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Sample records for electrochemical modified gold

  1. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Üzer, Ayşem; Sağlam, Şener; Can, Ziya; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2016-01-01

    Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au) was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP) coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl4 solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5–50 mg·L−1 nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.12 mg·L−1. Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO2− solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO2− standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples. PMID:27490543

  2. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode.

    PubMed

    Üzer, Ayşem; Sağlam, Şener; Can, Ziya; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2016-08-02

    Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au) was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP) coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl₄ solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5-50 mg·L(-1) nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.12 mg·L(-1). Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO₂(-) solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO₂(-) standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples.

  3. An electrochemical genosensor for Salmonella typhi on gold nanoparticles-mercaptosilane modified screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Das, Ritu; Sharma, Mukesh K; Rao, Vepa K; Bhattacharya, B K; Garg, Iti; Venkatesh, V; Upadhyay, Sanjay

    2014-10-20

    In this work, we fabricated a system of integrated self-assembled layer of organosilane 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxy silane (MPTS) on the screen printed electrode (SPE) and electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticle for Salmonella typhi detection employing Vi gene as a molecular marker. Thiolated DNA probe was immobilized on a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified SPE for DNA hybridization assay using methylene blue as redox (electroactive) hybridization indicator, and signal was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The modified SPE was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) method. The DNA biosensor showed excellent performances with high sensitivity and good selectivity. The current response was linear with the target sequence concentrations ranging from 1.0 × 10(-11) to 0.5 × 10(-8)M and the detection limit was found to be 50 (± 2.1)pM. The DNA biosensor showed good discrimination ability to the one-base, two-base and three-base mismatched sequences. The fabricated genosensor could also be regenerated easily and reused for three to four times for further hybridization studies.

  4. Electrochemical investigation of methyl parathion at gold-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunya; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqin

    2011-01-01

    A gold/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (nano-Au/SDBS/GCE) was electrochemically fabricated with a constant potential at -0.4V. The obtained nano-Au/SDBS/GCE was characterized with scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical behaviors of methyl parathion at the nano-Au/SDBS/GCE were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the peak current obviously increased and the oxidation peak potential negatively shifted. These changes indicated that the composite nanoparticles possess good electrocatalytic performance on the electrochemical reaction of methyl parathion. Experimental parameters such as deposition time, pH value and accumulation conditions were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the peak current corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxylamine group was found in a good linear relationship with the methyl parathion concentration. In addition, a calibration curve with excellent linearity was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0×10(-7)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1) with an estimated detection limit of 8.6×10(-8)molL(-1) (S/N=3). The successful determination of methyl parathion in real samples demonstrated the usefulness and potential applications of this method.

  5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of polyelectrolyte multilayer modified gold electrodes: influence of supporting electrolyte and temperature.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tiago H; Garcia-Morales, Vladimir; Moura, Cosme; Manzanares, José A; Silva, Fernando

    2005-08-02

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry are employed to characterize poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) multilayers assembled onto cysteamine-modified gold surfaces. The influence of the supporting electrolyte and temperature on the impedance response is studied because of both its practical interest and the need to test further the capillary membrane model recently developed by Barreira et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 17973]. The results obtained are interpreted quite satisfactorily in terms of this model, thus providing additional support to its usefulness for the description of ionic transport through polyelectrolyte multilayers. It is observed that the nature of the supporting electrolyte affects the film resistance and the electrode coverage. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient is shown to follow the Arrhenius law, and the activation energy is estimated as 61 kJ/mol. Experiments with a large number of layers are also included to show that the impedance response of the multilayer then resembles that of a homogeneous membrane.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of Azure A/gold nanoclusters modified electrode and its application as non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor.

    PubMed

    Priya, C; Sivasankari, G; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2012-09-01

    A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor was developed using Azure A/gold nanoclusters modified graphite electrode. The method of preparation of Azure A/gold nanoclusters was simple and it was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and confocal Raman microscopy. The electrochemical properties of Azure A/gold nanoclusters modified graphite electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. In 0.1M H(2)SO(4) the modified electrode showed redox peaks which correspond to the redox behavior of gold nanoparticle. In 0.1M PBS the modified electrode exhibited well defined redox peaks with the formal potential of -0.253 V which is analogous to the redox reaction of Azure A. The results have shown that the gold nanoclusters has reduced the formal potential of Azure A and enhanced the current due to the fast charge transfer kinetics. Also the modified electrode showed an enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H(2)O(2) in the concentration range of 3.26×10(-6)M to 3.2×10(-3)M with a detection limit of 1.08×10(-6)M (S/N=3). The proposed electrode exhibited good stability and reproducibility, and it has the potential application as a sensor for other biologically significant compounds.

  7. Electrochemical sensor for immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen based on thionine monolayer modified gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zong; Chen, Jin; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2005-01-01

    A sensor based on thionine monolayer modified gold electrode for determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum is proposed. The sensor is prepared by covalently binding thionine to a cysteamine self-assembled monolayer with p-phthaloyl chloride as a linkage, which gives a surface coverage of 8.97+/-3.28 x 10(-12)mol/cm(2) for thionine. The electrochemistry of the immobilized thionine displays a surface-controlled electrode process with an average electron transfer rate constant of 1.47+/-0.84 s(-1). Based on an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunoassay by using the immobilized thionine as an electron transfer mediator between the electrode and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled anti-CEA antibody, a calibration curve with two linear ranges from 0.6 to 17 and 17 to 200 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL for CEA determination is obtained in pH 4.2 PBS containing 2.0 mmol/L H(2)O(2) and 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The sensor shows a good accuracy. The precision and reproducibility are acceptable with the intra-assay CV of 4.9% and 5.9% at 10 and 100 ng/mL CEA concentrations, respectively, and the inter-assays CV of 7.8% at 100 ng/mL CEA. The response of thionine modified electrode shows only 1.6% decrease after 100 replicate measurements and the storage stability is acceptable in a pH 7.0 PBS at 4 degrees C for 1 week. The method avoids the addition of electron transfer mediator to the solution, thus is much simpler. The proposed method would be valuable for the diagnosis and monitoring of carcinoma and its metastasis.

  8. Aptasensor for electrochemical sensing of angiogenin based on electrode modified by cationic polyelectrolyte-functionalized graphene/gold nanoparticles composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengbo; Zhang, Chenmeng; Li, Xiaoxiao; Ma, He; Wan, Chongqing; Li, Kai; Lin, Yuqing

    2015-03-15

    Herein, a label-free and highly sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of angiogenin was proposed based on a conformational change of aptamer and amplification by poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized graphene/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composites-modified electrode. PDDA-functionalized graphene (P-GR) nanosheets as the building block in the self-assembly of GR nanosheets/AuNPs heterostructure enhanced the electrochemical detection performance. The electrochemical aptasensor has an extraordinarily sensitive response to angiogenin in a linear range from 0.1pM to 5nM with a detection limit of 0.064pM. The developed sensor provides a promising strategy for the cancer diagnosis in medical application in the future.

  9. Electrochemical Properties of a Thiol Monolayers Coated Gold Electrode Modified with Osmium Gel Membrane as Enzyme Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabutani, Tomoki; Okada, Nobuyuki; Maruyama, Kenichi; Motonaka, Junko

    The electrochemical behavior of an enzyme sensor for glucose using a gold electrode modified with thiol self-assembled membrane and osmium complex gel as an electron transferring mediator has further been investigated by electrochemical analysis. The gold electrode was initially coated with aminomethanethiol self assembling mono layer membrane(thiol-SAM) and then immobilized with glucose oxidase using poly(vinylpyridine-co-allylamine) (PVP-co-AA), gel coordinated with osmium bipyridine complexes (GOD/Os-PVP-co-AA gel). The cleaning condition of the surface of the Au electrode prior to coating thiol SAM was optimized for reduction of interference caused by concomitant compounds. It was found that interfering influence was most efficiently reduced in the case of use of the Au electrode immersed into nitric acid. The current ratio with a thiol coated gold electrode modified with Os-PVP-co-AA gel in glucose solution in the presence to absence of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid (ID+I/II) was 1.006, 1.014, and 1.018, respectively. The peak current response of glucose in the electrode modified with thiol SAM was dropped to 60 98% as compared with that without thiol SAM.

  10. Electrochemical sensors based on gold nanoparticles modified with rhodamine B hydrazide to sensitively detect Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Donglai; Hu, Bin; Kang, Mengmeng; Wang, Minghua; He, Linghao; Zhang, Zhihong; Fang, Shaoming

    2016-12-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with rhodamine B hydrazide (RBH) (AuNPs-RBH) was developed and applied in the highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu2+ in water. RBH molecules were bounded onto the surface of AuNPs via the strong interaction between the amino groups and Au NPs. The chemical structure variations were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluoresence spectroscopy. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine Cu2+ ions in an aqueous solution with the developed AuNPs-RBH-based electrochemical sensor. Results show that the fabricated sensor exhibits good electrochemical performance because of the presence of Au NPs and high affinity with the Cu2+ resulting from the strong coordination chemistry between Cu2+ and RBH. The as-developed sensor towards detecting Cu2+ has a detection limitation of 12.5 fM within the concentration range of 0.1 pM-1 nM by using the electrochemical impedance technique. It also displays excellent selectivity, regeneration, stability, and practicability for Cu2+ detection. Therefore, the new strategy of the RBH-based electrochemical sensor exhibits great potential application in environment treatment and protection.

  11. Electrochemical determination of arsenic in natural waters using carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes modified with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Patricio; Espinoza-Montero, Patricio J; Fernández, Lenys; Romero, Hugo; Alvarado, José

    2017-05-01

    We have developed an anodic stripping voltammetry method that employs carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes modified with gold nanoparticles to determine arsenic in natural waters. Gold nanoparticles were potentiostatically deposited on carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes at -0.90V (vs SCE) for a time of 15s, to form the carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to an X-ray microanalysis system were used to check and confirm the presence of gold nanoparticles on the carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes. Arsenic detection parameters such as deposition potential and deposition time were optimized allowing a detection range between 5 to 60µgL(-1). The developed modified electrodes allowed rapid As determination with improved analytical characteristics including better repeatability, higher selectivity, lower detection limit (0.9μgL(-1)) and higher sensitivity (0.0176nAμgL(-1)) as compared to the standard carbon electrodes. The analytical capability of the optimized method was demonstrated by determination of arsenic in certified reference materials (trace elements in water (NIST SRM 1643d)) and by comparison of results with those obtained by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) in the determination of the analyte in tap and well waters.

  12. Ultra-trace electrochemical impedance determination of bovine serum albumin by a two dimensional silica network citrate-capped gold nanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Yari, Abdollah; Saeidikhah, Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a gold electrode (GE) was modified by coating with two dimensional silica network/citrate capped gold nanoparticles-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA) for ultra-sensitive determination of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). After covalently binding of a silica network (in two-dimensional form) on the surface of a gold electrode, via twice in situ hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyl-tri-ethoxysilane, citrate capped gold nanoparticles (CGNP) were chemically adsorbed on the silica cage. Subsequently, PDDA was bonded to CGNP via electrostatic interaction of positively charged polymer and negatively charged stabilizer of CGNP. Analytical properties of GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The detection limit for measured BSA was found to be 8.4×10(-13) mol L(-1) and the measuring linear concentration range of the proposed sensor was 9.9×10(-12)-1.6×10(-10) mol L(-1) of BSA. In addition, GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA exhibited good stability with high selectivity and was applied for determination of BSA in some samples with satisfactory results.

  13. A Novel Electrochemical Genosensor Based on Banana and Nano-Gold Modified Electrode Using Tyrosinase Enzyme as Indicator.

    PubMed

    Asghary, Maryam; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Ojani, Reza

    2015-05-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the tyrosinase enzyme at the surface of two electrodes, carbon paste electrode (CPE) and nano-gold modified carbon paste electrode (NGCPE), has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. Tyrosinase showed one oxidation peak (around +0.85 V) and one reduction peak at + 0.40 V versus Ag\\AgCl\\KCl (3 M). To calculate the values of a and k(s), the effect of potential scan rate on the electrochemical properties of tyrosinase was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption techniques were used for the study of interaction between DNA and tyrosinase. The cyclic voltammogram of tyrosinase was obtained in the presence of different types of DNA bases for the study of tyrosinase-DNA binding. The results showed that the hydrogen binding and electrostatic interactions were important interaction mode. Moreover, a variation in tyrosinase signals intensity regarding the interaction to ssDNA and dsDNA was observed. The selectivity of the biosensor was studied using noncomplementary oligonucleotides. Finally, banana modified carbon paste electrode was also prepared to investigate the interaction of banana's tyrosinase with DNA. The limit of detection for DNA probe was calculated 0.33 pM by using the oxidation signal of accumulated tyrosinase in NGCPE.

  14. IMPACT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF A FERRICYNIDE PROBE AT TEMPLATE-MODIFIED SELF ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS ON GOLD ELECTRODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of pyrene on the electrochemical response of the ferricyanide probe using Self Assembled Monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrodes was investigated using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV). These results suggest the feasibility of using SAMs, par...

  15. Fabrication of layer-by-layer modified multilayer films containing choline and gold nanoparticles and its sensing application for electrochemical determination of dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po; Li, Yongxin; Huang, Xue; Wang, Lun

    2007-09-30

    A novel electrochemical sensor has been constructed by use of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with a gold nanoparticle/choline (GNP/Ch). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the properties of this modified electrode. It was demonstrated that choline was covalently bounded on the surface of glassy carbon electrode, and deposited gold nanoparticles with average size of about 100nm uniformly distributed on the surface of Ch. Moreover, the modified electrode exhibits strong electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) with obviously reduction of overpotentials. For the ternary mixture containing DA, AA and UA, these three compounds can be well separated from each other, allowing simultaneously determination of DA and UA under coexistence of AA. The proposed method can be applied to detect DA and UA in real samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Electrochemical biosensors for detection of point mutation based on surface ligation reaction and oligonucleotides modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; He, Leiliang; Zhu, Jinqing

    2011-03-04

    An electrochemical method for point mutation detection based on surface ligation reaction and oligonucleotides (ODNs) modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was demonstrated. Point mutation identification was achieved using Escherichia coli DNA ligase. This system for point mutation detection relied on a sandwich assay comprising capture ODN immobilized on Au electrodes, target ODN and ligation ODN. Because of the sequence-specific surface reactions of E. coli DNA ligase, the ligation ODN covalently linked to the capture ODN only in the presence of a perfectly complementary target ODN. The presence of ligation products on Au electrode was detected using chronocoulometry through hybridization with reporter ODN modified AuNPs. The use of AuNPs improved the sensitivity of chronocoulometry in this approach, a detection limit of 0.9 pM complementary ODN was obtained. For single base mismatched ODN (smODN), a negligible signal was observed. Even if the concentration ratio of complementary ODN to smODN was decreased to 1:1000, a detectable signal was observed. This work may provide a specific, sensitive and cost-efficient approach for point mutant detection.

  17. Study on the immobilization of anti-IgG on Au-colloid modified gold electrode via potentiometric immunosensor, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance techniques.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingzi; Yuan, Ruo; Tang, Dianping; Chai, Yaqin; Xu, Lan

    2005-01-15

    The immobilization of anti-IgG on Au-colloid modified gold electrodes has been investigated. A cleaned gold electrode was first immersed in a mercaptoethylamine (AET) solution, and then gold nanoparticles were chemisorbed onto the thiol groups of the mercaptoethylamine. Finally, anti-IgG was adsorbed onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Potentiometric immunosensor, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance techniques were used to investigate the immobilization of anti-IgG on Au colloids. In the impedance spectroscopic study, an obvious difference of the electron transfer resistance between the Au-colloid modified electrode and the bare gold electrode was observed. The cyclic voltammogram tends to be more irreversible with increased anti-IgG concentration. Using the potentiometric immunosensor, the proposed technique is based on that the specific agglutination of antibody-coated gold nanoparticles, averaging 16 nm in diameter, in the presence of the corresponding antigen causes a potential change that is monitored by a potentiometry. It is found that the developed immunoagglutination assay system is sensitive to the concentration of IgG antigen as low as 12 ng mL(-1). Experimental results showed that the developed technique is in satisfactory agreement with the ELISA method, and that gold nanoparticles can be used as a biocompatible matrix for antibody or antigen immobilization.

  18. Electrochemical biosensor based on self-assembled monolayers modified with gold nanoparticles for detection of HER-3.

    PubMed

    Canbaz, Mehmet Çetin; Simşek, Ciğdem Sayıklı; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2014-03-03

    We have developed a new immunological biosensor for ultrasensitive quantification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-3(HER-3). In order to construct the biosensor, the gold electrode surface was layered with, hexanedithiol, gold nanoparticles, and cysteamine, respectively. Anti-HER-3 antibody was covalently attached to cysteamine by glutaraldehyde and used as a bioreceptor in a biosensor system for the first time by this study. Surface characterization was obtained by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltammetry. The proposed biosensor showed a good analytical performance for the detection of HER-3 ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 pg mL(-1). Kramers-Kronig transform was performed on the experimental impedance data. Moreover, in an immunosensor system, the single frequency impedance technique was firstly used for characterization of interaction between HER-3 and anti-HER-3. Finally the presented biosensor was applied to artificial serum samples spiked with HER-3.

  19. Electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles fabricated molecularly imprinted polymer film at chitosan-platinum nanoparticles/graphene-gold nanoparticles double nanocomposites modified electrode for detection of erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Xing, Xianrong; Li, Jie; Cui, Min; Huang, Jiadong

    2012-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on gold electrode decorated by chitosan-platinum nanoparticles (CS-PtNPs) and graphene-gold nanoparticles (GR-AuNPs) nanocomposites for convenient and sensitive determination of erythromycin. The synergistic effects of CS-PtNPs and GR-AuNPs nanocomposites improved the electrochemical response and the sensitivity of the sensor. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared by HAuCl(4), 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA) and erythromycin. Erythromycin and MNA were used as template molecule and functional monomer, respectively. They were first assembled on the surface of GR-AuNPs/CS-PtNPs/gold electrode by the formation of Au-S bonds and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Then the MIPs were formed by electropolymerization of HAuCl(4), MNA and erythromycin. The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption speactra and amperometry. The linear range of the sensor was from 7.0 × 10(-8)mol/L-9.0 × 10(-5)mol/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 × 10(-8)mol/L (S/N=3). The sensor showed high selectivity, excellent stability and good reproducibility for the determination of erythromycin, and it was successfully applied to the detection of erythromycin in real spiked samples.

  20. Electrochemical and vibrational spectroscopic studies of coadsorption: Formation of mixed monolayers of methylene blue and long-chain dithioethers at sulfur-modified polycrystalline gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, B.J.; Corn, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Molecular conformation and order within mixed monolayers of methylene blue, sulfide, and the long-chain dithioether C{sub 14}H{sub 29}SC{sub 2}H{sub 4}SC{sub 14}H{sub 29} adsorbed onto polycrystalline evaporated gold films are studied by using electrochemical methods and ex situ vibrational spectroscopy. The methylene blue dye molecules directly chemisorb onto the sulfur-modified gold surface and do not significantly partition into the alkyl portions of the monolayer. However, upon reduction to leucomethylene blue, the dye molecules do partition into the alkyl subphase. Repeated electrochemical reduction and oxidation of the chemisorbed methylene blue result in an ordering of the adsorbed alkyl chains from a liquid-like structure to a close-packed configuration. The presence of a partial dithioether monolayer also leads to the formation of a stabilized leucomethylene blue film. The variations of the molecular structure observed in these mixed systems arise from the competing processes of chemisorption, aggregation, and hydrophobic solubilization occurring within the thin film.

  1. A simple and efficient electrochemical sensor for folic acid determination in human blood plasma based on gold nanoparticles-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Majid; Dehsaraei, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. A new chemically modified electrode was fabricated for determination of FA in human blood plasma using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carbon paste electrode (CPE). Gold nanoparticles-modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs/CPE) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental parameters such as pH, scan rate (ν) and amount of modifier were studied by cyclic voltammetry and the optimized values were chosen. The electrochemical parameters such as diffusion coefficient of FA (D(FA)), electrode surface area (A) and electron transfer coefficient (α) were calculated. Square wave voltammetry as an accurate technique was used for quantitative calculations. A good linear relation was observed between anodic peak current (ipa) and FA concentration (CFA) in the range of 6×10(-8) to 8×10(-5) mol L(-1), and the detection limit (LOD) achieved 2.7×10(-8) mol L(-1), that is comparable with recently studies. This paper demonstrated a novel, simple, selective and rapid sensor for determining the FA in the biological samples.

  2. Direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril using gold electrodes modified with graphene-AuAg nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R; Coros, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela Diana; Watanabe, Fumiya; Kannarpady, Ganesh K; Al Said, Said A Farha; Biris, Alexandru S; Pruneanu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for the electrochemical detection of S-captopril based on graphene AuAg nanostructures used to modify an Au electrode. Multi-layer graphene (Gr) sheets decorated with embedded bimetallic AuAg nanoparticles were successfully synthesized catalytically with methane as the carbon source. The two catalytic systems contained 1.0 wt% Ag and 1.0 wt% Au, while the second had a larger concentration of metals (1.5 wt% Ag and 1.5 wt% Au) and was used for the synthesis of the Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 multicomponent samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of graphene flakes that had regular shapes (square or rectangular) and dimensions in the tens to hundreds of nanometers. We found that the size of the embedded AuAg nanoparticles varied between 5 and 100 nm, with the majority being smaller than 20 nm. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy studies indicated a bimetallic characteristic of the metallic clusters. The resulting Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 samples were used to modify the surface of commonly used Au substrates and subsequently employed for the direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril. By comparing the differential pulse voltammograms recorded with the two modified electrodes at various concentrations of captopril, the peak current was determined to be well-defined, even at relatively low concentration (10−5 M), for the Au/Gr-AuAg-1.5 electrode. In contrast, the signals recorded with the Au/Gr-AuAg-1 electrode were poorly defined within a 5×10−6 to 5×10−3 M concentration range, and many of them overlapped with the background. Such composite materials could find significant applications in nanotechnology, sensing, or nanomedicine. PMID:24596464

  3. Direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril using gold electrodes modified with graphene-AuAg nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R; Coros, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela Diana; Watanabe, Fumiya; Kannarpady, Ganesh K; Al Said, Said A Farha; Biris, Alexandru S; Pruneanu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for the electrochemical detection of S-captopril based on graphene AuAg nanostructures used to modify an Au electrode. Multi-layer graphene (Gr) sheets decorated with embedded bimetallic AuAg nanoparticles were successfully synthesized catalytically with methane as the carbon source. The two catalytic systems contained 1.0 wt% Ag and 1.0 wt% Au, while the second had a larger concentration of metals (1.5 wt% Ag and 1.5 wt% Au) and was used for the synthesis of the Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 multicomponent samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of graphene flakes that had regular shapes (square or rectangular) and dimensions in the tens to hundreds of nanometers. We found that the size of the embedded AuAg nanoparticles varied between 5 and 100 nm, with the majority being smaller than 20 nm. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy studies indicated a bimetallic characteristic of the metallic clusters. The resulting Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 samples were used to modify the surface of commonly used Au substrates and subsequently employed for the direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril. By comparing the differential pulse voltammograms recorded with the two modified electrodes at various concentrations of captopril, the peak current was determined to be well-defined, even at relatively low concentration (10(-5) M), for the Au/Gr-AuAg-1.5 electrode. In contrast, the signals recorded with the Au/Gr-AuAg-1 electrode were poorly defined within a 5×10(-6) to 5×10(-3) M concentration range, and many of them overlapped with the background. Such composite materials could find significant applications in nanotechnology, sensing, or nanomedicine.

  4. A very low potential electrochemical detection of L-cysteine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes/gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco de Assis dos Santos; da Silva, Monique Gabriella Angelo; Lima, Phabyanno Rodrigues; Meneghetti, Mario Roberto; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-12-15

    A nanohybrid platform built with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanorods, prepared via a cationic surfactant-containing seed-mediated sequential growth process, in aqueous solution, on a glassy carbon substrate has been successfully developed to be used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine (Cys). The nanohybrid was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Cyclic voltammetry results had shown that the modified electrode allows the oxidation of Cys at a very low anodic potential (0.00 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The kinetic constant kcat for the catalytic oxidation of Cys was evaluated by chronoamperometry and provided a value of 5.6×10(4) L mol(-1) s(-1). The sensor presents a linear response range from 5.0 up to 200.0 µmol L(-1), detection limit of 8.25 nmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 120 nA L µmol(-1).

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of cysteine at a film gold modified carbon fiber microelectrode its application in a flow-through voltammetric sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Huang, Wen-Shiuan

    2012-01-01

    A flow-electrolytical cell containing a strand of micro Au modified carbon fiber electrodes (CFE) has been designedand characterized for use in a voltammatric detector for detecting cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cysteine is more efficiently electrochemical oxidized on a Au /CFE than a bare gold and carbon fiber electrode. The possible reaction mechanism of the oxidation process is described from the relations to scan rate, peak potentials and currents. For the pulse mode, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.5 to 5.0 mg·L(-1) was found. The limit of quantification for cysteine was below 60 ng·mL(-1).

  6. An electrochemical biosensor based on nanoporous stainless steel modified by gold and palladium nanoparticles for simultaneous determination of levodopa and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Behzad; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Leila; Havakeshian, Elaheh; Ensafi, Ali A

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an electrochemical biosensor based on gold and palladium nano particles-modified nanoporous stainless steel (Au-Pd/NPSS) electrode has been introduced for the simultaneous determination of levodopa (LD) and uric acid (UA). To prepare the electrode, the stainless steel was anodized to fabricate NPSS and then Cu was electrodeposited onto the nanoporous steel by applying the multiple step potential. Finally, the electrode was immersed into a gold and palladium precursor's solution by the atomic ratio of 9:1 to form Au-Pd/NPSS through the galvanic replacement reaction. Morphological aspects, structural properties and the electroanalytical behavior of the Au-Pd/NPSS electrode were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetric techniques. Also, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for the simultaneous determination of LD and UA. According to results, the surface of Au-Pd/NPSS electrode contained Au and Pd nanoparticles with an average diameter of 75nm. The electrode acted better than Au/NPSS and Pd/NPSS electrodes for the simultaneous determination of LD and UA, with the peak separation potential of about 220mV. Also, the calibration plot for LD was in two linear concentration ranges of 5.0-10.0 and 10.0-55.0μmolL(-1) and for UA, it was in the range of 100-1200μmolL(-1). The detection limit for LD and UA was 0.2 and 15μmolL(-1), respectively. The modified electrode had a good performance for LD and UA detection in urine, blood serum and levodopa C-Forte tablet.

  7. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  8. Electrochemical control of creep in nanoporous gold

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xing-Long; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2013-11-11

    We have investigated the mechanical stability of nanoporous gold (npg) in an electrochemical environment, using in situ dilatometry and compression experiments. It is demonstrated that the gold nano-ligaments creep under the action of surface stress which leads to spontaneous volume contractions in macroscopic npg samples. The creep of npg, under or without external forces, can be controlled electrochemically. The creep rate increases with increasing potential in double-layer potential region, and deceases to almost zero when the gold surface is adsorbed with oxygen. Surprisingly, we also noticed a correlation between creep and surface diffusivity, which links the deformation of nanocrystals to mobility of surface atoms.

  9. A Renewable Electrochemical Magnetic Immunosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticle Labels

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-05-24

    A particle-based renewable electrochemical magnetic immunosensor was developed by using magnetic beads and a gold nanoparticle label. Anti-IgG antibody-modified magnetic beads were attached to a renewable carbon paste transducer surface by magnets that were fixed inside the sensor. A gold nanoparticle label was capsulated to the surface of magnetic beads by sandwich immunoassay. Highly sensitive electrochemical stripping analysis offers a simple and fast method to quantify the capatured gold nanoparticle tracer and avoid the use of an enzyme label and substrate. The stripping signal of gold nanoparticle is related to the concentration of target IgG in the sample solution. A transmission electron microscopy image shows that the gold nanoparticles were successfully capsulated to the surface of magnetic beads through sandwich immunoreaction events. The parameters of immunoassay, including the loading of magnetic beads, the amount of gold nanoparticle conjugate, and the immunoreaction time, were optimized. The detection limit of 0.02 μg ml-1of IgG was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. Such particle-based electrochemical magnetic immunosensors could be readily used for simultaneous parallel detection of multiple proteins by using multiple inorganic metal nanoparticle tracers and are expected to open new opportunities for disease diagnostics and biosecurity.

  10. Impedimetric investigation of gold nanoparticles - guanine modified electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcu, A.; Pruneanu, S.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Olenic, L.; Muresan, L. M.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.

    2013-11-13

    In this paper we report the preparation of a modified electrode with gold nanoparticles and guanine. The colloidal suspension of gold nanoparticles was obtained by Turkevich method and was next analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The gold electrode was modified by self-assembling the gold nanoparticles with guanine, the organic molecule playing also the role of linker. The electrochemical characteristics of the bare and modified electrode were investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A theoretical model was developed based on an electrical equivalent circuit which contain solution resistance (R{sub s}), charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), Warburg impedance (Z{sub W}) and double layer capacitance (C{sub dl})

  11. Caffeine electrochemical sensor using imprinted film as recognition element based on polypyrrole, sol-gel, and gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposite modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Behzad; Khalili Boroujeni, Malihe; Ensafi, Ali A

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, a novel sensitive and selective nanocomposite imprinted electrochemical sensor for the indirect determination of caffeine has been prepared. The imprinted sensor was fabricated on the surface of pencil graphite electrode (PGE) via one-step electropolymerization of the imprinted polymer composed of conductive polymer, sol-gel, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and caffeine. Due to such combination like the thin film of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with specific binding sites, the sensor responded quickly to caffeine. AuNPs were introduced for the enhancement of electrical response by facilitating charge transfer processes of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-) which was used as an electrochemical active probe. The fabrication process of the sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Several important parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were investigated and optimized. The imprinted sensor has the advantages of high porous surface structure, inexpensive, disposable, excellent stability, good reproducibility and repeatability. The linear ranges of the MIP sensor were in the range from 2.0 to 50.0 and 50.0 to 1000.0 nmol L(-1), with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.9 nmol L(-1) (S/N=3). Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully intended for the determination of caffeine in real samples (urine, plasma, tablet, green tea, energy and soda drink).

  12. A novel lable-free electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen based on gold nanoparticles-thionine-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fen-Ying; Xu, Mao-Tian; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, gold nanoparticle-thionine-reduced graphene oxide (GNP-THi-GR) nanocomposites were prepared to design a label-free immunosensor for the sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The nanocomposites with good biocompatibility, excellent redox electrochemical activity and large surface area were coated onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and then CEA antibody (anti-CEA) was immobilized on the electrode to construct the immunosensor. The morphologies and electrochemistry of the formed nanocomposites were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies demonstrated that the formation of antibody-antigen complexes decreased the peak current of THi in the GNP-THi-GR nanocomposites. The decreased currents were proportional to the CEA concentration in the range of 10-500 pg/mL with a detection limit of 4 pg/mL. The proposed method was simple, fast and inexpensive for the determination of CEA at very low levels.

  13. Electrochemical Oxidation of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine at a Thiol-Compound-Modified Gold Electrode: Its Application in a Flow-Through Voltammetric Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Zhang, Yu-Han

    2017-02-16

    A flow-electrolytic cell that consists of a bare gold wire or of different thiol-compound-modified gold electrodes (such as 2,4-thiazolidinedione, 2-mercapto-5-thiazoline, 2-mercaptothiazoline, l-cysteine, thioglycolic acid) was designed to be used in a voltammetric detector to identify l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine are more efficiently electrochemically oxidized on a thiol/gold than on a bare gold electrode. For the DC mode, and for measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 10 to 1600 ng·mL(-1) was found. The limits of quantification for l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine were below 10 ng·mL(-1). The method can be applied to the quantitative determination of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine in commercial selenium-containing supplement products. Findings using high-performance liquid chromatography with a flow-through voltammetric detector and ultraviolet detector are comparable.

  14. Electrochemical Oxidation of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine at a Thiol-Compound-Modified Gold Electrode: Its Application in a Flow-Through Voltammetric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Zhang, Yu-Han

    2017-01-01

    A flow-electrolytic cell that consists of a bare gold wire or of different thiol-compound-modified gold electrodes (such as 2,4-thiazolidinedione, 2-mercapto-5-thiazoline, 2-mercaptothiazoline, l-cysteine, thioglycolic acid) was designed to be used in a voltammetric detector to identify l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine are more efficiently electrochemically oxidized on a thiol/gold than on a bare gold electrode. For the DC mode, and for measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 10 to 1600 ng·mL−1 was found. The limits of quantification for l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine were below 10 ng·mL−1. The method can be applied to the quantitative determination of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine in commercial selenium-containing supplement products. Findings using high-performance liquid chromatography with a flow-through voltammetric detector and ultraviolet detector are comparable. PMID:28212326

  15. Enzymatically catalytic deposition of gold nanoparticles by glucose oxidase-functionalized gold nanoprobe for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui; Lai, Guosong; Fu, Li; Zhang, Haili; Yu, Aimin

    2015-09-15

    A novel ultrasensitive immunoassay method was developed by combination of the enzymatically catalytic gold deposition with the prepared gold nanoprobe and the gold stripping analysis at an electrochemical chip based immunosensor. The immunosensor was constructed through covalently immobilizing capture antibody at a carbon nanotube (CNT) modified screen-printed carbon electrode. The gold nanoprobe was prepared by loading signal antibody and high-content glucose oxidase (GOD) on the nanocarrier of gold nanorod (Au NR). After sandwich immunoreaction, the GOD-Au NR nanoprobe could be quantitatively captured onto the immunosensor surface and then induce the deposition of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) via the enzymatically catalytic reaction. Based on the electrochemical stripping analysis of the Au NR nanocarriers and the enzymatically produced Au NPs, sensitive electrochemical signal was obtained for the immunoassay. Both the GOD-induced deposition of Au NPs by the nanoprobe and the sensitive electrochemical stripping analysis on the CNTs based sensing surface greatly amplified the signal response, leading to the ultrahigh sensitivity of this method. Using carcinoembryonic antigen as a model analyte, excellent analytical performance including a wide linear range from 0.01 to 100 ng/mL and a detection limit down to 4.2 pg/mL was obtained. In addition, this immunosensor showed high specificity and satisfactory reproducibility, stability and reliability. The relatively positive detection potential excluded the conventional interference from dissolved oxygen. Thus this electrochemical chip based immunosensing method provided great potentials for practical applications.

  16. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  17. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  18. An electrochemical investigation of gold, tin and titanium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sawtelle, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the electron transfer properties of gold, tin, and titanium compounds using electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques is the focus of this dissertation. The investigations of the gold compounds include the determination of the properties of Au[PR[sub 3

  19. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOEpatents

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  20. Controlled electrochemical growth of ultra-long gold nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnet, Gobind; Panta, Krishna R.; Thapa, Prem S.; Flanders, Bret N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the electrochemical growth of branchless gold nanoribbons with ˜40 nm × ˜300 nm cross sections and >100 μm lengths (giving length-to-thickness aspect ratios of >103). These structures are useful for opto-electronic studies and as nanoscale electrodes. The 0.75-1.0 V voltage amplitude range is optimal for branchless ribbon growth. Reduced amplitudes induce no growth, possibly due to reversible redox chemistry of gold at reduced amplitudes, whereas elevated amplitudes, or excess electrical noise, induce significant side-branching. The inter-relatedness of voltage-amplitude, noise, and side-branching in electrochemical nanoribbon growth is demonstrated.

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with glassy carbon electrode and their application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. Z.; Li, X.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z. P.; Zhong, H.; Xu, J. M.; Lu, J. S.; Wei, C. G.; Zhu, A. F.; Wu, F. Y.; Xu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with glassy carbon electrode were prepared using electrochemical synthesis method. The thin films of gold Nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline hydrochloride at gold nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated. A simple, sensitive, and inexpensive method for determination of adrenaline hydrochloride was proposed.

