virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images. PMID:9608471

  10. Flight experience with a remotely augmented vehicle flight test technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A flight technique which uses the remotely augmented vehicle (RAV) concept is developed to flight test advanced control law concepts. The design, development and flight test validation of a RAV system mechanized on a digital fly-by-wire aircraft are described, and future applications are discussed. Flight experiments investigate complete inner loop, low sample rate, and adaptive control system mechanisms. The technique, which utilizes a ground-based FORTRAN programmable digital computer and up and down telemetry links is found to provide the flexibility necessary to effectively investigate alternate control law mechanisms in flight.

  11. Flight crew health stabilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The flight crew health stabilization program was developed to minimize or eliminate the possibility of adverse alterations in the health of flight crews during immediate preflight, flight, and postflight periods. The elements of the program, which include clinical medicine, immunology, exposure prevention, and epidemiological surveillance, are discussed briefly. No crewmember illness was reported for the missions for which the program was in effect.

  12. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This DVD has several short videos showing some of the work that Dryden is involved in with experimental aircraft. These are: shots showing the Active AeroElastic Wing (AAW) loads calibration tests, AAW roll maneuvers, AAW flight control surface inputs, Helios flight, and takeoff, and Pathfinder takeoff, flight and landing.

  13. System design from mission definition to flight validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Considerations related to the engineering systems design process and an approach taken to introduce undergraduate students to that process are presented. The paper includes details on a particular capstone design course. This course is a team oriented aircraft design project which requires the students to participate in many phases of the system design process, from mission definition to validation of their design through flight testing. To accomplish this in a single course requires special types of flight vehicles. Relatively small-scale, remotely piloted vehicles have provided the class of aircraft considered in this course.

  14. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+<2 week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  15. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them.

  16. FMS flight plans in synthetic vision primary flight displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wyatt, Sandy

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes display concepts and flight tests evaluations of flight management system (FMS) flight plan integration into Honeywell's synthetic vision (SV) integrated primary flight display systems (IPFD). The prototype IPFD displays consist of primary flight symbology overlay with flight path information and flight director guidance cues on the SV external 3D background scenes. The IPFD conformal perspective-view background displays include terrain and obstacle scenes generated with Honeywell's enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) databases, runway displays generated with commercial FMS databases, and 3D flight plan information coming directly from on-board FMS systems. The flight plan display concepts include 3D waypoint representations with altitude constraints, terrain tracing curves and vectors based on airframe performances, and required navigation performance (RNP) data. The considerations for providing flight crews with intuitive views of complex approach procedures with minimal display clutter are discussed. The flight test data on-board Honeywell Citation Sovereign aircraft and pilot feedback are summarized with the emphasis on the test results involving approaches into terrainchallenged air fields with complex FMS approach procedures.

  17. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yan; Sun, Mao

    2008-02-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion. The primary findings are as the following. The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one (or two) unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion. At hovering to medium flight speed [flight speed u e = (0-3.5) m s-1; advance ratio J = 0-0.44], the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable; at high speed ( u e = 4.5 m s-1; J = 0.57), the flight becomes strongly unstable (initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  18. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). Link to... may any person serve as a flight instructor unless— (1) That person has satisfactorily...

  19. The orientation of Listing's Plane in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew H; Haslwanter, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    The orientation of Listing's Plane (LP) was examined under one-g and zero-g conditions during parabolic flight. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment. In zero-g the orientation of LP was consistently altered. LP elevation was tilted backwards by approx. 10 degrees (p=0.003). The azimuth angles of the left and right eyes also diverged in zero-g, with a statistically significant change (p=0.04) in the vergence angle between 6.1 degrees and 11.8 degrees . A discernible dissociation in torsional eye position was also observed, which proved to be statistically significant (p=0.03). The thickness of LP was found to be of the order of 1 degrees , and was not significantly altered by the transitions between one-g and zero-g. Additional control experiments involving repeated measurements of LP under normal laboratory conditions demonstrated that the parameters of LP remain stable in the individual. The parabolic flight results demonstrate that in contrast to re-orientation in the one-g gravitational field, the elimination of gravity represents a qualitative change for the vestibular and oculomotor systems. It appears that given the lack of voluntary control of ocular torsion, the tonic otolith afferences are instrumental in the stabilisation of torsional eye position and consequently of Listing's Plane. The observed torsional divergence also provides support for the so-called otolith asymmetry hypothesis.

  20. Engineering flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine if the two-segment profile equipment, and operational procedures as defined by the B-727 Simulation Evaluation are operationally sound under all flight conditions expected to be encountered in line service. The evaluation was divided into the following areas: (1) to verify that the two-segment system operates as it was designed; (2) to conduct sufficient tests to secure a supplemental type certificate for line operation of the system; (3) to evaluate the normal operation of the equipment and procedures; (4) to evaluate the need for an autothrottle system for two-segment approaches; (5) to investigate abnormal operation of the equipment and procedures, including abused approaches and malfunctions of airborne and ground components; (6) to determine the accuracy and ease of flying the two-segment approach; (7) to determine the improvement in ground noise levels; and (8) to develop a guest pilot flight test syllabus.

  1. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  2. Becoming a flight surgeon.

    PubMed

    Gallé-Tessonneau, J R

    1988-12-01

    This text is the inaugural lesson given by the Professor of Aeronautic Psychiatry and starts the training period for new flight surgeons in the French Air Force. Introducing the French Air Force Medicine Training Session, the author speaks about the psychological aspects in aviation medicine. Three points of pilots' psychology are developed: 1) the pilot's body as the source of intense sensations and as an object of important value; 2) the libidinal, narcissistic, and defensive aspects of the pilot's spirit; and 3) the pilot's environment with its characteristic relationships. These facts influence the medical approach and modify the physician-pilot relationship. The flight surgeon must pay attention and get ready for this specific practice.

  3. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  4. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  5. Infrared Thermography Flight Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.

  6. Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostyk, Christopher Barry

    2007-01-01

    As part of a session at the 2007 Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), an overview of the operations at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was given. Mission support at this site includes the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD); Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), Science - ER-2; Science - G3 UAVSAR; Science - Ikhana and Space Operations. In addition, the presentation describes TFAWS related work at Dryden.

  7. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  8. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  9. Flight Software Math Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  10. ATS-6 - Flight accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, R.; Honeycutt, G.; Lindner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) flight accelerometers were designed to provide data for verifying the basic spacecraft vibration modes during launch, to update the analytical model of the ATA structure, and to provide a capability for detection and diagnosis of inflight and anomalies. The experiment showed accelerations less than 2.5 g during liftoff and 1.1 g or less during staging with frequencies below 80 Hz. Measured values were generally within 1 g of predicted.

  11. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  12. Flight experience with windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifel, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Windshear alerts resulting from the Honeywell Windshear Detection and Guidance System are presented based on data from approximately 248,000 revenue flights at Piedmont Airlines. The data indicate that the detection system provides a significant benefit to the flight crew of the aircraft. In addition, nuisance and false alerts were found to occur at an acceptably low rate to maintain flight crew confidence in the system. Data from a digital flight recorder is also presented which shows the maximum and minimum windshear magnitudes recorded for a representative number of flights in February, 1987. The effect of the boundary layer of a steady state wind is also discussed.

  13. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  14. Radioastron flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, V. I.; Sukhanov, K. G.; Altunin, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Radioastron is a space-based very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission to be operational in the mid-90's. The spacecraft and space radio telescope (SRT) will be designed, manufactured, and launched by the Russians. The United States is constructing a DSN subnet to be used in conjunction with a Russian subnet for Radioastron SRT science data acquisition, phase link, and spacecraft and science payload health monitoring. Command and control will be performed from a Russian tracking facility. In addition to the flight element, the network of ground radio telescopes which will be performing co-observations with the space telescope are essential to the mission. Observatories in 39 locations around the world are expected to participate in the mission. Some aspects of the mission that have helped shaped the flight operations concept are: separate radio channels will be provided for spacecraft operations and for phase link and science data acquisition; 80-90 percent of the spacecraft operational time will be spent in an autonomous mode; and, mission scheduling must take into account not only spacecraft and science payload constraints, but tracking station and ground observatory availability as well. This paper will describe the flight operations system design for translating the Radioastron science program into spacecraft executed events. Planning for in-orbit checkout and contingency response will also be discussed.

  15. Flight Project Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) is responsible for the overall planning, directing, executing, and evaluating that part of the overall NASA program that has the goal of using the unique characteristics of the space environment to conduct a scientific study of the universe, to understand how the Earth works as an integrated system, to solve practical problems on Earth, and to provide the scientific and technological research foundation for expanding human presence beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. OSSA guides its program toward leadership through its pursuit of excellence across the full spectrum of disciplines. OSSA pursues these goals through an integrated program of ground-based laboratory research and experimentation, suborbital flight of instruments on airplanes, balloons, and sounding rockets; flight of instruments and the conduct of research on the Shuttle/Spacelab system and on Space Station Freedom; and development and flight of automated Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft. The OSSA program is conducted with the participation and support of other Government agencies and facilities, universities throughout the United States, the aerospace contractor community, and all of NASA's nine Centers. In addition, OSSA operates with substantial international participation in many aspects of our Space Science and Applications Program. OSSA's programs currently in operation, those approved for development, and those planned for future missions are described.

  16. The IBEX Flight Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, J.; Carrico, J.; Crock, J.; Cross, W.; Delossantos, A.; Dunn, A.; Dunn, G.; Epperly, M.; Fields, B.; Fowler, E.; Gaio, T.; Gerhardus, J.; Grossman, W.; Hanley, J.; Hautamaki, B.; Hawes, D.; Holemans, W.; Kinaman, S.; Kirn, S.; Loeffler, C.; McComas, D. J.; Osovets, A.; Perry, T.; Peterson, M.; Phillips, M.; Pope, S.; Rahal, G.; Tapley, M.; Tyler, R.; Ungar, B.; Walter, E.; Wesley, S.; Wiegand, T.