  2. Direct electrochemistry of Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiose dehydrogenase covalently attached onto gold nanoparticle modified solid gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Ortiz, Roberto; Ludwig, Roland; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Gorton, Lo

    2012-07-24

    Achieving efficient electrochemical communication between redox enzymes and various electrode materials is one of the main challenges in bioelectrochemistry and is of great importance for developing electronic applications. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular flavocytochrome composed of a catalytic FAD containing dehydrogenase domain (DH(CDH)), a heme b containing cytochrome domain (CYT(CDH)), and a flexible linker region connecting the two domains. Efficient direct electron transfer (DET) of CDH from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PcCDH) covalently attached to mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified gold nanoparticle (AuNP) electrode is presented. The thiols used were as follows: 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP), 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), 4-mercaptophenol (4-MP), 11-mercapto-1-undecanamine (MUNH(2)), 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid (MUCOOH), and 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MUOH). A covalent linkage between PcCDH and 4-ATP or MUNH(2) in the mixed SAMs was formed using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. The covalent immobilization and the surface coverage of PcCDH were confirmed with surface plasmon resonance (SPR). To improve current density, AuNPs were cast on the top of polycrystalline gold electrodes. For all the immobilized PcCDH modified AuNPs electrodes, cyclic voltammetry exhibited clear electrochemical responses of the CYT(CDH) with fast electron transfer (ET) rates in the absence of substrate (lactose), and the formal potential was evaluated to be +162 mV vs NHE at pH 4.50. The standard ET rate constant (k(s)) was estimated for the first time for CDH and was found to be 52.1, 59.8, 112, and 154 s(-1) for 4-ATP/4-MBA, 4-ATP/4-MP, MUNH(2)/MUCOOH, and MUNH(2)/MUOH modified electrodes, respectively. At all the mixed SAM modified AuNP electrodes, PcCDH showed DET only via the CYT(CDH). No DET communication between the DH(CDH) domain and the electrode was found. The current density for lactose oxidation was remarkably increased by

  3. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  4. Active Electrochemical Plasmonic Switching on Polyaniline-Coated Gold Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenzheng; Jiang, Nina; Wang, Jianfang

    2017-02-01

    High-performance electrochemical plasmonic switching is realized on both single-particle and ensemble levels by coating polyaniline on colloidal gold nanocrystals through surfactant-assisted oxidative polymerization. Under small applied potentials, the core@shell nanostructures exhibit reversible plasmon shifts as large as 150 nm, a switching time of less than 10 ms, and a high switching stability.

  5. In situ deposition of gold nanoparticles on polydopamine functionalized silica nanosphere for ultrasensitive nonenzymatic electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lai, Guosong; Zhang, Haili; Yong, Jiawey; Yu, Aimin

    2013-09-15

    A novel gold nanoprobe was prepared for the signal tracing of ultrasensitive nonenzymatic electrochemical immunoassay at a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based disposable immunosensor. The gold nanoprobe was prepared via in situ deposition of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the polydopamine functionalized silica nanosphere followed by the labeling of signal antibodies. The immunosensor was prepared through the covalent immobilization of capturing antibodies on the CNTs modified screen-printed carbon electrode. After a sandwich-type immunoreaction on the immunosensor surface, the gold nanoprobes were captured onto the electrode surface to form immunocomplex. The multiple Au NPs on the attached nanoprobe composites were then measured by electrochemical stripping analysis to obtain signal response. This method provided a simple and controllable way to prepare a novel gold nanoprobe which greatly amplified the signal response of every single immuno-recognition event. The modification of electrode surface with CNTs also facilitated the stripping current enhancement of Au NPs resulting in the ultrahigh sensitivity of this immunoassay method. Using human IgG as a model analyte, the proposed method showed a wide linear range over three orders of magnitude with the detection limit down to 6.9pg/mL. Besides, this method showed excellent analytical performance with low cost, good portability, and acceptable reproducibility, stability and accuracy, thus providing great potentials for clinical applications.

  6. Electrochemical impedance immunosensor based on three-dimensionally ordered macroporous gold film.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jinjun; Yan, Wei; Li, Xinghua; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2008-03-15

    A novel label-free immunosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) was developed based on a three-dimensional ordered macroporous (3DOM) gold film modified electrode by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The electrode was electrochemically fabricated with an inverted opal template, making the surface area of the 3DOM gold film up to 14.4 times higher than that of a classical bare flat one, characterized by the cyclic voltammetric (CV) technique. The 3DOM gold film which was composed of interconnected gold nanoparticles not only has a good biocompatible microenvironment but also promotes the increase of conductivity and stability. The CRP immunosensor was developed by covalently conjugating CRP antibodies with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on the 3DOM gold film electrode. The CRP concentration was measured through the increase of impedance values in the corresponding specific binding of CRP antigen and CRP antibody. The increased electron-transfer resistance (R(et)) values were proportional to the logarithmic value of CRP concentrations in the range of 0.1 to 20 ng mL(-1). The detection of CRP levels in three sera obtained from hospital showed acceptable accuracy.

  7. Label-free electrochemical monitoring of protein addressing through electroactivated "click" chemistry on gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Meini, Nadir; Ripert, Micaël; Chaix, Carole; Farre, Carole; De Crozals, Gabriel; Kherrat, Rochdi; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    In this work, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have, for the first time, label-free monitored protein immobilization on a gold surface through a strategy of electroaddressing, compatible with the production of microarrays for multi-detection. This functionalization is achieved via the alkyne/azide cycloaddition, better known as the "click" reaction. The electroaddressing was applied to a polythiol hexynyl derivative previously grafted onto the gold surface. This compound consists of two dithiol phosphate groups and a hexynyl function and was synthesized through a supported synthesis approach, from a dithiol reagent, phosphoramidite (DTPA), and a hexynyl phosphoramidite. Next, an azide-PEG3-biotin derivative was grafted onto the modified gold surface by electro-chronocoulometry. The "click" reaction was controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, showing the change in impedance only when the electroaddressing was performed at -300 mV. No effect on the EIS signal was observed when a positive potential was applied, confirming the specificity of the electroactivation. Biotin-modified electrodes were used to fix streptavidin and the immobilization was monitored using EIS. Fluorescent streptavidin-functionalized silica nanoparticles were also specifically grafted onto the biotinylated gold surface in order to confirm the "click" reaction using fluorescence microscopy. The obtained streptavidin platform was used to detect the surface coverage by biotinylated human serum albumin (HSA). The lowest detectable concentration is 10 pg/mL, and surface saturation is obtained with concentrations higher than 100 ng/mL.

  8. Shape control technology during electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiu-yu; Cui, Cong-ying; Cheng, Ying-wen; Ma, Hou-yi; Liu, Duo

    2013-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were prepared by adding gold precursor (HAuCl4) to an electrolyzed aqueous solution of poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and KNO3, which indicates the good reducing capacity of the PVP-containing solution after being treated by electrolysis. Using a catholyte and an anolyte as the reducing agents for HAuCl4, respectively, most gold nanoparticles were spherical particles in the former case but plate-like particles in the latter case. The change in the pH value of electrolytes caused by the electrolysis of water would be the origin of the differences in shape and morphology of gold nanoparticles. A hypothesis of the H+ or OH- catalyzed PVP degradation mechanism was proposed to interpret why the pH value played a key role in determining the shape or morphology of gold nanoparticles. These experiments open up a new method for effectively controlling the shape and morphology of metal nanoparticles by using electrochemical methods.

  9. Electrochemically Controlled Atom by Atom Deposition of Gold to Polyaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2010-08-17

    Plyaniline (PANI) has been shown to be an effective matrix for hosting metal nanoclusters. In the case of gold, the tetrachloroaurate anion (AuCl₄) has a high affinity for the imine sites of polyaniline. Upon contract with PANI, AuCl₄ is spontaneously reduced to metallic gold, but the size of the formed Au clusters can not be precisely controlled. Herein, we report on electrochemical method of controlled deposition of one atom by one atom of gold per one imine site of PANI. By controlling the potential, we keep PANI in an oxidized state while exposing it to a solution of AuCl₄ to form a PANI*AuCl₄ complex. The AuCl₄ is reduced to atomic gold by sweeping the potential negative. That frees up the imine sites of PANI again and makes them accessible for the next Au deposition cycle. The repeated deposition of Au atoms follows a cyclic pathway. The amount of gold deposited using this method is consistent for each repeated cycle.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite modified electrode for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical genosensor.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, P Abdul; Radhakrishnan, Thulasi; Shihabudeen, P K; Sandhyarani, N

    2016-09-15

    Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite (rGO:Y) is applied as electrochemical genosensor platform for ultrahigh sensitive detection of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene for the first time. The sensor is based on the sandwich assay in which gold nanoparticle cluster labeled reporter DNA hybridize to the target DNA. Glassy carbon electrode modified with rGO-yttria serves as the immobilization platform for capture probe DNA. The sensor exhibited a fine capability of sensing BRCA1 gene with linear range of 10attomolar (aM) to 1nanomolar (nM) and a detection limit of 5.95attomolar. The minimum distinguishable response concentration is down to the attomolar level with a high sensitivity and selectivity. We demonstrated that the use of rGO:Y modified electrode along with gold nanoparticle cluster (AuNPC) label leads to the highly sensitive electrochemical detection of BRCA1 gene.

  11. Electrochemical tuning of the optical properties of nanoporous gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalas, D.; Shao, L.-H.; Canchi, R.; Okuma, T.; Lang, S.; Petrov, A.; Weissmüller, J.; Eich, M.

    2017-03-01

    Using optical in-situ measurements in an electrochemical environment, we study the electrochemical tuning of the transmission spectrum of films from the nanoporous gold (NPG) based optical metamaterial, including the effect of the ligament size. The long wavelength part of the transmission spectrum around 800 nm can be reversibly tuned via the applied electrode potential. The NPG behaves as diluted metal with its transition from dielectric to metallic response shifted to longer wavelengths. We find that the applied potential alters the charge carrier density to a comparable extent as in experiments on gold nanoparticles. However, compared to nanoparticles, a NPG optical metamaterial, due to its connected structure, shows a much stronger and more broadband change in optical transmission for the same change in charge carrier density. We were able to tune the transmission through an only 200 nm thin sample by 30%. In combination with an electrolyte the tunable NPG based optical metamaterial, which employs a very large surface-to-volume ratio is expected to play an important role in sensor applications, for photoelectrochemical water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen and for solar water purification.

  12. Electrochemical tuning of the optical properties of nanoporous gold

    PubMed Central

    Jalas, D.; Shao, L.-H.; Canchi, R.; Okuma, T.; Lang, S.; Petrov, A.; Weissmüller, J.; Eich, M.

    2017-01-01

    Using optical in-situ measurements in an electrochemical environment, we study the electrochemical tuning of the transmission spectrum of films from the nanoporous gold (NPG) based optical metamaterial, including the effect of the ligament size. The long wavelength part of the transmission spectrum around 800 nm can be reversibly tuned via the applied electrode potential. The NPG behaves as diluted metal with its transition from dielectric to metallic response shifted to longer wavelengths. We find that the applied potential alters the charge carrier density to a comparable extent as in experiments on gold nanoparticles. However, compared to nanoparticles, a NPG optical metamaterial, due to its connected structure, shows a much stronger and more broadband change in optical transmission for the same change in charge carrier density. We were able to tune the transmission through an only 200 nm thin sample by 30%. In combination with an electrolyte the tunable NPG based optical metamaterial, which employs a very large surface-to-volume ratio is expected to play an important role in sensor applications, for photoelectrochemical water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen and for solar water purification. PMID:28276516

  13. Electrochemical analysis of gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles for detecting immunological interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thao Thi-Hien; Sim, Sang Jun

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical impedance immunosensor was developed for detecting the immunological interaction between human immunoglobulin (IgG) and protein A from Staphylococcus aureus based on the immobilization of human IgG on the surface of modified gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with an Au shell and Fe oxide cores were functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The electrochemical analysis was conducted on the modified magnetic carbon paste electrodes with the nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were attached to the surface of the magnetic carbon paste electrodes via magnetic force. The cyclic voltammetry technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of the magnetic carbon paste electrodes coated with magnetic nanoparticles-human IgG complex showed changes in its alternating current (AC) response both after the modification of the surface of the electrode and the addition of protein A. The immunological interaction between human IgG on the surface of the modified magnetic carbon paste electrodes and protein A in the solution could be successfully monitored.

  14. Investigate electrochemical immunosensor of cortisol based on gold nanoparticles/magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Yuqiang; Ma, Yuling; Zheng, Xiaoping; Bai, Ruibin; Ahmed Abdelmoaty, Ahmed Attia; Hu, Fangdi

    2017-02-15

    A sensitively competitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cortisol was successfully developed based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide (AuNPs/MrGO). In order to construct the base of the immunosensor, the MrGO was initially fabricated by chemical cross-linking and used to modify the nafion pretreated glassy carbon electrode. Subsequently, the surface of electrode was modified by AuNPs via electrochemical deposition. A variety of cortisol (Cor) can be firmly loaded in the AuNPs/MrGO with large specific surface area and good bioactivity to construct the basic electrode (Cor/AuNPs/MrGO/Nafion@GCE), which was characterized by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. Due to the cortisol on the surface of basic electrode and samples can competitively combine with the cortisol antibody labelled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP-Strept-Biotin-Ab). Finally, the detection signal of electrochemical immunosensor (HRP-Strept-Biotin-Ab-Cor/AuNPs/MrGO/Nafion@GCE) in the test liquid had negative correlations with the concentration of cortisol in samples. The AuNPs/MrGO with excellent electrical conductivity being applied, the electrochemical response of the immunosensor was immensely amplified. The immunosensor displayed excellent analytical performance for the detection of cortisol range from 0.1 to 1000ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.05ng/mL at 3σ. Moreover, compared the developed immunoassay with commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the proposed method showed good precision, acceptable stability and reproducibility, indicating the immunosensor could be used for the sensitive, efficient and real-time detection of cortisol in real samples. Therefore, the present strategy provides a novel and convenient method for clinical determination of cortisol.

  15. Electrocatalytic behaviour and application of manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle- surface modified glassy carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebarchievici, I.; Tăranu, B. O.; Birdeanu, M.; Rus, S. F.; Fagadar-Cosma, E.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to obtain manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes and to use them for the detection of H2O2. Two sets of modified electrodes were prepared by drop-cast deposition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-methyl-phenyl)porphyrinato manganese(III) chloride alone and of the same Mn-porphyrin and gold-colloid solution and comparatively characterized by Raman, UV-vis, ellipsometry, AFM and TEM microscopy, XPS and cyclic voltammetry. XPS spectrum recorded for GC_MnP_nAu modified electrode displayed the characteristic signals of gold nanoparticles. The optical parameters have greater values for GC_MnP_nAu in comparison with GC_MnP, due to increasing charge transfer efficiency. The MnP_nAu film mediates the electron transfer between H2O2 and GC, evidenced by an increase in the current intensity of the anodic peak, and facilitates the electrochemical regeneration of oxidized H2O2 at cathodic potentials. From the cyclic voltammetry experiments a linear relationship between H2O2 concentration vs oxidation and reduction currents was observed. The linear dependence between density of current and the square root of the scan rate indicates that the oxidation and reduction processes of H2O2 are diffusion controlled. The GC_MnP_nAu modified electrode shows great potential as electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Tuning the characteristics of electrochemically fabricated gold nanowires.

    PubMed

    Karim, S; Ensinger, W; Cornelius, T W; Khan, E U; Neumann, R

    2008-11-01

    We have developed different electrochemical procedures for the production of gold nanowires with variable and controllable crystallographic and morphological properties using etched ion track templates. The texture of the nanowires is tuned by the variation of the electrodeposition parameters. Potentiostatic plating at low overvoltage provides strongly (110) textured wires for diameters below 100 nm. With the increase in diameter above 100 nm, this texture decreases and the signal from ({111} planes becomes more pronounced. Under reverse pulse deposition conditions, (100) textured wires are generated. The growth mechanism is discussed in detail in terms of the surface energy minimum principle. In addition, wires are shaped in a reliable way from cylindrical to conical geometry by engineering the pore structure in the template.

  17. Critical View on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Using the Ferri/Ferrocyanide Redox Couple at Gold Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Stephan; Su, Qiang; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Cristina; Nöll, Gilbert

    2016-04-19

    Electrochemical or faradaic impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using the ferri/ferrocyanide couple as a redox probe at gold working electrodes was evaluated with respect to its ability to monitor consecutive surface modification steps. As a model reaction, the reversible hybridization and dehybridization of DNA was studied. Thiol-modified single stranded DNA (ssDNA, 20 bases, capture probe) was chemisorbed to a gold electrode and treated with a solution of short thiols to release nonspecifically adsorbed DNA before hybridization with complementary ssDNA (20 bases, target) was carried out. Reversible dehybridization was achieved by intense rinsing with pure water. The experimental procedures were optimized by kinetic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements to maximize the increase in reflectivity or decrease in frequency upon hybridization before hybridization/dehybridization was also monitored by EIS. In contrast to SPR and QCM-D, repeatable EIS measurements were not possible at first. Combined SPR/EIS and QCM-D/EIS measurements revealed that during EIS the gold surface is seriously damaged due to the presence of CN(-) ions, which are released from the ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe. Even at optimized experimental conditions, etching the gold electrodes could not be completely suppressed and the repeatability of the EIS measurements was limited. In three out of four experimental runs, only two hybridization/dehybridization steps could be monitored reversibly by EIS. Thereafter etching the gold electrode significantly contributed to the EIS spectra whereas the QCM-D response was still repeatable. Hence great care has to be taken when this technique is used to monitor surface modification at gold electrodes.

  18. Laccase-modified gold nanorods for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Di Bari, Chiara; Shleev, Sergey; De Lacey, Antonio L; Pita, Marcos

    2016-02-01

    cathodes. Nanostructuring was provided by gold nanorods (AuNRs), which were characterized and covalently attached to electrodes made of low-density graphite. The nanostructured electrode was the scaffold for covalent and oriented attachment of ThLc. The bioelectrocatalytic currents measured for oxygen reduction were as high as 0.5 mA/cm(2 and 0.7 mA/cm(2), which were recorded under direct and mediated electron transfer regimes, respectively. )The experimental data were fitted to mathematical models showing that when the O2 is bioelectroreduced at high rotation speed of the electrode the heterogeneous electron transfer step is the rate-liming stage. The electrochemical measurement hints a wider population of non-optimally wired laccases than previously reported for 5–8 nm size Au nanoparticle-modified electrode, which could be due to a larger size of the AuNRs when compared to the laccases as well as their different crystal facets.

  19. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy of DNA Monolayers Modified with Nile Blue

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Hammond, William J.; Hill, Michael G.; Slowinski, Krzysztof; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is used to probe long-range charge transport (CT) through DNA monolayers containing the redox-active Nile Blue (NB) intercalator covalently affixed at a specific location in the DNA film. At substrate potentials negative of the formal potential of covalently attached NB, the electrocatalytic reduction of Fe(CN)63− generated at the SECM tip is observed only when NB is located at the DNA/solution interface; for DNA films containing NB in close proximity to the DNA/electrode interface, the electrocatalytic effect is absent. This behavior is consistent with both rapid DNA-mediated CT between the NB intercalator and the gold electrode as well as a rate-limiting electron transfer between NB and the solution phase Fe(CN)63−. The DNA-mediated nature of the catalytic cycle is confirmed through sequence-specific and localized detection of attomoles of TATA-binding protein, a transcription factor that severely distorts DNA upon binding. Importantly, the strategy outlined here is general and allows for the local investigation of the surface characteristics of DNA monolayers both in the absence and in the presence of DNA binding proteins. These experiments highlight the utility of DNA-modified electrodes as versatile platforms for SECM detection schemes that take advantage of CT mediated by the DNA base pair stack. PMID:19053641

  20. Enhanced electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization with carbon nanotube modified paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Nie, Libo; Guo, Huishi; He, Quanguo; Chen, Jianrong; Miao, Yuqing

    2007-02-01

    A novel electrochemical genesensor using twice hybridization enhancement of gold nanoparticles based on carbon paste modified electrode is described. The carbon nanotube modified carbon paste electrode (CNTPE) and mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 modified carbon paste electrode (MSCPE) were investigated. The assay relies on the immobilization of streptavidin-biotin labeled target oligonucleotides onto the electrode surface and its hybridization to the gold nanoparticle-labeled DNA probe. After twice hybridization enhanced connection of gold nanoparticles to the hybridized system, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal of total gold nanoparticles was monitored. It was found that the adsorption of oligonucleotide and hybridized DPV signal on CNTPE were both enhanced in comparison with that of pure carbon paste electrode (CPE). But this trend was reverse on MSCPE. The DPV detection of twice hybridized gold nanoparticles indicated that the sensitivity of the genesensor enhanced about one order of magnitude compared with one-layer hybridization. One-base mismatched DNA and complementary DNA could be distinguished clearly. However, no distinct advantage of MSCPE over CPE was found.

  1. Surface-modified gold nanoshells for enhanced cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongshi; Liu, Yun; Li, Xiangyang; Wu, Qinge; Yu, Jiahui; Luo, Shufang; Lai, Lihui; Liu, Shunying

    2011-09-15

    Gold nanoshells have shown a great potential for use as agents in a wide variety of biomedical applications, and some of which require the delivery of large numbers of gold nanoshells onto or into the cells. Here, we develop a ready method to enhance the cellular uptake of gold nanoshells by modifying with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The quantifiable technique of inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the cellular uptake of unmodified and DMSA-modified gold nanoshells. Three cell lines (RAW 264.7, A549, and BEL-7402) were involved and the results indicated that the cellular uptake of the DMSA-modified gold nanoshells was obviously enhanced versus the unmodified gold nanoshells. The reason possibly lies in the nonspecific adsorption of serum protein on the DMSA-modified gold nanoshells (DMSA-GNs), which consequently enhanced the cellular uptake. As a continued effort, in vitro experiments with endocytic inhibitors suggested the DMSA-GNs internalized into cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) pathway. This study has provided a valuable insight into the effects of surface modification on cellular uptake of nanoparticles.

  2. Zepto-molar electrochemical detection of Brucella genome based on gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, Amid; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh; Heli, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms were sonoelectrodeposited on a polycrystalline gold surface at −1800 mV (vs. AgCl) with the assistance of ultrasound and co-occurrence of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The nanostructure, as a transducer, was utilized to immobilize a Brucella-specific probe and fabrication of a genosensor, and the process of immobilization and hybridization was detected by electrochemical methods, using methylene blue as a redox marker. The proposed method for detection of the complementary sequence, sequences with base-mismatched (one-, two- and three-base mismatches), and the sequence of non-complementary sequence was assayed. The fabricated genosensor was evaluated for the assay of the bacteria in the cultured and human samples without polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The genosensor could detect the complementary sequence with a calibration sensitivity of 0.40 μA dm3 mol−1, a linear concentration range of 10 zmol dm−3 to 10 pmol dm−3, and a detection limit of 1.71 zmol dm−3. PMID:26657828

  3. Zepto-molar electrochemical detection of Brucella genome based on gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahi, Amid; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh; Heli, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms were sonoelectrodeposited on a polycrystalline gold surface at -1800 mV (vs. AgCl) with the assistance of ultrasound and co-occurrence of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The nanostructure, as a transducer, was utilized to immobilize a Brucella-specific probe and fabrication of a genosensor, and the process of immobilization and hybridization was detected by electrochemical methods, using methylene blue as a redox marker. The proposed method for detection of the complementary sequence, sequences with base-mismatched (one-, two- and three-base mismatches), and the sequence of non-complementary sequence was assayed. The fabricated genosensor was evaluated for the assay of the bacteria in the cultured and human samples without polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The genosensor could detect the complementary sequence with a calibration sensitivity of 0.40 μA dm3 mol-1, a linear concentration range of 10 zmol dm-3 to 10 pmol dm-3, and a detection limit of 1.71 zmol dm-3.

  4. Selective electrochemical gold deposition onto p-Si (1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santinacci, L.; Djenizian, T.; Schwaller, P.; Suter, T.; Etcheberry, A.; Schmuki, P.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we report selective electrochemical gold deposition onto p-type Si (1 0 0) into nanoscratches produced through a thin oxide layer using an atomic force microscope. A detailed description of the substrate engraving process is presented. The influence of the main scratching parameters such as the normal applied force, the number of scans and the scanning velocity are investigated as well as the mechanical properties of the substrate. Gold deposition is carried out in a KAu(CN)2 + KCN solution by applying cathodic voltages for various durations. The gold deposition process is investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Reactivity enhancement at the scratched locations was studied by comparing the electrochemical behaviour of intact and engraved surfaces using a micro-electrochemical setup. Selective electrochemical gold deposition is achieved: metallic patterns with a sub-500 nm lateral resolution are obtained demonstrating, therefore, the bearing potential of this patterning technique.

  5. Few-layer graphene sheets with embedded gold nanoparticles for electrochemical analysis of adenine

    PubMed Central

    Biris, Alexandru R; Pruneanu, Stela; Pogacean, Florina; Lazar, Mihaela D; Borodi, Gheorghe; Ardelean, Stefania; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Watanabe, Fumiya; Biris, Alexandru S

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of few-layer graphene sheets embedded with various amounts of gold nanoparticles (Gr-Au-x) over an Aux/MgO catalytic system (where × = 1, 2, or 3 wt%). The sheet-like morphology of the Gr-Au-x nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which also demonstrated that the number of layers within the sheets varied from two to seven. The sample with the highest percentage of gold nanoparticles embedded within the graphitic layers (Gr-Au-3) showed the highest degree of crystallinity. This distinct feature, along with the large number of edge-planes seen in high resolution transmission electron microscopic images, has a crucial effect on the electrocatalytic properties of this material. The reaction yields (40%–50%) and the final purity (96%–98%) of the Gr-Au-x composites were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. The Gr-Au-x composites were used to modify platinum substrates and subsequently to detect adenine, one of the DNA bases. For the bare electrode, no oxidation signal was recorded. In contrast, all of the modified electrodes showed a strong electrocatalytic effect, and a clear peak for adenine oxidation was recorded at approximately +1.05 V. The highest increase in the electrochemical signal was obtained using a platinum/Gr-Au-3-modified electrode. In addition, this modified electrode had an exchange current density (I0, obtained from the Tafel plot) one order of magnitude higher than that of the bare platinum electrode, which also confirmed that the transfer of electrons took place more readily at the Gr-Au-3-modified electrode. PMID:23610521

  6. A novel electrochemical aptasensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes, gold electrode and complimentary strand of aptamer for ultrasensitive detection of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Emrani, Ahmad Sarreshtehdar; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil

    2015-11-15

    Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant and one of the most commonly abused drugs. In this study, an electrochemical aptasensor was designed for sensitive and selective detection of cocaine, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), gold electrode and complimentary strand of aptamer (CS). This electrochemical aptasensor inherits properties of SWNTs and gold such as large surface area and high electrochemical conductivity, as well as high affinity and selectivity of aptamer toward its target and the stronger interaction of SWNTs with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) than double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In the absence of cocaine, a little amount of SWNTs bind to Aptamer-CS-modified electrode, so that the electrochemical signal is weak. In the presence of cocaine, aptamer binds to cocaine, leaves the surface of electrode. So that, a large amount of SWNTs bind to CS-modified electrode, generating to a strong electrochemical signal. The designed electrochemical aptasensor showed good selectivity toward cocaine with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 105 pM. Moreover, the fabricated electrochemical aptasensor was successfully applied to detect cocaine in serum with a LOD as low as 136 pM.

  7. Graphene-modified interdigitated array electrode: fabrication, characterization, and electrochemical immunoassay application.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yuko; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Hayashi, Katsuyoshi; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki; Tamechika, Emi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a new procedure for fabricating interdigitated array gold electrodes (Au-IDA) modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this procedure, we coated the gold surface of the micrometer order electrodes with graphene oxide (GO) prior to the reduction and the lift-off processes to avoid short-circuiting the pair of electrodes by conductive rGO flakes after the reduction. We then studied the basic electrochemical activity of the prepared electrodes, rGO/Au-IDA, mainly on p-aminophenol (pAP), because pAP is a good probe for an electrochemical immunoassay. The voltammograms showed that denser rGO provides better electrode reactivity for pAP. We confirmed that redox cycling between the anode and cathode at the rGO/Au-IDA was established, which yields more sensitive detection than with a single electrode. As one application of the electrochemical immunoassay using the rGO/Au-IDA, we demonstrated the quantitative detection of cortisol, a stress marker, at levels found in human saliva.

  8. Creation of a gold nanoparticle based electrochemical assay for the detection of inhibitors of bacterial cytochrome bd oxidases.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Eugénie; Nikolaev, Anton; Nasiri, Hamid R; Hoeser, Jo; Friedrich, Thorsten; Hellwig, Petra; Melin, Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome bd oxidases are membrane proteins expressed by bacteria including a number of pathogens, which make them an attractive target for the discovery of new antibiotics. An electrochemical assay is developed to study the activity of these proteins and inhibition by quinone binding site tool compounds. The setup relies on their immobilization at electrodes specifically modified with gold nanoparticles, which allows achieving a direct electron transfer to/from the heme cofactors of this large enzyme. After optimization of the protein coverages, the assay shows at pH7 a good reproducibility and readout stability over time, and it is thus suitable for further screening of small molecule collections.

  9. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Marc D.; Weisshaar, Duane E.

    1998-10-27

    An electrochemical method for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS--, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH.sub.3 or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage.

  10. Geological and technological evaluation of gold-bearing mineral material after photo-electrochemical activation leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzyrev, DV

    2017-02-01

    The paper reports the lab test results on simulation of heap leaching of unoxidized rebellious ore extracted from deep levels of Pogromnoe open pit mine, with different flowsheets and photo-electrochemically activated solutions. It has been found that pre-treatment of rebellious ore particles –10 mm in size by photo-electrochemically activated solutions at the stage preceding agglomeration with the use of rich cyanide solutions enhances gold recovery by 6%.

  11. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Marc D. (Inventor); Weisshaar, Duane E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An electrochemical method for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS--, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH.sub.3 or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage.

  12. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol at gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Tashkhourian, J; Daneshi, M; Nami-Ana, F; Behbahani, M; Bagheri, A

    2016-11-15

    A new electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-MPS) was developed for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. Morphology and structure of the AuNPs-MPS were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and catechol were investigated using square wave voltammetry and the results indicate that the electrochemical responses are improved significantly at the modified electrode. The observed oxidative peaks separation of about 120mV made possible the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in their binary-mixture. Under the optimized condition, a linear dynamic range of 10.0μM-1.0mM range for hydroquinone with the detection limit of 1.2μM and from 30.0μM-1.0mM for catechol with the detection limit of 1.1μM were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the recovery studies of hydroquinone and catechol in spiked tap water samples.

  13. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering of protein-modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun Xiu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xin; Tang, Zu Ming; Lu, Zu Hong

    2003-09-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of protein-modified gold nanoparticles has been studied by the hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) technique. HRS signals from the nanoparticles coated with goat-anti-human IgG have been obtained when pumped with a laser pulse with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The HRS signals of gold nanoparticles with IgG were larger than those of bare gold nanoparticles. This can be explained by a noncentrosymmetric effect. It was also found that the HRS signals from the IgG-coated gold nanoparticles could be greatly increased when the antigen was added due to gold nanoparticle aggregation. Our experiment found that the HRS method could produce a measurable signal with 10 microg/ml antigen added, while the colorimetric method using UV spectrum detection required 100 microg/ml of added antigen. The results show that the HRS measurement of immunogold nanoparticles could become a potential immunoassay in determining small levels of antigen in aqueous samples.

  14. Nanoporous-Gold-Based Hybrid Cantilevered Actuator Dealloyed and Driven by A Modified Rotary Triboelectric Nanogenerator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuequan; Liu, Mengmeng; Huang, Baisheng; Liu, Hong; Hu, Weiguo; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    We firstly designed an electrochemical system for dealloying to synthesize nanoporous gold (NPG) and also driving the novel NPG based actuator by utilizing a modified rotary triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared to the previous reported TENG whose outputs decline due to temperature rising resulting from electrodes friction, the modified TENG with a cooling system has stable output current and voltage increased by 14% and 20%, respectively. The novel cantilevered hybrid actuator characterised by light-weight (ca. 3 mg) and small volume (ca. 30 mm × 2 mm × 10 μm) is driven by a microcontroller modulated TENG with the displacement of 2.2 mm, which is about 106 times larger than that of traditional cantilever using planar surfaces. The energy conversion efficiencies defined as the energy consumed during dealloying and actuation compared with the output of TENG are 47% and 56.7%, respectively. PMID:27063987

  15. Nanoporous-Gold-Based Hybrid Cantilevered Actuator Dealloyed and Driven by A Modified Rotary Triboelectric Nanogenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuequan; Liu, Mengmeng; Huang, Baisheng; Liu, Hong; Hu, Weiguo; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-01

    We firstly designed an electrochemical system for dealloying to synthesize nanoporous gold (NPG) and also driving the novel NPG based actuator by utilizing a modified rotary triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared to the previous reported TENG whose outputs decline due to temperature rising resulting from electrodes friction, the modified TENG with a cooling system has stable output current and voltage increased by 14% and 20%, respectively. The novel cantilevered hybrid actuator characterised by light-weight (ca. 3 mg) and small volume (ca. 30 mm × 2 mm × 10 μm) is driven by a microcontroller modulated TENG with the displacement of 2.2 mm, which is about 106 times larger than that of traditional cantilever using planar surfaces. The energy conversion efficiencies defined as the energy consumed during dealloying and actuation compared with the output of TENG are 47% and 56.7%, respectively.

  16. Electrochemical Corrosion of Stainless Steel in Thiosulfate Solutions Relevant to Gold Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Wang, Wei; Alfantazi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the electrochemical corrosion behavior of stainless steel in the ammoniacal thiosulfate gold leaching solutions. Electrochemical corrosion response was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, while the semi-conductive properties and the chemical composition of the surface film were characterized using Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The morphology of the corroded specimens was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The stainless steel 316L showed no signs of pitting in the ammoniacal thiosulfate solutions.

  17. Effect of gold immersion time on the electrochemical migration property of electroless nickel/immersion gold surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Bui, Q V; Yoon, Jeong-Won; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the electrochemical performance of an electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish was evaluated as a function of the Au immersion time by the water immersion migration test. As the Au plating time increased, the electroless nickel phosphorous (EN-P) changed from amorphous to crystalline and then increased in crystallinity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to evaluate the crystallinity of the plating layer. The electrical resistance of the electrodes was tracked as the sample was immersed in water with a 5 V bias. The microstructures of the electrodes after the electrochemical migration test were observed by using secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As the Au immersion time increased, the EN-P's crystallinity and Au thickness increased. This enhanced the electrochemical migration protection of the surface finish layer.

  18. Construction of multilayers of bare and Pd modified gold nanoclusters and their electrocatalytic properties for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Motoko; Noguchi, Hidenori; Zanetakis, Nikolas; Takakusagi, Satoru; Song, Wenbo; Uosaki, Kohei

    2011-08-01

    Multilayers of gold nanoclusters (GNCs) coated with a thin Pd layer were constructed using GNCs modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of mercaptoundecanoic acid and a polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) multilayer assembly, which has been reported to act as a three-dimensional electrode. SAMs were removed from GNCs by electrochemical anodic decomposition and then a small amount of Pd was electrochemically deposited on the GNCs. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the Pd modified GNC/PAH multilayer assembly was studied using a rotating disk electrode, and a significant increase in the ORR rate was observed after Pd deposition. Electrocatalytic activities in alkaline and acidic solutions were compared both for the GNC multilayer electrode and Pd modified GNC electrode.