    2009-08-01

    IBEX provides the observations needed for detailed modeling and in-depth understanding of the interstellar interaction (McComas et al. in Physics of the Outer Heliosphere, Third Annual IGPP Conference, pp. 162-181, 2004; Space Sci. Rev., 2009a, this issue). From mission design to launch and acquisition, this goal drove all flight system development. This paper describes the management, design, testing and integration of IBEX’s flight system, which successfully launched from Kwajalein Atoll on October 19, 2008. The payload is supported by a simple, Sun-pointing, spin-stabilized spacecraft with no deployables. The spacecraft bus consists of the following subsystems: attitude control, command and data handling, electrical power, hydrazine propulsion, RF, thermal, and structures. A novel 3-step orbit approach was employed to put IBEX in its highly elliptical, 8-day final orbit using a Solid Rocket Motor, which provided large delta-V after IBEX separated from the Pegasus launch vehicle; an adapter cone, which interfaced between the SRM and Pegasus; Motorized Lightbands, which performed separation from the Pegasus, ejection of the adapter cone, and separation of the spent SRM from the spacecraft; a ShockRing isolation system to lower expected launch loads; and the onboard Hydrazine Propulsion System. After orbit raising, IBEX transitioned from commissioning to nominal operations and science acquisition. At every phase of development, the Systems Engineering and Mission Assurance teams supervised the design, testing and integration of all IBEX flight elements.

  17. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  18. Convex Image Orientation from Relative Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, M.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a novel workflow for the estimation of global image orientations given relative orientations between pairs of overlapping images. Our approach is convex and independent on initial values. First, global rotations are estimated in a relaxed semidefinite program (SDP) and refined in an iterative least squares adjustment in the tangent space of SO(3). A critical aspect is the handling of outliers in the relative orientations. We present a novel heuristic graph based approach for filtering the relative rotations that outperforms state-of-the-art robust rotation averaging algorithms. In a second part we make use of point-observations, tracked over a set of overlapping images and formulate a linear homogeneous system of equations to transfer the scale information between triplets of images, using estimated global rotations and relative translation directions. The final step consists of refining the orientation parameters in a robust bundle adjustment. The proposed approach handles outliers in the homologous points and relative orientations in every step of the processing chain. We demonstrate the robustness of the procedure on synthetic data. Moreover, the performance of our approach is illustrated on real world benchmark data.

  19. Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar.

    PubMed

    Cant, E T; Smith, A D; Reynolds, D R; Osborne, J L

    2005-04-22

    For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and mark-recapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground speed, foraging and the influence of linear landscape features on flight direction. Two main styles of track were identified: (A) fast linear flight and (B) slower nonlinear flights involving a period of foraging and/or looped sections of flight. These loops potentially perform an orientation function, and were often associated with areas of forage. In the absence of forage, linear features did not provide a guiding effect on flight direction, and only dense treelines were perceived as barriers. The results provide tentative support for non-random dispersal and a perceptual range of 100-200 m for these species. This study has demonstrated a methodology of significant value for future investigation of butterfly mobility and dispersal.

  20. Flight Dynamics Mission Support and Quality Assurance Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, InHwan

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the method of the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Operation (FDO) quality assurance approach to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Support Branch. Historically, a strong need has existed for developing systematic quality assurance using methods that account for the unique nature and environment of satellite Flight Dynamics mission support. Over the past few years FDO has developed and implemented proactive quality assurance processes applied to each of the six phases of the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle: systems and operations concept, system requirements and specifications, software development support, operations planing and training, launch support, and on-orbit mission operations. Rather than performing quality assurance as a final step after work is completed, quality assurance has been built in as work progresses in the form of process assurance. Process assurance activities occur throughout the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle. The FDO Product Assurance Office developed process checklists for prephase process reviews, mission team orientations, in-progress reviews, and end-of-phase audits. This paper will outline the evolving history of FDO quality assurance approaches, discuss the tailoring of Computer Science Corporations's process assurance cycle procedures, describe some of the quality assurance approaches that have been or are being developed, and present some of the successful results.

  1. Object-Oriented MDAO Tool with Aeroservoelastic Model Tuning Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley; Lung, Shun-fat

    2008-01-01

    An object-oriented multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization (MDAO) tool has been developed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to automate the design and analysis process and leverage existing commercial as well as in-house codes to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. Once the structural analysis discipline is finalized and integrated completely into the MDAO process, other disciplines such as aerodynamics and flight controls will be integrated as well. Simple and efficient model tuning capabilities based on optimization problem are successfully integrated with the MDAO tool. More synchronized all phases of experimental testing (ground and flight), analytical model updating, high-fidelity simulations for model validation, and integrated design may result in reduction of uncertainties in the aeroservoelastic model and increase the flight safety.

  2. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  3. Analysis of Measured and Predicted Acoustics from an XV-15 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2001-01-01

    Flight acoustic and vehicle state data from an XV-15 acoustic flight test are examined. Flight predictions using TRAC are performed for a level flight (repeated) and four descent conditions (including a BVI). The assumptions and procedures used for TRAC flight predictions as well as the variability in flight measurements, which are used for input and comparison to predictions, are investigated in detail. Differences were found in the measured vehicle airspeed, altitude, glideslope, and vehicle orientation (yaw, pitch and roll angle) between each of the repeat runs. These differences violate some of the prediction assumptions and significantly impacted the resulting acoustic predictions. Multiple acoustic pulses, with a variable time between the pulses, were found in the measured acoustic time histories for the repeat runs. These differences could be attributed in part to the variability in vehicle orientation. Acoustic predictions that used the measured vehicle orientation for the repeat runs captured this multiple pulse variability. Thickness noise was found to be dominant on approach for all the cases, except the BVI condition. After the aircraft passed overhead, broadband noise and low frequency loading noise were dominant. The predicted LowSPL time histories compared well with measurement on approach to the array for the non-BVI conditions and poorly for the BVI condition. Accurate prediction of the lift share between the rotor and fuselage must be known in order to improve predictions. At a minimum, measurements of the rotor thrust and tip-path-plane angle are critical to further develop accurate flight acoustic prediction capabilities.

  4. Taking Flight Internationally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Dr. Ben Vinson III, the new director of the Center for Africana Studies at Johns Hopkins University and a specialist in Latin American history, is strengthening the center's internationalist orientation. While it took more than three decades for Johns Hopkins University to approve a Black studies program in its arts and…

  5. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  6. Integrated testing and verification system for research flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    The MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program is being developed to cut the cost of producing research flight software through a system of software support tools. An integrated verification and testing capability was designed as part of MUST. Documentation, verification and test options are provided with special attention on real-time, multiprocessing issues. The needs of the entire software production cycle were considered, with effective management and reduced lifecycle costs as foremost goals.

  7. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  8. Flight Mechanics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  9. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  10. Positron annihilation in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor Jones, Goronwy

    1999-09-01

    In this resource article, an exceptional bubble chamber picture - showing the annihilation of a positron (antielectron e+ ) in flight - is discussed in detail. Several other esoteric phenomena (some not easy to show on their own!) also manifest themselves in this picture - pair creation or the materialization of a high energy photon into an electron-positron pair; the `head-on' collision of a positron with an electron, from which the mass of the positron can be estimated; the Compton Effect ; an example of the emission of electromagnetic radiation (photons) by accelerating charges (bremsstrahlung ).

  11. The Third Flight Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    A self-shielded superconducting magnet was designed for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator Program. This is the third magnet built from this design. The magnets utilize Cryomagnetics' patented ultra-low current technology. The magnetic system is capable of reaching a central field of two tesla at slightly under two amperes and has a total inductance of 1068 henries. This final report details the requirements of the magnet, the specifications of the resulting magnet, the test procedures and test result data for the third magnet (Serial # C-654-M), and recommended precautions for use of the magnet.

  12. Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

  13. Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

    The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the skills and…

  14. Orientation in operator algebras

    PubMed Central

    Alfsen, Erik M.; Shultz, Frederic W.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics. PMID:9618457

  15. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration.

  16. KC-135 winglet flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Three KC-135 winglet configurations were flight tested for cant/incidence angles of 15 deg/-4 deg, 15 deg/-2 deg, and 0 deg/-4 deg, as well as the basic wing. The flight results for the 15 deg/-4 deg and basic wing configurations confirm the wind tunnel predicted 7% incremental decrease in total drag at cruise conditions. The 15 deg/-4 configuration flight measured wing and winglet pressure distributions, loads, stability and control, flutter, and buffet also correlate well with predicted values. The only unexpected flight results as compared with analytical predictions is a flutter speed decrease for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration. The 15 deg/-2 deg configuration results show essentially the same incremental drag reduction as the 15 deg/-4 deg configuration; however, the flight loads are approximately 30% higher for the 15 deg/-2 deg configuration. The drag data for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration show only a flight drag reduction.

  17. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  18. New Theory of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  19. LACE flight dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1989-01-01

    The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purpose of the experiment is to provide on-orbit systems identification of the LACE spacecraft. The structure of the LACE spacecraft is of special interest to the CSI community. It incorporates 3 deployable/retractable booms of maximum length 45.72 m (150 ft) mounted on a rectangular parallelepiped bus of mass 1,200 kg. The zenith directed gravity gradient boom is mounted on the top of the bus; the retroreflector boom is mounted forward and deployed along the velocity vector, the balance boom is mounted and pointed aft. Attitude stabilization is accomplished by means of gravity gradient torques and by a momentum wheel. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is designed to measure modal frequencies, damping ratios, and oscillation amplitudes of the LACE spacecraft, as well as the vibration intensity generated by boom deployments and retractions. It is anticipated that this experiment will provide an opportunity for improvements in the accuracy of computer simulations of flexible structures and multibody dynamics.

  20. NASA - Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

  1. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.

  2. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  3. Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an authentic aircraft environment by generating the appropriate physical cues that provide the sensations of flight.