  19. Construction of multilayers of bare and Pd modified gold nanoclusters and their electrocatalytic properties for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Harada, Motoko; Noguchi, Hidenori; Zanetakis, Nikolas; Takakusagi, Satoru; Song, Wenbo; Uosaki, Kohei

    2011-08-01

    Multilayers of gold nanoclusters (GNCs) coated with a thin Pd layer were constructed using GNCs modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of mercaptoundecanoic acid and a polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) multilayer assembly, which has been reported to act as a three-dimensional electrode. SAMs were removed from GNCs by electrochemical anodic decomposition and then a small amount of Pd was electrochemically deposited on the GNCs. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the Pd modified GNC/PAH multilayer assembly was studied using a rotating disk electrode, and a significant increase in the ORR rate was observed after Pd deposition. Electrocatalytic activities in alkaline and acidic solutions were compared both for the GNC multilayer electrode and Pd modified GNC electrode.

  20. Inhibition of Electrochemical Reactions at Gold Surfaces by Grafted, Highly Fluorinated, Hyperbranched Polymer Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    50 atom% F; These films are very hydrophobic (water contact angle of 114 deg) and block electrochemical reactions on gold electrodes. Cyclic ... voltammetry in basic solution shows that while an electrode covered with a 3-layer PAA (3-PAA) film mimics an assembly of microelectrodes, a fluorinated 3

  1. Gold cementation on copper in thiosulfate solution: Kinetic, electrochemical, and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeheon

    2003-08-01

    Cyanidation has been used for more than a century for precious metal recovery and it is still in use today. Cyanide is a very toxic chemical and if not used appropriately will cause environmental problems. There is considerable attention devoted to the development of non-cyanide lixiviants for the process of gold and silver ores. Thiosulfate solution is one of the proposed alternatives to cyanide and gold cementation by copper has been suggested as a promising method for gold recovery from leaching solution. Copper powder and rotating disc electrode were used for the kinetic study. The rate of gold cementation on copper disc is proportional to the initial gold concentration and disc rotating speed. The cementation reaction exhibited two distinct kinetic regions, an initial slow rate followed by an enhanced rate. The activation energy of the reaction was 5.9 kJ/mol at low copper concentration and the reaction is mass transport controlled. With 30 ppm initial copper concentration, there was noticeable decrease in the reaction rate in high temperature range. EDS, XRD, and XPS analysis revealed that the deposits are a Au-Cu alloy instead of pure gold. The alloy composition ranged from Au 3Cu to AuCu3 depending on the initial Cu/Au mole ratio in solution and applied potential. Electrochemical studies were performed using rotating disc electrode and electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance. Evans' diagrams were constructed under various experimental conditions. Corrosion current increased with increasing gold concentration, disc rotating speed, as well as thiosulfate concentration. These results confirmed those obtained in the kinetic study. Corrosion potential measurements indicated that passivation onset time was changed by gold concentration, copper concentration and disc rotating speed. Gold(I)-thiosulfate reduction was found to occur at approximately -250 mV vs. SHE using EQCN. Copper adions on the gold surface contributed to the underpotential deposition of

  2. One pot electrochemical synthesis of poly(melamine) entrapped gold nanoparticles composite for sensitive and low level detection of catechol.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Ramaraj, Sayee Kannan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chiu, Te-Wei; Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Yang, Thomas C K; Chen, Tse-Wei; Selvam, Sonadevi

    2016-12-29

    A simple and cost effective synthesis of nanomaterials with advanced physical and chemical properties have received much attention to the researchers, and is of interest to the researchers from different disciplines. In the present work, we report a simple and one pot electrochemical synthesis of poly(melamine) entrapped gold nanoparticles (PM-AuNPs) composite. The PM-AuNPs composite was prepared by a single step electrochemical method, wherein the AuNPs and PM were simultaneously fabricated on the electrode surface. The as-prepared materials were characterized by various physicochemical methods. The PM-AuNPs composite modified electrode was used as an electrocatalyst for oxidation of catechol (CC) due to its well-defined redox behavior and enhanced electro-oxidation ability towards CC than other modified electrodes. Under optimized conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for the determination of CC. The DPV response of CC was linear over the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 175.5μM with a detection limit of 0.011μM. The PM-AuNPs composite modified electrode exhibits the high selectivity in the presence of range of potentially interfering compounds including dihydroxybenzene isomers. The sensor shows excellent practicality in CC containing water samples, which reveals the potential ability of PM-AuNPs composite modified electrode towards the determination of CC in real samples.

  3. Site-selective immobilization of gold nanoparticles on graphene sheets and its electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jea Uk; Lee, Wonoh; Yoon, Sang Su; Kim, Jungwook; Byun, Joon Hyung

    2014-10-01

    The site-selective attachment of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on graphene surface is highly desirable for various applications such as electrochemical sensors and catalysts. Here, we present a simple and effective synthetic approach for the site-selective immobilization of gold NPs (AuNPs) on either basal planes or edges of graphene sheets. The basic principle of this approach is to use cyteamine linker with reactive amine and thiol functional groups at each end, where the amine groups at one end covalently bind to functional groups presented on edges and/or basal planes of chemically synthesized graphene sheets, and the thiol groups at the other end assemble onto pre-synthesized AuNPs through thiol-Au interaction. Due to the difference in the spatial distribution of functional groups presented on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets, most of AuNPs are homogeneously immobilized on the basal planes of the cysteamine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-SH) sheets, whereas AuNPs are selectively attached at the edge parts of the cysteamine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO-SH) sheets. Raman signals of GO-SH/Au hybrid films with the high content of AuNPs in the hybrids are clearly increased owing to the formation of the charge-transfer complex between AuNPs and GO-SH sheets, exhibiting surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. Furthermore, rGO-SH/Au hybrids enhance the electrochemical activity of modified glassy carbon electrodes owing to the synergetic effects of electrical conduction by the restored aromatic structure of rGO sheets and percolated network of AuNPs along the graphene edges

  4. Electrochemical detection of hydrazine using a highly sensitive nanoporous gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying-Yao; Kao, Chai-Lin; Chen, Po-Yu

    2012-01-20

    A facile alloy-dealloy technique performed in aqueous media was employed to prepare a nanoporous gold (NPG) electrode that demonstrated extremely high sensitivity toward hydrazine oxidation. An Ag(∼60)Au(∼40) alloy was electrodeposited at a constant potential on sequentially Cr- and Au-deposited indium tin oxide (Au/Cr/ITO) from a bath that contained sulfuric acid, thiourea, HAuCl(4)·3H(2)O, and AgNO(3). The dealloying step was performed in concentrated HNO(3), where Ag in the alloy was selectively oxidized to leave the NPG structure. The NPG electrode was employed to study the hydrazine oxidation in basic phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and the results were compared with those obtained using the gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-modified ITO (AuNP/ITO) electrode. The NPG electrode demonstrated an unusual surface-confined behavior, which probably resulted from the thin-layer characteristics of the nano-pores. Hydrazine was detected by hydrodynamic chronoamperometry (HCA) at +0.2V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The steady-state oxidative current exhibited a linear dependence on the hydrazine concentration in the concentration range of 5.00 nM-2.05 mM, and the detection limit was 4.37 nM (σ=3). This detection limit is the lower than the detection limits reported in the current literature concerning the electrochemical detection of hydrazine. The NPG electrode indeed demonstrates greater stability after hydrazine detection than the AuNP/ITO electrode.

  5. A high-performance hydrazine electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanohorns composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuang; Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Tingting; Han, Qinghua; Xu, Shukun

    2016-04-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor was developed by electrodepositing gold nanoparticles on the single-walled carbon nanohorns modified glassy carbon electrode. We used the prepared sensor to determine hydrazine for the first time. The results show that the modified electrode has good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized conditions, two wide linear segments were observed between the catalytic currents and the concentration of hydrazine within the range of 0.005-3.345 mM with a detection limit of 1.1 μM (s/n = 3). The diffusion coefficient of hydrazine was also estimated using chronoamperometry. Additionally, the sensor showed excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility properties.

  6. Facile hierarchical assembly of gold particle decorated conductive polymer nanofibers for electrochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Minhui; Chen, Juhong; Goddard, Julie M.; Nugen, Sam R.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we successfully applied vapor-phase polymerization towards the synthesis of PEDOT nanofibers which were subsequently functionalized with gold particles and used as electrodes for electrochemical sensing. Two methods were used to synthesize the PEDOT nanofibers including (1) electrospinning followed by vapor-phase polymerization (EVP), and (2) one-step vapor-phase polymerization (OSVP). The average diameter of EVP fibers was approximately 350 nm, and OSVP was approximately 200 nm. Gold particles (∼500 nm) were synthesized by an oxidation-reduction reaction between gold precursors and residue EDOT monomers on the surface of the PEDOT nanofibers. In order to investigate the electrochemical performance of these electrodes, ascorbic acid was chosen as an analyte model. Our results indicated that PEDOT nanofiber electrodes showed an enhanced response with respect to bare gold electrodes. Furthermore, the OSVP PEDOT nanofibers with gold particles demonstrated the highest sensitivity at low ascorbic acid concentrations. These hierarchically assembled, gold particle-decorated, conductive polymer nanofibers were further fabricated into flexible electrodes, demonstrating a potential in advanced applications such as wearable electronics.

  7. Electrochemical DNA biosensors based on thin gold films sputtered on capacitive nanoporous niobium oxide.

    PubMed

    Rho, Sangchul; Jahng, Deokjin; Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Jinsub; Chang, Jeong Ho; Lee, Sang Cheon; Kim, Kyung Ja

    2008-01-18

    Electrochemical DNA biosensors based on a thin gold film sputtered on anodic porous niobium oxide (Au@Nb(2)O(5)) are studied in detail here. We found that the novel DNA biosensor based on Au@Nb(2)O(5) is superior to those based on the bulk gold electrode or niobium oxide electrode. For example, the novel method does not require any time-consuming cleaning step in order to obtain reproducible results. The adhesion of gold films on the substrate is very stable during electrochemical biosensing, when the thin gold films are deposited on anodically prepared nanoporous niobium oxide. In particular, the novel biosensor shows enhanced biosensing performance with a 2.4 times higher resolution and a three times higher sensitivity. The signal enhancement is in part attributed to capacitive interface between gold films and nanoporous niobium oxide, where charges are accumulated during the anodic and cathodic scanning, and is in part ascribed to the structural stability of DNA immobilized at the sputtered gold films. The method allows for the detection of single-base mismatch DNA as well as for the discrimination of mismatch positions.

  8. Optical and electrochemical properties of ordered macroporous gold array on the ITO surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huidan; Liu, Yongping; Han, Guo-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    The electrochemical and optical properties of transparent, two-dimensional macroporous gold film were investigated. Colloidal crystal templates were assembled onto indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass surface through vertical depositing method. Following gold electrodeposition, they were removed by dissolution with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The highly ordered macroporous gold array was achieved. It was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. The optical transparency of the gold film was near 25% and fairly constant between 300 and 900 nm. The macroporous gold film electrode was mounted into a thin-layer transmission cell. The electrochemical response was evaluated by thin-layer cyclic voltammograms (CV) of the Fe (CN) 63-/Fe (CN) 64- couple. Thin-layer cell exhibits good shape of waves and nearly symmetric cathodic and anodic waves. E0' value and n of TMPD + rad /TMPD (TMPD is acronyms for N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and TMPD + rad is its mono-cation radical) couple were determined. Furthermore, results demonstrated electrolytic equilibrium was faster reached in macroporous gold film than ITO electrode.

  9. Electrochemical DNA sandwich biosensor based on enzyme amplified microRNA-21 detection and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mandli, Jihane; Mohammadi, Hasna; Amine, Aziz

    2017-03-14

    In this work, a novel electrochemical biosensor for miRNA-21 determination, involving a sandwich hybridization assay onto gold nanoparticles modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) and enzyme signal amplification was reported. The thiol terminated capture probe 1 (SH-P1) was immobilized on the electrode through AuS interaction. In the presence of target miRNA-21, SH-P1 hybridized with the first part of the target, however, the second part hybridizes with a biotinylated probe P2 (B-P2). Then, a streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase was immobilized by a specific binding of avidin-B-P2. The enzyme catalyzed the electro-inactive α-naphtyl phosphate to an electro-active α-naphtol. The miRNA-21 detection was achieved through the changes of α-naphtol oxidation signals observed at +0.12V vs Ag/AgCl with Differential Pulse Voltammetry. Under the optimal detection conditions, the biosensor exhibited selective and sensitive detection with a linear range from 200pM to 388nM and the detection limit was 100pM (10fmol in 100μL).

  10. Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Biosensor for HIV Gene Detection Based on Graphene Stabilized Gold Nanoclusters with Exonuclease Amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijia; Bai, Xiaoning; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-08-26

    Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been one of the most terrible viruses in recent decades, early diagnosis of the HIV gene is of great importance for all scientists around the world. In our work, we developed a novel electrochemical biosensor based on one-step ultrasonic synthesized graphene stabilized gold nanocluster (GR/AuNC) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with an exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted target recycling amplification strategy for the detection of HIV DNA. It is the first time that GR/AuNCs have been used as biosensor platform and aptamer with cytosine-rich base set as capture probe to construct the biosensor. With the combination of cytosine-rich capture probe, good conductivity and high surfaces of GR/AuNCs, and Exo III-assisted target recycling amplification, we realized high sensitivity and good selectivity detection of target HIV DNA with a detection limit of 30 aM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the proposed biosensor has a promising potential application for target detection in human serum analysis.

  11. Hydrophobically modified chitosan/gold nanoparticles for DNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Shanta Raj; K. C., Remant Bahadur; Aryal, Santosh; Bhattarai, Narayan; Kim, Sun Young; Yi, Ho Keun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-01-01

    Present study dealt an application of modified chitosan gold nanoparticles (Nac-6-Au) for the immobilization of necked plasmid DNA. Gold nanoparticles stabilized with N-acylated chitosan were prepared by graft-onto approach. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques such as UV-vis, TEM, ELS and DLS. MTT assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles into three different cell lines (NIH 3T3, CT-26 and MCF-7). The formulation of plasmid DNA with the nanoparticles corresponds to the complex forming capacity and in-vitro/in-vivo transfection efficiency was studied via gel electrophoresis and transfection methods, respectively. Results showed the modified chitosan gold nanoparticles were well-dispersed and spherical in shape with average size around 10˜12 nm in triple distilled water at pH 7.4, and showed relatively no cytotoxicity at low concentration. Addition of plasmid DNA on the aqueous solution of the nanoparticles markedly reduced surface potential (50.0˜66.6%) as well as resulted in a 13.33% increase in hydrodynamic diameters of the formulated nanoparticles. Transfection efficiency of Nac-6-Au/DNA was dependent on cell type, and higher β-galactosidase activity was observed on MCF-7 breast cancer cell. Typically, this activity was 5 times higher in 4.5 mg/ml nanoparticles concentration than that achieved by the nanoparticles of other concentrations (and/or control). However, this activity was lower in in-vitro and dramatically higher in in-vivo than that of commercially available transfection kit (Lipofectin®) and DNA. From these results, it can be expected to develop alternative new vectors for gene delivery.

  12. Electrochemical anion sensing using electrodes chemically modified with Au(I)-Cu(I) heterotrimetallic alkynyl cluster complexes containing ferrocenyl groups.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Antonio; Koshevoy, Igor O; Montoya, Noemí; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2010-07-01

    A novel family of electrochemical anion sensors operating in aqueous media, based on the heterometallic Au(I)-Cu(I) [{Au(3)Cu(2)(C(2)R)(6)}Au(3)(PPh(2)C(6)H(4)PPh(2))(3)](PF(6))(2) (L1, R = Fc; L2, R = C(6)H(4)Fc) alkynyl cluster complexes, is presented. Upon attachment to graphite and gold electrodes, these compounds exhibit a well-defined, essentially reversible, solid-state electrochemistry in contact with aqueous media, based on ferrocenyl-centered oxidation processes involving anion insertion, leading to distinctive pH-independent electrochemical responses for fluoride, chloride, bromide, perchlorate, bicarbonate, carbonate, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, and nitrate anions. Cluster-modified electrodes can be used as potentiometric sensors as a result of the reversible, diffusion-controlled electrochemistry obtained for the anion-assisted electrochemical oxidation of L1 and L2.

  13. Interpenetrating polyaniline-gold electrodes for SERS and electrochemical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. M.; Semancik, S.

    2016-11-01

    Facile fabrication of nanostructured electrode arrays is critical for development of bimodal SERS and electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, the variation of applied potential at a polyaniline-coated Pt electrode is used to selectivity deposit Au on the polyaniline amine sites or on the underlying Pt electrode. By alternating the applied potential, the Au is grown simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the polyaniline film, leading to an interpenetrated, nanostructured polymer-metal composite extending from the Pt electrode to the electrolyte solution. The resulting films have unique pH-dependent electrochemical properties, e.g. they retain electrochemical activity in both acidic and neutral solutions, and they also include SERS-active nanostructures. By varying the concentration of chloroaurate used during deposition, Au nanoparticles, nanodendrites, or nanosheets can be selectively grown. For the films deposited under optimal conditions, using 5 mmol/L chloroaurate, the SERS enhancement factor for Rhodamine 6G was found to be as high as 1.1 × 106 with spot-to-spot and electrode-to-electrode relative standard deviations as low as 8% and 12%, respectively. The advantages of the reported PANI-Au composite electrodes lie in their facile fabrication, enabling the targeted deposition of tunable nanostructures on sensing arrays, and their ability to produce orthogonal optical and electrochemical analytical results.

  14. Voltammetric detection of cadmium ions at glutathione-modified gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chow, Edith; Hibbert, D Brynn; Gooding, J Justin

    2005-06-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the detection of cadmium ions is described using immobilized glutathione as a selective ligand. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was formed on a gold electrode. The carboxyl terminus then allowed attachment of glutathione (GSH)via carbodiimide coupling to give the MPA-GSH modified electrode. A cadmium ion forms a complex with glutathione via the free sulfhydryl group and also to the carboxyl groups. The complexed ion is reduced by linear and Osteryoung square wave voltammetry with a detection limit of 5 nM. The effect of the kinetics of accumulation of cadmium on the measured current was investigated and modeled. Increasing the temperature of accumulation and electrochemical analysis caused an increase in the voltammetric peak of approximately 4% per degrees C around room temperature. The modified electrode could be regenerated, being stable for more than 16 repeated uses and more than two weeks if used once a day. Some interference from Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) was observed but the effects of Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+) and Ba(2+) were insignificant.

  15. Gold nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for differential pulse voltammetric determination of eugenol.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Daryoush; Zarei, Somaye; Fathirad, Fariba; Mostafavi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a carbon paste electrode chemically modified with gold nanoparticles was used as a sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of eugenol. The differential pulse voltammetric method was employed to study the behavior of eugenol on this modified electrode. The effect of variables such as percent of gold nanoparticles, pH of solution, accumulation potential and time on voltammogram peak current were optimized. The proposed electrode showed good oxidation response for eugenol in 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH8) and the peak potential was about +285 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). The peak current increased linearly with the eugenol concentration in the range of 5-250 μmol L(-1). The detection limit was found to be 2.0 μmol L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.2% (n=7). The effect of interferences on the eugenol peak current was studied. The method has been applied to the determination of eugenol in different real samples, spiked recoveries were in the range of 96%-99%.

  16. Electrochemical Detection of p-Aminophenol by Flexible Devices Based on Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed in Electrochemically Modified Nafion

    PubMed Central

    Scandurra, Graziella; Antonella, Arena; Ciofi, Carmine; Saitta, Gaetano; Lanza, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    A conducting composite prepared by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into a host matrix consisting of Nafion, electrochemically doped with copper, has been prepared, characterized and used to modify one of the gold electrodes of simply designed electrochemical cells having copier grade transparency sheets as substrates. Electrical measurements performed in deionized water show that the Au/Nafion/Au-MWCNTs–Nafion:Cu cells can be successfully used in order to detect the presence of p-aminophenol (PAP) in water, without the need for any supporting electrolyte. The intensity of the redox peaks arising when PAP is added to deionized water is found to be linearly related to the analyte in the range from 0.2 to 1.6 μM, with a detection limit of 90 nM and a sensitivity of 7 μA·(μM−1)·cm−2. PMID:24854357

  17. Electrochemical detection of p-aminophenol by flexible devices based on multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersed in electrochemically modified Nafion.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, Graziella; Antonella, Arena; Ciofi, Carmine; Saitta, Gaetano; Lanza, Maurizio

    2014-05-21

    A conducting composite prepared by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into a host matrix consisting of Nafion, electrochemically doped with copper, has been prepared, characterized and used to modify one of the gold electrodes of simply designed electrochemical cells having copier grade transparency sheets as substrates. Electrical measurements performed in deionized water show that the Au/Nafion/Au-MWCNTs-Nafion:Cu cells can be successfully used in order to detect the presence of p-aminophenol (PAP) in water, without the need for any supporting electrolyte. The intensity of the redox peaks arising when PAP is added to deionized water is found to be linearly related to the analyte in the range from 0.2 to 1.6 µM, with a detection limit of 90 nM and a sensitivity of 7 µA·(µM(-1))·cm(-2).

  18. Gold Binding by Native and Chemically Modified Hops Biomasses

    DOE PAGES

    López, M. Laura; Gardea-Torresdey, J. L.; Peralta-Videa, J. R.; ...

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals from mining, smelting operations and other industrial processing facilities pollute wastewaters worldwide. Extraction of metals from industrial effluents has been widely studied due to the economic advantages and the relative ease of technical implementation. Consequently, the search for new and improved methodologies for the recovery of gold has increased. In this particular research, the use of cone hops biomass ( Humulus lupulus ) was investigated as a new option for gold recovery. The results showed that the gold binding to native hops biomass was pH dependent from pH 2 to pH 6, with a maximum percentage bindingmore » at pH 3. Time dependency studies demonstrated that Au(III) binding to native and modified cone hops biomasses was found to be time independent at pH 2 while at pH 5, it was time dependent. Capacity experiments demonstrated that at pH 2, esterified hops biomass bound 33.4 mg Au/g of biomass, while native and hydrolyzed hops biomasses bound 28.2 and 12.0 mg Au/g of biomass, respectively. However, at pH 5 the binding capacities were 38.9, 37.8 and 11.4 mg of Au per gram of native, esterified and hydrolyzed hops biomasses, respectively.« less

  19. Synthesis of gold coated magnetic microparticles and their application for electrochemical glucose sensing by the enzymatically precipitated prussian blue.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye Young; Park, Jun Hui; Hwang, Seongpil; Kwak, Juhyoun

    2013-05-01

    An enzyme stimulated deposition of prussian blue onto the gold-coated magnetic microparticles is described. We propose to synthesize the continuous outer gold layer on the magnetic particle for a gold working electrode and its superparamagnetic property. In-depth characterization of the gold shell formation was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry. The gold-coated magnetic microparticles offered adhesive layer for the immobilization of glucose oxidase catalyzing the generation of prussian blue in the presence of glucose. The assembled prussian blue on the gold shell surfaces was detected with electrochemical measurements depending on the glucose concentration. With accomplishing the linear response range from 0.2 mM to 10 mM of glucose, this approach successfully proposed the applicability of the magnetic core-gold shell structures to the electrochemical bioassay area.

  20. Layer-by-layer self assembly of a water-soluble phthalocyanine on gold. Application to the electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Koodlur, Lokesh S

    2013-06-01

    A self-assembled molecular film of a water-soluble cobalt tetrasulfophthalocyanine was deposited on a gold substrate premodified with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). The process of layer-by-layer assembly on the gold substrate was characterized using UV-Vis, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. Results demonstrate the formation of a completely covered phthalocyanine film on the gold surface. UV-Vis spectra indicated the formation of monolayer film of the phthalocyanine on the surface. The functionalized surface is uniformly covered and becomes hydrophilic after modification. The modified gold surface exhibits a reversible redox behavior and acts as an electronic conductor for the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. A linear increase in the catalytic current is observed for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the concentration range from 1 to 20 μM, with a detection limit of 0.4 μM. Hydrogen peroxide spiked pond water sample showed a recovery of 94% indicating the method is selective and can be applied for various applications. The present method is a simple, cost effective and sensitive electrochemical method for the detection and quantification of hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Electrochemical Detection of Hydrazine Using Poly(dopamine)-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Nguyen, Truc Ly; Park, Jun Hui; Kim, Byung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a simple and selective method for the electrochemical detection of hydrazine (HZ) using poly(dopamine) (pDA)-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Modification with pDA was easily achieved by submerging the ITO electrode in a DA solution for 30 min. The electrocatalytic oxidation of HZ on the pDA-modified ITO electrode was measured by cyclic voltammetry. In buffer solution, the concentration range for linear HZ detection was 100 µM–10 mM, and the detection limit was 1 µM. The proposed method was finally used to determine HZ in tap water to simulate the analysis of real samples. This method showed good recovery (94%–115%) and was not affected by the other species present in the tap water samples. PMID:27164108

  2. Electrochemical performance of Si anode modified with carbonized gelatin binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Mu, Daobin; Chen, Shi; Wu, Borong; Cheng, Kailin; Li, Luyu; Wu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Gelatin is alternatively adopted as the binder to modify Si anode coupling with its carbonization treatment. The binder can provide good bonding and uniform dispersion of the particles besides its environmental benignancy. Importantly, the carbonized binder containing nitrogen will be advantageous to the electrical conductivity of the electrode. In addition, some spaces are formed in the electrode due to the decomposition and shrinkage of the gelatin binder during heat-treatment, which may facilitate electrolyte penetration and accommodate volume change during cycling. All these merits make contribution to the good electrochemical performance of the modified Si electrode. It exhibits a reversible capacity of 990.3 mA h g-1 after 70 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 904 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 400 mA g-1.

  3. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOEpatents

    Porter, M.D.; Weisshaar, D.E.

    1998-10-27

    An electrochemical method is described for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS-, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH{sub 3} or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage. 13 figs.

  4. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Marc D.; Weisshaar, Duane E.

    1997-06-03

    An electrochemical method for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS.sup.-, wherein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH.sub.3 or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage.

  5. Electrochemical Tailoring of Fibrous Polyaniline and Electroless Decoration with Gold and Platinum Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Muhammad E; Snook, Graeme A; O'Mullane, Anthony P

    2016-09-06

    Presented in this work is a facile and quick electrochemical method for controlling the morphology of thick polyaniline (PANi) films, without the use of templates. By stepping the polymerization potential from high voltages to a lower (or series of lower) voltage(s), we successfully controlled the morphology of the polymer, and fibrous structures, unique to each potential step, were achieved. In addition, the resultant film was tested electrochemically for its viability as an electrode material for flexible batteries and supercapacitors. Furthermore, the PANi film was decorated with gold and platinum nanoparticles via an electroless deposition process for possible electrocatalytic applications, whereby the oxidation of hydrazine at the composite was investigated.

  6. Surface-modified gold nanorods for specific cell targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chan-Ung; Arai, Yoshie; Kim, Insun; Jang, Wonhee; Lee, Seonghyun; Hafner, Jason H.; Jeoung, Eunhee; Jung, Deokho; Kwon, Youngeun

    2012-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have unique properties that make them highly attractive materials for developing functional reagents for various biomedical applications including photothermal therapy, targeted drug delivery, and molecular imaging. For in vivo applications, GNPs need to be prepared with very little or negligible cytotoxicitiy. Most GNPs are, however, prepared using growth-directing surfactants such as cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which are known to have considerable cytotoxicity. In this paper, we describe an approach to remove CTAB to a non-toxic concentration. We optimized the conditions for surface modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol thiol (mPEG), which replaced CTAB and formed a protective layer on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs). The cytotoxicities of pristine and surface-modified GNRs were measured in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human cell lines derived from hepatic carcinoma cells, embryonic kidney cells, and thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that treating cells with GNRs did not significantly affect cell viability except for thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Thyroid cancer cells were more susceptible to residual CTAB, so CTAB had to be further removed by dialysis in order to use GNRs for thyroid cell targeting. PEGylated GNRs are further modified to present monoclonal antibodies that recognize a specific surface marker, Na-I symporter, for thyroid cells. Antibody-conjugated GNRs specifically targeted human thyroid cells in vitro.

  7. Synergic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles towards immunosensing of ricin with carbon nanotube-gold nanoparticles-chitosan modified screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Srinivasan; Gupta, Manish; Kumar, Gupta Ajay; Rao, Vepa Kameswara; Kumar, Om; Ghosal, Partha

    2012-09-07

    An amperometric immunosensor for the specific detection of Ricinus communis is reported. Screen printed electrodes (SPEs) were modified with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-chitosan (Ch) film. The ratio of MWCNT and GNP was optimised to get best electrochemically active electrode. Sandwich immunoassay format was used for the immunosensing of ricin. The revealing antibodies tagged with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) converts the substrate 1-naphthyl phosphate into 1-naphthol that was determined with the amperometric technique. The amperometric current obtained was correlated with the concentration of ricin. The prepared GNP-MWCNT-Ch-SPE showed high stability due to the Ch film, short response time with good reproducibility and increased shelf life of the electrodes immobilised with antibodies. The electrochemical activity of the electrode improved because of optimization of composition of CNTs and gold nanoparticles. Under the optimal conditions, the modified electrode showed a wide linear response to the concentration of ricin in the range of 2.5-25 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 2.1 ng mL(-1) and with a relative standard deviation of 5.1% and storage life of 32 days.

  8. A novel electrochemical sensor surface for the detection of hydrogen peroxide using cyclic bisureas/gold nanoparticle composite.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Manjusha; Sandhyarani, N

    2011-10-15

    A novel electrochemical sensor surface with enhanced sensitivity for the detection of hydrogen peroxide has been developed based on the layer-by-layer assembly of mercapto propionic acid (MPA), cystine-based polymethylene-bridged cyclic bisureas (CBU)/gold nanoparticle (AuNP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on gold electrode. Possibility of a large number of hydrogen bonds, allowed by the chemical and sterical structure of the CBU ensures the proper immobilization of the enzyme in favorable orientation and retention of enzymatic activity. Efficient electron tunneling property of AuNP together with its electrocatalytic activity leads to higher sensitivity in the detection of H(2)O(2). In cyclic voltammetry measurements a cathodic current due to direct electron transfer of HRP is observed which, indicates excellent electrocatalytic activity of the sensor surface. The biosensor surface modified with gold nanoparticle and CBU showed a lower detection limit of 50 nM for hydrogen peroxide. Chronoamperometry is performed at -0.3 V and Michaelis-Menten constant K(M)(app) value is estimated to be 4.5 μM. The newly developed sensor surface showed very high stability, reproducibility and high sensitivity.

  9. Electrical characterization and hydrogen peroxide sensing properties of gold/Nafion:polypyrrole/MWCNTs electrochemical devices.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, Graziella; Arena, Antonella; Ciofi, Carmine; Saitta, Gaetano

    2013-03-19

    Electrochemical devices using as substrates copier grade transparency sheets are developed by using ion conducting Nafion:polypyrrole mixtures, deposited between gold bottom electrodes and upper electrodes based on Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs). The electrical properties of the Nafion:polypyrrole blends and of the gold/Nafion:polypyrrole/MWCNTs devices are investigated under dry conditions and in deionized water by means of frequency dependent impedance measurements and time domain electrical characterization. According to current-voltage measurements carried out in deionized water, the steady state current forms cycles characterized by redox peaks, the intensity and position of which reversibly change in response to H2O2, with a lower detection limit in the micromolar range. The sensitivity that is obtained is comparable with that of other electrochemical sensors that however, unlike our devices, require supporting electrolytes.

  10. Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guangxian; Lan, Ruilong; Zhang, Wenxin; Fu, Feihuan; Sun, Yiming; Peng, Huaping; Chen, Tianbin; Cai, Yishan; Liu, Ailin; Lin, Jianhua; Lin, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on a three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode using a facile, rapid, "green" square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle technique. The resulting three-dimensional gold nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A "sandwich-type" detection strategy using an electrochemical immunosensor was employed. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between the current response signal and the AFP concentrations was observed in the range of 10-50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL. This new immunosensor showed a fast amperometric response and high sensitivity and selectivity. It was successfully used to determine AFP in a human serum sample with a relative standard deviation of <5% (n=5). The proposed immunosensor represents a significant step toward practical application in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prognosis.

  11. An original electrochemical method for assembling multilayers of terpyridine-based metallic complexes on a gold surface.

    PubMed

    Liatard, Sébastien; Chauvin, Jérôme; Balestro, Franck; Jouvenot, Damien; Loiseau, Frédérique; Deronzier, Alain

    2012-07-24

    A new method based on the electrochemical oxidation of thiols was used to easily generate multilayer assemblies of coordination complexes on a gold surface. For this purpose, two complexes bearing two anchoring groups for surface attachment have been prepared: [Ru(tpySH)(2)](2+) (1) and [Fe(tpySH)(2)](2+) (2) (tpySH = 4'-(2-(p-phenoxy)ethanethiol)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine). Cyclic voltammetry of 1 in CH(3)CN exhibits two successive oxidation processes. The first is irreversible and attributed to the oxidation of the thiol substituents, whereas the second is reversible and corresponds to the 1 e(-) metal-centered oxidation. In the case of 2 both processes are superimposed. Monolayers of 1 or 2 have been formed on gold electrodes by spontaneous adsorption from micromolar solutions of the complexes in CH(3)CN. SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) exhibit redox behavior similar to the complexes in solution. The high surface coverage value obtained (Γ = 6 × 10(-10) and 4 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) for 1 and 2, respectively) is consistent with a vertical orientation for the complexes; thus, one thiol is bound to the gold electrode, with the second unreacted thiol moiety exposed to the outer surface. Successive cyclic voltammetry induced a layer-by-layer nanostructural growth at the surface of the SAMs, and this is presumably due to the electrochemical formation of disulfide bonds, where the thiol moieties play a double role of both an anchoring group and an electroactive coupling agent. The conditions of the deposition are studied in detail. Modified electrodes containing both 1 and 2 alternatively can be easily prepared following this new approach. The film proved to be stable, displaying a similar current/voltage response for more than 10 repeating cycles in oxidation up to 0.97 V vs Ag/AgNO(3) (10(-2) M).

  12. Highly selective dopamine electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically pretreated graphite and nafion composite modified screen printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shuhao; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Herein, we report a highly selective dopamine electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically pretreated graphite/nafion composite modified screen printed carbon (SPC) electrode. Electrochemically activated graphite/nafion composite was prepared by using a simple electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to characterize the surface morphology of the fabricated composite electrode. The SEM result clearly indicates that the graphitic basal planes were totally disturbed and leads to the formation of graphite nanosheets. The composite modified electrode showed an enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of DA when compared with either electrochemical pretreated graphite or nafion SPC electrodes. The fabricated composite electrode exhibits a good electrocatalytic oxidation toward DA in the linear response range from 0.5 to 70 μM with the detection limit of 0.023 μM. The proposed sensor also exhibits very good selectivity and stability, with the appreciable sensitivity. In addition, the proposed sensor showed satisfactory recovery results toward the commercial pharmaceutical DA samples.

  13. Macroporous mesh of nanoporous gold in electrochemical monitoring of superoxide release from skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Banan Sadeghian, Ramin; Han, Jiuhui; Ostrovidov, Serge; Salehi, Sahar; Bahraminejad, Behzad; Ahadian, Samad; Chen, Mingwei; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-02-15

    Real-time monitoring of metabolically relevant biochemicals released in minuscule amounts is of utmost diagnostic importance. Superoxide anion as a primary member of reactive oxygen species, has physiological and pathological effects that depend on its concentration and release rate. Here we present fabrication and successfully testing of a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor featuring a three-dimensional macroporous mesh of nanoporous gold tailored to measure the dynamics of extracellular superoxide concentration. Wide and accessible surface of the mesh combined with high porosity of the thin nanoporous gold coating enables capturing the analyte in pico- to nano-molar ranges. The mesh is functionalized with cytochrome-c (cyt-c) and incorporated as a working electrode to measure the release rate of drug-induced superoxides from C2C12 cells through a porous membrane. The device displays a considerably improved superoxide sensitivity of 7.29nAnM(-)(1)cm(-)(2) and a low level of detection of 70pM. Such sensitivity is orders of magnitude higher than any similar enzyme-based electrochemical superoxide sensor and is attributed to the facile diffusion of the analyte through the well-spread nanofeatured gold skin. Superoxide generation rates captured from monolayer myoblast cultures containing about 4×10(4) cells, varied from 1.0 to 9.0nMmin(-)(1) in a quasi-linear fashion as a function of drug concentration. This work provides a platform for the development of highly sensitive molecular electrochemical biosensors.

  14. A novel electrochemical biosensor based on polyadenine modified aptamer for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; He, Meng-Qi; Zhai, Fu-Heng; He, Rong-Huan; Yu, Yong-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of cancer cells plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. A sandwich electrochemical biosensor was developed based on polyadenine (polydA)-aptamer modified gold electrode (GE) and polydA-aptamer functionalized gold nanoparticles/graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) hybrid for the label-free and selective detection of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) via a differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. Due to the intrinsic affinity between multiple consecutive adenines of polydA sequences and gold, polydA modified aptamer instead of thiol terminated aptamer was immobilized on the surface of GE and AuNPs/GO. The label-free MCF-7 cells could be recognized by polydA-aptamer and self-assembled onto the surface of GE. The polydA-aptamer functionalized AuNPs/GO hybrid could further bind to MCF-7 cells to form a sandwich sensing system. Characterization of the surface modified GE was carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) as a redox probe. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit of 8 cellsmL(-1) (3σ/slope) was obtained for MCF-7 cells by the present electrochemical biosensor, along with a linear range of 10-10(5) cellsmL(-1). By virtue of excellent sensitivity, specificity and repeatability, the present electrochemical biosensor provides a potential application in point-of-care cancer diagnosis.

  15. Gold and gold-iron modified zeolites--towards the adsorptive deodourisation.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Izabela; Pawlowski, Hubert; Chmielewski, Jaroslaw; Ziolek, Maria

    2010-07-15

    Zeolites exhibiting different structures (Y, Beta, and ZSM-5) were modified with gold and iron and applied for odour adsorption from the air containing dibutyl sulphide (Bu(2)S) used as a representative odour producing compound. The structure of the zeolites used determines the rate of adsorption (higher on Y type zeolites and smaller on two other zeolites), whereas hydrophilicity affects the selectivity towards Bu(2)S adsorption increasing in the order: Ymodified zeolites were studied by XRD, XPS, UV-vis, TEM, pyridine adsorption and FTIR, test reactions (acetonylacetone cyclisation, isopropanol decomposition).

  16. Amperometric detection of dopamine in human serum by electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles doped molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Han, Qing; Wang, Yang; Wu, Jinhua; Wen, Tingting; Wang, Ruoyu; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin; Jiang, Huijun

    2013-11-15

    In this work, a highly sensitive and selective biomimetic electrochemical sensor for the amperometric detection of trace dopamine (DA) in human serums was achieved by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) doped molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Functionalized AuNPs (F-AuNPs), a novel functional monomer bearing aniline moieties on the surface of the AuNPs, were prepared via a direct synthesis method and then used to fabricate the conductive MIPs film on the modified electrode by electropolymerization method in the presence of DA and p-aminobenzenethiol (p-ATP). The obtained electrochemical sensor based on the conductive film of AuNPs doped MIPs (AuNPs@MIPs) could effectively minimize the interferences caused by ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The linear range for amperometric detection of DA was from 0.02 μmol L(-1) to 0.54 μmol L(-1) with the detection limit of 7.8 nmol L(-1) (S/N=3). Furthermore, the AuNPs@MIPs modified electrode (AuNPs@MIES) was successfully employed to detect trace DA in different human serums.

  17. RECOGNITION OF PYRENE USING MOLECULARLY-IMPRINTED ELECTROCHEMICALLY-DEPOSITED POLY (2-MERCAPTOBENZIMIDAZOLE) OR POLY(RESORCINOL) ON GOLD ELECTRODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of using thiol chemistry to form molecularly imprinted polymer-coated gold electrodes to measure pyrene is reported. For the first approach, poly(2-mercaptoimidazole) (2-MBI) was electrochemically deposited on gold electrodes in the presence or absence of the tem...

  18. Tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles and cellulose and their applications as electrochemical electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Mei; Wu, Wenjian

    2015-11-01

    Conductive hybrid films of metal nanoparticles and polymers have practical applications in the fields of sensing, microelectronics and catalysis, etc. Herein, we present the electrochemical availability of tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cellulose. The hybrid films were provided with stable tunnelling conductive properties with 12 nm GNPs of 12.7% (in weight). For the first time, the conductive hybrid films were used as substrates of electrochemical electrodes to load calmodulin (CaM) proteins for sensing of calcium cations. The electrodes of hybrid films with 20 nm GNPs of 46.7% (in weight) exhibited stable electrochemical properties, and showed significant responses to calcium cations with concentrations as low as 10-9 M after being loaded with CaM proteins.

  19. Electrochemical impediometric detection of anti-HIV drug taking gold nanorods as a sensing interface.

    PubMed

    Narang, Jagriti; Malhotra, Nitesh; Singh, Gajendra; Pundir, C S

    2015-04-15

    In present work, gold nanorods were used for amplification of electrochemical sensing of anti-HIV replication drug i.e. deferiprone. Gold nanorods (nano Au) deposited onto pencil graphite electrode (PGE) has been utilized for covalent immobilization of horse radish peroxidase (HRP), via glutaraldehyde (Glu), for deferiprone detection using impedimetric technique. Gold nanorods (nano Au) prepared were characterized by TEM and XRD. The resulting nano Au sensor exhibited a good response to deferiprone with a wide linear range (0.005-1000µM) and a low detection limit 0.005µM. The biosensor also showed a short response time (within 15s). In addition, the biosensor exhibited high reproducibility, good storage stability and anti-interference ability. The applicability of the nano Au sensor is to determine deferiprone level in spiked urine and serum samples.

  20. Electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a carbon paste electrode surface for the determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Srikant; Satpati, Ashis Kumar; Reddy, Annareddy Venkata Ramana

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical method was developed for the determination of Hg at ultratrace levels using an Au nanoparticle (AuNP) array modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by anodic stripping voltammetry. Scanning electron microscopy measurements imaged the size and shape of AuNPs on the CPE substrate; it was possible to tune the size and the NP density by changing the deposition time and medium. Electrochemical characterization of the AuNP modified CPE was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance measurements. Interferences due to some commonly occurring metal ions and surfactants on the stripping peak of Hg were also investigated. The 3σ detection limit for Hg using the AuNP modified electrode was as 0.24 μg/L. This method was applied to determine Hg in soil samples.

  1. Electrochemical measurements on a droplet using gold microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenabi, Amin; Souri, Asma; Rastkhadiv, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Facile methods of ion recognition are important for the fabrication of electronic tongue systems. In this work, we demonstrate performing pulsed conductometry on microliter electrolyte droplets dropped on gold microelectrodes vapor deposited on soda lime glass slides. A droplet is dropped between two microelectrodes when a voltage waveform from a preprogramed power supply is applied on them. The temporal variation of the electric current passing through the droplet is recorded, digitized and stored. The obtained data are compared with the database formed out of the previous experiences for the classification of the sample electrolytes. It is shown that the shape of the voltage waveform is the important parameter of the process. We devised a method for the optimization of the voltage waveform profile for obtaining the maximum of discriminating information from the recorded current variations.

  2. Controlled nucleation and growth of surface-confined gold nanoparticles on a (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane-modified glass slide: a strategy for SPR substrates.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Kang, X; Song, Y; Zhang, B; Cheng, G; Dong, S

    2001-07-01

    The thickness of the gold film and its morphology, including the surface roughness, are very important for getting a good, reproducible response in the SPR technique. Here, we report a novel alternative approach for preparing SPR-active substrates that is completely solution-based. Our strategy is based on self-assembly of the gold colloid monolayer on a (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane-modified glass slide, followed by electroless gold plating. Using this method, the thickness of films can be easily controlled at the nanometer scale by setting the plating time in the same conditions. Surface roughness and morphology of gold films can be modified by both tuning the size of gold nanoparticles and agitation during the plating. Surface evolution of the Au film was followed in real time by UV-vis spectroscopy and in situ SPRS. To assess the surface roughness and electrochemical stability of the Au films, atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used. In addition, the stability of the gold adhesion is demonstrated by three methods. The as-prepared Au films on substrates are reproducible and stable, which allows them to be used as electrodes for electrochemical experiments and as platforms for studying SAMs.

  3. Thermosensitive polymer-modified gold nanoparticles with sensitive fluorescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chunhua; Dong, Qiujing; Qian, Meijuan; Zhang, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Two types of thermosensitive polymer-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs), P(DMAM-co-MADMAC)-modified GNPs (GNPs@PDM) and P(NIPAM-co-MADMAC)-modified GNPs (GNPs@PNM), are fabricated by the "grafting through" polymerization technique. The as-prepared GNPs are characterized by UV-vis, TEM, XPS, TGA, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The thermosensitivity and fluorescence of the GNPs are investigated. It is found that all GNPs aqueous solutions but GNPs@PDM1 exhibit thermosensitivity originated from thermosensitive polymer chains and sensitive fluorescence from the dimethylaminochalcone group. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the GNPs decreases with the increasing content of MADMAC unit in the GNPs. The GNPs aqueous solution shows weak fluorescence after the temperature increases from 25 °C to 45 °C, or after β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is added. Furthermore, it exhibits strong fluorescence when the solvent is changed to ethanol or chloroform, and the fluorescent wavelength undergoes a blue shift from ethanol to chloroform.

  4. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Enzymatically-generated Thiocholine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Mellen, Maria C.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-11-01

    A carbon nanotube modified glassy-carbon (CNT/GC) electrode was used for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical measurements of enzymatically-generated thiocholine. Cyclic voltammetric and amperometric characteristics of thiocholine at CNT/GC, glassy carbon, carbon paste, and gold electrodes were compared. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine product including lower oxidation overpotential (0.15 V) and higher sensitivity because of its electrocatalytic activity, fast electron transfer and large surface area. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the operating conditions. Under the optimal batch conditions, a detection limit of 5 ?10 -6 mol/L was obtained with good precision (RSD = 5.2%, n=10). Furthermore, the attractive response of thiocholine on a CNT/GC electrode has allowed it to be used for constant-potential flow injection analysis. The detection limit was greatly improved to 0.3 ?10-6 mol/L. The high sensitivity electrochemical detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine with a CNT sensing platform holds great promise to prepare an acetylcholinesterase biosensor for monitoring organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

  5. Bioelectrochemical studies of azurin and laccase confined in three-dimensional chips based on gold-modified nano-/microstructured silicon.

    PubMed

    Ressine, Anton; Vaz-Domínguez, Cristina; Fernandez, Victor M; De Lacey, Antonio L; Laurell, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Shleev, Sergey

    2010-01-15

    Double-sided three-dimensional porous silicon chips, 6 mm x 6 mm, covered with a 40 nm gold (nano)layer, were fabricated from a porous silicon wafer. Scanning electron microscopy along with electrochemical characterisation showed sample conductivity, mechanical stability, and high surface area of the thus fabricated devices, viz. 10 times higher electrochemically active surface area compared to the geometric area. The three-dimensional gold coated silicon chips were further modified with thiol layers, followed by immobilisation of a simple copper-containing redox protein, azurin, or a complex multicopper redox enzyme, laccase. The bioelectrochemical studies showed very high surface concentrations of azurin and laccase, i.e. close to the theoretical monolayer coverage. However, direct electron transfer reactions between the biomolecules and gold surfaces were observed only for a small percentage of the immobilised redox protein and enzyme, respectively. Thus, highly efficient oxygen-bioelectroreduction on laccase-modified 3D thiol-gold-porous silicon chips (as compared to planar laccase-modified gold electrodes, 42 microA/cm(2)vs. 7 microA/cm(2), respectively) was obtained only in the presence of an efficient soluble redox mediator.

  6. A novel non-competitive amperometric immunosensor by using thiourea-glutaraldehyde-modified gold electrode for immunoglobulin M detection.

    PubMed

    Akyilmaz, Erol; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2013-12-01

    A novel non-competitive amperometric immunosensor based on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thiourea modified by a polymeric Schiff's base of glutaraldehyde on gold electrode has been developed for determination of IgM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-conjugated monoclonal anti-mouse immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody was selectively bound to IgM molecules onto the surface of the electrode. Electrochemical response arising from the catalytic reaction of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Its reaction with various phosphates such as p-aminophenyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphatase (p-NPP) generates the electrochemically active products p-aminophenol (p-AP) and p-nitrophenol (p-NP), respectively.

  7. Real-Time Plasmonic Monitoring of Single Gold Amalgam Nanoalloy Electrochemical Formation and Stripping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Gang; Fossey, John S; Li, Meng; Xie, Tao; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Direct electrodeposition of mercury onto gold nanorods on an ITO substrate, without reducing agents, is reported. The growth of single gold amalgam nanoalloy particles and subsequent stripping was monitored in real-time monitoring by plasmonic effects and single-nanoparticle dark-field spectroelectrochemistry techniques. Time-dependent scattering spectral information conferred insight into the growth and stripping mechanism of a single nanoalloy particle. Four critical stages were observed: First, rapid deposition of Hg atoms onto Au nanorods; second, slow diffusion of Hg atoms into Au nanorods; third, prompt stripping of Hg atoms from Au nanorods; fourth, moderate diffusion from the inner core of Au nanorods. Under high Hg(2+) concentrations, homogeneous spherical gold amalgam nanoalloys were obtained. These results demonstrate that the morphology and composition of individual gold amalgam nanoalloys can be precisely regulated electrochemically. Moreover, gold amalgam nanoalloys with intriguing optical properties, such as modulated plasmonic lifetimes and quality factor Q, could be obtained. This may offer opportunities to extend applications in photovoltaic energy conversion and chemical sensing.

  8. Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene and MWCNT Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with AuNPs for Laccase Biosensor Development

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Gabriele; Fusco, Giovanni; Mazzei, Franco; Tasca, Federico; Antiochia, Riccarda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show how the integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs) based screen-printed electrodes and into graphene-based screen-printed electrodes (GPHs) could represent a potential way to further enhance the electrochemical properties of those electrodes based on nanoparticles. Laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) was immobilized over MWCNTs and GPH previously modified with AuNPs (of 5 and 10 nm). The characterization of the modified electrode surface has been carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the use of AuNPs for modification of both graphene and MWCNTs screen-printed electrode surfaces would increase the electrochemical performances of the electrodes. MWCNTs showed better results than GPH in terms of higher electroactive area formation after modification with AuNPs. The two modified nanostructured electrodes were successively proven to efficiently immobilize the TvL; the electrochemical sensing properties of the GPH- and MWCNT-based AuNPs-TvL biosensors were investigated by choosing 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid diammonium salt (ABTS), catechol and caffeic acid as laccase mediators; and the kinetic parameters of the laccase biosensor were carefully evaluated. PMID:28347108

  9. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on gold nanoparticles/thionine/gold nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosans composite film-modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenfeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Guoming; Feng, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric electrochemical biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs)/thionine (Thi)/GNPs/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-chitosans (Chits) composite film was developed. MWCNTs-Chits homogeneous composite was first dispersed in acetic acid solution and then the GNPs were in situ synthesized at the composite. The mixture was dripped on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and then the Thi was deposited by electropolymerization by Au-S or Au-N covalent bond effect and electrostatic adsorption effect as an electron transfer mediator. Finally, the mixture of GNPs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was assembled onto the modified electrode by covalent bond. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. This study introduces the in situ-synthesized GNPs on the other surface of the modified materials in H2O2 detection. The linear response range of the biosensor to H2O2 concentration was from 5 × 10-7 mol L-1 to 1.5 × 10-3 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 3.75 × 10-8 mol L-1 (based on S/N = 3).

  10. A sandwich-type DNA biosensor based on electrochemical co-reduction synthesis of graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Lin; Zhong, Guang-Xian; Chen, Jin-Yuan; Weng, Shao-Huang; Huang, Hong-Nan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Li-Qing; Lei, Yun; Fu, Fei-Huan; Sun, Zhou-liang; Lin, Xin-Hua; Lin, Jian-Hua; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2013-03-12

    A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (G-3D Au/GCE) was fabricated for detection of survivin gene which was correlated with osteosarcoma. The G-3D Au film was prepared with one-step electrochemical coreduction with graphite oxide and HAuCl4 at cathodic potentials. The active surface area of G-3D Au/GCE was 2.629cm(2), which was about 3.8 times compared to that of a Au-coated GCE under the same experimental conditions, and 8.8 times compared to a planar gold electrode with a similar geometric area. The resultant nanocomposites with high conductivity, electrocatalysis and biocompatibility were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A "sandwich-type" detection strategy was employed in this electrochemical DNA biosensor and the response of this DNA biosensor was measured by CV and amperometric current-time curve detection. Under optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the current signal and the logarithmic function of complementary DNA concentration in a range of 50-5000fM with a detection limit of 3.4fM. This new biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response, high sensitivity and selectivity and has been used in a polymerase chain reaction assay of real-life sample with a satisfactory result.

  11. Copper recovery and gold enrichment from waste printed circuit boards by mediated electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fogarasi, Szabolcs; Imre-Lucaci, Florica; Imre-Lucaci, Arpád; Ilea, Petru

    2014-05-30

    The present study aims to develop an eco-friendly chemical-electrochemical process for the simultaneous recovery of copper and separation of a gold rich residue from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). The process was carried out by employing two different types of reactors coupled in series: a leaching reactor with a perforated rotating drum, for the dissolution of base metals and a divided electrochemical reactor for the regeneration of the leaching solution with the parallel electrowinning of copper. The process performances were evaluated on the basis of the dissolution efficiency, current efficiency and specific energy consumptions. Finally a process scale up was realized taking into consideration the optimal values of the operating parameters. The laboratory scale leaching plant allowed the recovery of a high purity copper deposit (99.04wt.%) at a current efficiency of 63.84% and specific energy consumption of 1.75kWh/kg cooper. The gold concentration in the remained solid residue was 25 times higher than the gold concentration in the initial WPCB samples.

  12. Electrochemical determination of BCR/ABL fusion gene based on in situ synthesized gold nanoparticles and cerium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenfeng; Wang, Li; Li, Yajuan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhong, Liang; Lu, Lingsong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Bei; Xie, Guoming; Feng, Wenli

    2013-12-01

    An efficient DNA electrochemical biosensor, based on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in situ synthesized at the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), cerium dioxide (CeO2) and chitosan (Chits) composite membrane, was developed for the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The capture probe was attached onto the nanocomposite membrane modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through the conjugated structure. Owing to the synergistic effects of CeO2 nanoparticles with a strong adsorption ability and MWCNTs with a large surface area and excellent electron transfer ability, the prepared composite membrane was demonstrated an efficient electron transfer ability. The biosensor was electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and the decrease of the peak currents upon hybridization was observed using methylene blue (MB) as the electroactive indicator. Under the optimized conditions, peak currents were linear over the range from 1 × 10(-9) M to 1 × 10(-)(12) M, with a detection limit of 5 × 10(-)(13) M (based on the 3σ). And the proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of PCR real samples with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the developed DNA biosensor was demonstrated a good selectivity, a reasonable stability and a favorable reproducibility, which could be regenerated easily.

  13. Practical and regenerable electrochemical aptasensor based on nanoporous gold and thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine base pairs for Hg(2+) detection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Chen; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Tang, Lin; Zhou, Yaoyu; Xu, Piao; Wang, Hou; Qin, Lei; Cheng, Min

    2017-04-15

    A simple, practical and reusable electrochemical aptasensor, based on thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry and nanoporous gold (NPG) for signal amplification, was designed for sensitive and selective detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)). The thiol modified T-rich hairpin capture probe was self-assembled onto the surface of the NPG modified electrode for hybridizing with ferrocene-labeled T-rich probe in the presence of Hg(2+) via T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. As a result, the hairpin capture probe was opened, and the ferrocene tags were close to the NPG modified electrode. Taking advantage of the amplification effect of NPG electrode for increasing the reaction sites of thiol modified capture probe, the proposed electrochemical aptasensor could detect Hg(2+) quantitatively in the range of 0.01-5000nM, with a detection limit as low as 0.0036nM which is much lower than the maximum contamination level for Hg(2+) in drinking water defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical aptasensor can be regenerated by adding cysteine and Mg(2+). The aptasensor was also used to detect Hg(2+) from real water samples, and the results showed excellent agreement with the values determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometer. This aptasensor showed a promising potential for on-site detecting Hg(2+) in drinking water.

  14. Biogenic Preparation of Gold Nanostructures Reduced from Piper longum Leaf Broth and Their Electrochemical Studies.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjuna, K; Narasimha, G; John Sushma, N; Dillip, G R; Subba Reddy, B V; Sreedhar, B; Deva Prasad Raju, B

    2015-02-01

    Exploitation of green chemical procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by biological process has received great attention in the field of nanotechnology. To demonstrate a biogenic method that involves the reduction of aqueous gold ions by the extract of Piper longum leaves leading to the formation of different morphological gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The formation of gold nano-structures has been characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicates the AuNPs are highly crystalline nature with the face-centered cubic (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets, respectively. The AuNPs have different sizes and morphologies that are identified by TEM studies. The involvement of water soluble bio-molecules such as carboxylic acids, flavonoids, proteins and terpenoids were identified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectrum. The responsible mechanism of improving acidic nature and the process of encapsulation of gold nanoparticles by Piper longum extract was discussed. Additionally, we have demonstrated the modified carbon paste electrode using gold nanoparticles by means of cyclic voltammetry in a solution of 1 M KCI and 1 mM [Fe(CN)6]3-/4-. The analysis of cyclic voltammetry shows electronic transmission rate between modified Au-CPE and Bare-CPE electrode increased.

  15. Electrochemical preparation and characterization of polypyrrole/stainless steel electrodes decorated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Pineda, Eduart; Alcaide, Francisco; Rodríguez Presa, María J; Bolzán, Agustín E; Gervasi, Claudio A

    2015-02-04

    The electrosynthesis and characterization of polypyrrole(PPy)/stainless steel electrodes decorated with gold nanoparticles and the performance of the composite electrode for sensing applications is described. PPy films were grown in potassium perchlorate and sodium salicylate solutions under comparable electropolymerization conditions. Polymer films prepared in the presence of perchlorate ions exhibited worm-like structures, whereas columnar structures were obtained in salicylate-containing solutions. Voltammetric response of PPy films prepared in salicylate solutions was more reversible. PPy films were decorated with gold nanoparticles obtained by a double step potentiostatic electrodeposition routine that allowed fine control of deposit characteristics. Analysis of deposits was performed by means of SEM and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the Au/PPy electrodes was assessed for the electro-oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine. Results showed a successful optimization of the route of synthesis that rendered nanocomposite electrode materials with promising applications in electrochemical sensing.

  16. Electrochemical biosensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection based on gold nanotubes array electrode platform.

    PubMed

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2016-04-15

    The template assisted electrochemical deposition technique was used for the synthesis of gold nanotubes array (AuNTsA). The morphological structure of the synthesized AuNTsA was observed by scanning electron microscopy and found that the individual nanotubes are around 1.5 μm in length with a diameter of 200 nm. Nanotubes are vertically aligned to the Au thick film, which is formed during the synthesis process of nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the AuNTsA was compared with the bare Au electrode and found that AuNTsA has better electron transfer surface than bare Au electrode which is due to the high surface area. Hence, the AuNTsA was used as an electrode for the fabrication of DNA hybridization biosensor for detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA. The DNA hybridization biosensor constructed by AuNTsA electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry technique with Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) as an electrochemical redox indicator. The selectivity of the fabricated biosensor was illustrated by hybridization with complementary DNA and non-complementary DNA with probe DNA immobilized AuNTsA electrode using methylene blue as a hybridization indicator. The developed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows good linear range of complementary DNA concentration from 0.01 ng/μL to 100 ng/μL with high detection limit.

  17. Planar Arrays of Nanoporous Gold Nanowires: When Electrochemical Dealloying Meets Nanopatterning.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Adrien; Delacôte, Cyril; Molina-Luna, Leopoldo; Duerrschnabel, Michael; Boujtita, Mohammed; Thiry, Damien; Du, Ke; Ding, Junjun; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Tessier, Pierre-Yves; El Mel, Abdel-Aziz

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous materials are of great interest for various technological applications including sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering, catalysis, and biotechnology. Currently, tremendous efforts are dedicated to the development of porous one-dimensional materials to improve the properties of such class of materials. The main drawback of the synthesis approaches reported so far includes (i) the short length of the porous nanowires, which cannot reach the macroscopic scale, and (ii) the poor organization of the nanostructures obtained by the end of the synthesis process. In this work, we report for the first time on a two-step approach allowing creating highly ordered porous gold nanowire arrays with a length up to a few centimeters. This two-step approach consists of the growth of gold/copper alloy nanowires by magnetron cosputtering on a nanograted silicon substrate, serving as a physical template, followed by a selective dissolution of copper by an electrochemical anodic process in diluted sulfuric acid. We demonstrate that the pore size of the nanowires can be tailored between 6 and 21 nm by tuning the dealloying voltage between 0.2 and 0.4 V and the dealloying time within the range of 150-600 s. We further show that the initial gold content (11 to 26 atom %) and the diameter of the gold/copper alloy nanowires (135 to 250 nm) are two important parameters that must carefully be selected to precisely control the porosity of the material.

  18. MnO2-modified hierarchical graphene fiber electrochemical supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qing; Meng, Yuning; Hu, Chuangang; Zhao, Yang; Shao, Huibo; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-02-01

    A novel hybrid fiber that MnO2 modified graphene sheets on graphene fiber has been fabricated by direct deposition of MnO2 onto graphene network surrounding graphene fiber (MnO2/G/GF). In this hierarchical structure, the graphene fiber with a sheath of 3D graphene network is coated with MnO2 nanoflowers. The 3D graphene on graphene fibers (G/GF) serves as highly conductive backbones with high surface area for deposition of nanostructured MnO2, which provide the high accessibility of electrolytic ions for shorten diffusion paths. An all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor based on a MnO2/G/GF hybrid fiber structure has been developed on the basis of the intrinsic mechanical flexibility of GF and the unique hierarchical structure. By combination of electric double layer capacitance of graphene network with the pseudocapacitance of MnO2 nanostructures, the all-solid-state fiber supercapacitor shows the much enhanced electrochemical capacitive behaviors with robust tolerance to mechanical deformation, promising for being woven into a textile for wearable electronics.

  19. Oxidation of L-cysteine at a fluorosurfactant-modified gold electrode: lower overpotential and higher selectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuofeng; Zheng, Huzhi; Lu, Chao; Zu, Yanbing

    2007-10-09

    We describe the oxidation of L-cysteine (CySH) at a fluorosurfactant (i.e., Zonyl FSO)-modified gold electrode (FSO-Au). Significantly reduced anodic overpotential of CySH was observed. The FSO layer inhibited the adsorption of CySH and its oxidation products at the gold electrode surface, and the low coverage of the adsorbed thiol-containing species might account for the more facile electron-transfer kinetics of free CySH at low potentials. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed the lower charge-transfer resistance of CySH oxidation at the FSO-Au electrode as compared to that at a bare gold electrode. Interestingly, although the FSO layer facilitated CySH oxidation, the anodic responses of other electroactive biological species such as glucose, uric acid, and ascorbic acid were generally suppressed. Furthermore, the modified electrode was capable of differentiating CySH from other low-molecular-mass biothiols such as homocysteine and glutathione. The unique features of the FSO-Au electrode allowed for the development of a highly selective method of detecting CySH in complex biological matrices. The direct determination of free reduced and total CySH in human urine samples has been successfully carried out without the assistance of any separation techniques.

  20. Electrochemical biosensor for protein kinase A activity assay based on gold nanoparticles-carbon nanospheres, phos-tag-biotin and β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunlei; Yin, Huanshun; Li, Xue; Li, Zhi; Ai, Shiyun; Lin, Hai

    2016-12-15

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical biosensor was fabricated for protein kinase A (PKA) activity assay. Multiple signal amplification techniques were employed including the nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres (Au@C), the biocomposite of SiO2 and streptavidin (SiO2-SA), the composite of AuNPs and biotinylated β-galactosidase (AuNPs-B-Gal) and in situ enzymatic generation of electrochemical activity molecule of p-aminophenol. After peptides were assembled on Au@C modified electrode surface, they were phosphorylated by PKA in the presence of ATP. Then, biotinylated Phos-tag was modified on electrode surface through the specific interaction between Phos-tag and phosphate group. Finally, SiO2-SA and AuNPs-B-Gal were captured through the specific interaction between biotin and streptavidin. Because the electrochemical response of p-aminophenol was directly related to PKA concentration, an innovative electrochemical assay could be realized for PKA detection. The detection limit was 0.014unit/mL. The developed method showed high detection sensitivity and selectivity. In addition, the fabricated biosensor can be also applied to detect PKA in human normal gastricepithelial cell line and human gastric carcinoma cell line with satisfactory results.

  1. Sonochemical and sustainable synthesis of graphene-gold (G-Au) nanocomposites for enzymeless and selective electrochemical detection of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Geetha Bai, Renu; Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Zhou, Meifang; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Huang, Nay Ming; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2017-01-15

    In this study, a sonochemical approach was utilised for the development of graphene-gold (G-Au) nanocomposite. Through the sonochemical method, simultaneous exfoliation of graphite and the reduction of gold chloride occurs to produce highly crystalline G-Au nanocomposite. The in situ growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) took place on the surface of exfoliated few-layer graphene sheets. The G-Au nanocomposite was characterised by UV-vis, XRD, FTIR, TEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy techniques. This G-Au nanocomposite was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for the selective detection of nitric oxide (NO), a critical cancer biomarker. G-Au modified GCE exhibited an enhanced electrocatalytic response towards the oxidation of NO as compared to other control electrodes. The electrochemical detection of NO was investigated by linear sweep voltammetry analysis, utilising the G-Au modified GCE in a linear range of 10-5000μM which exhibited a limit of detection of 0.04μM (S/N=3). Furthermore, this enzyme-free G-Au/GCE exhibited an excellent selectivity towards NO in the presence of interferences. The synergistic effect of graphene and AuNPs, which facilitated exceptional electron-transfer processes between the electrolyte and the GCE thereby improving the sensing performance of the fabricated G-Au modified electrode with stable and reproducible responses. This G-Au nanocomposite introduces a new electrode material in the sensitive and selective detection of NO, a prominent biomarker of cancer.

  2. Amplified electrochemical detection of nucleic acid hybridization via selective preconcentration of unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Tian, Rui; Zheng, Xingwang; Huang, Rongfu

    2016-08-31

    The common drawback of optical methods for rapid detection of nucleic acid by exploiting the differential affinity of single-/double-stranded nucleic acids for unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is its relatively low sensitivity. In this article, on the basis of selective preconcentration of AuNPs unprotected by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding, a novel electrochemical strategy for nucleic acid sequence identification assay has been developed. Through detecting the redox signal mediated by AuNPs on 1, 6-hexanedithiol blocked gold electrode, the proposed method is able to ensure substantial signal amplification and a low background current. This strategy is demonstrated for quantitative analysis of the target microRNA (let-7a) in human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and a detection limit of 16 fM is readily achieved with desirable specificity and sensitivity. These results indicate that the selective preconcentration of AuNPs for electrochemical signal readout can offer a promising platform for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequence.

  3. Electrochemical investigations of 3-(3-thienyl) acrylic acid protected nanoclusters and planar gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, R G; Kavitha, A L; Berchmans, Sheela; Yegnaraman, V

    2007-06-01

    Formation of self assembled monolayers on gold surface by thiols and disulphides is a well known phenomenon and extensive research work has been carried out in this area with envisaged applications in the area of sensors, molecular electronics, lithography, device fabrication using bottom-up approach, etc. Recently, it has been established that thiophene molecules can self assemble on gold surface due to Au-S interactions. 3-(3-thienyl) acrylic acid, a bifunctional ligand is used in this work to form self-assembled monolayers on planar gold surfaces (two dimensional assemblies) and to prepare monolayer protected gold nano clusters (three-dimensional assemblies). The electron transfer blocking properties of the two-dimensional monolayers were evaluated by using standard redox probes like ferrocyanide anions and Ruthenium hexamine cations. The functionalisation of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional assemblies has been carried out with ferrocene carboxylic acid and the functionalised monolayers were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry. The formation of thienyl acrylic acid protected nanoclusters has been verified by TEM and surface plasmon resonance absorption. It has been observed that when thiophene based ligands are used as stabilizers for the formation of metal nanoparticles, they tend to aggregate as a result of pi-pi interactions between adjacent thiophene ligands. In this case it is found that aggregation is prevented. The substituent at the thiophene ring hinders pi-pi interactions. The quantised nature of electrochemical charging of these nanoparticles has been demonstrated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which exhibit peak like features (coulomb's staircase). This work also explores the possibility of using 3-(3-thienyl) acrylic acid as building blocks or spacers on planar and colloidal gold surfaces for potential applications in the field of sensors and devices.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of redox polymer modified electrode developed for monitoring of adenine.

    PubMed

    Kuralay, Filiz; Erdem, Arzum; Abacı, Serdar; Ozyörük, Haluk

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical characterization of redox polymer for monitoring of adenine was described in this study using poly(vinylferrocenium) (PVF(+)) modified platinum (Pt) electrode. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for the surface characterization. The electrochemical behaviors of polymer modified and adenine immobilized polymer modified electrodes were investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In order to obtain more sensitive and improved electrochemical signals, analytical parameters such as the effects of polymeric film thickness, immobilization time of adenine, pH and adenine concentration were examined on the response of the polymer modified electrode. Alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy was used for the characterization of polymer modified and adenine immobilized polymer modified electrodes. The effect of possible interferents on the response of the electrode was examined.

  5. Oligonucleotide-modified screen-printed gold electrodes for enzyme-amplified sensing of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Carpini, Guido; Lucarelli, Fausto; Marrazza, Giovanna; Mascini, Marco

    2004-09-15

    An electrochemical genosensor for the detection of specific sequences of DNA has been developed using disposable screen-printed gold electrodes. Screen-printed gold electrodes were firstly modified with a mixed monolayer of a 25-mer thiol-tethered DNA probe and a spacer thiol, 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH). The DNA probe sequence was internal to the sequence of the 35S promoter, which sequence is inserted in the genome of GMOs regulating the transgene expression. An enzyme-amplified detection scheme, based on the coupling of a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and biotinylated target sequences was then applied. The enzyme catalysed the hydrolysis of the electroinactive alpha-naphthyl phosphate to alpha-naphthol; this product is electroactive and has been detected by means of differential pulse voltammetry. The assay was, firstly, characterised using synthetic oligonucleotides. Relevant parameters, such as the probe concentration and the immobilisation time, the use of the MCH and different enzymatic conjugates, were investigated and optimised. The genosensor response was found to be linearly related to the target concentration between 0 and 25 nmol/L; the detection limit was 0.25 nmol/L. The analytical procedure was then applied for the detection of the 35S promoter sequence, which was amplified from the pBI121 plasmid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Hybridisation conditions (i.e., hybridisation buffer and hybridisation time) were further optimised. The selectivity of the assay was confirmed using biotinylated non-complementary amplicons and PCR blanks. The results showed that the genosensor enabled sensitive (detection limit: 1 nmol/L) and specific detection of GMO-related sequences, thus providing a useful tool for the screening analysis of bioengineered food samples.