  4. Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

  5. Endo LEAP flight test planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, E. T.; Huhlein, Mike

    1993-06-01

    The Atmospheric Interceptor Technology (AIT) program (formerly Endo LEAP) is focused on demonstrating strapdown seekers and strapdown guidance for very small miss distance intercepts at very high velocities against ballistic missiles within the atmosphere. This is being accomplished by advancing state-of-the-art technologies for small, lightweight, highly integrated kinetic energy kill vehicles (KV). Ground testing cannot fully duplicate the simultaneous interaction of the severe aerodynamic, aerothermal, and aero-optical conditions of hypervelocity flight within the atmosphere. Therefore, flight testing is required to fully validate the integrated technologies. The electro-optical (EO) flight testing is the impetus of this paper and can be broken down into two major elements: component flights and intercept flights. The component flights are utilized to resolve critical issues which will enable intercept flights, gather phenomenology data, and validate (EO) window concepts. In the intercept flights, prime contractor KV's will be flown against representative targets to demonstrate hit-to-kill (HTK) with aimpoint selection on the target lethal package. Initial studies indicate that both types of flights can be implemented utilizing boosters, launchers, and the, organizational framework of existing interceptor systems.

  6. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  7. Odor Detection in Manduca sexta Is Optimized when Odor Stimuli Are Pulsed at a Frequency Matching the Wing Beat during Flight

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Kalwar, Faizan; Hatfield, Mandy; Staudacher, Erich; Bradley, Samual P.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable) when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit temporal structure in

  8. Flight control in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the inverse problem of hovering.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, T L; Daniel, T L

    2006-08-01

    The inverse problem of hovering flight, that is, the range of wing movements appropriate for sustained flight at a fixed position and orientation, was examined by developing a simulation of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. Inverse problems arise when one is seeking the parameters that are required to achieve a specified model outcome. In contrast, forward problems explore the outcomes given a specified set of input parameters. The simulation was coupled to a microgenetic algorithm that found specific sequences of wing and body motions, encoded by ten independent kinematic parameters, capable of generating the fixed body position and orientation characteristic of hovering flight. Additionally, we explored the consequences of restricting the number of free kinematic parameters and used this information to assess the importance to flight control of individual parameters and various combinations of them. Output from the simulated moth was compared to kinematic recordings of hovering flight in real hawkmoths; the real and simulated moths performed similarly with respect to their range of variation in position and orientation. The simulated moth also used average wingbeat kinematics (amplitude, stroke plane orientation, etc) similar to those of the real moths. However, many different subsets of the available kinematic were sufficient for hovering flight and available kinematic data from real moths does not include sufficient detail to assess which, if any, of these was consistent with the real moth. This general result, the multiplicity of possible hovering kinematics, shows that the means by which Manduca sexta actually maintains position and orientation may have considerable freedom and therefore may be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements of hovering flight.

  9. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  10. Some flight data extraction techniques used on a general aviation spin research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    Some methods for obtaining flight data from a highly instrumented general aviation spin research aircraft are developed and illustrated. The required correction terms for the measurement of body accelerations, body velocities, and aircraft orientation are presented. In addition, the equations of motion are utilized to derive total aerodynamic coefficients for comparison with model tests and for analysis. Flight test experience is used to evaluate the utility of various instruments and calculation techniques for spin research.

  11. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  12. Morphological and kinematic basis of the hummingbird flight stroke: scaling of flight muscle transmission ratio.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Tyson L; Tobalske, Bret W; Ros, Ivo G; Warrick, Douglas R; Biewener, Andrew A

    2012-05-22

    Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely known for their insect-like flight strokes characterized by high wing beat frequency, small muscle strains and a highly supinated wing orientation during upstroke that allows for lift production in both halves of the stroke cycle. Here, we show that hummingbirds achieve these functional traits within the limits imposed by a vertebrate endoskeleton and muscle physiology by accentuating a wing inversion mechanism found in other birds and using long-axis rotational movement of the humerus. In hummingbirds, long-axis rotation of the humerus creates additional wing translational movement, supplementing that produced by the humeral elevation and depression movements of a typical avian flight stroke. This adaptation increases the wing-to-muscle-transmission ratio, and is emblematic of a widespread scaling trend among flying animals whereby wing-to-muscle-transmission ratio varies inversely with mass, allowing animals of vastly different sizes to accommodate aerodynamic, biomechanical and physiological constraints on muscle-powered flapping flight. PMID:22171086

  13. Morphological and kinematic basis of the hummingbird flight stroke: scaling of flight muscle transmission ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Tyson L.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Ros, Ivo G.; Warrick, Douglas R.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely known for their insect-like flight strokes characterized by high wing beat frequency, small muscle strains and a highly supinated wing orientation during upstroke that allows for lift production in both halves of the stroke cycle. Here, we show that hummingbirds achieve these functional traits within the limits imposed by a vertebrate endoskeleton and muscle physiology by accentuating a wing inversion mechanism found in other birds and using long-axis rotational movement of the humerus. In hummingbirds, long-axis rotation of the humerus creates additional wing translational movement, supplementing that produced by the humeral elevation and depression movements of a typical avian flight stroke. This adaptation increases the wing-to-muscle-transmission ratio, and is emblematic of a widespread scaling trend among flying animals whereby wing-to-muscle-transmission ratio varies inversely with mass, allowing animals of vastly different sizes to accommodate aerodynamic, biomechanical and physiological constraints on muscle-powered flapping flight. PMID:22171086

  14. STS-109 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) against a backdrop of Earth. The grappling of the HST with the robotic arm is seen, and payload bay cameras show different angles of the HST in its deploy orientation. The deployment of the HST from the Columbia Orbiter is seen, followed by footage of the HST flying freely over the Earth's horizon. All seven crew members are gathered together during an in-flight interview as they answer questions about the mission, the experiences of being in space, and their lives as astronauts. Additional footage of the crew working during the deployment of the HST is shown. Duane Carey is seen interviewing Nancy Currie with Internet questions from young students. The video concludes with the view from Columbia of the Pacific Ocean, the coast of Northwestern Chile, and a sunrise.

  15. Effects of space flight on locomotor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Layne, Charles S.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Peters, Brian T.; Huebner, William P.; Reschke, Millard F.; Berthoz, Alain; Glasauer, Stefan; Newman, Dava; Jackson, D. Keoki

    1999-01-01

    In the microgravity environment of spaceflight, the relationship between sensory input and motor output is altered. During prolonged missions, neural adaptive processes come into play to recalibrate central nervous system function, thereby permitting new motor control strategies to emerge in the novel sensory environment of microgravity. However, the adaptive state achieved during spaceflight is inappropriate for a unit gravity environment and leads to motor control alterations upon return to Earth that include disturbances in locomotion. Indeed, gait and postural instabilities following the return to Earth have been reported in both U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts even after short duration (5- to 10-day) flights. After spaceflight, astronauts may: (1) experience the sensation of turning while attempting to walk a straight path, (2) encounter sudden loss of postural stability, especially when rounding corners, (3) perceive exaggerated pitch and rolling head movements during walking, (4) experience sudden loss of orientation in unstructured visual environments, or (5) experience significant oscillopsia during locomotion.

  16. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  17. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  18. Do birds sleep in flight?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  19. The function of the alula in avian flight.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-im; Kim, Jooha; Park, Hyungmin; Jabłoński, Piotr G; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-05-07

    The alula is a small structure located at the joint between the hand-wing and arm-wing of birds and is known to be used in slow flight with high angles of attack such as landing. It is assumed to function similarly to a leading-edge slat that increases lift and delays stall. However, in spite of its universal presence in flying birds and the wide acceptance of stall delay as its main function, how the alula delays the stall and aids the flight of birds remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of alula on the aerodynamic performance of avian wings based on data from flight tasks and wind-tunnel experiments. With the alula, the birds performed steeper descending flights with greater changes in body orientation. Force measurements revealed that the alula increases the lift and often delays the stall. Digital particle image velocimetry showed that these effects are caused by the streamwise vortex, formed at the tip of the alula, that induces strong downwash and suppresses the flow separation over the wing surface. This is the first experimental evidence that the alula functions as a vortex generator that increases the lift force and enhances manoeuvrability in flights at high angles of attack.

  20. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  1. The function of the alula in avian flight.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-im; Kim, Jooha; Park, Hyungmin; Jabłoński, Piotr G; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-01-01

    The alula is a small structure located at the joint between the hand-wing and arm-wing of birds and is known to be used in slow flight with high angles of attack such as landing. It is assumed to function similarly to a leading-edge slat that increases lift and delays stall. However, in spite of its universal presence in flying birds and the wide acceptance of stall delay as its main function, how the alula delays the stall and aids the flight of birds remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of alula on the aerodynamic performance of avian wings based on data from flight tasks and wind-tunnel experiments. With the alula, the birds performed steeper descending flights with greater changes in body orientation. Force measurements revealed that the alula increases the lift and often delays the stall. Digital particle image velocimetry showed that these effects are caused by the streamwise vortex, formed at the tip of the alula, that induces strong downwash and suppresses the flow separation over the wing surface. This is the first experimental evidence that the alula functions as a vortex generator that increases the lift force and enhances manoeuvrability in flights at high angles of attack. PMID:25951056

  2. Planned Flight of the Terrestrial HIAD Orbital Reentry (THOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert; Hughes, Stephen; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; White, Joseph; DelCorso, Joseph; Cheatwood, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Terrestrial HIAD Orbital Reentry (THOR) is planned for flight in 2016 as a secondary payload on an Orbital Sciences commercial resupply mission to the International Space Station. THOR will launch with its Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) stowed as a small cylinder between the second stage motor and the launch vehicle fairing. Once the Cygnus cargo vehicle has separated from the second stage, THOR will likewise separate, autonomously re-orient itself, perform a deorbit burn, then inflate the HIAD to a 3.5m diameter cone before atmospheric interface. THOR is a follow-on mission to the IRVE-3 flight test of 2012. The high energy of orbital reentry will allow THOR to demonstrate the performance of its improved, second-generation inflatable structure and flexible TPS materials, in a more energetic entry environment than previous suborbital test flights.This paper discusses the sequence of events planned to occur as part of the THOR mission. Specific topics will include the THOR mission concept, reentry vehicle design for the expected flight environment, the on-board sensors that will allow quantification of vehicle performance, and how we intend to retrieve the flight data from a reentry vehicle splashing down in international waters.