  6. Highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for mercury(II) ions by using a mercury-specific oligonucleotide probe and gold nanoparticle-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Su, Yuanyuan; Li, Jiang; Li, Di; Zhang, Jiong; Song, Shiping; Zhao, Yun; Li, Genxi; Fan, Chunhai

    2009-09-15

    We report a highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of Hg(2+) ions in aqueous solution by using a thymine (T)-rich, mercury-specific oligonucleotide (MSO) probe and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-based signal amplification. The MSO probe contains seven thymine bases at both ends and a "mute" spacer in the middle, which, in the presence of Hg(2+), forms a hairpin structure via the Hg(2+)-mediated coordination of T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs. The thiolated MSO probe is immobilized on Au electrodes to capture free Hg(2+) in aqueous media, and the MSO-bound Hg(2+) can be electrochemically reduced to Hg(+), which provides a readout signal for quantitative detection of Hg(2+). This direct immobilization strategy leads to a detection limit of 1 microM. In order to improve the sensitivity, MSO probe-modified Au NPs are employed to amplify the electrochemical signals. Au NPs are comodified with the MSO probe and a linking probe that is complementary to a capture DNA probe immobilized on gold electrodes. We demonstrated that this Au NPs-based sensing strategy brings about an amplification factor of more than 3 orders of magnitude, leading to a limit of detection of 0.5 nM (100 ppt), which satisfactorily meets the sensitivity requirement of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This Au NPs-based Hg(2+) sensor also exhibits excellent selectivity over a spectrum of interference metal ions. Considering the high sensitivity and selectivity of this sensor, as well as the cost-effective and portable features of electrochemical techniques, we expect this Au NPs amplified electrochemical sensor will be a promising candidate for field detection of environmentally toxic mercury.

  7. Corrosion resistance of Ti modified by chitosan-gold nanoparticles for orthopedic implantation.

    PubMed

    Farghali, R A; Fekry, A M; Ahmed, Rasha A; Elhakim, H K A

    2015-08-01

    Highly uniform bionanocomposite film composed of chitosan (CS) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was synthesized successfully by electrodeposition method. The influence of AuNPs/CS bionanocomposite film on corrosion resistance of Ti was investigated. Surface morphology and compositional properties of the bionanocomposite were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV), open-circuit potential measurements (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (Rp) were used to examine the corrosion behavior in Hanks' solution. In comparison with Ti, Nyquist and Bode plots displayed higher impedance values and phase angles for AuNPs/CS biocomposite denoting a more protective passive film on Ti with inhibition efficiency (IE%) of 98%. An electric equivalent circuit with three time constants was modeled for the bionanocomposite. In addition, the antibacterial effect revealed the high efficiencies of the bionanocomposite film for inhibiting bacterial growth. The combination of the high biocompatibility of chitosan and strong adsorption ability of AuNPs make AuNPs/CS bionanocomposite promising candidate for modifying biomaterial surfaces for medical implantation applications.

  8. Rapid detection and quantification of free hemoglobin and haptoglobin by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu-Ning; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Cheng, Tsia-Mu; Tseng, Shin-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Free Hemoglobin (Hb) is a metabolic substance that damage tissue and vessel. It is released from destructed red blood cell and causes infection or inflammatory of human body. In blood plasma, haptoglobin (Hp) binds free Hb with high affinity and prevents the damage which is caused by cell free Hb. Hp has three phenotypes, that are Hp1-1, Hp 2-1, and Hp 2-2. Different phenotypes of Hp has been different affinities to Hb. It is known that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) provide more information for detecting the small amount bio-molecules, include protein and DNA. In this study, we have developed a simple, fast, reliable and sensitive platform to quantify concentration of free Hb and Hp. In this platform, detection probe has been modified with nano gold and the surface charge transfer resistance of Hb and Hp binding could be detected and quantified within 18 min. This is a whole new platform to quantify free Hb in the serum of human to our knowledge.

  9. Glycated hemoglobin detection with electrochemical sensing amplified by gold nanoparticles embedded N-doped graphene nanosheet.

    PubMed

    Jain, Utkarsh; Chauhan, Nidhi

    2017-03-15

    In the diabetic patients the level of glucose must be determined without any short term fluctuations. The level of Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is accordingly examined for checking diabetes mellitus. HbA1c is considered one of the primarily factor to discern the concentration of average plasma glucose over a long-drawn-out period. In our work, we describe a construction of biosensor which is based on fructosyl amino-acid oxidase (FAO) immobilized nitrogen-doped graphene/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass electrode. This constructed biosensor exhibits a wide linear range of 0.3 to 2000μM in response to HbA1c at +0.2V. Consequently, the detection limit of 0.2μM and good stability (4 months) were achieved. The electrocatalytic activity of this sensor was good as a result of synergistic effect of graphene and AuNPs (2D and 0D nanomaterials). The charge transfer resistance was decreased which was observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study. The graphene/AuNPs composites film reveals a distinguished electrochemical response to fructosyl valine (FV) which demonstrates a promising application for electrochemical detection of HbA1c in human blood samples.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymer decorated nanoporous gold for highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingchun; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jiang; Tang, Hui; Cao, Cong; Zhao, Dongsheng; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical nanosensors based on nanoporous gold leaf (NPGL) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) are developed for pharmaceutical analysis by using metronidazole (MNZ) as a model analyte. NPGL, serving as the loading platform for MIP immobilization, possesses large accessible surface area with superb electric conductivity, while electrochemically synthesized MIP thin layer affords selectivity for specific recognition of MNZ molecules. For MNZ determination, the hybrid electrode shows two dynamic linear range of 5 × 10−11 to 1 × 10−9 mol L−1 and 1 × 10−9 to 1.4 × 10−6 mol L−1 with a remarkably low detection limit of 1.8 × 10−11 mol L−1 (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity and selectivity towards MNZ with excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, the reliability of MIP-NPGL for MNZ detection is proved in real fish tissue samples, demonstrating the potential for the proposed electrochemical sensors in monitoring drug and biological samples. PMID:25572290

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymer decorated nanoporous gold for highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchun; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jiang; Tang, Hui; Cao, Cong; Zhao, Dongsheng; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical nanosensors based on nanoporous gold leaf (NPGL) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) are developed for pharmaceutical analysis by using metronidazole (MNZ) as a model analyte. NPGL, serving as the loading platform for MIP immobilization, possesses large accessible surface area with superb electric conductivity, while electrochemically synthesized MIP thin layer affords selectivity for specific recognition of MNZ molecules. For MNZ determination, the hybrid electrode shows two dynamic linear range of 5 × 10-11 to 1 × 10-9 mol L-1 and 1 × 10-9 to 1.4 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a remarkably low detection limit of 1.8 × 10-11 mol L-1 (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity and selectivity towards MNZ with excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, the reliability of MIP-NPGL for MNZ detection is proved in real fish tissue samples, demonstrating the potential for the proposed electrochemical sensors in monitoring drug and biological samples.

  12. Electrochemical Aptasensor for Myoglobin-Specific Recognition Based on Porphyrin Functionalized Graphene-Conjugated Gold Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojuan; Liu, Zhiguang; Wang, Li; Guo, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of myoglobin based on meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin-functionalized graphene-conjugated gold nanoparticles (TCPP–Gr/AuNPs). Due to its good electric conductivity, large specific surface area, and excellent mechanical properties, TCPP–Gr/AuNPs can act as an enhanced material for the electrochemical detection of myoglobin. Meanwhile, it provides an effective matrix for immobilizing myoglobin-binding aptamer (MbBA). The electrochemical aptasensor has a sensitive response to myoglobin in a linear range from 2.0 × 10−11 M to 7.7 × 10−7 M with a detection limit of 6.7 × 10−12 M (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the method has the merits of high sensitivity, low price, and high specificity. Our work will supply new horizons for the diagnostic applications of graphene-based materials in biomedicine and biosensors. PMID:27801833

  13. Sensitive Adsorptive Voltammetric Method for Determination of Bisphenol A by Gold Nanoparticle/Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Modified Pencil Graphite Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Yesim Tugce; Abaci, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor gold nanoparticle (AuNP)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was developed for the ultrasensitive determination of Bisphenol A (BPA). The gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited by constant potential electrolysis and PVP was attached by passive adsorption onto the electrode surface. The electrode surfaces were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parameters that affected the experimental conditions were researched and optimized. The AuNP/PVP/PGE sensor provided high sensitivity and selectivity for BPA recognition by using square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV). Under optimized conditions, the detection limit was found to be 1.0 nM. This new sensor system offered the advantages of simple fabrication which aided the expeditious replication, low cost, fast response, high sensitivity and low background current for BPA. This new sensor system was successfully tested for the detection of the amount of BPA in bottled drinking water with high reliability. PMID:27231912

  14. Investigation of Hemoglobin/Gold Nanoparticle Heterolayer on Micro-Gap for Electrochemical Biosensor Application

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Yoon, Jinho; Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we fabricated a hemoglobin/gold nanoparticle (Hb/GNP) heterolayer immobilized on the Au micro-gap to confirm H2O2 detection with a signal-enhancement effect. The hemoglobin which contained the heme group catalyzed the reduction of H2O2. To facilitate the electron transfer between hemoglobin and Au micro-gap electrode, a gold nanoparticle was introduced. The Au micro-gap electrode that has gap size of 5 µm was fabricated by conventional photolithographic technique to locate working and counter electrodes oppositely in a single chip for the signal sensitivity and reliability. The hemoglobin was self-assembled onto the Au surface via chemical linker 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (6-MHA). Then, the gold nanoparticles were adsorbed onto hemoglobin/6-MHA heterolayers by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The fabrication of the Hb/GNP heterolayer was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The redox property and H2O2 detection of Hb/GNP on the micro-gap electrode was investigated by a cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiment. Taken together, the present results show that the electrochemical signal-enhancement effect of a hemoglobin/nanoparticle heterolayer was well confirmed on the micro-scale electrode for biosensor applications. PMID:27171089

  15. Facile in situ characterization of gold nanoparticles on electrode surfaces by electrochemical techniques: average size, number density and morphology determination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Laborda, Eduardo; Salter, Chris; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2012-10-21

    A fast and cheap in situ approach is presented for the characterization of gold nanoparticles from electrochemical experiments. The average size and number of nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon electrode are determined from the values of the total surface area and amount of gold obtained by lead underpotential deposition and by stripping of gold in hydrochloric acid solution, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticle surface can also be analyzed from the "fingerprint" in lead deposition/stripping experiments. The method is tested through the study of gold nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon substrate by seed-mediated growth method which enables an easy control of the nanoparticle size. The procedure is also applied to the characterization of supplied gold nanoparticles. The results are in satisfactory agreement with those obtained via scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Growth of pentacene on clean and modified gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kaefer, Daniel; Ruppel, Lars; Witte, Gregor

    2007-02-15

    The growth and evolution of pentacene films on gold substrates have been studied. By combining complementary techniques including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure, and x-ray diffraction, the molecular orientation, crystalline structure, and morphology of the organic films were characterized as a function of film thickness and growth parameters (temperature and rate) for different gold substrates ranging from Au(111) single crystals to polycrystalline gold. Moreover, the influence of precoating the various gold substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) of organothiols with different chemical terminations has been studied. On bare gold the growth of pentacene films is characterized by a pronounced dewetting while the molecular orientation within the resulting crystalline three-dimensional islands depends distinctly on the roughness and cleanliness of the substrate surface. After completion of the first wetting layer where molecules adopt a planar orientation parallel to the surface the molecules continue to grow in a tilted fashion: on Au(111) the long molecular axis is oriented parallel to the surface while on polycrystalline gold it is upstanding oriented and thus parallels the crystalline orientation of pentacene films grown on SiO{sub 2}. On SAM pretreated gold substrates the formation of a wetting layer is effectively suppressed and pentacene grows in a quasi-layer-by-layer fashion with an upstanding orientation leading to rather smooth films. The latter growth mode is observed independently of the chemical termination of the SAM's and the roughness of the gold substrate. Possible reasons for the different growth mechanism as well as consequences for the assignment of spectroscopic data of thin pentacene film are discussed.

  17. Microfluidic cells with interdigitated array gold electrodes: Fabrication and electrochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Daniela; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2005-12-15

    Microfluidic flow cells combined with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode and/or individually driven interdigitated electrodes were fabricated and characterized for application as detectors for flow injection analysis. The gold electrodes were produced by a process involving heat transfer of a toner mask onto the gold surface of a CD-R and etching of the toner-free gold region by short exposure to iodine-iodide solution. The arrays of electrodes with individual area of 0.01cm(2) (0.10cm of lengthx0.10cm of width and separated by gaps of 0.05 or 0.03cm) were assembled in microfluidic flow cells with 13 or 19mum channel depth. The electrochemical characterization of the cells was made by voltammetry under stationary conditions and the influence of experimental parameters related to geometry of the channels and electrodes were studied by using K(4)Fe(CN)(6) as model system. The obtained results for peaks currents (I(p)) are in excellent agreement with the expected ones for a reversible redox system under stationary thin-layer conditions. Two different configurations of the working electrodes, E(i), auxiliary electrode, A, and reference electrode, R, on the chip were examined: E(i)/R/A and R/E(i)/A, with the first presenting certain uncompensated resistance. This is because the potentiostat actively compensates the iR drop occurring in the electrolyte thin layer between A and R, but not from R to each E(i). This is confirmed by the smaller difference between the cathodic and anodic peak potentials for the second configuration. Evaluation of the microfluidic flow cells combined with (individually driven) interdigitated array electrodes as biamperometric or amperometric detectors for FIA reveals stable and reproducible operation, with peak heights presenting relative standard deviations of less than 2.2%. For electrochemically reversible species, FIA peaks with enhanced current signal were obtained due to redox cycling under flow operation. The versatility of

  18. Square Wave Voltammetry of TNT at Gold Electrodes Modified with Self-Assembled Monolayers Containing Aromatic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Scott A.; Zabetakis, Dan; Moore, Martin; Verbarg, Jasenka; Stenger, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Square wave voltammetry for the reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was measured in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8) at gold electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) containing either an alkane thiol or aromatic ring thiol structures. At 15 Hz, the electrochemical sensitivity (µA/ppm) was similar for all SAMs tested. However, at 60 Hz, the SAMs containing aromatic structures had a greater sensitivity than the alkane thiol SAM. In fact, the alkane thiol SAM had a decrease in sensitivity at the higher frequency. When comparing the electrochemical response between simulations and experimental data, a general trend was observed in which most of the SAMs had similar heterogeneous rate constants within experimental error for the reduction of TNT. This most likely describes a rate limiting step for the reduction of TNT. However, in the case of the alkane SAM at higher frequency, the decrease in sensitivity suggests that the rate limiting step in this case may be electron tunneling through the SAM. Our results show that SAMs containing aromatic rings increased the sensitivity for the reduction of TNT when higher frequencies were employed and at the same time suppressed the electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen. PMID:25549081

  19. Electrocatalytic oxidation of phytohormone salicylic acid at copper nanoparticles-modified gold electrode and its detection in oilseed rape infected with fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan; Wei, Fang; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Xu, Qiao; Huang, Jun-Yan; Dong, Xu-Yan; Yu, Jiu-Hong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a biological substance that acts as a phytohormone and plays an important role in signal transduction in plants. It is important to accurately and sensitively detect SA levels. A gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles was used to assay the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid. It was found that the electrochemical behavior of salicylic acid was greatly improved at copper nanoparticles, indicating that anodic oxidation could be catalyzed at copper nanoparticles. And the pH had remarkable effect on the electrochemical process, a very well-defined oxidation peak appeared at pH 13.3 (0.2M NaOH). The kinetics parameters of this process were calculated and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k) was determined to be 1.34x10(-3)cms(-1), and (1-alpha)n(alpha) was 1.22. The gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles could detect SA at a higher sensitivity than common electrodes. The electrode was used to detect the SA levels in oilseed rape infected with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The results showed that the SA concentration reached a maximum during the 10th-25th hours after infection. This result was very similar to that determined by HPLC, indicating that the gold electrodes modified with copper nanoparticles could be used as salicylic acid sensors.

  20. Electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR based on graphene-gold nanocomposite/functional conducting polymer/gold nanoparticle/ionic liquid composite film with electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Ruiyi, Li; Qianfang, Xia; Zaijun, Li; Xiulan, Sun; Junkang, Liu

    2013-06-15

    The study developed an electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR in water. Graphene oxide and chloroauric acid were alternately electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode for 20 cycles to fabricate graphene-gold nanocomposite. The composite was characterized and its apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (37.28±0.16 cm s (-1)) was estimated by Laviron's model. To immobilize microcystin-LR antibody and improve the electrical conductivity, 2,5-di-(2-thienyl)-1-pyrrole-1-(p-benzoic acid) and chloroauric acid were electrodeposited on the modified electrode in sequence. The ionic liquid was then dropped on the electrode surface and finally microcystin-LR antibody was covalently connected to the conducting polymer film. Experiment showed the electrochemical technique offers control over reaction parameters and excellent repeatability. The graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticles enhance electron transfer of Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) to the electrode. The ionic liquid, 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide, improves stability of the antibody. The sensor displays good repeatability (RSD=1.2%), sensitive electrochemical response to microcystin-LR in the range of 1.0×10(-16)-8.0×10(-15)M and detection limit of 3.7×10(-17)M (S/N=3). The peak current change of the sensor after and before incubation with 2.0×10(-15)M of microcystin-LR can retain 95% over a 20-weeks storage period. Proposed method presents remarkable improvement of sensitivity, repeatability and stability when compared to present microcystin-LR sensors. It has been successfully applied to the microcystin-LR determination in water samples with a spiked recovery in the range of 96.3-105.8%.

  1. Functionalized gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing of mercury ions based on thymine-mercury-thymine structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Lin, Meng; Dai, Hongxiu; Ma, Houyi

    2016-05-15

    A sensitive, selective and reusable electrochemical biosensor for the determination of mercury ions (Hg(2+)) has been developed based on thymine (T) modified gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AuNPs/rGO) nanocomposites. Graphene oxide (GO) was electrochemically reduced on a glassy carbon substrate. Subsequently, AuNPs were deposited onto the surface of rGO by cyclic voltammetry. For functionalization of the electrode, the carboxylic group of the thymine-1-acetic acid was covalently coupled with the amine group of the cysteamine which self-assembled onto AuNPs. The structural features of the T bases functionalized AuNPs/rGO electrode were confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) spectroscopy. Each step of the modification process was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedence spectroscopy (EIS). The T bases modified AuNPs/rGO electrode was applied to detect various trace metal ions by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The proposed biosensor was found to be highly sensitive to Hg(2+) in the range of 10 ng/L-1.0 µg/L. The biosensor afforded excellent selectivity for Hg(2+) against other heavy metal ions such as Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+). Furthermore, the developed sensor exhibited a high reusability through a simple washing. In addition, the prepared biosensor was successfully applied to assay Hg(2+) in real environmental samples.

  2. Gold nanoparticle-embedded porous graphene thin films fabricated via layer-by-layer self-assembly and subsequent thermal annealing for electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Xi, Qian; Chen, Xu; Evans, David G; Yang, Wensheng

    2012-06-26

    A uniform three-dimensional (3D) gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-embedded porous graphene (AuEPG) thin film has been fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of AuNPs and graphene nanosheets functionalized with bovine serum albumin and subsequent thermal annealing in air at 340 °C for 2 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations for the AuEPG film indicate that an AuNP was embedded in every pore of the porous graphene film, something that was difficult to achieve with previously reported methods. The mechanism of formation of the AuEPG film was initially explored. Application of the AuEPG film in electrochemical sensing was further demonstrated by use of H(2)O(2) as a model analyte. The AuEPG film-modified electrode showed improved electrochemical performance in H(2)O(2) detection compared with nonporous graphene-AuNP composite film-modified electrodes, which is mainly attributed to the porous structure of the AuEPG film. This work opens up a new and facile way for direct preparation of metal or metal oxide nanoparticle-embedded porous graphene composite films, which will enable exciting opportunities in highly sensitive electrochemical sensors and other advanced applications based on graphene-metal composites.

  3. D-mannitol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer on electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Beluomini, Maísa Azevedo; da Silva, José L; Sedenho, Graziela Cristina; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2017-04-01

    An electrochemical sensor for D-mannitol based on molecularly imprinted polymer on electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles was developed in this present work. The sensor was constructed for the first time via the electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) over a surface containing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in the presence of D-mannitol molecules. The surface modification with AuNP/RGO-GCE facilitated the charge transfer processes of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-), which was used as an electrochemical probe. It also contributed meaningfully towards the increase in the surface/volume ratio, creating more locations for imprinting, and providing greater sensitivity to the sensor. The MIP/AuNP/RGO-GCE sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Important parameters that exert control over the performance of the molecularly imprinted sensor (such as number of cycles, pH, monomer and template concentration and extraction and rebinding conditions) were investigated and optimized. The imprinting factor was 4.9, showing greater response to the D-mannitol molecule compared to the interfering molecules. The limit of detection, limit of quantification and amperometric sensitivity were 7.7×10(-13)molL(-1), 2.6×10(-12)molL(-1) and 3.9×10(10)µALmol(-1) (n=3) respectively. The MIP/AuNP/RGO-GCE sensor was successfully applied towards the selective determination of D-mannitol in sugarcane vinasse, thus making it, in essence, a valuable tool for the accurate and reliable determination of this molecule.

  4. Electrochemical Preparation and Characterization of a Gold Nanoparticles Graphite Electrode: Application to Myricetin Antioxidant Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Khan Loon; Lee, See Mun; Khor, Sook Mei; Tan, Guan Huat

    2015-01-01

    Graphite material is abundantly available from recyclable sources. It possesses a good electrical conductance property, which makes it an attractive material as a working electrode. However, due to a high activation overpotential it has limited applications as compared to other solid metal electrodes. In this present work, we obtained a graphite rod from a used battery, and carried out electrochemical improvements by electro-deposition with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate and electron transfer resistance of the fabricated electrode were improved. The electrode overpotential has shown improvement by 50 mV, and the effective surface area has increased by 2 fold. To determine the practicability of the AuNPs/graphite electrode, we used the electrode in the analysis of myricetin. A square-wave voltammetry was used in the analysis, and the detection response increased by 2.5 fold, which suggested an improvement in the electrode sensitivity.

  5. Electrochemical synthesis of mesoporous gold films toward mesospace-stimulated optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cuiling; Dag, Ömer; Dao, Thang Duy; Nagao, Tadaaki; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Tatsuo; Terasaki, Osamu; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous gold (Au) films with tunable pores are expected to provide fascinating optical properties stimulated by the mesospaces, but they have not been realized yet because of the difficulty of controlling the Au crystal growth. Here, we report a reliable soft-templating method to fabricate mesoporous Au films using stable micelles of diblock copolymers, with electrochemical deposition advantageous for precise control of Au crystal growth. Strong field enhancement takes place around the center of the uniform mesopores as well as on the walls between the pores, leading to the enhanced light scattering as well as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which is understandable, for example, from Babinet principles applied for the reverse system of nanoparticle ensembles. PMID:25799072

  6. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and tramadol using Dowex50wx2 and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Bankim J; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2011-11-14

    A glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE) modified with a cation exchanger resin, Dowex50wx2 and gold nanoparticles (D50wx2-GNP-GCPE) has been developed for individual and simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACOP) and tramadol (TRA). The electrochemical behavior of both the molecules has been investigated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetry (AdSSWV). The studies revealed that the oxidation of ACOP and TRA is facilitated at D50wx2-GNP-GCPE. Using AdSSWV, the method allowed simultaneous determination of ACOP and TRA in the linear working range of 3.34×10(-8) to 4.22×10(-5) M with detection limits of 4.71×10(-9) and 1.12×10(-8) M (S/N=3) for ACOP and TRA respectively. The prepared modified electrode shows several advantages such as simple preparation method, long-time stability, ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing and excellent reproducibility. The high sensitivity and selectivity of D50wx2-GNP-GCPE were demonstrated by its practical application in the determination of both ACOP and TRA in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative detection of DNA amplified with HRP-modified SiO2 nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huajun; Jiao, Fang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2013-09-15

    Qualitative and quantitative detection of DNA was achieved by a "sandwich" DNA sensor through SG/TC (substrate generation and tip collection) mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The "sandwich" DNA structure was formed by the hybridization of thiol-tethered oligodeoxynucleotide probes (capture probe), assembled on the gold substrate surface, with target DNA and biotinylated indicator probe. HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-wrapped SiO2 nanoparticles were linked to the sandwich structure through biotin-streptavidin interaction. Hydroquinone (H2Q) was oxidized to benzoquinone (BQ) at the modified substrate surface where sequence-specific hybridization had occurred through the HRP-catalyzed reaction in the presence of H2O2. The detection was based on the reduction of BQ generated on the modified substrate by SECM tip. For SECM imaging experiment, we structured the microsensor platform through localized desorption of 1-dodecanethiol monolayer. Approach curves were employed for quantitative detection of DNA concentration. The detection limit of complementary DNA was as low as 0.8pM. This technique is promising for the application on electrochemical DNA chip.

  8. A functional graphene oxide-ionic liquid composites-gold nanoparticle sensing platform for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of Hg2+.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Hao; Liao, Chunyang; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-02-21

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical assay strategy of stripping voltammetry for mercury ions (Hg(2+)) detection is described based on the synergistic effect between ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide (GO-IL) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs-GO-IL modified onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) resulted in highly enhanced electron conductive nanostructured membrane and large electroactive surface area, which was excellently examined by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. After accumulating Hg(2+), anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) was performed, and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed for signal recording of Hg(2+). Several main experimental parameters were optimized, i.e., deposition potential and time of AuNPs were -0.2 V and 180 s, respectively, and accumulation potential and time of Hg(2+) were -0.3 V and 660 s, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, this AuNPs-GO-IL-GCE sensor attained a good linearity in a wide range of 0.1-100 nM (R = 0.9808) between the concentration of the Hg(2+) standard and peak current. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.03 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3σ. A variety of common coexistent ions in water samples were investigated, showing no obvious interferences on the Hg(2+) detection. The practical application of the proposed sensor has been carried out and demonstrated as feasible for determination of trace levels of Hg(2+) in drinking and environmental water samples.

  9. Multiplexed Electrochemical Immunoassay of Phosphorylated Proteins Based on Enzyme-Functionalized Gold Nanorod Labels and Electric Field-Driven Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Lu, Donglai; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-09-09

    A multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay integrating enzyme amplification and electric field-driven strategy was developed for fast and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated p53 at Ser392 (phospho-p53 392), Ser15 (phospho-p53 15), Ser46 (phospho-p53 46) and total p53 simultaneously. The disposable sensor array has four spatially separated working electrodes and each of them is modified with different capture antibody, which enables simultaneous immunoassay to be conducted without cross-talk between adjacent electrodes. The enhanced sensitivity was achieved by multi-enzymes amplification strategy using gold nanorods (AuNRs) as nanocarrier for co-immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detection antibody (Ab2) at high ratio of HRP/Ab2, which produced an amplified electrocatalytic response by the reduction of HRP oxidized thionine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The immunoreaction processes were accelerated by applying +0.4 V for 3 min and then -0.2 V for 1.5 min, thus the whole sandwich immunoreactions could be completed in less than 5 min. The disposable immunosensor array shows excellent promise for clinical screening of phosphorylated proteins and convenient point-of-care diagnostics.

  10. New insights into the electrochemical desorption of alkanethiol SAMs on gold

    PubMed Central

    Pensa, Evangelina; Vericat, Carolina; Grumelli, Doris; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Park, Sung Hyun; Longo, Gabriel S.; Szleifer, Igal

    2012-01-01

    A combination of Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) under electrochemical control, Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (ECSTM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations has been used to shed light on the reductive desorption process of dodecanethiol (C12) and octadecanethiol (C18) SAMs on gold in aqueous electrolytes. Experimental PMIRRAS, ECSTM and MD simulations data for C12 desorption are consistent with formation of randomly distributed micellar aggregates stabilized by Na+ ions, coexisting with a lying-down phase of molecules. The analysis of pit and Au island coverage before and after desorption is consistent with the thiolate-Au adatoms models. On the other hand, PMIRRAS and MD data for C18 indicate that the desorbed alkanethiolates adopt a Na+ ion-stabilized bilayer of interdigitated alkanethiolates, with no evidence of lying down molecules. MD simulations also show that both the degree of order and tilt angle of the desorbed alkanethiolates change with the surface charge on the metal, going from bilayers to micelles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the alkanethiol desorption in the presence of water and the fact that chain length and counterions play a key role in a complex structure. PMID:22870508

  11. Positively charged gold nanoparticles synthesized by electrochemically active biofilm--a biogenic approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Kalathil, S; Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-09-01

    Positively charged gold nanoparticles [(+) AuNPs] of 5-20 nm were synthesized by using electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) formed on a stainless steel mesh, within 30 minutes, in aqueous solution containing HAuCl4 as a precursor and sodium acetate as an electron donor. Electrochemically active bacteria present on biofilm oxidize the sodium acetate by producing electrons. Simultaneously, stainless steel also provides electrons because of the Cl- ions penetration into the stainless steel. Combined effect of both the EAB and stainless steel mesh enhances the availability of electrons for the reduction of Au3+ in the solution, which makes this synthesis efficient and fast. Therefore, small size, positively charged (+32.72 mV), monodispersed, controlled, easy separation and extracellular synthesis of (+) AuNPs makes this protocol highly significant. As-synthesized AuNPs were characterized by UV-vis, DLS, XRD, TEM, HRTEM, EDX and SAED. (+) AuNPs shows remarkable enhancement in the rate of reduction of methyl orange by NaBH4 because of the electron relay effect.

  12. Aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of adenosine triphosphate using a nanoporous gold platform.

    PubMed

    Kashefi-Kheyrabadi, Leila; Mehrgardi, Masoud A

    2013-12-01

    In spite of the promising applications of aptamers in the bioassays, the development of aptamer-based electrochemical biosensors with the improved limit of detection has remained a great challenge. A strategy for the amplification of signal, based on application of nanostructures as platforms for the construction of an electrochemical adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptasensor, is introduced in the present manuscript. A sandwich assay is designed by immobilizing a fragment of aptamer on a nanoporous gold electrode (NPGE) and its association to second fragment in the presence of ATP. Consequently, 3, 4-diaminobenzoic acid (DABA), as a molecular reporter, is covalently attached to the amine-label of the second fragment, and the direct oxidation signal of DABA is followed as the analytical signal. The sensor can detect the concentrations of ATP as low as submicromolar scales. Furthermore, 3.2% decrease in signal is observed by keeping the aptasensor at 4 °C for a week in buffer solution, implying a desirable stability. Moreover, analog nucleotides, including GTP, UTP and CTP, do not show serious interferences and this sensor easily detects its target in deproteinized human blood plasma.

  13. Electrochemical genosensor assay using lyophilized gold nanoparticles/latex microsphere label for detection of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Liew, Pei Sheng; Lertanantawong, Benchaporn; Lee, Su Yin; Manickam, Ravichandran; Lee, Yook Heng; Surareungchai, Werasak

    2015-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera, a diarrheal disease. Cholera is widespread in poor, under-developed or disaster-hit countries that have poor water sanitation. Hence, a rapid detection method for V. cholerae in the field under these resource-limited settings is required. In this paper, we describe the development of an electrochemical genosensor assay using lyophilized gold nanoparticles/latex microsphere (AuNPs-PSA) reporter label. The reporter label mixture was prepared by lyophilization of AuNPs-PSA-avidin conjugate with different types of stabilizers. The best stabilizer was 5% sorbitol, which was able to preserve the dried conjugate for up to 30 days. Three methods of DNA hybridization were compared and the one-step sandwich hybridization method was chosen as it was fastest and highly specific. The performance of the assay using the lyophilized reagents was comparable to the wet form for detection of 1aM to 1fM of linear target DNA. The assay was highly specific for V. cholerae, with a detection limit of 1fM of PCR products. The ability of the sensor is to detect LAMP products as low as 50ngµl(-1). The novel lyophilized AuNPs-PSA-avidin reporter label with electrochemical genosensor detection could facilitate the rapid on-site detection of V. cholerae.

  14. Silver deposition directed by self-assembled gold nanorods for amplified electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongfang; Ning, Danlei; Ma, Lina; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical immunoassay was developed based on the signal amplification strategy of silver deposition directed by gold nanorods (AuNRs), which was in-situ assembled on the sandwich immunocomplex. The superstructure formed by the self-assembly of AuNRs provided abundant active sites for the nucleation of silver nanoparticles. In this pathway, the stripping current of silver was greatly enhanced. Using human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) as a model analyte, the ultrasensitive immunoassay showed a wide linear range of six orders of magnitude from 0.1 fg mL(-1) to 100 pg mL(-1), with the low detection limit down to 0.08 fg mL(-1). The practicality of this electrochemical immunoassay for detection of HIgG in serum was validated with the average recovery of 93.9%. In addition, this enzyme-free immunoassay also has the advantages of acceptable reproducibility and specificity, and thus this immunosensing protocol can be extended to the detection of other low-abundant protein biomarkers.

  15. Efficient fluorescence quenching in electrochemically exfoliated graphene decorated with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Morales, M.; Ortiz, M.; Acuña, C.; Nerl, H. C.; Nicolosi, V.; Hernández, Y.

    2016-07-01

    High surface area graphene sheets were obtained by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in an acid medium under constant potential conditions. Filtration and centrifugation processes played an important role in order to obtain stable dispersions in water. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed highly exfoliated crystalline samples of ∼5 μm. Raman, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further confirmed the high quality of the exfoliated material. The electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EEG) was decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using sodium cholate as a buffer layer. This approach allowed for a non-covalent functionalization without altering the desirable electronic properties of the EEG. The AuNP-EEG samples were characterized with various techniques including absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. These samples displayed a fluorescence signal using an excitation wavelength of 290 nm. The calculated quantum yield (Φ) for these samples was 40.04%, a high efficiency compared to previous studies using solution processable graphene.

  16. An electrochemical study of hydrogen uptake and elimination by bare and gold-plated waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.; Lowery, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Two electrochemical methods for the determination of hydrogen concentrations in metals are discussed and evaluated. The take-up of hydrogen at a pressure of 5000 psi by Waspaloy metal was determined experimentally at 24 C. It was found that the metal becomes saturated with hydrogen after an exposure time of about 1 hr. For samples charged with hydrogen at high pressure, most of the hydrogen is contained in the interstitial solid solution of the metal. For electrolytically charged samples, most of the hydrogen is contained as surface and subsurface hydrides. Hydrogen elimination rates were determined for these two cases, with the rate for electrolytically charged samples being greater by over a factor of two. Theoretical effects of high temperature and pressure on hydrogen take-up and elimination by bare and gold plated Waspaloy metal was considered. The breakthrough point for hydrogen at 5000 psi, determined experimentally, lies between a gold thickness of 0.0127 mm (0.0005 in.) and 0.0254 mm (0.001 in.) at 24 C. Electropolishing was found to greatly reduce the uptake of hydrogen at high pressure by Waspaloy metal at 24 C. Possible implications of the results obtained, as they apply to the turbine disk of the space shuttle main engine, are discussed.

  17. Fabrication and functionalization of PCB gold electrodes suitable for DNA-based electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Salvo, P; Henry, O Y F; Dhaenens, K; Acero Sanchez, J L; Gielen, A; Werne Solnestam, B; Lundeberg, J; O'Sullivan, C K; Vanfleteren, J

    2014-01-01

    The request of high specificity and selectivity sensors suitable for mass production is a constant demand in medical research. For applications in point-of-care diagnostics and therapy, there is a high demand for low cost and rapid sensing platforms. This paper describes the fabrication and functionalization of gold electrodes arrays for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The process can be implemented to produce efficiently a large number of biosensors. We report an electrolytic plating procedure to fabricate low-density gold microarrays on PCB suitable for electrochemical DNA detection in research fields such as cancer diagnostics or pharmacogenetics, where biosensors are usually targeted to detect a small number of genes. PCB technology allows producing high precision, fast and low cost microelectrodes. The surface of the microarray is functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of mercaptoundodecanoic acid or thiolated DNA. The PCB microarray is tested by cyclic voltammetry in presence of 5 mM of the redox probe K3Fe(CN6) in 0.1 M KCl. The voltammograms prove the correct immobilization of both the alkanethiol systems. The sensor is tested for detecting relevant markers for breast cancer. Results for 5 nM of the target TACSTD1 against the complementary TACSTD1 and non-complementary GRP, MYC, SCGB2A1, SCGB2A2, TOP2A probes show a remarkable detection limit of 0.05 nM and a high specificity.

  18. Potential-dependent adsorption/desorption behavior of perfluorosulfonated ionomer on a gold electrode surface studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical quartz microbalance, and electrochemical atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takuya; Ikeda, Kota; Uosaki, Kohei

    2013-02-19

    Potential-dependent adsorption/desorption behavior of perfluorosulfonated ionomer (PFSI) on a gold electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), and electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) in a Nafion (i.e., PFSI) dispersed aqueous solution without any other electrolyte. It was found that PFSI serves as an electrolyte and that electrochemical measurements can be performed in this solution without any significant IR drop. PFSI molecules were adsorbed on the Au surface in the lying-down configuration in the potential range between 0 and 0.45 V, the amount of adsorbed PFSI increased when the potential was made more positive than 0.75 V, and the adsorbed PFSI fully desorbed from the surface at potentials more positive than 1.4 V where gold oxide was formed. Once the gold oxide had been reduced, PFSI readsorbed on the surface, albeit slowly. PFSI desorbed from the surface as the potential was made more negative than 0 V. These processes took place reversibly.

  19. Phytic acid/graphene oxide nanocomposites modified electrode for electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donglei; Xu, Fei; Hu, Jiajie; Lin, Meng

    2017-02-01

    An electrochemical sensor for determining dopamine was developed by modifying phytic acid/graphene oxide (PA/GO) nanocomposites onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). PA functionalized GO was prepared by an ultra-sonication method. Subsequently, the PA/GO nanocomposites were drop-casted on a glassy carbon substrate. The structural feature of the PA/GO modified GCE was confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The proposed electrochemical sensor was applied to detect various concentrations of DA by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The PA/GO/GCE was considered to be highly sensitive to DA in the range of 0.05-10μM. In addition, the PA/GO/GCE demonstrated high electrochemical selectivity toward DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The prepared electrochemical DA sensor was applied for detection of DA in dopamine hydrochloride injection and spiked samples of human urine with satisfactory results.

  20. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  1. Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles Using Chemically Modified ssDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, P. G.

    In the first part of this thesis, methods for functionalizing spherical gold nanoparticles with nucleic acid binding ligands (aptamers) that target the VEGF receptor complex were developed. In order to provide a multiplexed labeling strategy for imaging the VEGF receptor complex in electron microscopy, gold nanoparticles of distinct sizes were conjugated to modified ssDNA aptamers that target the VEGF-A cytokine, the VEGFR-2 RTK receptor and a membrane associated co-receptor, Nrp-1. The modified ssDNA gold nanoparticle conjugates were applied to a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) which has been shown to express each of these proteins and used as a model system for VEGF signaling. Binding constants for the modified aptamers were also determined using a fluorescence polarization anisotropy assay to determine KD and KOFF for the aptamers with their respective proteins. In the latter part of this thesis, a modied ssDNA SELEX protocol was also developed in order to evolve imidazole modied ssDNA sequences that assemble gold nanoparticles from Au3+ precursor ions in aqueous solution. Active sequences bound to nanoparticles were partitioned from inactive sequences based on density via ultracentrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Colloidal gold solutions produced by the evolved pool had a distinct absorbance spectra and produced nanoparticles with a narrower distribution of sizes compared to colloidal gold solutions produced by the starting randomized pool of imidazole modified ssDNA. Sequencing data from the evolved pool shows that conserved 5 and 6 nt motifs were shared amongst many of the isolates, which indicates that these motifs could serve as chelation sites for gold atoms or help stabilize colloidal gold solutions in a base specific manner.

  2. One pot synthesis of poly(5-hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) stabilized gold nanoparticles using the monomer as the reducing agent for nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose.

    PubMed

    Cooray, M C Dilusha; Liu, Yuping; Langford, Steven J; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-26

    Monodispersed and highly stable gold nanoparticles with a diameter between 8 and 9 nm were synthesized in a weakly alkaline medium by chemical reduction of AuCl4(-) using 5-hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and stabilized by the simultaneously formed poly(hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone). The electrochemical properties of the resultant poly(hydroxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNQ NPs) and its electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation in alkaline media were then investigated using a range of techniques, including dc cyclic, rotating disk electrode and Fourier transformed large amplitude ac voltammetry. The results demonstrate that these AuNQ NP modified electrodes exhibit excellent catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation in the potential region where the premonolayer oxidation process occurs. The overall catalytic glucose oxidation process was found to be mass transport controlled under the experimental conditions employed, allowing measurements to be conducted with a high reproducibility. The AuNQ NP modified electrodes showed a high sensitivity of 183 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a wide linear dynamic range of 0.5-50 mM and a detection limit of 61 μM. However, despite its excellent tolerance toward ascorbic acid, significant interference from uric acid was found with this AuNQ NP modified electrode.

  3. DNA polymorphism sensitive impedimetric detection on gold-nanoislands modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Alessandra; Pividori, Maria Isabel; del Valle, Manel

    2015-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials are being increasingly used in biosensing applications as they can significantly improve biosensor performance. Here we report the use of a novel impedimetric genosensor based on gold nanoparticles graphite-epoxy nanocomposite (nanoAu-GEC) for the detection of triple base mutation deletion in a cystic-fibrosis (CF) related human DNA sequence. The developed platform consists of chemisorbing gold nano-islands surrounded by rigid, non-chemisorbing, and conducting graphite-epoxy composite. The ratio of the gold nanoparticles in the composite was carefully optimized by electrochemical and microscopy studies. Such platform allows the very fast and stable thiol immobilization of DNA probes on the gold islands, thus minimizing the steric and electrostatic repulsion among the DNA probes and improving the detection of DNA polymorphism down to 2.25fmol by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These findings are very important in order to develop new and renewable platforms to be used in point-of-care devices for the detection of biomolecules.

  4. Peptide-modified gold nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Celina; Prooijen, Monique V.; Chithrani, Devika B.

    2014-03-01

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options. These nanostructures further provide strategies for improving loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy. Our recent results show enhancement of cell death during radiation therapy when GNPs are targeted to nucleus. In addition, we have seen enhanced therapeutic effects when GNPs are used as anticancer drug carriers. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents will hold the possibility of promising directions in cancer research.

  5. Using femtosecond lasers to modify sizes of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Cordeiro, Thiago; Almeida de Matos, Ricardo; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Vieira, Nilson D.; Courrol, Lilia C.; Samad, Ricardo E.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are important on several scientific, medical and industrial areas. The control of nanoparticles characteristics has fundamental importance to increase the efficiency on the processes and applications in which they are employed. The metallic nanoparticles present specific surface plasmon resonances (SPR). These resonances are related with the collective oscillations of the electrons presents on the metallic nanoparticle. The SPR is determined by the potential defined by the nanoparticle size and geometry. There are several methods of producing gold nanoparticles, including the use of toxic chemical polymers. We already reported the use of natural polymers, as for example, the agar-agar, to produce metallic nanoparticles under xenon lamp irradiation. This technique is characterized as a "green" synthesis because the natural polymers are inoffensive to the environment. We report a technique to produce metallic nanoparticles and change its geometrical and dimensional characteristics using a femtosecond laser. The 1 ml initial solution was irradiate using a laser beam with 380 mW, 1 kHz and 40 nm of bandwidth centered at 800 nm. The setup uses an Acousto-optic modulator, Dazzler, to change the pulses spectral profiles by introduction of several orders of phase, resulting in different temporal energy distributions. The use of Dazzler has the objective of change the gold nanoparticles average size by the changing of temporal energy distributions of the laser pulses incident in the sample. After the laser irradiation, the gold nanoparticles average diameter were less than 15 nm.

  6. Green-synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets for label-free electrochemical impedance DNA hybridization biosensing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuwei; Hua, Shucheng; Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Bai, Xiaoxue; Li, Dan; Niu, Li

    2011-07-15

    Sensitive electrochemical impedance assay of DNA hybridization by using a novel graphene sheets platform was achieved. The graphene sheets were firstly functionalized with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA). PTCA molecules separated graphene sheets efficiently and introduced more negatively-charged -COOH sites, both of which were beneficial to the decoration of graphene with gold nanoparticles. Then amine-terminated ionic liquid (NH₂-IL) was applied to the reduction of HAuCl₄ to gold nanoparticles. The green-synthesized gold nanoparticles, with the mean diameter of 3 nm, dispersed uniformly on graphene sheets and its outer layer was positively charged imidazole termini. Due to the presence of large graphene sheets and NH₂-IL protected gold nanoparticles, DNA probes could be immobilized via electrostatic interaction and adsorption effect. Electrochemical impedance value increased after DNA probes immobilization and hybridization, which was adopted as the signal for label-free DNA hybridization detection. Unlike previously anchoring DNA to gold nanoparticles, this label-free method was simple and noninvasive. The conserved sequence of the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1 was satisfactorily detected via this strategy.

  7. Raman spectroelectrochemical study of electrochemical decomposition of poly(neutral red) at a gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Mazeikiene, R; Niaura, G; Malinauskas, A

    2009-08-01

    A gold electrode, modified with poly(neutral red), has been studied with surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy at 676.4 nm excitation. It has been shown that both qualitative and quantitative changes in Raman spectra occur during prolonged holding of the modified electrode in pH 7.0 solution at a controlled electrode potential ranging from -0.6 to -0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl, indicating that a decomposition of the poly(neutral red) layer proceeds. The decomposition proceeds slower at a more negative electrode potential. From kinetic data obtained, first-order decomposition rate constants have been calculated, ranging from 9.17x10(-4) to 1.09x10(-2) min(-1) for electrode potential ranging from -0.6 to -0.2 V.

  8. Small Gold Nanoparticles Interfaced to Electrodes through Molecular Linkers: A Platform to Enhance Electron Transfer and Increase Electrochemically Active Surface Area.

    PubMed

    Young, Samantha L; Kellon, Jaclyn E; Hutchison, James E

    2016-10-17

    For the smallest nanostructures (<5 nm), small changes in structure can lead to significant changes in properties and reactivity. In the case of nanoparticle (NP)-functionalized electrodes, NP structure and composition, and the nature of the NP-electrode interface have a strong influence upon electrochemical properties that are critical in applications such as amperometric sensing, photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. Existing methods to fabricate NP-functionalized electrodes do not allow for precise control over all these variables, especially the NP-electrode interface, making it difficult to understand and predict how structural changes influence NP activity. We investigated the electrochemical properties of small (dcore < 2.5 nm) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on boron doped diamond electrodes using three different electrode fabrication techniques with varying degrees of nanoparticle-electrode interface definition. Two methods to attach AuNPs to the electrode through a covalently bound molecular linker were developed and compared to NP-functionalized electrodes fabricated using solution deposition methods (drop-casting and physiadsorption of a monolayer). In each case, a ferrocene redox probe was tethered to the AuNP surface to evaluate electron transfer through the AuNPs. The AuNPs that were molecularly interfaced with the electrode exhibited nearly ideal, reproducible electrochemical behavior with narrow redox peaks and small peak separations, whereas the solution deposited NPs had broader redox peaks with large peak separations. These data suggest that the molecular tether facilitates AuNP-mediated electron transfer. Interestingly, the molecularly tethered NPs also had significantly more electrochemically active surface area than the solution deposited NPs. The enhanced electrochemical behavior of the molecularly interfaced NPs demonstrates the significant influence of the interface on NP-mediated electron transfer and suggests that similar modified electrodes

  9. A highly oriented hybrid microarray modified electrode fabricated by a template-free method for ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Chu, Zhenyu; Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Wanqin; Dempsey, Eithne

    2013-10-01

    Highly oriented growth of a hybrid microarray was realized by a facile template-free method on gold substrates for the first time. The proposed formation mechanism involves an interfacial structure-directing force arising from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) between gold substrates and hybrid crystals. Different SAMs and variable surface coverage of the assembled molecules play a critical role in the interfacial directing forces and influence the morphologies of hybrid films. A highly oriented hybrid microarray was formed on the highly aligned and vertical SAMs of 1,4-benzenedithiol molecules with rigid backbones, which afforded an intense structure-directing power for the oriented growth of hybrid crystals. Additionally, the density of the microarray could be adjusted by controlling the surface coverage of assembled molecules. Based on the hybrid microarray modified electrode with a large specific area (ca. 10 times its geometrical area), a label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor was constructed for the detection of an oligonucleotide fragment of the avian flu virus H5N1. The DNA biosensor displayed a significantly low detection limit of 5 pM (S/N = 3), a wide linear response from 10 pM to 10 nM, as well as excellent selectivity, good regeneration and high stability. We expect that the proposed template-free method can provide a new reference for the fabrication of a highly oriented hybrid array and the as-prepared microarray modified electrode will be a promising paradigm in constructing highly sensitive and selective biosensors.Highly oriented growth of a hybrid microarray was realized by a facile template-free method on gold substrates for the first time. The proposed formation mechanism involves an interfacial structure-directing force arising from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) between gold substrates and hybrid crystals. Different SAMs and variable surface coverage of the assembled molecules play a critical role in the interfacial directing forces and

  10. Homogenous electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunoassay for human immunoglobulin G using N-(aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol as luminescence label at gold nanoparticles modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Yi; Peng, Yage; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2008-05-15

    A homogeneous electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) has been developed using a N-(aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI) as luminescence label at gold nanoparticles modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE). ECL emission was electrochemically generated from the ABEI-labeled anti-hIgG antibody and markedly increased in the presence of hIgG antigen due to forming a more rigid structure of the ABEI moiety. The concentration of hIgG antigen was determined by the increase of ECL intensity at a gold nanoparticles modified PIGE. It was found that the ECL intensity of ABEI in presence of hydrogen peroxide was dramatically enhanced at gold nanoparticles modified PIGE in neutral aqueous solution and the detection limit of ABEI was 2 x 10(-14)mol/L (S/N=3). The integral ECL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of hIgG antigen from 3.0 x 10(-11) to 1.0 x 10(-9)g/mL with a detection limit of 1 x 10(-11)g/mL (S/N=3). The relative standard deviation was 3.1% at 1.0 x 10(-10)g/mL (n=11). This work demonstrates that the enhancement of the sensitivity of ECL and ECL immunoassay at a nanoparticles modified electrode is a promising strategy.

  11. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb)=dIp,a(Meb)/d[Meb]=19.65μAμM(-1)), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb)=19nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06-3μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb.

  12. An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Developed on a Nanocomposite Platform of Gold and Poly(propyleneimine) Dendrimer

    PubMed Central

    Arotiba, Omotayo; Owino, Joseph; Songa, Everlyne; Hendricks, Nicolette; Waryo, Tesfaye; Jahed, Nazeem; Baker, Priscilla; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    An electrochemical DNA nanobiosensor was prepared by immobilization of a 20mer thiolated probe DNA on electro-deposited generation 4 (G4) poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer (PPI) doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) as platform, on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Field emission scanning electron microscopy results confirmed the co-deposition of PPI (which was linked to the carbon electrode surface by C-N covalent bonds) and AuNP ca 60 nm. Voltammetric interrogations showed that the platform (GCE/PPI-AuNP) was conducting and exhibited reversible electrochemistry (E°′ = 235 mV) in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS) due to the PPI component. The redox chemistry of PPI was pH dependent and involves a two electron, one proton process, as interpreted from a 28 mV/pH value obtained from pH studies. The charge transfer resistance (Rct) from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) profiles of GCE/PPI-AuNP monitored with ferro/ferricyanide (Fe(CN)63-/4-) redox probe, decreased by 81% compared to bare GCE. The conductivity (in PBS) and reduced Rct (in Fe(CN)63-/4-) values confirmed PPI-AuNP as a suitable electron transfer mediator platform for voltammetric and impedimetric DNA biosensor. The DNA probe was effectively wired onto the GCE/PPI-AuNP via Au-S linkage and electrostatic interactions. The nanobiosensor responses to target DNA which gave a dynamic linear range of 0.01 - 5 nM in PBS was based on the changes in Rct values using Fe(CN)63-/4- redox probe. PMID:27873900

  13. Sensitive detection of clozapine using a gold electrode modified with 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Qu, Song; Zhang, Song; Liu, Baohong; Kong, Jilie

    2007-04-30

    Clozapine, an effective antipsychotic drug, was found generating a pair of redox peaks at about 0.33-0.4V (versus SCE) at 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (i.e. MHA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified gold electrode (i.e. MHA/Au) in 0.05molL(-1) Tris-HCl (pH 8.1) buffer solution. Sensitive and quantitative measurement of clozapine based on anodic peak was established under optimum conditions. The anodic peak current was linear to clozapine concentration in the range from 1x10(-6) to 5x10(-5)molL(-1) with the detection limit of 7x10(-9)molL(-1). This method was successfully applied to the detection of clozapine in drug tablets and proved to be reliable compared with ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV). The MHA SAM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle goniometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical probe.

  14. Design and Optimization of a New Voltammetric Method for Determination of Isoniazid by Using PEDOT Modified Gold Electrode in Pharmaceuticls.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya-Miloglu, Fatma; Oznuluer, Tuba; Ozdurak, Buket; Miloglu, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) was studied with regard to its electrochemical treatment on a strongly alkaline solution of a poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified gold electrode, using both cyclic voltammetric and controlled potential techniques. Electrocatalytic performance measurements of this composite electrode toward oxidation of INH exhibited an increase of 4-folds in oxidation peak densities compared to the bare gold electrode. Central composite design method was used to obtain optimum experimental conditions, and used critical parameters (pH (A), scan rate (mV/s, B) and temperature (C, C) to assess the effects on amperometric response. Optimum experimental conditions were achieved by using a pH of 9.2 with a scan rate of 260 mV/s and a temperature of 30 C. Under these circumstances, a good linear relationship was observed between peak current densities and INH concentration in the range of 0.05-2 μM, with correlation coefficient of 0.9998. Furthermore, the method was very sensitive (limit of quantitation, 0.0043 μM), accurate (relative error, -5.65 to 4.03) and precise (relative standard deviation %, ≤ 7.97). The method was also applied to determine INH in pharmaceutical formulations, and statistically compared the results with the official method using the two one-sided equivalence test; the results were in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reported methods.

  15. Design and Optimization of a New Voltammetric Method for Determination of Isoniazid by Using PEDOT Modified Gold Electrode in Pharmaceuticls

    PubMed Central

    Demirkaya-Miloglu, Fatma; Oznuluer, Tuba; Ozdurak, Buket; Miloglu, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) was studied with regard to its electrochemical treatment on a strongly alkaline solution of a poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified gold electrode, using both cyclic voltammetric and controlled potential techniques. Electrocatalytic performance measurements of this composite electrode toward oxidation of INH exhibited an increase of 4-folds in oxidation peak densities compared to the bare gold electrode. Central composite design method was used to obtain optimum experimental conditions, and used critical parameters (pH (A), scan rate (mV/s, B) and temperature (C, C) to assess the effects on amperometric response. Optimum experimental conditions were achieved by using a pH of 9.2 with a scan rate of 260 mV/s and a temperature of 30 C. Under these circumstances, a good linear relationship was observed between peak current densities and INH concentration in the range of 0.05-2 μM, with correlation coefficient of 0.9998. Furthermore, the method was very sensitive (limit of quantitation, 0.0043 μM), accurate (relative error, -5.65 to 4.03) and precise (relative standard deviation %, ≤ 7.97). The method was also applied to determine INH in pharmaceutical formulations, and statistically compared the results with the official method using the two one-sided equivalence test; the results were in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reported methods. PMID:28228805

  16. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Afraz, Ahmadreza; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Najafi, Mojgan

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine.

  17. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-05

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl₄ by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed.

  18. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl4 by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-9 mol L-1. The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed.

  19. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles modified titania nanotubes for antibacterial application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Huaijuan; Qian, Shi; Liu, Ziwei; Feng, Jingwei; Jin, Ping E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn; Liu, Xuanyong E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn

    2014-06-30

    Close-packed TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays are prepared on metallic Ti surface by electrochemical anodization. Subsequently, by magnetron sputtering, Au nanoparticles are coated onto the top sidewall and tube inwall. The Au@TiO{sub 2} systems can effectively kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in darkness due to the existence of Au nanoparticles. On the basis of classical optical theories, the antibacterial mechanism is proposed from the perspective of localized surface plasmon resonance. Respiratory electrons of bacterial membrane transfer to Au nanoparticles and then to TiO{sub 2}, which makes bacteria steadily lose electrons until death. This work provides insights for the better understanding and designing of noble metal nanoparticles-based plasmonic heterostructures for antibacterial application.

  20. Picogram-detection of estradiol at an electrochemical immunosensor with a gold nanoparticle|Protein G-(LC-SPDP)-scaffold.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Wong, Danny K Y

    2009-02-15

    Low picograms of the hormone 17beta-estradiol were detected at an electrochemical immunosensor. This immunosensor features a gold nanoparticle|Protein G-(LC-SPDP)(1)-scaffold, to which a monoclonal anti-estradiol capture antibody was immobilised to facilitate a competitive immunoassay between sample 17beta-estradiol and a horseradish peroxidase-labelled 17beta-estradiol conjugate. Upon constructing this molecular architecture on a disposable gold electrode in a flow cell, amperometry was conducted to monitor the reduction current of benzoquinone produced from a catalytic reaction of horseradish peroxidase. This current was then quantitatively related to 17beta-estradiol present in a sample. Calibration of immunosensors in blood serum samples spiked with 17beta-estradiol yielded a linear response up to approximately 1200 pg mL(-1), a sensitivity of 0.61microA/pg mL(-1) and a detection limit of 6 pg mL(-1). We attribute these favourable characteristics of the immunosensors to the gold nanoparticle|Protein G-(LC-SPDP) scaffold, where the gold nanoparticles provided a large electrochemically active surface area that permits immobilisation of an enhanced quantity of all components of the molecular architecture, while the Protein G-(LC-SPDP) component aided in not only reducing steric hindrance when Protein G binds to the capture antibody, but also providing an orientation-controlled immobilisation of the capture antibody. Coupled with amperometric detection in a flow system, the immunosensor exhibited excellent reproducibility.

  1. Facile Fabrication of 3D Layer-by-layer Graphene-gold Nanorod Hybrid Architecture for Hydrogen Peroxide Based Electrochemical Biosensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Facile fabrication of 3D layer-by-layer graphene-gold nanorod hybrid architecture for hydrogen peroxide based electrochemical biosensor Chenming Xue...the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). 1. Introduction Electrochemical biosensors are highly effective in...measurement techniques such as radioisotope tracing, NMR spectroscopy, and microfluorometry assay [12,25,18]. In recent years, electrochemical biosensors

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (bio)sensing through hydrogen evolution reaction induced by gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Chamorro-Garcia, Alejandro; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-05-15

    A new gold nanoparticle (AuNP) based detection strategy using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) through hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is proposed. This EIS-HER method is used as an alternative to the conventional EIS based on [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) or [Ru(NH3)6](3+/2+) indicators. The proposed method is based on the HER induced by AuNPs. EIS measurements for different amounts of AuNP are registered and the charge transfer resistance (Rct) was found to correlate and be useful for their quantification. Moreover the effect of AuNP size on electrical properties of AuNPs for HER using this sensitive technique has been investigated. Different EIS-HER signals generated in the presence of AuNPs of different sizes (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 nm) are observed, being the corresponding phenomena extendible to other nanoparticles and related catalytic reactions. This EIS-HER sensing technology is applied to a magneto-immunosandwich assay for the detection of a model protein (IgG) achieving improvements of the analytical performance in terms of a wide linear range (2-500 ng mL(-1)) with a good limit of detection (LOD) of 0.31 ng mL(-1) and high sensitivity. Moreover, with this methodology a reduction of one order of magnitude in the LOD for IgG detection, compared with a chroamperometric technique normally used was achieved.

  3. Graphene-multiwall carbon nanotube-gold nanocluster composites modified electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Wei, Shaping; Chen, Shihong; Yuan, Dehua; Zhang, Wen

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, graphene-multiwall carbon nanotube-gold nanocluster (GP-MWCNT-AuNC) composites were synthesized and used as modifier to fabricate a sensor for simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The electrochemical behavior of the sensor was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The combination of GP, MWCNTs, and AuNCs endowed the electrode with a large surface area, good catalytic activity, and high selectivity and sensitivity. The linear response range for simultaneous detection of AA, DA, and UA at the sensor were 120-1,701, 2-213, and 0.7-88.3 μM, correspondingly, and the detection limits were 40, 0.67, and 0.23 μM (S/N=3), respectively. The proposed method offers a promise for simple, rapid, selective, and cost-effective analysis of small biomolecules.

  4. Electrochemical Gold(III) Sensor with High Sensitivity and Tunable Dynamic Range.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2016-02-16

    We report the design and fabrication of a sensitive, specific, and selective electrochemical ion (E-ION) sensor for detection of Au(III). The signaling mechanism is based on the interactions between Au(III) and adenine; formation of these complexes rigidifies the methylene blue (MB)-modified oligoadenine probes, resulting in a concentration-dependent reduction in the MB signal. The dynamic range of the sensor can be tuned by simply changing the length of the DNA probe (six (A6) or 12 (A12) adenines). Independent of the probe length, both sensors have demonstrated to be sensitive, with a limits of detection of 50 and 20 nM for the A6 and A12 sensors, respectively. With further optimization, this sensing strategy may offer a promising approach for analyzing Au(III).

  5. Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on amine group modified graphene covalently linked electrode for 4-nonylphenol detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Rong; Chen, Xing; Liu, Yu-Nan; Rao, Wei; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2013-10-15

    In this work, an imprinted electrochemical sensor based on electrochemical reduced graphene covalently modified carbon electrode was developed for the determination of 4-nonylphenol (NP). An amine-terminated functional graphene oxide was covalently modified onto the electrode surface with diazonium salt reactions to improve the stability and reproducibility of the imprinted sensor. The electrochemical properties of each modified electrodes were investigated with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemical characteristic of the imprinted sensor was also investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in detail. The response currents of the imprinted electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward 4-nonylphenol concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10(-11) to 1.0 × 10(-8) gm L(-1) with the detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-12) gm L(-1) (S/N=3). The fabricated electrochemical imprinted sensor was successfully applied to the detection of 4-nonylphenol in rain and lake water samples.

  6. Electrochemical monitoring of biointeraction by graphene-based material modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Eksin, Ece; Zor, Erhan; Erdem, Arzum; Bingol, Haluk

    2017-06-15

    Recently, the low-cost effective biosensing systems based on advanced nanomaterials have received a key attention for development of novel assays for rapid and sequence-specific nucleic acid detection. The electrochemical biosensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) were developed herein for electrochemical monitoring of DNA, and also for monitoring of biointeraction occurred between anticancer drug, Daunorubicin (DNR), and DNA. First, rGO was synthesized chemically and characterized by using UV-Vis, TGA, FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy and SEM techniques. Then, the quantity of rGO assembling onto the surface of PGE by passive adsorption was optimized. The electrochemical behavior of rGO-PGEs was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). rGO-PGEs were then utilized for electrochemical monitoring of surface-confined interaction between DNR and DNA using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. Additionally, voltammetric results were complemented with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Electrochemical monitoring of DNR and DNA was resulted with satisfying detection limits 0.55µM and 2.71µg/mL, respectively.

  7. A polydopamine-modified optical fiber SPR biosensor using electroless-plated gold films for immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Shi, Se; Wang, Libing; Su, Rongxin; Liu, Boshi; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-12-15

    A sensitive and stable electroless-plated gold film for the preparation of an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is presented in this work, together with a facile antibody immobilization method. Gold nanoparticles were uniformly adsorbed onto the surface of an optical fiber forming a film with a thickness of approximately 56.3 nm. The sensor had a high sensitivity with 2054 nm/RIU and 3980 nm/RIU in the refractive index ranges of 1.333-1.359 and 1.359-1.386, respectively. An SPR biosensor was developed based on polydopamine-modified gold film (PDA-Au), which was fabricated by a simple and quick spontaneous polymerization of dopamine (DA) on the gold film. When goat anti-human IgG antibodies were immobilized, the PDA-Au surface had a larger resonant wavelength shift of 66.21 nm compared with the traditional 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-modified gold film (MUA-Au) surface. In addition, the PDA-Au surface enabled the sensitive and selective determination of human IgG down to a concentration of 2 μg mL(-1) with a high sensitivity of 0.41 nm per μg mL(-1). The PDA-Au surface exhibited an approximately four fold higher sensitivity and an about seven fold lower LOD than the MUA-Au surface to human IgG.

  8. An electrochemical nanobiosensor for plasma miRNA-155, based on graphene oxide and gold nanorod, for early detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh, Mostafa; Rahaie, Mahdi; Nasirizadeh, Navid; Ashtari, Khadijeh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2016-03-15

    Circulating miRNAs are emerging as novel reliable biomarkers for early detection of cancer diseases. Through combining the advantages of electrochemical methods and nanomaterials with the selectivity of the oligo-hybridization-based biosensors, a novel electrochemical nanobiosensor for plasma miR-155 detection have demonstrated here, based on thiolated probe-functionalized gold nanorods (GNRs) decorated on the graphene oxide (GO) sheet on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The reduction signals of a novel intercalating label Oracet Blue (OB), were measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, UV-vis spectrophotometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were proved the right synthesis of the GNRs and correct assembly of the modified electrode. The electrochemical signal had a linear relationship with the concentration of the target miRNA ranging from 2.0 fM to 8.0 pM, and the detection limit was 0.6 fM. Furthermore, the nanobiosensor showed high Specificity, and was able to discriminate sharply between complementary target miRNA, single-, three-base mismatch, and non-complementary miRNA. Alongside the outstanding sensitivity and selectivity, this nanobiosensor had great storage ability, reproducibility, and showed a decent response in the real sample analysis with plasma. In conclusion, the proposed electrochemical nanobiosensor could clinically be used in the early detection of the breast cancer, by direct detection of the plasma miR-155 in real clinical samples, without a need for sample preparation, RNA extraction and/or amplification.

  9. Increased electrocatalyzed performance through hairpin oligonucleotide aptamer-functionalized gold nanorods labels and graphene-streptavidin nanomatrix: Highly selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensor of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Huang, Jing-Yi; Bao, Ting; Zhou, Jun; Xia, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wang, Sheng-Fu; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2016-09-15

    We report a triplex signal amplification strategy for sensitive biosensing of cancer biomarker by taking advantage of hairpin-shaped oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanorods (HO-GNRs), graphene and the avidin-biotin reation. The strategy expands electrochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using an aptamer as biosensor's recognition element and HO-GNRs as signal enhancer. To construct this biosensor, the GNR was used as a carrier of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and HO aptamer with a biotin at the 3'-end and a thiol at the 5'-end, which amplified the electrochemical response because of a large molar ratio of HRP to HO. In the presence of target CEA, the binding reactions of CEA with the loop portions of the HOs caused HOs' loop-stem structure opened and exposed the biotins, and then HRP-GNRs-HO conjugates were captured on graphene and streptavidin modified electrodes via the reaction between the exposed biotins and preimmobilized streptavidins. The accumulation of HRP effectively catalyzed the hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidation of o-phenylenediamine to generate an electrochemical reduction current for CEA detection. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical biosensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 5pgmL(-1) and 50ngmL(-1) toward CEA standards with a low detection limit of 1.5pgmL(-1) (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The proposed biosensor accurately detected CEA concentration in 8 human serum samples from patients with lung diseases, showing excellent correlations with standard chemiluminescence immunoassay. Furthermore, these results of target DNA detection made it abundantly clear that the proposed strategy can also be extended for detection of other relative biomarkers using different functional DNA structures, which shows great prospects in single-nucleotide polymorphisms analysis, biomedical sensing and application for accurate clinical diseases diagnostic.

  10. Electrochemical investigation of the voltammetric determination of hydrochlorothiazide using a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Machini, Wesley B S; David-Parra, Diego N; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2015-12-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode as well as its behavior as electrocatalyst toward the oxidation of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were investigated. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode and the electrooxidation of HCTZ were explored using cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetric response of the modified electrode in the detection of HCTZ is based on the electrochemical oxidation of the Ni(II)/Ni(III) and a chemical redox process. The analytical parameters for the electrooxidation of HCTZ by the nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode were obtained in NaOH solution, in which the linear voltammetric response was in the concentration range from 1.39×10(-5) to 1.67×10(-4)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 7.92×10(-6)mol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 0.138 μA Lmmol(-1). Tafel analysis was used to elucidate the kinetics and mechanism of HCTZ oxidation by the modified electrode.

  11. An electrochemical fungicide pyrimethanil sensor based on carbon nanotubes/ionic-liquid construction modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jichun; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Minhui; Zhang, Shuming; Zhang, Lei

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a simple, rapid, sensitive and environmentally friendly electroanalytical detection method for pyrimethanil (PMT) was developed, which was based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ionic liquids (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). MWCNTs-IL modified electrode significantly enhanced the oxidation peak current of PMT by combining the excellent electrochemical properties of MWCNTs and IL, suggesting that the modified electrode can remarkably improve the sensitivity of PMT detection. Under the optimum conditions, this electrochemical sensor exhibited a linear concentration range for PMT of 1.0 × 10(-7)-1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) and the detection limit was 1.6 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The fabricated electrode showed good reproducibility, stability and anti-interference, and also it was successfully employed to detect PMT in real samples.

  12. Electrochemical detection of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) using VEGF antibody fragments modified Au NPs/ITO electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gang-Il; Kim, Kyung-Woo; Oh, Min-Kyu; Sung, Yun-Mo

    2010-03-15

    A new electrochemical technique for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) as a cancer-related biomarker is presented in this paper. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were self-assembled onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to prepare a modified sandwich type electrochemical immunoassay platform. VEGF antibodies were cleaved into two half-fragments by 2-mercaptoethylamine-HCl (2-MEA) and the fragments were immobilized onto the Au NP substrates by their thiol groups. Through this strategy, randomly oriented attachment of antibodies was prevented which frequently occurs in a general use of whole antibody and reduces the number of available sites for the attachment of target molecules. VEGF target molecules were applied to the immunoelectrodes and they combined with the antibody fragments covering the Au NP electrode, forming antigen-antibody complexes. Then, ferrocene-tagged antibodies, which release electrons under a proper applied potential, were added to the system and they combined with the VEGF molecules pre-attached to the antibody fragments. The redox current of ferrocene measured by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) increased almost linearly from 1.27 x 10(-4) to 4.17 x 10(-4)A according to the increase in the concentration of the VEGF target molecules from 100 to 600 pg/ml. The measured current values represent the concentration of the VEGF since they are proportional to the number of ferrocene molecules which is in turn proportional to the concentration of VEGF target molecules. Using this modified sandwich immunoassay with the Au NP/ITO electrode, VEGFs as low as 100 pg/ml were detected with high specificity.