  3. A flight test method for pilot/aircraft analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, R.; Buchacker, E.

    1986-01-01

    In high precision flight maneuvres a pilot is a part of a closed loop pilot/aircraft system. The assessment of the flying qualities is highly dependent on the closed loop characteristics related to precision maneuvres like approach, landing, air-to-air tracking, air-to-ground tracking, close formation flying and air-to air refueling of the receiver. The object of a research program at DFVLR is the final flight phase of an air to ground mission. In this flight phase the pilot has to align the aircraft with the target, correct small deviations from the target direction and keep the target in his sights for a specific time period. To investigate the dynamic behavior of the pilot-aircraft system a special ground attack flight test technique with a prolonged tracking maneuvres was developed. By changing the targets during the attack the pilot is forced to react continously on aiming errors in his sights. Thus the closed loop pilot/aircraft system is excited over a wide frequency range of interest, the pilot gets more information about mission oriented aircraft dynamics and suitable flight test data for a pilot/aircraft analysis can be generated.

  4. The Function of the Alula in Avian Flight

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-im; Kim, Jooha; Park, Hyungmin; Jabłoński, Piotr G.; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-01-01

    The alula is a small structure located at the joint between the hand-wing and arm-wing of birds and is known to be used in slow flight with high angles of attack such as landing. It is assumed to function similarly to a leading-edge slat that increases lift and delays stall. However, in spite of its universal presence in flying birds and the wide acceptance of stall delay as its main function, how the alula delays the stall and aids the flight of birds remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of alula on the aerodynamic performance of avian wings based on data from flight tasks and wind-tunnel experiments. With the alula, the birds performed steeper descending flights with greater changes in body orientation. Force measurements revealed that the alula increases the lift and often delays the stall. Digital particle image velocimetry showed that these effects are caused by the streamwise vortex, formed at the tip of the alula, that induces strong downwash and suppresses the flow separation over the wing surface. This is the first experimental evidence that the alula functions as a vortex generator that increases the lift force and enhances manoeuvrability in flights at high angles of attack. PMID:25951056

  5. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  6. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In a scene reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, this photo shows a close-up view of NASA's B-52 mothership as it lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the

  7. Flight deck engine advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shontz, W. D.; Records, R. M.; Antonelli, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this project is on alerting pilots to impending events in such a way as to provide the additional time required for the crew to make critical decisions concerning non-normal operations. The project addresses pilots' need for support in diagnosis and trend monitoring of faults as they affect decisions that must be made within the context of the current flight. Monitoring and diagnostic modules developed under the NASA Faultfinder program were restructured and enhanced using input data from an engine model and real engine fault data. Fault scenarios were prepared to support knowledge base development activities on the MONITAUR and DRAPhyS modules of Faultfinder. An analysis of the information requirements for fault management was included in each scenario. A conceptual framework was developed for systematic evaluation of the impact of context variables on pilot action alternatives as a function of event/fault combinations.

  8. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment.

  9. Flight Operations Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easter, Robert; Herrell, Linda; Pomphrey, Richard; Chase, James; Wertz Chen, Julie; Smith, Jeffrey; Carter, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Flight Operations Analysis Tool (FLOAT) is a computer program that partly automates the process of assessing the benefits of planning spacecraft missions to incorporate various combinations of launch vehicles and payloads. Designed primarily for use by an experienced systems engineer, FLOAT makes it possible to perform a preliminary analysis of trade-offs and costs of a proposed mission in days, whereas previously, such an analysis typically lasted months. FLOAT surveys a variety of prior missions by querying data from authoritative NASA sources pertaining to 20 to 30 mission and interface parameters that define space missions. FLOAT provides automated, flexible means for comparing the parameters to determine compatibility or the lack thereof among payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles, and for displaying the results of such comparisons. Sparseness, typical of the data available for analysis, does not confound this software. FLOAT effects an iterative process that identifies modifications of parameters that could render compatible an otherwise incompatible mission set.

  10. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  11. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment. PMID:17167347

  12. The Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Nelson, Anthony; Salazar, Anthony; Roussel - Dupre, Diane; Katko, Kim; Palmer, Joseph; Robinson, Scott; Wirthlin, Michael; Howes, William; Richins, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  13. Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Caffrey, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE), a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. It will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The experiment uses networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd (SSTL) is building the small host satellite, CFESat, based upon SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and Topsat mission satellite designs. The CFESat satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as 'piggyback' passengers with larger spacecraft.

  14. Flight plan optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmaseelan, Anoop; Adistambha, Keyne D.

    2015-05-01

    Fuel cost accounts for 40 percent of the operating cost of an airline. Fuel cost can be minimized by planning a flight on optimized routes. The routes can be optimized by searching best connections based on the cost function defined by the airline. The most common algorithm that used to optimize route search is Dijkstra's. Dijkstra's algorithm produces a static result and the time taken for the search is relatively long. This paper experiments a new algorithm to optimize route search which combines the principle of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. The experimental results of route search, presented are shown to be computationally fast and accurate compared with timings from generic algorithm. The new algorithm is optimal for random routing feature that is highly sought by many regional operators.

  15. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.187 Section 61.187... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for...

  16. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  17. Insect Flight: From Newton's Law to Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2016-03-01

    Why do animals move the way they do? Bacteria, insects, birds, and fish share with us the necessity to move so as to live. Although each organism follows its own evolutionary course, it also obeys a set of common laws. At the very least, the movement of animals, like that of planets, is governed by Newton's law: All things fall. On Earth, most things fall in air or water, and their motions are thus subject to the laws of hydrodynamics. Through trial and error, animals have found ways to interact with fluid so they can float, drift, swim, sail, glide, soar, and fly. This elementary struggle to escape the fate of falling shapes the development of motors, sensors, and mind. Perhaps we can deduce parts of their neural computations by understanding what animals must do so as not to fall. Here I discuss recent developments along this line of inquiry in the case of insect flight. Asking how often a fly must sense its orientation in order to balance in air has shed new light on the role of motor neurons and steering muscles responsible for flight stability.

  18. Graviresponses of Paramecium biaurelia during parabolic flights.

    PubMed

    Krause, Martin; Bräucker, Richard; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2006-12-01

    The thresholds of graviorientation and gravikinesis in Paramecium biaurelia were investigated during the 5th DLR (German Aerospace Center) parabolic-flight campaign at Bordeaux in June 2003. Parabolic flights are a useful tool for the investigation of swimming behaviour in protists at different accelerations. At normal gravity (1 g) and hypergravity (1 g to 1.8 g), precision of orientation and locomotion rates depend linearly on the applied acceleration as seen in earlier centrifuge experiments. After transition from hypergravity to decreased gravity (minimal residual acceleration of <10(-2) g), graviorientation as well as gravikinesis show a full relaxation with different kinetics. The use of twelve independent cell samples per flight guarantees high data numbers and secures the statistical significance of the obtained data. The relatively slow change of acceleration between periods of microgravity and hypergravity (0.4 g/s) enabled us to determine the thresholds of graviorientation at 0.6 g and of gravikinesis at 0.4 g. The gravity-unrelated propulsion rate of the sample was found to be 874 microm/s, exceeding the locomotion rate of horizontally swimming cells (855 microm/s). The measured thresholds of graviresponses were compared with data obtained from earlier centrifuge experiments on the sounding rocket Maxus-2. Measured thresholds of gravireactions indicate that small energies, close to the thermal noise level, are sufficient for the gravitransduction process. Data from earlier hypergravity experiments demonstrate that mechanosensitive ion channels are functioning over a relative wide range of acceleration. From this, we may speculate that gravireceptor channels derive from mechanoreceptor channels.

  19. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  20. X-1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  1. An automated approach to detecting signals in electroantennogram data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, D.H.; Sullivan, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) is a widely used method for identifying insect olfactory stimulants present in mixtures of volatiles, and it can greatly accelerate the identification of insect semiochemicals. In GC-EAD, voltage changes across an insect's antenna are measured while the antenna is exposed to compounds eluting from a gas chromatograph. The antenna thus serves as a selective GC detector whose output can be compared to that of a "general" GC detector, commonly a flame ionization detector. Appropriate interpretation of GC-EAD results requires that olfaction-related voltage changes in the antenna be distinguishable from background noise that arises inevitably from antennal preparations and the GC-EAD-associated hardware. In this paper, we describe and compare mathematical algorithms for discriminating olfaction-generated signals in an EAD trace from background noise. The algorithms amplify signals by recognizing their characteristic shape and wavelength while suppressing unstructured noise. We have found these algorithms to be both powerful and highly discriminatory even when applied to noisy traces where the signals would be difficult to discriminate by eye. This new methodology removes operator bias as a factor in signal identification, can improve realized sensitivity of the EAD system, and reduces the number of runs required to confirm the identity of an olfactory stimulant. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  3. STS-80 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-80, Cmdr. Kenneth D. Cockrell, Pilot Kent V. Rominger, Mission Specialists, Tamara E. Jernigan, Thomas D. Jones, and F. Story Musgrave give a post flight presentation of their mission. This presentation is divided into two parts first a slide presentation of still shots, and the second is a video presentation.

  4. Laminar-flow flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Richard D.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Bartlett, D. W.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Braslow, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The flight testing conducted over the past 10 years in the NASA laminar-flow control (LFC) will be reviewed. The LFC program was directed towards the most challenging technology application, the high supersonic speed transport. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.

  5. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Amit; Conry, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet. Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion. Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. PMID:24106549

  6. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  7. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  8. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  9. Orientability and Diffusion Maps

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Amit; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2010-01-01

    One of the main objectives in the analysis of a high dimensional large data set is to learn its geometric and topological structure. Even though the data itself is parameterized as a point cloud in a high dimensional ambient space ℝp, the correlation between parameters often suggests the “manifold assumption” that the data points are distributed on (or near) a low dimensional Riemannian manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, with d ≪ p. We introduce an algorithm that determines the orientability of the intrinsic manifold given a sufficiently large number of sampled data points. If the manifold is orientable, then our algorithm also provides an alternative procedure for computing the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian that are important in the diffusion map framework for reducing the dimensionality of the data. If the manifold is non-orientable, then we provide a modified diffusion mapping of its orientable double covering. PMID:21765628

  10. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Transgender People Teaching Your Child Tolerance STDs Understanding Early ... and Romance Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Sexual Attraction and Orientation Contact Us Print ...