  13. Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Gavin R.; Dawson, Peter M.; Pandey, Priyanka A.; Wilson, Neil R.; Mulheran, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD). A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of -5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

  14. Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Gavin R. Dawson, Peter M.; Pandey, Priyanka A.; Wilson, Neil R.; Mulheran, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD). A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of −5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

  15. Electrochemically assisted fabrication of size-exclusion films of organically modified silica and application to the voltammetry of phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, B. Layla; Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2013-01-01

    Modification of electrodes with nm-scale organically modified silica films with pores diameters controlled at 10- and 50-nm is described. An oxidation catalyst, mixed-valence ruthenium oxide with cyano crosslinks or gold nanoparticles protected by dirhodium-substituted phosophomolybdate (AuNP-Rh2PMo11), was immobilized in the pores. These systems comprise size-exclusion films at which the biological compounds, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin, were electrocatalytically oxidized without interference from surface-active concomitants such as bovine serum albumin. 10-nm pores were obtained by adding generation-4 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer, G4-PAMAM, to a (CH3)3SiOCH3 sol. 50-nm pores were obtained by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GC) with a sub-monolayer film of aminopropyltriethoxylsilane, attaching 50-nm diameter poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS, spheres to the protonated amine, transferring this electrode to a (CH3)3SiOCH3 sol, and electrochemically generating hydronium at uncoated GC sites, which catalyzed ormosil growth around the PSS. Voltammetry of Fe(CN)63− and Ru(NH3)63+ demonstrated the absence of residual charge after removal of the templating agents. With the 50-nm system, the pore structure was sufficiently defined to use layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly of AuNP-Rh2PMo11 therein. Flow injection amperometry of phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin demonstrated analytical utility of these electrodes. PMID:23935394

  16. Highly Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction at Insulating Boron Nitride Nanosheet on Inert Gold Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uosaki, Kohei; Elumalai, Ganesan; Dinh, Hung Cuong; Lyalin, Andrey; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Hidenori

    2016-08-01

    It is demonstrated that electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) proceeds very efficiently at Au electrode, an inert substrate for HER, modified with BNNS, an insulator. This combination has been reported to be an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Higher efficiency is achieved by using the size controlled BNNS (<1 μm) for the modification and the highest efficiency is achieved at Au electrode modified with the smallest BNNS (0.1–0.22 μm) used in this study where overpotentials are only 30 mV and 40 mV larger than those at Pt electrode, which is known to be the best electrode for HER, at 5 mAcm‑2 and at 15 mAcm‑2, respectively. Theoretical evaluation suggests that some of edge atoms provide energetically favored sites for adsorbed hydrogen, i.e., the intermediate state of HER. This study opens a new route to develop HER electrocatalysts.

  17. Highly Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction at Insulating Boron Nitride Nanosheet on Inert Gold Substrate.

    PubMed

    Uosaki, Kohei; Elumalai, Ganesan; Dinh, Hung Cuong; Lyalin, Andrey; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Hidenori

    2016-08-25

    It is demonstrated that electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) proceeds very efficiently at Au electrode, an inert substrate for HER, modified with BNNS, an insulator. This combination has been reported to be an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Higher efficiency is achieved by using the size controlled BNNS (<1 μm) for the modification and the highest efficiency is achieved at Au electrode modified with the smallest BNNS (0.1-0.22 μm) used in this study where overpotentials are only 30 mV and 40 mV larger than those at Pt electrode, which is known to be the best electrode for HER, at 5 mAcm(-2) and at 15 mAcm(-2), respectively. Theoretical evaluation suggests that some of edge atoms provide energetically favored sites for adsorbed hydrogen, i.e., the intermediate state of HER. This study opens a new route to develop HER electrocatalysts.

  18. Highly Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction at Insulating Boron Nitride Nanosheet on Inert Gold Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Uosaki, Kohei; Elumalai, Ganesan; Dinh, Hung Cuong; Lyalin, Andrey; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    It is demonstrated that electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) proceeds very efficiently at Au electrode, an inert substrate for HER, modified with BNNS, an insulator. This combination has been reported to be an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Higher efficiency is achieved by using the size controlled BNNS (<1 μm) for the modification and the highest efficiency is achieved at Au electrode modified with the smallest BNNS (0.1–0.22 μm) used in this study where overpotentials are only 30 mV and 40 mV larger than those at Pt electrode, which is known to be the best electrode for HER, at 5 mAcm−2 and at 15 mAcm−2, respectively. Theoretical evaluation suggests that some of edge atoms provide energetically favored sites for adsorbed hydrogen, i.e., the intermediate state of HER. This study opens a new route to develop HER electrocatalysts. PMID:27558958

  19. In Vivo Neural Recording and Electrochemical Performance of Microelectrode Arrays Modified by Rough-Surfaced AuPt Alloy Nanoparticles with Nanoporosity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zongya; Gong, Ruxue; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the impedance and improve in vivo neural recording performance of our developed Michigan type silicon electrodes, rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles with nanoporosity were deposited on gold microelectrode sites through electro-co-deposition of Au-Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles, followed by chemical dealloying Cu. The AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified gold microelectrode sites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in vivo neural recording experiment. The SEM images showed that the prepared AuPt alloy nanoparticles exhibited cauliflower-like shapes and possessed very rough surfaces with many different sizes of pores. Average impedance of rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified sites was 0.23 MΩ at 1 kHz, which was only 4.7% of that of bare gold microelectrode sites (4.9 MΩ), and corresponding in vitro background noise in the range of 1 Hz to 7500 Hz decreased to 7.5 μVrms from 34.1 μVrms at bare gold microelectrode sites. Spontaneous spike signal recording was used to evaluate in vivo neural recording performance of modified microelectrode sites, and results showed that rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified microelectrode sites exhibited higher average spike signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 4.8 in lateral globus pallidus (GPe) due to lower background noise compared to control microelectrodes. Electro-co-deposition of Au-Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles combined with chemical dealloying Cu was a convenient way for increasing the effective surface area of microelectrode sites, which could reduce electrode impedance and improve the quality of in vivo spike signal recording. PMID:27827893

  20. 4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl grafted gold electrode based platform for label free electrochemical detection of interleukin-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2014-11-15

    A new platform based on 4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl (FNP) grafted gold disk electrode prepared via electrochemical reduction of 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzene diazonium ion has been developed and utilized for biosensor fabrication. Anti-interleukin-2 (anti-IL2) antibody has been covalently immobilized onto FNP/Au surface and utilized for label free electrochemical impedance based detection of cytokine IL2. FNP acts as a bridge (cross-linker) between gold surface and anti-IL2, where fluoro group of FNP undergoes nucleophilic substitution by amino group of biomolecule and results in its covalent immobilization. The immobilization process and fabricated electrode have been characterized using contact angle (CA) measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique. CV studies show that FNP grafted surface provides conductive surface for anti-IL2 immobilization. The EIS response of studies as a function of IL2 concentrations exhibits a detection in linear range from 1 pg ml(-1) to 10 ng ml(-1) with minimum detectable concentration of 1 pg ml(-1). The electrode has been found to be selective against other cytokine molecules.

  1. Poly(methyl methacrylate) microchip device integrated with gold nanoelectrode ensemble for in-column biochemical reaction and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuo-Tang; Chen, Chun-Mao; Huang, Hsuan-Jung; Lin, Che-Hsin

    2007-09-21

    This paper proposes a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microchip with an integrated gold nanoelectrode ensemble (GNEE) and a quartet-T loading channel for in-column urea/urease reactions and electrochemical detections. The on-chip GNEE electrode is fabricated using an electrodeless deposition process on a thin polycarbonate (PC) film and bonded directly onto a PMMA substrate to carry out high-performance electrochemical detections. The in-column bio-catalytic reaction of urea/urease is successfully demonstrated utilizing a novel approach based on the different electrokinetic mobilities of urea and urease in capillary electrophoresis (CE) channel. The experimental results significantly show that the GNEE electrode provides a better detection response for the reaction product of ammonia (NH(4)(+)) than a conventional planar gold electrode. The detection results demonstrate a satisfactory determination coefficient (R(2) value) and high reproducibility with a detection limit of 14.8 and 62.8 microM while detecting standard ammonia solution and the urea/urease reaction product of NH(4)(+), respectively. These results confirm the capability of the proposed device for the high-resolution CE-electrochemical detection (CE-ED) of bioanalytical reactions.

  2. Towards the use of protein A-tagged gold nanoparticles for signal amplification of electrochemical immunosensors in virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang Huy; Mai, Anh Tuan; Thuy Nguyen, Thanh; Chung Pham, Van; Hanh Nguyen, Thi Hong

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we represent a study on the potential use of protein A-tagged gold nanoparticles applied for signal amplification of electrochemical immunosensors. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized by the chemical reduction of tetrachloroauric (III) acid trihydrate using sodium ascorbate, and then tagged with protein A (PrA) via ultracentrifugation. UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to verify the characteristics of formed GNPs/PrA complex. The analyzed results indicate that GNPs were found spherically, homogeneously, and with an average diameter of about 10 nm. Immunoelectron microscopy was then used to investigate the bioactivity of the GNPs/PrA complex in solution by the effective binding of GNPs to viral particles. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopies were also used to investigate the distribution and the bioactivity of the GNPs/PrA complex on the surface of the interdigitated sensor. Consequently, this study provided some assumptions of the potential application of protein A-tagged gold nanoparticles for signal amplification of electrochemical immunosensors in virus detection from clinical samples.

  3. Gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkemo, Harold; Newman, William L.; Ashley, Roger P.

    1998-01-01

    Through the ages, men and women have cherished gold, and many have had a compelling desire to amass great quantities of it -- so compelling a desire, in fact, that the frantic need to seek and hoard gold has been aptly named "gold fever." Gold was among the first metals to be mined because it commonly occurs in its native form -- that is, not combined with other elements -- because it is beautiful and imperishable, and because exquisite objects can be made from it.

  4. Optical properties and electrochemical dealloying of Gold-Silver alloy nanoparticles immobilized on composite thin-film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Christopher A.

    potentials for both silver oxidation and gold dealloying also shifted to more oxidizing potentials with increasing gold content, and both processes converged for alloy NPs with >60% gold content. Charge-mediated electrochemistry of silver NPs immobilized in LbL films, using Fc(meOH) as the charge carrier, showed that 67% of the NPs were electrochemically inactive.

  5. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review.

    PubMed

    Barsan, Madalina M; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this review is to present the contributions to the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on polyphenazine or polytriphenylmethane redox polymers together with carbon nanotubes (CNT) during recent years. Phenazine polymers have been widely used in analytical applications due to their inherent charge transport properties and electrocatalytic effects. At the same time, since the first report on a CNT-based sensor, their application in the electroanalytical chemistry field has demonstrated that the unique structure and properties of CNT are ideal for the design of electrochemical (bio)sensors. We describe here that the specific combination of phenazine/triphenylmethane polymers with CNT leads to an improved performance of the resulting sensing devices, because of their complementary electrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and also due to synergistic effects. The preparation of polymer/CNT modified electrodes will be presented together with their electrochemical and surface characterization, with emphasis on the contribution of each component on the overall properties of the modified electrodes. Their importance in analytical chemistry is demonstrated by the numerous applications based on polymer/CNT-driven electrocatalytic effects, and their analytical performance as (bio) sensors is discussed.

  6. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03-200μmolL(-1). The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02μmolL(-1). The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility.

  7. Coated magnetic particles in electrochemical systems: Synthesis, modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlu, Murat

    Magnetic field effects on electrochemical reactions have been studied and shown to influence kinetics and dynamics. Recently, our group has introduced a novel method to establish magnetic field effects by incorporating inert, magnetic microparticles onto the electrode structure. This modification improved several electrochemical systems including modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and fuel cells. This dissertation describes the applicability of magnetic microparticles and the understanding of magnetic field effects in modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes. Magnetic effects are studied on electrodes that are coated with an ion exchange polymer that embeds chemically inert, commercial, magnetic microparticles. The flux (electrolysis current) of redox probe to the magnetically modified system is compared to a similar non-magnetic electrode. Flux enhancements of 60% are achieved at magnetically modified electrode as compared to non-magnetic controls. In addition to modifying electrode surfaces, the incorporation of magnetic microparticles into the electrode material itself establishes a 20% increase in flux. Possible magnetic field effects are evaluated. Study of samarium cobalt modified electrolytic manganese dioxide, EMD electrodes further establish a magnetic effect on alkaline cathode performance. Magnetic modification improves alkaline battery performance in primary and secondary applications. The reaction mechanism is examined through voltammetric methods. This work also includes coating protocols to produce inert magnetic microparticles with high magnetic content. Magnetite powders are encapsulated in a polymer matrix by dispersion polymerization. Composite particles are examined in proton exchange membrane fuel cells to study carbon monoxide tolerance.

  8. Fabrication of an Electrochemical Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles/Carbon Nanotubes as Nanocomposite Materials: Determination of Myricetin in Some Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Reza; Yusof, Nor Azah; Faragi, Tayebe; Shams, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of myricetin on a gold nanoparticle/ethylenediamine/multi-walled carbon-nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/GCE) has been investigated. Myricetin effectively accumulated on the AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/GCE and caused a pair of irreversible redox peaks at around 0.408 V and 0.191 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 mol L−1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.5) for oxidation and reduction reactions respectively. The heights of the redox peaks were significantly higher on AuNPs/en/MWNTs/GCE compare with MWCNTs/GC and there was no peak on bare GC. The electron-transfer reaction for myricetin on the surface of electrochemical sensor was controlled by adsorption. Some parameters including pH, accumulation potential, accumulation time and scan rate have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions, anodic peak current was proportional to myricetin concentration in the dynamic range of 5.0×10−8 to 4.0×10−5 mol L−1 with the detection limit of 1.2×10−8 mol L−1. The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of myricetin content in tea and fruit juices. PMID:24809346

  9. Functionalization of organically modified silica with gold nanoparticles in the presence of lignosulfonate.

    PubMed

    Konował, Emilia; Modrzejewska-Sikorska, Anna; Motylenko, Mykhailo; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Wysokowski, Marcin; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Rafaja, David; Ehrlich, Hermann; Milczarek, Grzegorz; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that lignosulfonate (LS) can be used as an effective reducing agent for gold ions and simultaneously as a stabilizing agent for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). When organically modified silica is introduced to the reaction mixture, most of the AuNPs grow on the surface of the silica due to hydrophobic interactions between LS and organic layers covering the solid particles. It was also found that the structure of the organic layer is crucial for the effective deposition of gold nanoparticles onto silica spheres in terms of particle size and gold content in the final SiO2-LS-AuNPs composites. Due to the hydrophobicity of the modified silica it was necessary to carry out the modification in mixed organic/aqueous solvent. The polarity of the organic co-solvent was found to have an effect on the size of the deposited Au-NPs and their quantity. The physical appearance of the obtained hybrids was analyzed by colorimetry, and their structure and composition were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally dispersive and thermal properties were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. The obtained multifunctional hybrid materials exhibits remarkable catalytic activity for the reduction of C.I. Basic Blue 9 (Methylene Blue) by borohydride.

  10. Electrochemical sensing of bisphenol using a multilayer graphene nanobelt modified photolithography patterned platinum electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick Kannan, Padmanathan; Hu, Chunxiao; Morgan, Hywel; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2016-09-01

    An electrochemical sensor has been developed for the detection of Bisphenol-A (BPA) using photolithographically patterned platinum electrodes modified with multilayer graphene nanobelts (GNB). Compared to bare electrodes, the GNB modified electrode exhibited enhanced BPA oxidation current, due to the high effective surface area and high adsorption capacity of the GNB. The sensor showed a linear response over the concentration range from 0.5 μM-9 μM with a very low limit of detection = 37.33 nM. In addition, the sensor showed very good stability and reproducibility with good specificity, demonstrating that GNB is potentially a new material for the development of a practical BPA electrochemical sensor with application in both industrial and plastic industries.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kuan-Hong; Liu, Jia-Mei; Wei, Ri-Bing; Chen, Shao-Peng

    2006-09-01

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H 2SO 4, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials Epa and Epc shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k0 increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  12. Electrical resistivity of nanoporous gold modified with thiol self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Kato, Naoki; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-11-01

    The electrical resistivity of nanoporous gold (NPG) modified with thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been measured at 298 K using a four-probe method. We found that the adsorption of thiol SAMs increases the electrical resistivity of NPG by up to 22.2%. Dependence of the electrical resistivity on the atmosphere (air or water) was also observed in SAMs-modified NPG, suggesting that the electronic states of the tail groups affect the electrons of the binding sulfur and adjacent surface gold atoms. The present results suggest that adsorption of thiol molecules can influence the behavior of the conducting electrons in NPG and that modification of NPG with SAMs may be useful for environmental sensing.

  13. Surface analysis of gold nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-modified glucose SAMs for biosensor applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Mariaantonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behaviour of the glucose-modified particles in presence of the maltose binding protein.

  14. Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Maria Antonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behavior of the glucose-modified particles in the presence of the maltose binding protein. PMID:26973830

  15. Visible light-induced photocatalytic reaction of gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide particles: action spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Ewa; Abe, Ryu; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2009-01-08

    Action spectrum analyses showed that visible light-induced oxidation of 2-propanol by aerated gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide (titania) suspensions is initiated by excitation of gold surface plasmon, and polychromatic irradiation experiments revealed that the photocatalytic reaction rate depends strongly on properties of titania, such as particle size, surface area and crystalline form (anatase or rutile) and on properties of gold deposits, such as size and shape.

  16. Specific and Sensitive Isothermal Electrochemical Biosensor for Plant Pathogen DNA Detection with Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles as Probes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Han Yih; Wu, Haoqi; Wee, Eugene J H; Trau, Matt; Wang, Yuling; Botella, Jose R

    2017-01-17

    Developing quick and sensitive molecular diagnostics for plant pathogen detection is challenging. Herein, a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of plant pathogen DNA on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. This 60 min assay relied on the rapid isothermal amplification of target pathogen DNA sequences by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical assessment with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Our method was 10,000 times more sensitive than conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/gel electrophoresis and could readily identify P. syringae infected plant samples even before the disease symptoms were visible. On the basis of the speed, sensitivity, simplicity and portability of the approach, we believe the method has potential as a rapid disease management solution for applications in agriculture diagnostics.

  17. Specific and Sensitive Isothermal Electrochemical Biosensor for Plant Pathogen DNA Detection with Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles as Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Han Yih; Wu, Haoqi; Wee, Eugene J. H.; Trau, Matt; Wang, Yuling; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Developing quick and sensitive molecular diagnostics for plant pathogen detection is challenging. Herein, a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of plant pathogen DNA on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. This 60 min assay relied on the rapid isothermal amplification of target pathogen DNA sequences by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical assessment with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Our method was 10,000 times more sensitive than conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/gel electrophoresis and could readily identify P. syringae infected plant samples even before the disease symptoms were visible. On the basis of the speed, sensitivity, simplicity and portability of the approach, we believe the method has potential as a rapid disease management solution for applications in agriculture diagnostics.

  18. Specific and Sensitive Isothermal Electrochemical Biosensor for Plant Pathogen DNA Detection with Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles as Probes

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Han Yih; Wu, Haoqi; Wee, Eugene J. H.; Trau, Matt; Wang, Yuling; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Developing quick and sensitive molecular diagnostics for plant pathogen detection is challenging. Herein, a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of plant pathogen DNA on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. This 60 min assay relied on the rapid isothermal amplification of target pathogen DNA sequences by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical assessment with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Our method was 10,000 times more sensitive than conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/gel electrophoresis and could readily identify P. syringae infected plant samples even before the disease symptoms were visible. On the basis of the speed, sensitivity, simplicity and portability of the approach, we believe the method has potential as a rapid disease management solution for applications in agriculture diagnostics. PMID:28094255

  19. Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Gold Nanoparticles Composite and Its Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baoyan; Zhao, Na; Hou, Shihua; Zhang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu) biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of PPy–RGO–nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au3+) in aqueous solution, a PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE. Each component of PPy–RGO–nanoAu is electroactive without non-electroactive substance. The obtained PPy–RGO–nanoAu/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, which allows the detection of hydrogen peroxide at a negative potential of about −0.62 V vs. SCE. The amperometric responses of the biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 40 µA/mM, a linear range of 32 µM–2 mM, and a detection limit of 2.7 µM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) with good stability and acceptable reproducibility and selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the as-prepared PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite for use as a highly electroactive matrix for an amperometric biosensor. PMID:28335348

  20. Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Gold Nanoparticles Composite and Its Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baoyan; Zhao, Na; Hou, Shihua; Zhang, Cong

    2016-11-21

    Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu) biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of PPy-RGO-nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au(3+)) in aqueous solution, a PPy-RGO-nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE. Each component of PPy-RGO-nanoAu is electroactive without non-electroactive substance. The obtained PPy-RGO-nanoAu/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, which allows the detection of hydrogen peroxide at a negative potential of about -0.62 V vs. SCE. The amperometric responses of the biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 40 µA/mM, a linear range of 32 µM-2 mM, and a detection limit of 2.7 µM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) with good stability and acceptable reproducibility and selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the as-prepared PPy-RGO-nanoAu biocomposite for use as a highly electroactive matrix for an amperometric biosensor.

  1. Plasma-Modified, Epitaxial Fabricated Graphene on SiC for the Electrochemical Detection of TNT

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Scott A.; Hernández, Sandra C.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Zabetakis, Daniel; Stenger, David A.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Walton, Scott G.

    2016-01-01

    Using square wave voltammetry, we show an increase in the electrochemical detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) with a working electrode constructed from plasma modified graphene on a SiC surface vs. unmodified graphene. The graphene surface was chemically modified using electron beam generated plasmas produced in oxygen or nitrogen containing backgrounds to introduce oxygen or nitrogen moieties. The use of this chemical modification route enabled enhancement of the electrochemical signal for TNT, with the oxygen treatment showing a more pronounced detection than the nitrogen treatment. For graphene modified with oxygen, the electrochemical response to TNT can be fit to a two-site Langmuir isotherm suggesting different sites on the graphene surface with different affinities for TNT. We estimate a limit of detection for TNT equal to 20 ppb based on the analytical standard S/N ratio of 3. In addition, this approach to sensor fabrication is inherently a high-throughput, high-volume process amenable to industrial applications. High quality epitaxial graphene is easily grown over large area SiC substrates, while plasma processing is a rapid approach to large area substrate processing. This combination facilitates low cost, mass production of sensors. PMID:27529251

  2. Underpotential deposition-anodic stripping voltammetric detection of copper at gold nanoparticle-modified ultramicroelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2008-07-01

    The sensitive detection of copper (II) at gold nanoparticle-modified ultramicroelectrode arrays (UMEAs) is reported. Gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited onto the UMEAs surface by applying a constant positive potential of 1.6 V for 20 min in a 20-nm gold nanoparticle solution. This process significantly increases the electrode area without losing the UMEAs analytical features. Underpotential deposition-anodic stripping voltammetry of copper (II) with such modified UMEAs was performed and showed a high increase in sensitivity (25.9 +/- 1.3 nC x micro-1) and a broader linear range of response (0-10 microM) compared with those values obtained using bare UMEAs (7.5 +/- 0.6 nC x microM(-1) and 0-2 microM, respectively). The copper content of acid extracts of contaminated soils was successfully determined with the modified UMEAs and results are in good agreement with those obtained using the ICP-AES standard method. Overall, this work shows an alternative easy-to-use novel miniaturized device for the rapid and reliable determination of copper in soil samples whose application could be readily extended to other heavy metals of environmental interest.

  3. Targeting helicase-dependent amplification products with an electrochemical genosensor for reliable and sensitive screening of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Dos Santos Junior, J Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2015-08-18

    Cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their use in food and feed is constantly expanding; thus, the question of informing consumers about their presence in food has proven of significant interest. The development of sensitive, rapid, robust, and reliable methods for the detection of GMOs is crucial for proper food labeling. In response, we have experimentally characterized the helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) and sequence-specific detection of a transgene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter (CaMV35S), inserted into most transgenic plants. HDA is one of the simplest approaches for DNA amplification, emulating the bacterial replication machinery, and resembling PCR but under isothermal conditions. However, it usually suffers from a lack of selectivity, which is due to the accumulation of spurious amplification products. To improve the selectivity of HDA, which makes the detection of amplification products more reliable, we have developed an electrochemical platform targeting the central sequence of HDA copies of the transgene. A binary monolayer architecture is built onto a thin gold film where, upon the formation of perfect nucleic acid duplexes with the amplification products, these are enzyme-labeled and electrochemically transduced. The resulting combined system increases genosensor detectability up to 10(6)-fold, allowing Yes/No detection of GMOs with a limit of detection of ∼30 copies of the CaMV35S genomic DNA. A set of general utility rules in the design of genosensors for detection of HDA amplicons, which may assist in the development of point-of-care tests, is also included. The method provides a versatile tool for detecting nucleic acids with extremely low abundance not only for food safety control but also in the diagnostics and environmental control areas.

  4. On-demand electrochemical activation of the click reaction on self-assembled monolayers on gold presenting masked acetylene groups.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseong; Kim, Young-Kwan; Min, Dal-Hee; Lee, SangWook; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2011-10-26

    We report on a new surface modification method for grafting a "dynamic" property for on-demand activation of the click reaction. Our approach utilizes the acetylene group masked with dicobalt hexacarbonyl, Co(2)(CO)(6), which is not reactive toward the click reaction. Electrochemical treatment reveals the acetylene group on the selected region, which is then used as a chemical handle for surface functionalization via the click reaction with an azide-containing molecule. Electrochemical and chemical conversions on the surface were verified by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have demonstrated immobilization of an azide-modified RGD peptide and promotion of cell adhesion/migration to the region of electrochemical induction.

  5. Extended-gate FET-based enzyme sensor with ferrocenyl-alkanethiol modified gold sensing electrode.

    PubMed

    Ishige, Yu; Shimoda, Maki; Kamahori, Masao

    2009-01-01

    We developed a field-effect transistor (FET)-based enzyme sensor that detects an enzyme-catalyzed redox-reaction event as an interfacial potential change on an 11-ferrocenyl-1-undecanethiol (11-FUT) modified gold electrode. While the sensitivity of ion-sensitive FET (ISFET)-based enzyme sensors that detect an enzyme-catalyzed reaction as a local pH change are strongly affected by the buffer conditions such as pH and buffer capacity, the sensitivity of the proposed FET-based enzyme sensor is not affected by them in principle. The FET-based enzyme sensor consists of a detection part, which is an extended-gate FET sensor with an 11-FUT immobilized gold electrode, and an enzyme reaction part. The FET sensor detected the redox reaction of hexacyanoferrate ions, which are standard redox reagents of an enzymatic assay in blood tests, as a change in the interfacial potential of the 11-FUT modified gold electrode in accordance with the Nernstian response at a slope of 59 mV/decade at 25 degrees C. Also, the FET sensor had a dynamic range of more than five orders and showed no sensitivity to pH. A FET-based enzyme sensor for measuring cholesterol level was constructed by adding an enzyme reaction part, which contained cholesterol dehydrogenase and hexacyanoferrate (II)/(III) ions, on the 11-FUT modified gold electrode. Since the sensitivity of the FET sensor based on potentiometric detection was independent of the sample volume, the sample volume was easily reduced to 2.5 microL while maintaining the sensitivity. The FET-based enzyme sensor successfully detected a serum cholesterol level from 33 to 233 mg/dL at the Nernstian slope of 57 mV/decade.

  6. Development and application of 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol electrochemical sensor based on a polyaminothiophenol modified molecularly imprinted film.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiulan; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Hongxia; Qian, He; Zhang, Yinzhi; Tang, Lili; Li, Zaijun

    2014-05-21

    In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor for 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) detection based on a gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNP/GCE) coated with a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) film was constructed. p-Aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and 3-MCPD were self-assembled on a AuNP/GCE surface, and then a MIP film was formed by electropolymerization. The 3-MCPD template combined with p-ATP during self-assembly and electropolymerization, and the cavities matching 3-MCPD remained after the removal of the template. The MIP sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many factors that affected the performance of the MIP membrane were discussed and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the DPV current was linear with the log of the 3-MCPD concentration in the range from 1.0 × 10(-17) to 1.0 × 10(-13) mol L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9939), and the detection limit was 3.8 × 10(-18) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The average recovery rate of 3-MCPD from spiked soy sauce samples ranged from 95.0% to 106.4% (RSD < 3.49%). Practically, the sensor showed high sensitivity, good selectivity, excellent reproducibility, and stability during the quantitative determination of 3-MCPD.

  7. Magnetite-platinum nanoparticles-modified glassy carbon electrode as electrochemical detector for nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Gerent, Giles G; Spinelli, Almir

    2017-05-15

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with magnetite and platinum nanoparticles stabilized with 3-n-propyl-4-picoline silsesquioxane chloride. This chemically-modified electrode is proposed for the first time for the individual or simultaneous electrochemical detection of nitrophenol isomers. Nanoparticles act as catalysts and also increase the surface area. The polymer stabilizes the particles and provides the electrochemical separation of isomers. Under optimized conditions, the reduction peak currents, obtained by differential-pulse voltammetry, of 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrophenol increased linearly with increases in their concentration in the range of 0.1-1.5μmolL(-1). In individual analysis, the detection limits were 33.7nmolL(-1), 45.3nmolL(-1) and 48.2nmolL(-1), respectively. Also, simultaneous analysis was possible for 2-, and 4-nitrophenol. In this case, the separation of the peak potentials was 0.138V and the detection limits were 69.6nmolL(-1) and 58.0nmolL(-1), respectively. These analytical figures of merit evidence the outstanding performance of the modified electrode, which was also successfully applied to the individual determination of isomers in environmental and biological samples. The magnetite and platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode was able to detect nitrophenol isomers at the ppm level in rain water and human urine samples.

  8. Single step synthesis of gold-amino acid composite, with the evidence of the catalytic hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction, for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Meenakshi; Siwal, Samarjeet; Nandi, Debkumar; Mallick, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    A composite architecture of amino acid and gold nanoparticles has been synthesized using a generic route of 'in-situ polymerization and composite formation (IPCF)' [1,2]. The formation mechanism of the composite has been supported by a model hydrogen atom (H•≡H++e-) transfer (HAT) type of reaction which belongs to the proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism. The 'gold-amino acid composite' was used as a catalyst for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin.

  9. Effects of Synthetic Amphiphilic alpha-Helical Peptides on the Electrochemical and Structural Properties of Supported Hybrid Bilayers on Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Smith,M.; Tong, J.; Genzer, J.; Fischer, D.; Kilpatrick, P.

    2006-01-01

    Amphiphilic {alpha}-helices were formed from designed synthetic peptides comprising alanine, phenylalanine, and lysine residues. The insertion of the -helical peptides into hybrid bilayers assembled on gold was studied by a variety of methods to assess the resulting structural characteristics, such as electrical resistance and molecular orientation. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of dodecanethiol (DDT); octadecanethiol (ODT); and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothioethanol (DPPTE) were formed on gold substrates with and without incorporated peptide. Supported hybrid bilayers and multilayers of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) were formed on SAMs by the 'paint-freeze' method of bilayer formation. Modeling of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data using equivalent electrochemical circuits revealed that the addition of peptide decreased dramatically the resistive element of the bilayer films while maintaining the value of the capacitive element, indicating successful incorporation of peptide into a well-formed bilayer. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy data provided evidence that the molecules in the SAMs and hybrid multilayers were ordered even in the presence of peptide. The peptide insertion into the SAM was confirmed by observing the {pi}* resonance peak correlating with phenylalanine and a peak in the nitrogen K-edge regime attributable to the peptide bond.

  10. Electrochemical sensor based on magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles modified magnetic electrode for determination of Hb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binghua; Ni, Xinjiong; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2017-05-15

    A fast and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of hemoglobin (Hb) was developed based on magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles modified on the magnetic glassy carbon electrode. The nanoparticles Fe3O4@SiO2 with a magnetic core and a molecularly imprinted shell had regular structures and good monodispersity. Hb could be determined directly by electrochemical oxidization with the modified electrode. A magnetic field increased electrochemical response to Hb by two times. Imprinting Hb on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 shortened the response time within 7min. Under optimum conditions, the imprinting factor toward the non-imprinted sensor was 2.8, and the separation factor of Hb to horseradish peroxidase was 2.6. The oxidation peak current had a linear relationship with Hb concentration ranged from 0.005mg/ml to 0.1mg/ml with a detection limit (S/N =3) of 0.0010mg/ml. The sensors were successfully applied to analysis of Hb in whole blood samples with recoveries between 95.7% and 105%.

  11. Sequentially modified, polymer-stabilized gold nanoparticle libraries: convergent synthesis and aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Matthew I; Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2011-05-09

    This manuscript describes a versatile, yet experimentally facile, method for producing libraries of polymer-coated (core−shell type) gold nanoparticles. The synthetic principle relies on two, sequential postmodification reactions, which ensures homogeneity across each series. First, poly(pentafluorophenyl methacrylate) synthesized by RAFT polymerization is used here as a reactive precursor, which can be modified, postpolymerization, to create a library of functional polymers each bearing a ω-thiol end-group. In a second step, these well-defined polymers are then tethered by their ω-thiol group to the surface of prefabricated citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles to give a library of 75 unique, yet sequentially modified organic−inorganic hybrid particles. The optical properties of the gold core were exploited to create a high-throughput assay for investigating the role of nanoparticle size and surface coating on aggregation in various biologically relevant media. These experiments demonstrated the importance of the type of dissolved salts present and also the strong influence of serum proteins in cell-culture media and their interactions with nanoparticles surfaces, which in turn might affect their biological profiles. Therefore, this method presents a powerful, yet accessible tool for creating model nanoparticle libraries with intrinsic sensing properties.

  12. A facile electrochemical route to the preparation of uniform and monoatomic copper shells for gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gründer, Y; Ramasse, Q M; Dryfe, R A W

    2015-02-28

    Copper on gold forms a monolayer deposit via underpotential deposition. For gold particles adsorbed at a liquid-liquid interface this results in a uniform one monolayer thick shell. This approach offers a new route for the uniform functionalisation of nanoparticles and presents a way to probe fundamental processes that underlie nanoparticle synthesis.

  13. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D; Shetti, Nagaraj P

    2016-08-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4×10(-5)-1×10(-7)M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04nM and 6.18nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis.

  14. Modified Electrodes Used for Electrochemical Detection of Metal Ions in Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    March, Gregory; Nguyen, Tuan Dung; Piro, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells. PMID:25938789

  15. [Microchip capillary electrophoresis-electrochemical detection of nitrite using a modified carbon paste electrode].

    PubMed

    Wei, Peihai; Li, Guanbin; Chen, Liren

    2005-05-01

    Carbon paste electrode modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane copper (MPTMS-Cu) encapsulated in molecular sieve MCM-41 was prepared. The electrocatalytic behavior of the modified electrode towards the reduction of nitrite was studied in detail, including pH-dependence and composition-dependence studies. A microchip capillary electrophoresis-electrochemical detection system with the modified carbon paste as electrode was fabricated. The application of the system for the detection of nitrite is discussed. The detection was finished within 40 s under the following conditions: 50 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer at pH 5.8, -1.6 kV running voltage. The peak current was linear with the concentration of nitrite over 10.0 micromol/L-5.0 mmol/L and the detection limit was 4.0 micromol/L in pure water.

  16. Prussian blue-modified nanoporous gold film electrode for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Seyran; Mehrgardi, Masoud Ayatollahi

    2014-08-01

    In this manuscript, the electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxides on Prussian blue (PB) modified nanoporous gold film (NPGF) electrode is described. The PB/NPGF is prepared by simple anodizing of a smooth gold film followed by PB film electrodeposition method. The morphology of the PB/NPGF electrode is characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of solution pH and the scan rates on the voltammetric responses of hydrogen peroxide have also been examined. The amperometric determination of H2O2 shows two linear dynamic responses over the concentration range of 1μM-10μM and 10μM-100μM with a detection limit of 3.6×10(-7)M. Furthermore, this electrode demonstrated good stability, repeatability and selectivity remarkably.