  11. Applications of Payload Directed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Yeh, Yoo Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aviation flight control concepts require autonomous and intelligent control system architectures that close control loops directly around payload sensors in manner more integrated and cohesive that in traditional autopilot designs. Research into payload directed flight control at NASA Ames Research Center is investigating new and novel architectures that can satisfy the requirements for next generation control and automation concepts for aviation. Tighter integration between sensor and machine requires definition of specific sensor-directed control modes to tie the sensor data directly into a vehicle control structures throughout the entire control architecture, from low-level stability- and control loops, to higher level mission planning and scheduling reasoning systems. Payload directed flight systems can thus provide guidance, navigation, and control for vehicle platforms hosting a suite of onboard payload sensors. This paper outlines related research into the field of payload directed flight; and outlines requirements and operating concepts for payload directed flight systems based on identified needs from the scientific literature.'

  12. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  13. Radiation protection during space flight.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E

    1983-12-01

    The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew.

  14. Making flight motion tables invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMore, Louis A.; Hollinger, Paul; Hirsh, Gary

    2009-05-01

    Flight tables can add unwanted dynamics with increased phase lag and gain attenuation to the Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) simulation. By making flight tables "invisible" we reduce the effects of these unwanted dynamics on the simulation giving the simulation engineer a much clearer picture of the test unit's capabilities. Past methods[1] relied on clever servo techniques to reduce these effects. In this paper we look at the mechanical aspects of the flight table; in particular, we study the effects of using composite materials in the fabrication of the flight table gimbals. The study shows that the use of composite gimbals significantly increases the invisibility of the flight table with the potential added benefit of reduced cost.

  15. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  16. Flight performance effects of thermal stress and two aviator uniforms in a UH-60 helicopter simulator.

    PubMed

    Reardon, M J; Fraser, E B; Omer, J M

    1998-06-01

    The effects on flight performance of the four combinations of an unencumbered mission oriented protective posture (MOPP) aviator battle dress uniform (ABDU) and encumbered MOPP4 over ABDU flight ensemble in cool (70 degrees F or 21.1 degrees C, 50% relative humidity [RH]) and hot (100 degrees F or 37.8 degrees C, 50% RH) UH-60 simulator cockpit conditions were evaluated with a repeated measures, 2 x 2 factorial study using nine crews. The encumbered MOPP4 uniform had the most frequent adverse effect on flight performance followed by heat stress, with less frequent effects from the combination or interaction of these two factors. This study confirmed that heat stress and wearing an encumbered U.S. Army MOPP4 flight uniform significantly reduced endurance and flight performance in a UH-60 simulator.

  17. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds’ flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  18. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  19. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  20. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  1. Towards a general object-oriented software development methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, ED; Stark, Mike

    1986-01-01

    An object is an abstract software model of a problem domain entity. Objects are packages of both data and operations of that data (Goldberg 83, Booch 83). The Ada (tm) package construct is representative of this general notion of an object. Object-oriented design is the technique of using objects as the basic unit of modularity in systems design. The Software Engineering Laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center is currently involved in a pilot program to develop a flight dynamics simulator in Ada (approximately 40,000 statements) using object-oriented methods. Several authors have applied object-oriented concepts to Ada (e.g., Booch 83, Cherry 85). It was found that these methodologies are limited. As a result a more general approach was synthesized with allows a designer to apply powerful object-oriented principles to a wide range of applications and at all stages of design. An overview is provided of this approach. Further, how object-oriented design fits into the overall software life-cycle is considered.

  2. Integrated Approach to Flight Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The computer based approach used by United Airlines for flight training is discussed. The human factors involved in specific aircraft accidents are addressed. Flight crew interaction and communication as they relate to training and flight safety are considered.

  3. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  4. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  5. Developing an orientation program.

    PubMed

    Edwards, K

    1999-01-01

    When the local area experienced tremendous growth and change, the radiology department at Maury Hospital in Columbia, Tennessee looked seriously at its orientation process in preparation for hiring additional personnel. It was an appropriate time for the department to review its orientation process and to develop a manual to serve as both a tool for supervisors and an ongoing reference for new employees. To gather information for the manual, supervisors were asked to identify information they considered vital for new employees to know concerning the daily operations of the department, its policies and procedures, the organizational structure of the hospital, and hospital and departmental computer systems. That information became the basis of the orientation manual, and provided an introduction to the hospital and radiology department; the structure of the organization; an overview of the radiology department; personnel information; operating procedures and computer systems; and various policies and procedures. With the manual complete, the radiology department concentrated on an orientation process that would meet the needs of supervisors who said they had trouble remembering the many details necessary to teach new employees. A pre-orientation checklist was developed, which contained the many details supervisors must handle between the time an employee is hired and arrives for work. The next step was the creation of a checklist for use by the supervisor during a new employee's first week on the job. A final step in the hospital's orientation program is to have each new employee evaluate the entire orientation process. That information is then used to update and revise the manual. PMID:10346648

  6. Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...

  7. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  8. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  9. SR-71 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The movie clip shown here runs about 13 seconds and shows an air-to-air shot of the front of the SR-71 aircraft and a head-on view of it coming in for a landing. Two SR-71A aircraft on loan from the U.S. Air Force have been used for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1991. One of them was later returned to the Air Force. A third SR-71 on loan from the Air Force is an SR-71B used for training but not for flight research. Developed for the U.S. Air Force as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71 aircraft are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. These aircraft can fly more than 2200 miles per hour (Mach 3+ or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas--aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic-boom characterization. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program may be used to aid designers of future supersonic or hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a possible high-speed civil transport. The SR-71 program at Dryden has been part of the NASA overall high-speed aeronautical research program, and projects have involved other NASA research centers, other government agencies, universities, and commercial firms. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air-data collection system. This system used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data such as angle of attack and angle of sideslip. These data are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the air stream, or from tubes with flush openings on the aircraft outer skin. The flights provided information on the presence of

  10. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  11. SR-71 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The movie clip shown here runs about 13 seconds and shows an air-to-air shot of the front of the SR-71 aircraft and a head-on view of it coming in for a landing. Two SR-71A aircraft on loan from the U.S. Air Force have been used for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1991. One of them was later returned to the Air Force. A third SR-71 on loan from the Air Force is an SR-71B used for training but not for flight research. Developed for the U.S. Air Force as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71 aircraft are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. These aircraft can fly more than 2200 miles per hour (Mach 3+ or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas--aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic-boom characterization. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program may be used to aid designers of future supersonic or hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a possible high-speed civil transport. The SR-71 program at Dryden has been part of the NASA overall high-speed aeronautical research program, and projects have involved other NASA research centers, other government agencies, universities, and commercial firms. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air-data collection system. This system used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data such as angle of attack and angle of sideslip. These data are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the air stream, or from tubes with flush openings on the aircraft outer skin. The flights provided information on the presence of

  12. Dynamic Flight Envelope Assessment with Flight Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandita, Rohit

    Aircraft have a manufacturer prescribed operating flight envelope for safe operation, exceeding these limits can result in unrecoverable departures or even structural failure. Numerous commercial aircraft accidents in the past have been attributed to loss-of-control (LOC) resulting from exceeding the safe operating flight envelope. Hence, real-time knowledge of the safe operating flight envelope is essential for safe flight operation, a problem known as dynamic flight envelope assessment. This dissertation explores dynamic flight envelope assessment from a control theoretic perspective. Two notions of the flight envelope, namely, the reachable sets and the region-of-attraction analysis are investigated. The NASA generic transport model (GTM) aircraft dynamics is used as an application problem. Linear and nonlinear techniques for flight envelope assessment are formulated in the linear matrix inequality (LMI) and sum-of-squares (SOS) framework, respectively. LMI and SOS problems are computationally tractable convex optimization problems for which many semi-definite programming solvers are available. This thesis also investigated fault detection and isolation strategies. Commercial jet transport aircrafts make extensive use of active controls. Faults or failures in the flight control system (FCS) elements like sensors or control effectors can lead to catastrophic failure. Model-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters can provide analytical redundancy by reliably detecting such faults in the system. Practical application of model-based FDI filters is limited so far due to poor performance, false alarms and missed detection arising out of uncertain dynamics of the aircraft, effect of nonlinearities in the system and the influence of closed-loop controllers. An application of closed-loop metrics to assess worst case FDI filter performance in the presence of a controller and uncertain dynamics is presented. Longitudinal GTM dynamics are considered. An Hinfinity

  13. Guide to object-oriented analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Harry C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide Marshall Space Flight Center personnel with guidelines for the use of object-oriented analysis and design and to describe how it can be accomplished within the framework of existing development directives, including the Software Development Plan. It is not intended as a detailed tutorial. The reader is referred to the Coad and Yourdon texts in the References.

  14. Bumblebee Flight in Heavy Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Engels, T; Kolomenskiy, D; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F-O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-15

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments, or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  15. Bumblebee Flight in Heavy Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, T.; Kolomenskiy, D.; Schneider, K.; Lehmann, F.-O.; Sesterhenn, J.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments, or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  16. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  17. Theseus Landing Following Maiden Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its high aspect-ratio wing as it comes in for a landing on Rogers Dry Lake after its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able

  18. Peanut allergy in-flight.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B

    2002-05-01

    An unknown but probably significant number of airline passengers are allergic to peanuts. Reactions can be mild, moderate, or severe (life threatening). Because peanuts are sometimes dispensed by flight attendants on commercial flights, there is public concern that passengers are at risk of an in-flight allergic reaction. Although there is little in the medical literature to substantiate this concern, there are anecdotal cases of inflight allergic reactions to peanuts from ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of airborne peanut particles. Consequently, there are several options among which the airlines must choose in order to satisfy passenger concerns.

  19. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  20. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  1. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning

  2. Flight Rules Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E.; Knudsen, F.; Rice, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review (CRR) flight rules are presented. The topics include: 1) B13-152 Acoustic Constraints; 2) B13-113 IFM/Corrective Action Prioritization Due to Loss of Exercise Capability; 3) B13-116 Constraints on Treadmill VIS Failure; 4) B13-201 Medical Management of ISS Fire/Smoke Response; 5) ARED and T2 Exercise constraints Flight rules (flight and stage specific); 6) FYI: B14 FR to be updated with requirement to sample crew sleep locations prior to receiving a "recommendation" from SRAG on where to sleep.

  3. Flight decks and free flight: where are the system boundaries?

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2007-07-01

    The change from managed to free flight is expected to have large effects, over and above the intended efficiency gains. Human factor concerns have understandably focused on how free flight may affect the pilots in the cockpit. Yet it is necessary to see the change from managed to free flight as more than just an increment to the pilots' work. Despite the best intentions the transition will not be a case of a smooth, carefully planned and therefore uneventful introduction of a new technology. It is more likely to be a substantial change to an already challenging working environment, in the air as well as on the ground. The significant effects will therefore not just happen within the existing structure or distribution of work and responsibilities, but affect the structure of work itself. This paper takes a look at free flight from a cognitive systems engineering perspective and identifies two major concerns: first what effects free flight has on the boundaries of the joint cognitive systems, and second how this affects demands to control. The conclusion is that both will change considerably and that we need to understand the nature of these changes before focusing on the possible effects of free flight on pilots' performance.

  4. Flight control design considerations for STOVL powered-lift flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.; Anex, Rob

    1990-01-01

    Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft rely on the propulsion system for the lift and control functions during slow speed flight. The propulsion system provides the entire lifting force and all of the control power for hovering flight at zero airspeed. STOVL designs such as the General Dynamics E-7D ejector configuration incorporate an integrated flight/propulsion control system to manage the aerodynamic and propulsive-lift control effectors and to reduce the pilot's workload for powered-lift flight. Desired flying qualities characteristics are implemented through the utilization of an explicit model following flight control system. With the model following control system, the pilot commands the desired response (e.g., throttle commands vertical velocity in hover, instead of power lever angle). Design considerations for developing a multivariable model-following flight control system are presented in this paper. When the regulator gains are defined in terms of generalized controls, the design problem becomes how to best transform the generalized controls to aerodynamic control surface, thrust and thrust vectoring commands.

  5. Dynamics of cell orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  6. Service-oriented science.

    PubMed

    Foster, Ian

    2005-05-01

    New information architectures enable new approaches to publishing and accessing valuable data and programs. So-called service-oriented architectures define standard interfaces and protocols that allow developers to encapsulate information tools as services that clients can access without knowledge of, or control over, their internal workings. Thus, tools formerly accessible only to the specialist can be made available to all; previously manual data-processing and analysis tasks can be automated by having services access services. Such service-oriented approaches to science are already being applied successfully, in some cases at substantial scales, but much more effort is required before these approaches are applied routinely across many disciplines. Grid technologies can accelerate the development and adoption of service-oriented science by enabling a separation of concerns between discipline-specific content and domain-independent software and hardware infrastructure.

  7. STS-67 post flight presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    This video is the post-flight presentation by the astronauts of the STS-67 Space Shuttle Mission. The astronauts were: Steve Oswald (Mission Commander), Bill Gregory (Shuttle Pilot), John Grunsfeld (Mission Specialist), Sam Durrance (Payload Specialist), Ron Parise (Payload Specialist), and Tammy Jernigan (Payload Commander). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup and launch (liftoff), the deployment of the telescope package payload (Hopkins UV telescope, Wisconsin UV polarimeter, and Astrostar Tracker) for their astronomical observations of different stellar objects, inside Shuttle shots of data collection stations, protein crystal growth experiments, medical BSO of head and eye functions in microgravity environment, storm activity over the United States and other Earth observation shots, Mid-deck Act Control Experiments, school-Shuttle direct radio communication, and descent and landing footage. This launch was a night launch and the flight was a 17 day flight (extended two days from original flight plan).

  8. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  9. Technical Seminar: "Flight Deck Technologies"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Reduced visibility affects the safety and efficiency of nearly all flight operations. As a result, researchers are improving ways to give pilots a vision capability that is independent of actual vi...

  10. STS-67 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video is the post-flight presentation by the astronauts of the STS-67 Space Shuttle Mission. The astronauts were: Steve Oswald (Mission Commander), Bill Gregory (Shuttle Pilot), John Grunsfeld (Mission Specialist), Sam Durrance (Payload Specialist), Ron Parise (Payload Specialist), and Tammy Jernigan (Payload Commander). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup and launch (liftoff), the deployment of the telescope package payload (Hopkins UV telescope, Wisconsin UV polarimeter, and Astrostar Tracker) for their astronomical observations of different stellar objects, inside Shuttle shots of data collection stations, protein crystal growth experiments, medical BSO of head and eye functions in microgravity environment, storm activity over the United States and other Earth observation shots, Mid-deck Act Control Experiments, school-Shuttle direct radio communication, and descent and landing footage. This launch was a night launch and the flight was a 17 day flight (extended two days from original flight plan).

  11. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  12. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in space and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  13. NASA's Robotic Lander Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Wednesday, June 8, the lander prototype managed by the Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., hovered autonomously for 15 seconds at...

  14. Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA'€™s Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program gives students and educators the opportunity to design, build and fly an experiment in microgravity and get a look at what it takes to be a NASA en...

  15. Counterconditioning for a Flight Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sank, Lawrence I.

    1976-01-01

    This article describes a concentrated program of desensitization used to treat flight phobia. A case history illustrates the use of expanded emotive imagery, stimulus breakdown and techniques of covert positive reinforcement. (SJL)

  16. The Simple Science of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennekes, Henk

    1997-05-01

    From the smallest gnat to the largest aircraft, all things that fly obey the same aerodynamic principles. The Simple Science of Flight offers a leisurely introduction to the mechanics of flight and, beyond that, to the scientific attitude that finds wonder in simple calculations, forging connections between, say, the energy efficiency of a peanut butter sandwich and that of the kerosene that fuels a jumbo jet. It is the product of a lifetime of watching and investigating the way flight happens. The hero of the book is the Boeing 747, which Tennekes sees as the current pinnacle of human ingenuity in mastering the science of flight. Also covered are paper airplanes, kites, gliders, and human-powered flying machines as well as birds and insects. Tennekes explains concepts like lift, drag, wing loading, and cruising speed through many fascinating comparisons, anecdotes, and examples.

  17. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  18. Flight of the smallest insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Hedrick, Tyson; Robinson, Alice

    2009-11-01

    A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Over this range of scales, flight aerodynamics as well as the relative lift and drag forces generated are surprisingly similar. The smallest flying insects (Re˜10) have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, we have used a three-pronged approach that consists of measurements of flight kinematics in the tiny insect Thysanoptera (thrips), measurements of flow velocities using physical models, and direct numerical simulations to compute lift and drag forces. We find that drag forces can be an order of magnitude larger than lift forces, particularly during the clap and fling motion used by all tiny insects recorded to date.

  19. A Review of the NASA MLAS Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Kelley, Christopher; Manger, Eldred; Peterson, David; Hahn, Jeffrey; Yuchnovicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has tested the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as a risk-mitigation design should problems arise with the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort design. The Max in MLAS is not Maximum, but rather dedicated to Max Faget, the renowned NASA Spacecraft designer. In July 2009, the mission was flown, with great success, from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The MLAS flight test vehicle prototype consists of a boost skirt, coast skirt, and the MLAS fairing itself, which houses an Orion Command Module (CM) boilerplate. The objective of the MLAS flight test is to reorient the fairing with the CM, weighing approximately 29,000 lbs and traveling 290 fps, 180 degrees to an orientation suitable for the release of the CM during a pad abort or low altitude abort. The boost and coast skirts provide the necessary thrust and stability to establish the flight test conditions and are released prior to the reorientation of the fairing. A secondary test objective after successful release of the CM from the fairing is to demonstrate the removal of the CM forward bay cover (FBC) with the CM drogue parachutes, and subsequent deployment of the CM main parachutes attached to the FBC. Although multiple parachute deployments are used in the MLAS flight test vehicle to complete its objective, there are only two parachute types employed in the flight test. Five of the nine parachutes used for MLAS are 27.6 ft DO ribbon parachutes already proven as a spin/stall parachute for military aircraft, and the remaining four are G-12 cargo parachutes modified for increased strength and reefing. This paper presents an overview of the 27.6 ft DO ribbon parachute system employed on the MLAS flight test vehicle for coast skirt separation, fairing reorientation, and as CM drogue parachutes. Discussion will include: the process used to select this design; descriptions of all components of the parachute system; the minor modifications necessary to adapt the parachute

  20. Detection and Prevention of Cardiac Arrhythmias During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillai, Dilip; Rosenbaum, David S.; Liszka, Kathy J.; York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    There have been reports suggesting that long-duration space flight might lead to an increased risk of potentially serious heart rhythm disturbances. If space flight does, in fact, significantly decrease cardiac electrical stability, the effects could be catastrophic, potentially leading to sudden cardiac death. It will be important to determine the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in order to prepare for long-term manned lunar and interplanetary missions and to develop appropriate countermeasures. Our hypothesis is that prolonged exposure to microgravity will alter T wave alternans measurements, decrease heart rate variance, increase QT dispersion, decrease heart rate recovery and alter QT restitution curve. A recently published study has shown that long duration spaceflights prolong cardiac conduction and repolarization. They concluded that long duration flight is associated with QT interval prolongation and may increase arrhythmia susceptibility. We propose using computer technology as a noninvasive clinical tool to detect and study clinically significant TWA during standard exercise testing using electrode systems specifically adapted for the purpose of obtaining and measuring TWA. A population of approximately 15 healthy men and 5 healthy women subjects, representative of the astronaut cohort will be asked to voluntarily participate in this study. Their blood pressure and ECG/TWA will be measured pre-flight and in-flight. Prior to flight, subjects will be asked to participate in an orientation session. Still photos will be taken of the skin where the conductive gel is used for the multi-segment sensors. Photos will be recorded preflight, immediately postflight, and several times during the proceeding week until it has been determined that any skin reaction has disappeared or that no rash is present and will not appear.

  1. Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

  2. STS-79 Flight Day 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis glided into the Kennedy Space Center to mark the ending of the fourth docking flight with Mir and the end of Shannon Lucid's record setting 188 day stay on board the Russian space station.

  3. Space Flight Safety - Discussing perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.

    2016-09-01

    The present section accumulates selected papers from the Second IAA Space Flight Safety Symposium - the international action consolidating the international efforts on safety of space flights at new scientific and technological level. It was held in St. Petersburg in the period since June 29 till July 3, 2015. Venue - the congress-hall and Proving ground of «Special Materials Corp»- Scientific and production association of special materials (St. Petersburg, Sampsonievsky pr. 28a) (Figs. 1 and 2).

  4. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  5. Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session WA1 includes short reports concerning: (1) Medical and Physiological Studies During 438-Day Space Flights: (2) Human Performance During a 14 Month Space Mission: (3) Homeostasis in Long-Term Microgravity Conditions; (4) Strategy of Preservation of Health of Cosmonauts in Prolonged and Superprolonged Space Flights; (5) Rehabilitation of Cosmonauts Health Following Long-Term Space Missions; and (6) Perfect Cosmonauts: Some Features of Bio-Portrait.

  6. Hummingbird flight stability and control in freestream turbulent winds.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Sridhar; Crall, James D; McNeilly, Lucas; Gagliardi, Susan F; Biewener, Andrew A; Combes, Stacey A

    2015-05-01

    Airflow conditions close to the Earth's surface are often complex, posing challenges to flight stability and control for volant taxa. Relatively little is known about how well flying animals can contend with complex, adverse air flows, or about the flight control mechanisms used by animals to mitigate wind disturbances. Several recent studies have examined flight in the unsteady von Kármán vortex streets that form behind cylinders, generating flow disturbances that are predictable in space and time; these structures are relatively rare in nature, because they occur only the immediate, downstream vicinity of an object. In contrast, freestream turbulence is characterized by rapid, unpredictable flow disturbances across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and is nearly ubiquitous in natural habitats. Hummingbirds are ideal organisms for studying the influence of freestream turbulence on flight, as they forage in a variety of aerial conditions and are powerful flyers. We filmed ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) maintaining position at a feeder in laminar and strongly turbulent (intensity ∼15%) airflow environments within a wind tunnel and compared their mean kinematics of the head, body, tail and wing, as well as variability in these parameters. Hummingbirds exhibited remarkably stable head position and orientation in both smooth and turbulent flow while maintaining position at the feeder. However, the hummingbird's body was less stable in turbulent flow and appeared to be most sensitive to disturbances along the mediolateral axis, displaying large lateral accelerations, translations and rolling motions during flight. The hummingbirds mitigated these disturbances by increasing mean wing stroke amplitude and stroke plane angle, and by varying these parameters asymmetrically between the wings and from one stroke to the next. They also actively varied the orientation and fan angle of the tail, maintaining a larger mean fan angle when flying in

  7. Hummingbird flight stability and control in freestream turbulent winds.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Sridhar; Crall, James D; McNeilly, Lucas; Gagliardi, Susan F; Biewener, Andrew A; Combes, Stacey A

    2015-05-01

    Airflow conditions close to the Earth's surface are often complex, posing challenges to flight stability and control for volant taxa. Relatively little is known about how well flying animals can contend with complex, adverse air flows, or about the flight control mechanisms used by animals to mitigate wind disturbances. Several recent studies have examined flight in the unsteady von Kármán vortex streets that form behind cylinders, generating flow disturbances that are predictable in space and time; these structures are relatively rare in nature, because they occur only the immediate, downstream vicinity of an object. In contrast, freestream turbulence is characterized by rapid, unpredictable flow disturbances across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and is nearly ubiquitous in natural habitats. Hummingbirds are ideal organisms for studying the influence of freestream turbulence on flight, as they forage in a variety of aerial conditions and are powerful flyers. We filmed ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) maintaining position at a feeder in laminar and strongly turbulent (intensity ∼15%) airflow environments within a wind tunnel and compared their mean kinematics of the head, body, tail and wing, as well as variability in these parameters. Hummingbirds exhibited remarkably stable head position and orientation in both smooth and turbulent flow while maintaining position at the feeder. However, the hummingbird's body was less stable in turbulent flow and appeared to be most sensitive to disturbances along the mediolateral axis, displaying large lateral accelerations, translations and rolling motions during flight. The hummingbirds mitigated these disturbances by increasing mean wing stroke amplitude and stroke plane angle, and by varying these parameters asymmetrically between the wings and from one stroke to the next. They also actively varied the orientation and fan angle of the tail, maintaining a larger mean fan angle when flying in

  8. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  9. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  10. A new ball launching system with controlled flight parameters for catching experiments.

    PubMed

    d'Avella, A; Cesqui, B; Portone, A; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-03-30

    Systematic investigations of sensorimotor control of interceptive actions in naturalistic conditions, such as catching or hitting a ball moving in three-dimensional space, requires precise control of the projectile flight parameters and of the associated visual stimuli. Such control is challenging when air drag cannot be neglected because the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters cannot be computed analytically. We designed, calibrated, and experimentally validated an actuated launching apparatus that can control the average spatial position and flight duration of a ball at a given distance from a fixed launch location. The apparatus was constructed by mounting a ball launching machine with adjustable delivery speed on an actuated structure capable of changing the spatial orientation of the launch axis while projecting balls through a hole in a screen hiding the apparatus. The calibration procedure relied on tracking the balls with a motion capture system and on approximating the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters by means of polynomials functions. Polynomials were also used to estimate the variability of the flight parameters. The coefficients of these polynomials were obtained using the launch and flight parameters of 660 launches with 65 different initial conditions. The relative accuracy and precision of the apparatus were larger than 98% for flight times and larger than 96% for ball heights at a distance of 6m from the screen. Such novel apparatus, by reliably and automatically controlling desired ball flight characteristics without neglecting air drag, allows for a systematic investigation of naturalistic interceptive tasks.

  11. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 3: Thermal analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    the development of large space structure technology is discussed. A detailed thermal analysis of a model space fabricated 1 meter beam is presented. Alternative thermal coatings are evaluated, and deflections, stresses, and stiffness variations resulting from flight orientations and solar conditions are predicted.

  12. Integration of visual and motion cues for flight simulator requirements and ride quality investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations for the improvement of flight simulators are reported. Topics include: visual cues in landing, comparison of linear and nonlinear washout filters using a model of the vestibular system, and visual vestibular interactions (yaw axis). An abstract is given for a thesis on the applications of human dynamic orientation models to motion simulation.

  13. Flying slower: Floor pattern object size affects orthokinetic responses during moth flight to sex pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies with Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) and Heliothis virescens males flying upwind along a pheromone plume showed that they increased their upwind flight speed as they flew higher above striped floor patterns and, for OFM, to a similar degree over dotted floor patterns. ...

  14. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  15. New Faculty Orientation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    This report provides an overview of Triton College's (Illinois) New Faculty Orientation Plan, which was developed in light of the large number of retirements and new hires expected by the year 2000. The purpose of the plan is to assist newly hired instructors to move productively into their professional roles and to become actively involved in the…

  16. Good Orientation Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossman, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses the importance of having orientation for new librarians. During their crucial first few weeks on the job, the author claims, new librarians need as much hands-on, real-world training as they can get. If they are ushered to the information desk without an introduction to the staff interface of the catalog or to…

  17. Computer Based Library Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalow, Robert

    This document presents computer-based lessons used to teach basic library skills to college students at York College of the City University of New York. The information for library orientation has been entered on a disk which must be used in conjunction with a word processing program, the Applewriter IIe, and an Apple IIe microcomputer. The…

  18. Orientation of Phoenician Temples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

    The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  19. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  20. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  1. A Curriculum Orientation Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babin, Patrick

    The Curriculum Orientation Profile was designed to assist in the identification of individual perspectives on curriculum and curricular decision-making. It contains 57 items, with which one agrees or disagrees. Each item is also given a code to be used in interpreting the score. Items with which one agrees are assigned to one of five codes,…

  2. Optic flow stabilizes flight in ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ros, Ivo G; Biewener, Andrew A

    2016-08-15

    Flying birds rely on visual cues for retinal image stabilization by negating rotation-induced optic flow, the motion of the visual panorama across the retina, through corrective eye and head movements. In combination with vestibular and proprioceptive feedback, birds may also use visual cues to stabilize their body during flight. Here, we test whether artificially induced wide-field motion generated through projected visual patterns elicits maneuvers in body orientation and flight position, in addition to stabilizing vision. To test this hypothesis, we present hummingbirds flying freely within a 1.2 m cylindrical visual arena with a virtual surround rotated at different speeds about its vertical axis. The birds responded robustly to these visual perturbations by rotating their heads and bodies with the moving visual surround, and by adjusting their flight trajectories, following the surround. Thus, similar to insects, hummingbirds appear to use optic flow cues to control flight maneuvers as well as to stabilize their visual inputs. PMID:27284072

  3. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-08-01

    Without sensory feedback, flies cannot fly. Exactly how various feedback controls work in insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure to stabilize their flight? How often and how fast must insects adjust their wings to remain stable? To gain insights into algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we develop a simulation tool to study free flight. To stabilize flight, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds on both the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat to stabilize their flight. We further propose a candidate for such a control involving the fly's haltere and first basalar motor neuron. Although we focus on fruit flies as a case study, the framework for our simulation and discrete control algorithms is applicable to studies of both natural and man-made fliers.

  4. Motion perception during tilt and translation after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.

  5. Simulated Multiple Formation Flights for Future Gravity Field Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsaka, B.; Ilk, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    A study of the Earth's gravity field recovery from Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) data of simulated formation flight missions is presented. New scenarios of multiple formation flights with near-polar and near-circular satellites' orbits will be examined. This is done by the combination of various satellite configurations such as GRACE-type scenarios with Cartwheel-type and Pendulum-type missions (e.g. satellite A and B of Swarm mission). The main focus of this study is based upon the use of short arcs of the dedicated formation flights, tailored especially to the recovery of Earth's gravity field solutions. The observation equations are set up for each short arc as applied in the calculation of ITG-GRACE03s gravity field model. The numerical simulations are performed with the Gravity Recovery Object Oriented Programming System (GROOPS) software package, which has been developed at the Department of Astronomical, Physical and Mathematical Geodesy, University of Bonn. The results are analyzed in the spatial wavelength spectrum of the static gravity field. Aliasing effects and ocean tidal models are considered in this study as time-variants gravity field. Keywords Multiple Formation Flights, GRACE. Cartwheel. Swarm. SST. LOS. Gravity field recovery

  6. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for a flight instructor certificate must receive and log flight and ground training from an authorized...) Postflight procedures. (c) The flight training required by this section may be accomplished: (1) In...

  7. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  8. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  9. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  10. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  11. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  12. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  13. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  14. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  15. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  16. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  17. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  18. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  19. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  20. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  1. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... compliance dates identified in this part, individuals and flight schools who comply with 28 CFR part 105 up... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and...

  2. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  3. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  4. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  5. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that...

  6. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  7. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  8. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that...

  9. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  10. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.157 Section 61.157... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight... and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation under...

  11. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  12. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that...

  13. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  14. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  15. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's safety review document must describe each analysis method employed to meet the flight safety...

  16. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  17. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  18. 14 CFR 61.127 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.127 Section 61.127... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Commercial Pilots § 61.127 Flight proficiency... flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that apply to...

  19. F-8 DFBW in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft in flight. The computer-controlled flight systems pioneered by the F-8 DFBW created a revolution in aircraft design. The F-117A, X-29, X-31, and many other aircraft have relied on computers to make them flyable. Built with inherent instabilities to make them more maneuverable, they would be impossible for human pilots to fly if the computers failed or received incorrect data. The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide. Digital-fly-by-wire is more efficient because it is lighter and takes up less space than the hydraulic systems it replaced. This either reduces the fuel required to fly or increases the number of passengers or pounds of cargo the aircraft can carry

  20. Propulsion Flight-Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray

    2003-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center s new Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF), designed in house, is an airborne engine-testing facility that enables engineers to gather flight data on small experimental engines. Without the PFTF, it would be necessary to obtain such data from traditional wind tunnels, ground test stands, or laboratory test rigs. Traditionally, flight testing is reserved for the last phase of engine development. Generally, engines that embody new propulsion concepts are not put into flight environments until their designs are mature: in such cases, either vehicles are designed around the engines or else the engines are mounted in or on missiles. However, a captive carry capability of the PFTF makes it possible to test engines that feature air-breathing designs (for example, designs based on the rocket-based combined cycle) economically in subscale experiments. The discovery of unknowns made evident through flight tests provides valuable information to engine designers early in development, before key design decisions are made, thereby potentially affording large benefits in the long term. This is especially true in the transonic region of flight (from mach 0.9 to around 1.2), where it can be difficult to obtain data from wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. In January 2002, flight-envelope expansion to verify the design and capabilities of the PFTF was completed. The PFTF was flown on a specially equipped supersonic F-15B research testbed airplane, mounted on the airplane at a center-line attachment fixture, as shown in Figure 1. NASA s F-15B testbed has been used for several years as a flight-research platform. Equipped with extensive research air-data, video, and other instrumentation systems, the airplane carries externally mounted test articles. Traditionally, the majority of test articles flown have been mounted at the centerline tank-attachment fixture, which is a hard-point (essentially, a standardized weapon-mounting fixture

  1. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues in Astronauts After Space Flight (ZAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Guilles; Harm, Deborah; Rupert, Angus; Beaton, Kara; Wood, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with visual, proprioceptive, and somatosensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions following transitions between gravity levels. This joint ESA-NASA pre- and post-flight experiment is designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances in astronauts following short-duration space flights. Specifically, this study addresses three questions: (1) What adaptive changes occur in eye movements and motion perception in response to different combinations of tilt and translation motion? (2) Do adaptive changes in tilt-translation responses impair ability to manually control vehicle orientation? (3) Can sensory substitution aids (e.g., tactile) mitigate risks associated with manual control of vehicle orientation?

  2. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments. PMID:27330173

  3. F-15B transonic flight research testbed aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying a modified McDonnell-Douglas F-15B aircraft as a testbed for a variety of transonic flight experiments. The two-seat aircraft, bearing NASA tail number 836, is shown during a recent flight over the high desert carrying a Drdyen-designed Flight Test Fixture (FTF) upon which aerodynamic experiments are mounted. The FTF is a heavily instrumented fin-like structure which is mounted on the F-15B's underbelly in place of the standard external fuel tank. Since being aquired by NASA in 1993, the aircraft has been modified to include video recording, telemetry and data recording capabilities. The twin-engine aircraft flew several flights recently in support of an experiment to determine the precise location of sonic shockwave development as air passes over an airfoil. The F-15B is currently being prepared for the Boundary Layer Heat Experiment, which will explore the potential drag reduction from heating the turbulent portion of the air that passes over the fuselage of a large aircraft.

  4. Extending a Flight Management Computer for Simulation and Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Sugden, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    In modern transport aircraft, the flight management computer (FMC) has evolved from a flight planning aid to an important hub for pilot information and origin-to-destination optimization of flight performance. Current trends indicate increasing roles of the FMC in aviation safety, aviation security, increasing airport capacity, and improving environmental impact from aircraft. Related research conducted at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) often requires functional extension of a modern, full-featured FMC. Ideally, transport simulations would include an FMC simulation that could be tailored and extended for experiments. However, due to the complexity of a modern FMC, a large investment (millions of dollars over several years) and scarce domain knowledge are needed to create such a simulation for transport aircraft. As an intermediate alternative, the Flight Research Services Directorate (FRSD) at LaRC created a set of reusable software products to extend flight management functionality upstream of a Boeing-757 FMC, transparently simulating or sharing its operator interfaces. The paper details the design of these products and highlights their use on NASA projects.

  5. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  6. Some influences of touch and pressure cues on human spatial orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influences of touch and pressure cues on human spatial orientation, blindfolded subjects were exposed to 30 rmp rotation about the Z-axis of their bodies while the axis was horizontal or near horizontal. It was found that the manipulation of pressure patterns to which the subjects are exposed significantly influences apparent orientation. When provided with visual information about actual orientation the subjects will eliminate the postural illusions created by pressure-cue patterns. The localization of sounds is dependent of the apparent orientation and the actual pattern of auditory stimulation. The study provides a basis for investigating: (1) the postural illusions experienced by astronauts in orbital flight and subjects in the free-fall phase of parabolic flight, and (2) the spatial-constancy mechanisms distinguishing changes in sensory afflux conditioned by a subject's movements in relation to the environment, and those conditioned by movements of the environment.

  7. Flight Test Performance of a High Precision Navigation Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockard, George

    2009-01-01

    A navigation Doppler Lidar (DL) was developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for high precision velocity measurements from a lunar or planetary landing vehicle in support of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. A unique feature of this DL is that it has the capability to provide a precision velocity vector which can be easily separated into horizontal and vertical velocity components and high accuracy line of sight (LOS) range measurements. This dual mode of operation can provide useful information, such as vehicle orientation relative to the direction of travel, and vehicle attitude relative to the sensor footprint on the ground. System performance was evaluated in a series of helicopter flight tests over the California desert. This paper provides a description of the DL system and presents results obtained from these flight tests.

  8. Motor skills under varied gravitoinertial force in parabolic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Helen E.

    Parabolic flight produces brief alternating periods of high and low gravitoinertial force. Subjects were tested on various paper-and-pencil aiming and tapping tasks during both normal and varied gravity in flight. It was found that changes in g level caused directional errors in the z body axis (the gravity axis), the arm aiming too high under 0g and too low under 2g. The standard deviation also increased for both vertical and lateral movements in the mid-frontal plane. Both variable and directional errors were greater under 0g than 2g. In an unpaced reciprocal tapping task subjects tended to increase their error rate rather than their movement time, but showed a non-significant trend towards slower speeds under 0g for all movement orientations. Larger variable errors or slower speeds were probably due to the difficulty of re-organising a motor skill in an unfamiliar force environment, combined with anchorage difficulties under 0g.

  9. Flight Planning and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, Allison C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was founded in 1958 by President Eisenhower as a civilian lead United States federal agency designed to advance the science of space. Over the years, NASA has grown with a vision to "reach for new heights and reveal the unknown for the benefit of humankind" (About NASA). Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle are just a few of the programs that NASA has led to advance our understanding of the universe. Each of the eleven main NASA space centers located across the United States plays a unique role in accomplishing that vision. Since 1961, Johnson Space Center (JSC) has led the effort for manned spaceflight missions. JSC has a mission to "provide and apply the preeminent capabilities to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions spanning commercial, academic, international, and US government partners" (Co-op Orientation). To do that, JSC is currently focused on two main programs, Orion and the International Space Station (ISS). Orion is the exploration vehicle that will take astronauts to Mars; a vessel comparable to the Apollo capsule. The International Space Station (ISS) is a space research facility designed to expand our knowledge of science in microgravity. The first piece of the ISS was launched in November of 1998 and has been in a continuous low earth orbit ever since. Recently, two sub-programs have been developed to resupply the ISS. The Commercial Cargo program is currently flying cargo and payloads to the ISS; the Commercial Crew program will begin flying astronauts to the ISS in a few years.

  10. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  11. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  12. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  13. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  16. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  17. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  18. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  19. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  20. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  1. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  2. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  3. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  4. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  5. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  6. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  7. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  8. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  9. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  10. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  11. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  12. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  13. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  14. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  15. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  16. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  17. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  18. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  19. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  20. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...