  17. Electrochemical sensor based on magnetic graphene oxide@gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers for determination of dibutyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangjun; Wang, Xiaojiao; Li, Leilei; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite of magnetic graphene oxide @ gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers (MGO@AuNPs-MIPs) was synthesized and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dibutyl phthalate (DBP) electrochemical sensor. The composite of MGO@AuNPs was first synthesized using coprecipitation and self-assembly technique. Then the template molecules (DBP) were absorbed at the MGO@AuNPs surface due to their excellent affinity, and subsequently, selective copolymerization of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was further achieved at the MGO@AuNPs surface. Potential scanning was presented to extract DBP molecules from the imprinted polymers film rapidly and completely. As a consequence, an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of DBP was successfully constructed as demonstration based on the synthesized MGO@AuNPs-MIPs composite. Under optimal experimental conditions, selective detection of DBP in a linear concentration range of 2.5 × 10(-9)-5.0 × 10(-6)mol/L was obtained. The new DBP electrochemical sensor also exhibited excellent repeatability, which expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was about 2.50% for 30 repeated analyses of 2.0 × 10(-6)mol/L DBP.

  18. Synthesis of palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel for electrochemical detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiyi; Yang, Tingting; Li, Zaijun; Gu, Zhiguo; Wang, Guangli; Liu, Junkang

    2017-02-15

    Integration of noble metal nanomaterials on graphene nanosheets potentially paves one way to improve their electronic, chemical and electrochemical properties. The study reported synthesis of palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel composite (Pd@Au/N,S-MGA). The as-prepared composite offers a well-defined three-dimensional architecture with rich of mesopores. The Pd@Au nanoalloys were dispersed on the graphene framework networks and their active sites were fully exposed. The unique structure achieves to ultra high electron/ion conductivity, electrocatalytic activity and structural stability. The sensor based on the Pd@Au/N,S-MGA creates ultrasensitive electrochemical response towards dopamine due to significantly electrochemical synergy between Pd, Au and N,S-MGA. Its differential pulse voltammetric signal linearly increases with the increase of dopamine concentration in the range from 1.0 × 10(-9) M to 4.0 × 10(-5) M with the detection limit of 3.6 × 10(-10) M (S/N = 3). The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, reproducibility, rapidity and long-term stability. It has been successfully applied in the detection of trace dopamine in biological samples. The study also opens a window on the electronic properties of graphene aerogel and metal nanomaterials as well their nanohybrids to meet needs of further applications as nanoelectronics in diagnosis, bioanalysis and catalysis.

  19. Gold nanoparticles decorated on cobalt porphyrin-modified glassy carbon electrode for the sensitive determination of nitrite ion.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Palanisamy; Abraham John, S

    2014-05-01

    The present study reports the electrochemical determination of nitrite ion using citrate-gold nanoparticles (cit-AuNPs) decorated on meso-tetra(para-aminophenyl)porphyrinatocobalt(II) (Co(II)MTpAP) self-assembled glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The decoration of cit-AuNPs on Co(II)MTpAP was achieved with the aid of amine groups present on the surface of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of Co(II)MTpAP. The SEM image shows that the cit-AuNPs were densely packed on Co(II)MTpAP. The AuNPs decorated electrode was successfully used for the determination of nitrite ion. The cit-AuNPs decorated electrode not only shifted nitrite ion oxidation potential towards less positive potential but also greatly enhanced its current when compared to bare and Co(II)MTpAP SAM modified electrodes. The amperometric current increases linearly while increasing the concentration of nitrite ion ranging from 0.5×10(-6) to 4.7×10(-3) M and the detection limit was found to be 60 nM (S/N=3). Further, the modified electrode was successfully used to determine nitrite ion in the presence of 200-fold excess of common interferents such as Na+, NO3-, I-, K+, CO3(2-), Ca2+, SO4(2-), NH4+, Cl- and glucose. The practical application of the cit-AuNPs decorated electrode was demonstrated by determining nitrite ion in water samples.

  20. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of ATP in the picomolar to micromolar range using graphene-modified electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Bankim J.; Sitaula, Sarita; Griep, Mark H.; Karna, Shashi P.; Ali, Mehnaaz. F.; Swami, Nathan S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a competitive electrochemical detection system that is free of wash-steps and enables the real-time monitoring of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a quantitative manner over a five-log concentration range. The system utilizes a recognition surface based on ATP aptamer (ATPA) capture probes pre-bound to electro-active Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) molecules, and a signaling surface utilizing graphene (Gr) and gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified carbon paste electrode (Gr-AuNP-CPE) that is optimized to enhance electron transfer kinetics and signal sensitivity. Binding of ATP to ATPA at the recognition surface causes the release of an equivalent concentration of FAD that can be quantitatively monitored in real-time at the signaling surface, thereby enabling a wide linear working range (1.14 ×10−10–3.0×10−5M), a low detection limit (2.01×10−11M using graphene and AuNP modified glassy carbon), and fast target binding kinetics (steady-state signal within 12 minutes at detection limit). Unlike assays based on capture probe-immobilized electrodes, this double-surface competitive assay offers the ability to speed-up target binding kinetics by increasing the capture probe concentration, with no limitations due to intermolecular coulombic interactions and non-specific binding. We utilize the real-time monitoring capability to compute kinetic parameters for target binding and to make quantitative distinctions on degree of base-pair mismatch through monitoring target binding kinetics over a wide concentration range. Based on simplicity of the assay chemistry and the quantitative detection of ATP within fruit and serum media, as demonstrated by comparison of ATP levels against those determined using a standard HPLC-UV absorbance method, we envision a versatile detection platform for applications requiring real-time monitoring over a wide target concentration range. PMID:23875581

  1. Electrochemical biosensor modified with dsDNA monolayer for restriction enzyme activity determination.

    PubMed

    Zajda, Joanna; Górski, Łukasz; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    A simple and cost effective method for the determination of restriction endonuclease activity is presented. dsDNA immobilized at a gold electrode surface is used as the enzymatic substrate, and an external cationic redox probe is employed in voltammetric measurements for analytical signal generation. The assessment of enzyme activity is based on a decrease of a current signal derived from reduction of methylene blue which is present in the sample solution. For this reason, the covalent attachment of the label molecule is not required which significantly reduces costs of the analysis and simplifies the entire determination procedure. The influence of buffer components on utilized dsDNA/MCH monolayer stability and integrity is also verified. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that due to pinhole formation during enzyme activity measurement the presence of any surfactants should be avoided. Additionally, it is shown that the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor can be tuned by changing the restriction site location along the DNA length. Under optimal conditions the proposed biosensor exhibits a linear response toward PvuII activity within a range from 0.25 to 1.50 U/μL.

  2. Au-TiO2/Chit modified sensor for electrochemical detection of trace organophosphates insecticides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yunhe; Min, Hong; Wei, Yinyin; Xiao, Fei; Shi, Guoyue; Li, Xiaohua; Jin, Litong

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, Au-TiO2/Chit modified electrode was prepared with Au-TiO2 nanocomposite (Au-TiO2) and Chitosan (Chit) as a conjunct. The Au-TiO2 nanocomposite and the films were characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopy methods. A set of experimental conditions was also optimized for the film's fabrication. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic behaviors of Au-TiO2/Chit modified electrode to trace organophosphates (OPs) insecticides such as parathion were discussed in this work. By differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement, the current responses of Au-TiO2/Chit modified electrode were linear with parathion concentration ranging from 1.0 ng/ml to 7.0 x 10(3)ng/ml with the detection limit of 0.5 ng/ml. In order to evaluate the performance of the detection system, we also examined the real samples successfully in this work. It exhibited a sensitive, rapid and easy-to-use method for the fast determination of trace OPs insecticides.

  3. Electrochemical sensor for ranitidine determination based on carbon paste electrode modified with oxovanadium (IV) salen complex.

    PubMed

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Teixeira, Marcos F S; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Dockal, Edward R; Bonifácio, Viviane Gomes; Marcolino, Luiz H

    2013-10-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a carbon paste electrode modified with the N,N-ethylene-bis(salicyllideneiminato)oxovanadium (IV) complex ([VO(salen)]) as well as its application for ranitidine determination are described. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode for the electroreduction of ranitidine was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and analytical curves were obtained for ranitidine using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) under optimized conditions. The best voltammetric response was obtained for an electrode composition of 20% (m/m) [VO(salen)] in the paste, 0.10 mol L(-1) of KCl solution (pH 5.5 adjusted with HCl) as supporting electrolyte and scan rate of 25 mV s(-1). A sensitive linear voltammetric response for ranitidine was obtained in the concentration range from 9.9×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 6.6×10(-5) mol L(-1) using linear sweep voltammetry. These results demonstrated the viability of this modified electrode as a sensor for determination, quality control and routine analysis of ranitidine in pharmaceutical formulations.

  4. [Electrochemical immunoanalysis of cardiac myoglobin].

    PubMed

    Shumiantseva, V V; Bulko, T V; Vagin, M Iu; Suprun, E V; Archakov, A I

    2010-01-01

    Method targeting the direct monitoring of myoglobin based on analysis of electrochemical parameters of modified electrodes were proposed. Method of direct detection is based on interaction of myoglobin with anti-myoglobin with subsequent electrochemical registration of hemeprotein. Myocardial infarction biomarker myoglobin was quantified at biological level using screen printed electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles stabilized with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) and antibodies. Proposed method did not require signal enhancement and amplification and also labeled secondary antibodies. Electro analysis has high specificity and sensitivity. Myoglobin -antibodies interaction was studied also with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Sensor has low detection limit and broad diapason of working concentrations (17.8 ng/ml-1780 ng/ml; 1 nM-10 nM). Method based on gold nanoparticles detection on the surface of electrodes was treated for myoglobin identification. AuNP worked as an electrochemical sensing platform: the oxidation of gold surface (resulted in gold oxide formation) upon polarization served as a basis for analytical response. The difference of cathodic peak area and peak high of gold oxide reduction in the case of electrodes with antibodies and electrodes with antibodies-myoglobin complex, was registered.

  5. Electrochemical degradation of carbamazepine using modified electrode with graphene-AuAg composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogacean, F.; Biris, A. R.; Socaci, C.; Floare-Avram, V.; Rosu, M. C.; Coros, M.; Pruneanu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbamazepine is a pharmaceutical drug which has been detected in surface and drinking water primarily due to human usage but also from the accidental disposal of pharmaceuticals into sewers. We have developed a graphene-modified electrode which was tested at the detection and degradation of carbamazepine. The oxidation process was studied by cyclic voltammetry in aqueous and organic solutions. The electrochemical degradation of carbamazepine was performed by polarizing the working electrode at a certain potential, for different times (from 5 to 60 minutes). The degradation efficiency was highly dependent on the type of solution and on the supporting electrolyte.

  6. The electrochemical behavior of gold in ammoniacal solutions at 75 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Guan, Y. Charles; Han, Kenneth N.

    1997-02-01

    The dissolution behavior of gold in ammoniacal solutions at 75 °C has been investigated. The variables investigated include concentration of lixiviants, pH of the solution, and various oxidants. The anodic dissolution of gold was studied in the absence of oxidants using the potentiodynamic polarization technique. The cathodic reaction of oxidants were studied on a platinum electrode. Tafel polarization tests were also performed to determine the dissolution rate. The overall dissolution of gold in ammoniacal solutions was examined using a mixed potential theory. A comparative study on the role of cupric ammine, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite as oxidants for the dissolution of gold in ammoniacal solutions has been carried out.

  7. A Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus that can Produce Gold Nanoparticles from a Metal Salt Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Love, Andrew J.; Makarov, Valentine V.; Sinitsyna, Olga V.; Shaw, Jane; Yaminsky, Igor V.; Kalinina, Natalia O.; Taliansky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    We genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to surface display a characterized peptide with potent metal ion binding and reducing capacity (MBP TMV), and demonstrate that unlike wild type TMV, this construct can lead to the formation of discrete 10–40 nm gold nanoparticles when mixed with 3 mM potassium tetrachloroaurate. Using a variety of analytical physicochemical approaches it was found that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and stable. Given that the MBP TMV can produce metal nanomaterials in the absence of chemical reductants, it may have utility in the green production of metal nanomaterials. PMID:26617624

  8. Immobilization of cytochrome c on cysteamine-modified gold electrodes with EDC as coupling agent.

    PubMed

    De Wael, Karolien; Buschop, Hans; De Smet, Lina; Adriaens, Annemie

    2008-07-15

    Cyclic voltammetry has been applied for the characterization of cross-linked horse heart cytochrome c (HHC) on cysteamine-modified gold electrodes. The cross-linking, i.e. amide bond formation, between the proteins was achieved by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as coupling reagent. The optimal conditions for the formation of the HHC film were determined by varying the HHC concentration. In addition the reproducibility, stability and the influence of the scan rate upon these films were investigated with cyclic voltammetry. The protein film stability in a 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer solution was tested by UV/vis absorption spectroscopy.

  9. A Rapid Colorimetric Sensor of Clenbuterol Based on Cysteamine-Modified Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jingyan; Zhang, Yujie; Li, Xing; Miao, Lijing; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-01-13

    Demonstrated was a simple visual and rapid colorimetric sensor for detection of clenbuterol (CLB) based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with cysteamine (CA) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-vis. The solution color from red to blue gray with increasing clenbuterol concentration resulted from the aggregation of AuNPs. The detection limit of clenbuterol is 50 nM by naked eyes. The selectivity of CA-AuNPs detection system for clenbuterol is excellent compared with other interferents in food. This sensor has been successfully applied to detect clenbuterol in real blood sample.

  10. An Electrochemical and Raman Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of Underpotentially Deposited Silver on a Gold Substrate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-30

    Raman Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of Underpotentially Deposited Silver on a Gold Substrate By Stanley Pons. J. Li, J. Liang DTIC S ELECTE APR 14...ACCCSSIONd 14U. 3. i4CCipIa.ti rs CATALOG. PiumnRi - 4. ITL (sa~utfie) . TYPE Of REPORT a PCI3ioo covEuiv Investigation of Underpotentially Deposited ...spectroelectrochemical data indicate that underpotentially * deposited silver adatoms on gold substrates are photolyzed to form silver meta clusters. *DD

  11. Modified electrochemical parameter estimation of NCR18650BD battery using implicit finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwin, T. R.; McGordon, A.; Widanage, W. D.; Jennings, P. A.

    2017-02-01

    The Pseudo Two Dimensional (P2D) porous electrode model is less preferred for real time calculations due to the high computational expense and complexity in obtaining the wide range of electro-chemical parameters despite of its superior accuracy. This paper presents a finite volume based method for re-parametrising the P2D model for any cell chemistry with uncertainty in determining precise electrochemical parameters. The re-parametrisation is achieved by solving a quadratic form of the Butler-Volmer equation and modifying the anode open circuit voltage based on experimental values. Thus the only experimental result, needed to re-parametrise the cell, reduces to the measurement of discharge voltage for any C-rate. The proposed method is validated against the 1C discharge data and an actual drive cycle of a NCR18650BD battery with NCA chemistry when driving in an urban environment with frequent accelerations and regenerative braking events. The error limit of the present model is compared with the electro-chemical prediction of LiyCoO2 battery and found to be superior to the accuracy of the model presented in the literature.

  12. Electrochemical capacitor improvement fabricated by carbon microfiber composite with admicellar-modified carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongprayoon, Thirawudh; Ayutthaya, Montira Seneewong-Na; Poochai, Chatwarin

    2017-02-01

    Conventional electrochemical capacitors are usually made from activated carbon microfiber electrode, which has relatively low electrochemical capacitance. To improve performance of electrochemical capacitor, carbon nanotube (CNT) was used to incorporate in carbon microfiber. Firstly, CNT was coated with ultra-thin polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film coating using the admicellar polymerization technique to improve its dispersion in PAN matrix. Secondly, the mix solution of admicellar-modified CNT (Ad-CNT) and PAN in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was prepared to produce microfiber by electrospinning. Lastly, microfiber was collected as a sheet, which was then stabilized and carbonized to be used as an electrode. The fabricated electrode using Ad-CNT/PAN was analyzed by SEM and TEM. SEM images show that the microfiber was uniform with approximately 2 μm average diameter. TEM images display well alignment and good dispersion of Ad-CNT in the matrix. The electrode made from Ad-CNT/PAN exhibited a high specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at a scan rate of 3 mV s-1 (based on cyclic voltammetry) and 82 F g-1 at a specific current of 1 A g-1 (based on galvanostatic charge/discharge). The percentage of relative specific capacitance retention of the prepared electrode was 70% after 1000 cycles. The results clearly show that the Ad-CNT played an effective role in improving dispersion in electrode leading to increase in electrical conductivity as well as electrical capacitance of the capacitor.

  13. Diagnostics Strategies with Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Using Carbon Nanomaterials as Electrode Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano, Susana; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis is often the key to successful patient treatment and survival. The identification of various disease signaling biomarkers which reliably reflect normal and disease states in humans in biological fluids explain the burgeoning research field in developing new methodologies able to determine the target biomarkers in complex biological samples with the required sensitivity and selectivity and in a simple and rapid way. The unique advantages offered by electrochemical sensors together with the availability of high affinity and specific bioreceptors and their great capabilities in terms of sensitivity and stability imparted by nanostructuring the electrode surface with different carbon nanomaterials have led to the development of new electrochemical biosensing strategies that have flourished as interesting alternatives to conventional methodologies for clinical diagnostics. This paper briefly reviews the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites as electrode modifiers to construct efficient electrochemical sensing platforms for diagnosis. The review provides an updated overview of some selected examples involving attractive amplification and biosensing approaches which have been applied to the determination of relevant genetic and protein diagnostics biomarkers. PMID:28035946

  14. A multianalyte electrochemical immunosensor based on patterned carbon nanotubes modified substrates for detection of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhen; Guo, Wenqi; Song, Dandan

    2014-02-15

    A novel multianalyte electrochemical immunosensor based on the assembly of patterned SWNTs on glassy carbon (GC) substrates was developed for simultaneous detection of endosulfan and paraoxon. Based on aryldiazonium salt chemistry, forest of SWNTs can be patterned on GC substrates by C3C bonding using micro contact printing (MCP), which provides an interface showing efficient electron transfer between biomolecules and electrodes. Then redox molecules FDMA and PQQ can be attached to the SWNTs, respectively followed by the attachment of specific epitopes and antibodies. The modified sensing surfaces were characterized by XPS, SEM, AFM and electrochemistry. Based on the current change of specific redox probes, the fabricated immunosensor array can be used for simultaneous detection of endosulfan and paraoxon by a displacement assay. In phosphate buffer solution (50mM, pH 7.0), there is a linear relationship between electrochemical signal of FDMA and the concentration of endosulfan over the range of 0.05-100 ppb with a detection limit of 0.05ppb; the linear range between electrochemical signal of PQQ and the concentration of paraoxon is 2-2500 ppb with a detection limit of 2 ppb. The immunosensor array demonstrates high repeatability, reproducibility, stability and selectivity for the detection of endosulfan and paraoxon.

  15. Fluorescence Characterization of Gold Modified Liposomes with Antisense N-myc DNA Bound to the Magnetisable Particles with Encapsulated Anticancer Drugs (Doxorubicin, Ellipticine and Etoposide)

    PubMed Central

    Skalickova, Sylvie; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Kopel, Pavel; Kremplova, Monika; Masarik, Michal; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Liposome-based drug delivery systems hold great potential for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to design a nanodevice for targeted anchoring of liposomes (with and without cholesterol) with encapsulated anticancer drugs and antisense N-myc gene oligonucleotide attached to its surface. To meet this main aim, liposomes with encapsulated doxorubicin, ellipticine and etoposide were prepared. They were further characterized by measuring their fluorescence intensity, whereas the encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 16%. The hybridization process of individual oligonucleotides forming the nanoconstruct was investigated spectrophotometrically and electrochemically. The concentrations of ellipticine, doxorubicin and etoposide attached to the nanoconstruct in gold nanoparticle-modified liposomes were found to be 14, 5 and 2 µg·mL−1, respectively. The study succeeded in demonstrating that liposomes are suitable for the transport of anticancer drugs and the antisense oligonucleotide, which can block the expression of the N-myc gene. PMID:26927112

  16. Palladium nanoparticles decorated on activated fullerene modified screen printed carbon electrode for enhanced electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Ali, M Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-06-15

    In the present work, an enhanced electrochemical sensor for dopamine (DA) was developed based on palladium nanoparticles decorated activated fullerene-C60 (AC60/PdNPs) composite modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the formation of PdNPs on AC60. The fabricated AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode exhibited an enhanced electrochemical response to DA with a lower oxidation potential than that of SPCE modified with PdNPs and C60, indicating the excellent electrooxidation behavior of the AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode. The electrochemical studies confirmed that the electrooxidation of DA at the composite electrode is a diffusion controlled electrochemical process. The differential pulse voltammetry was employed for the determination of DA; under optimum conditions, the electrochemical oxidation signal of DA increased linearly at the AC60/PdNPs composite from 0.35 to 133.35 μM. The limit of detection was found as 0.056 μM with a sensitivity of 4.23 μA μM(-1) cm(-2). The good recovery of DA in the DA injection samples further revealed the good practicality of AC60/PdNPs modified electrode.

  17. A novel electrochemical alkylation of aniline with methanol over Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Jun

    2008-04-01

    A novel liquid phase alkylation of aniline with methanol over Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin assisted with a pair of porous carbon electrode in slurry-bed reactor under constant current intensity, room temperature and atmospheric pressure was reported. The Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin catalysts were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrometer (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the transition metals were completely supported on kaolin's structure and formed a pored one. The effect parameters, such as initial pH, electrolysis time, metal ratio with kaolin and salts composition in this electrochemical catalytic system, were studied. The procedure was inspected by ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV-vis), and the product distribution was detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, a possible reaction mechanism was also proposed.

  18. Electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-11-27

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  19. A Novel Electrochemical Detector using Prussian Blue Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, In-Je; Kim, Ju-Ho; Kang, C. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, Kisay; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel electrochemical detector (ECD) to catalyze redox efficiently by electrodepositing Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate) on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and amperometric methods were used. We investigated the PB surface properties by topography from atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PB film on dense and smooth surfaces could catalyze redox reaction efficiently. Compared with CE-ECD microchips using a bare-ITO electrode, the proposed CE-ECD microchip using a PB modified electrode has shown better sensitivity of the electropherograms. It has been verified that wide-ranging detection can be performed under the limits of 0.01 mM of dopamine and catechol respectively when we use a PB modified electrode.

  20. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors. PMID:24287539

  1. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  2. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active gold nanoparticles modified with a monolayer of silver film.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Yu, Chung-Chin; Wu, Yi-Hao

    2012-11-07

    As shown in the literature, electrochemical underpotential deposition (UPD) offers the ability to deposit up to a monolayer of one metal onto a more noble metal with a flat surface. In this work, we develop an electrochemical pathway to prepare more surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates with Ag UPD-modified Au nanoparticles (NPs) by using sonoelectrochemical deposition-dissolution cycles (SEDDCs). Encouragingly, the SERS of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) adsorbed on these Ag UPD-modified Au NPs exhibits a higher intensity by ca. 12-fold magnitude, as compared with that of R6G adsorbed on unmodified Au NPs. The prepared SERS-active substrate demonstrates a large Raman scattering enhancement for R6G with a detection limit of 2 × 10(-14) M and an enhancement factor of 5.0 × 10(8). Also, the strategy proposed in this work to improve the SERS effects by using UPD Ag based on SEDDCs has an effect on the smaller probe molecules of 2,2'-bipyridine (BPy).

  4. Self-assembled monolayer films of C[sub 60]/on cysteamine-modified gold

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, W.B.; Chen, K.; Mirkin, C.A.; Babinec, S.J. Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI )

    1993-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayer films (SAMs) of C[sub 60] on cysteamine-modified and cysteamine/ethanethiol-modified Au are reported. The monolayers were characterized via contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. C[sub 60] surface coverage (2.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]10] mol/cm[sup 2]) for a film formed on pure cysteamine was determined by QCM measurements and compares remarkably well with monolayer coverage (1.9 [times] 10[sup [minus]10] mol/cm[sup 2]) predicted by a model based on crystallographic data for C[sub 60]. These experiments demonstrate the utility of the QCM in characterizing and monitoring the growth of fullerene SAMs. C[sub 60] SAMs formed on pure cysteamine yield strikingly different electrochemical responses than those formed on prelayers consisting of varying ratios of ethanethiol and cysteamine and previously reported monolayers of C[sub 60] on (aminopropyl)silanized oxide surfaces. Although the C[sub 60] SAMs are stable under ambient conditions, the fullerenes may be desorbed from the surface through electrochemical reduction of the films for extended periods of time (> 10 min). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Highly sensitive voltammetric sensor based on immobilization of bisphosphoramidate-derivative and quantum dots onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Gholivand, Khodayar; Barati, Ali; Gholami, Akram

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a new bisphosphoramidate derivative compound, 1, 4-bis(N-methyl)-benzene-bis(N-phenyl, N-benzoylphosphoramidate) (BMBPBP), was synthesized and used as a mediator for the electrocatalytic oxidation of olanzapine. The electro-oxidation of olanzapine at the surface of the BMBPBP/CdS-quantum dots/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BMBPBP/CdS-QDs/MWCNTs) modified gold electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity toward olanzapine at less positive potential, pronounced current response, and good sensitivity. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic parameters (such as electron transfer coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant) were determined for olanzapine oxidation, using the electrochemical approaches. Surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the prepared modified electrode were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The hydrodynamic amperometry at rotating modified electrode at constant potential versus reference electrode was used for detection of olanzapine. Under optimized conditions, the calibration plot was linear in the concentration range of 20 nM to 100 μM and detection limit was found to be 6 nM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of olanzapine in pharmaceuticals and human serum samples.

  6. A new simple electrochemical Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride sensor built on carbon paste modified with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fekry, Amany M

    2017-01-15

    A new sensitive simple electrochemical sensor for Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride (MOXI) detection has been successfully performed. The sensor built on carbon paste (CP) modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs are biocompatible stable noble materials especially in biological sensing. The silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (SNMCPE) displayed high electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of 1.0mM MOXI in Britton Robinson (BR) buffer of pH range (2.0-9.0). The techniques used to do this work are cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Surface characteristics were achieved using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) techniques. The effect of changing MOXI concentration (7.0×10(-7) to 1.8×10(-4)M) was studied in BR buffer (pH =7.4) at a scan rate of 50mV/s using SNMCPE. The detection and quantification limits were found to be 2.9×10(-9)M and 9.6×10(-8)M, respectively. In order to assess the applicability of MOXI detection method in real samples; this method was tested in Delmoxa tablet and human urine sample. Good sensible results were attained for MOXI detection.

  7. High-throughput synthesis and electrochemical screening of a library of modified electrodes for NADH oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pinczewska, Aleksandra; Sosna, Maciej; Bloodworth, Sally; Kilburn, Jeremy D; Bartlett, Philip N

    2012-10-31

    We report the combinatorial preparation and high-throughput screening of a library of modified electrodes designed to catalyze the oxidation of NADH. Sixty glassy carbon electrodes were covalently modified with ruthenium(II) or zinc(II) complexes bearing the redox active 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione) ligand by electrochemical functionalization using one of four different linkers, followed by attachment of one of five different phendione metal complexes using combinatorial solid-phase synthesis methodology. This gave a library with three replicates of each of 20 different electrode modifications. This library was electrochemically screened in high-throughput (HTP) mode using cyclic voltammetry. The members of the library were evaluated with regard to the surface coverage, midpeak potential, and voltammetric peak separation for the phendione ligand, and their catalytic activity toward NADH oxidation. The surface coverage was found to depend on the length and flexibility of the linker and the geometry of the metal complex. The choices of linker and metal complex were also found to have significant impact on the kinetics of the reaction between the 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione ligand and NADH. The rate constants for the reaction were obtained by analyzing the catalytic currents as a function of NADH concentration and scan rate, and the influence of the surface molecular architecture on the kinetics was evaluated.

  8. Calculation of Electrochemical Reorganization Energies for Redox Molecules at Self-Assembled Monolayer Modified Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-01-02

    Electrochemical electron transfer reactions play an important role in energy conversion processes with many technological applications. Electrodes modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are useful because the double layer effects are reduced. An important quantity for calculating the electron transfer rate constant is the reorganization energy, which is associated with changes in solute geometry and solvent configuration. In this Letter, an approach for calculating the electrochemical solvent reorganization energy for a redox molecule attached to or near a SAM modified electrode is presented. This integral equations formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) approach accounts for the detailed electronic structure of the molecule, as well as the contributions from the electrode, SAM, and electronic and inertial solvent responses. The calculated total reorganization energies are in good agreement with experimental data for a series of metal complex in aqueous solution. This approach will be useful for calculating electron transfer rate constants for molecular electrocatalysts. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  9. Electrochemical and scanning probe microscopic characterization of spontaneously adsorbed organothiolate monolayers at gold

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Sze-Shun Season

    1999-12-10

    This dissertation presented several results which add to the general knowledge base regarding organothiolates monolayer spontaneously adsorbed at gold films. Common to the body of this work is the use of voltammetric reductive resorption and variants of scanning probe microscopy to gain insight into the nature of the monolayer formation process as well as the resulting interface. The most significant result from this work is the success of using friction force microscopy to discriminate the end group orientation of monolayer chemisorbed at smooth gold surfaces with micrometer resolution (Chapter 4). The ability to detect the differences in the orientational disposition is demonstrated by the use PDMS polymer stamp to microcontact print an adlayer of n-alkanethiolate of length n in a predefine pattern onto a gold surface, followed by the solution deposition of a n-alkanethiol of n ± 1 to fill in the areas on the gold surface intentionally not coated by the stamping process. These two-component monolayers can be discriminated by using friction force microscopy which detects differences in friction contributed by the differences in the orientation of the terminal groups at surfaces. This success has recently led to the detection of the orientation differences at nanometer scale. Although the substrates examined in this work consisted entirely of smooth gold films, the same test can be performed on other smooth substrates and monolayer materials.

  10. Detection of Cu2+ in Water Based on Histidine-Gold Labeled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rilong; Zhou, Gangqiang; Tang, Fengxia; Wang, Yeyao

    2017-01-01

    Based on the strong interaction between histidine and copper ions and the signal enhancement effect of gold-labeling carbon nanotubes, an electrochemical sensor is established and used to measure copper ions in river water. In this study the results show that the concentrations of copper ion have well linear relationship with the peak current in the range of 10−11–10−7 mol/L, and the limit of detection is 10−12 mol/L. When using this method to detect copper ions in the Xiangjiang River, the test results are consistent with the atomic absorption method. This study shows that the sensor is convenient to be used in daily monitoring of copper ions in river water.

  11. Detection of Cu(2+) in Water Based on Histidine-Gold Labeled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rilong; Zhou, Gangqiang; Tang, Fengxia; Tong, Chunyi; Wang, Yeyao; Wang, Jinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the strong interaction between histidine and copper ions and the signal enhancement effect of gold-labeling carbon nanotubes, an electrochemical sensor is established and used to measure copper ions in river water. In this study the results show that the concentrations of copper ion have well linear relationship with the peak current in the range of 10(-11)-10(-7 )mol/L, and the limit of detection is 10(-12 )mol/L. When using this method to detect copper ions in the Xiangjiang River, the test results are consistent with the atomic absorption method. This study shows that the sensor is convenient to be used in daily monitoring of copper ions in river water.

  12. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets.

  13. Electrical characterization of gold and platinum thin film electrodes with polyaniline modified surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggas, John Richard

    Recent studies into soft organic electronics have burgeoned as a result of discoveries of conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polythiophene, and polypyrrole. However, in order to make these conducting polymers suitable for in vivo soft organic electronics, they must be developed so that they can be biocompatible and provide accurate sensing. Chitosan, a naturally occurring polymer structure found in exoskeletons of crustaceans, has been studied for its biocompatible properties. Composites of polyaniline (PAn), an intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP) and chitosan (Chi), a biopolymer, were developed and applied to gold and platinum Thin Film Electrode (TFE) devices. Electropolymerization and drop cast deposition were utilized to modify TFEs with a thin film of PAn or PAn-Chi composite. The impedance response over a spectrum of frequencies was studied for blank control TFEs, platinized TFEs, and platinized TFEs with various polyaniline coatings. Impedance measurements were taken in dry environments, DI Water, and in buffers such as PBS, and HEPES. Current-Voltage (I-V) characterization was used to study the current response and SEM imaging was used to study the surface topography. Resistance was measured for PAn modified unplatinized gold TFEs with varying amounts of incorporated chitosan. Impedance measurements of control and platinized TFEs yielded results similar to a low pass filter. Due to the conductive nature of polyaniline, the impedance of TFEs decreased substantially after poylaniline deposition. Measured resistance values for polyaniline and chitosan composites on TFEs revealed a window of concentrations of incorporated chitosan to lower resistance.

  14. In vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of nanoporous gold-modified multi-electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Gook Hwa; Kim, Ah Young; Han, Young Hwan; Chung, Myung-Ae; Jung, Sang-Don

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Nanoporous gold (Au) structures can reduce the impedance and enhance the charge injection capability of multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) used for interfacing neuronal networks. Even though there are various nanoporous Au preparation techniques, fabrication of MEA based on low-cost electro-codeposition of Ag:Au has not been performed. In this work, we have modified a Au MEA via the electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy, followed by the chemical etching of Ag, and report on the in vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA. Approach. Ag:Au alloy was electro-codeposited on a bilayer lift-off resist sputter-deposition passivated Au MEA followed by chemical etching of Ag to form a porous Au structure. Main results. The porous Au structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and tunneling electron microscopy and found to have an interconnected nanoporous Au structure. The impedance value of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA is 15.4 ± 0.55 kΩ at 1 kHz, accompanied by the base noise V rms of 2.4 ± 0.3 μV. The charge injection limit of the nanoporous Au-modified electrode estimated from voltage transient measurement is approximately 1 mC cm-2, which is comparable to roughened platinum and carbon nanotube electrodes. The charge injection capability of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA was confirmed by observing stimulus-induced spikes at above 0.2 V. The nanoporous Au-modified MEA showed mechanical durability upon ultrasonic treatment for up to an hour. Significance. Electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy combined with chemical etching Ag is a low-cost process for fabricating nanoporous Au-modified MEA suitable for establishing the stimulus-response relationship of cultured neuronal networks.

  15. Synthesis of one-dimensional gold nanostructures and the electrochemical application of the nanohybrid containing functionalized graphene oxide for cholesterol biosensing.

    PubMed

    Nandini, Seetharamaiah; Nalini, Seetharamaiah; Reddy, M B Madhusudana; Suresh, Gurukar Shivappa; Melo, Jose Savio; Niranjana, Pathappa; Sanetuntikul, Jakkid; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript reports a new approach for the synthesis of one dimensional gold nanostructure (AuNs) and its application in the development of cholesterol biosensor. Au nanostructures have been synthesized by exploiting β-diphenylalanine (β-FF) as an sacrificial template, whereas the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by ultrasound irradiation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of the prepared samples. With the aim to develop a highly sensitive cholesterol biosensor, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was immobilized on AuNs which were appended on the graphite (Gr) electrode via chemisorption onto thiol-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-SH). This Gr/GO-SH/AuNs/ChOx biosensor has been characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. CV results indicated a direct electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. A new potentiostat intermitant titration technique (PITT) has been studied to determine the diffusion coefficient and maxima potential value. The proposed biosensor showed rapid response, high sensitivity, wide linear range and low detection limit. Furthermore, our AuNs modified electrode showed excellent selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and long term stability. The proposed electrode has also been used successfully to determine cholesterol in serum samples.

  16. Electrochemical determination of nitrite and iodate based on Pt nanoparticles self-assembled on a chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Zhou, Yuan; Xian, Hongying; Wang, Lun; Huo, Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    A promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the self-assembling of Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pts) on a chitosan (CS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical techniques were used for characterization of these composites. It has been found that nano-Pts are inserted into the CS layer uniformly, and have a larger surface area compared to the chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrocatalytic experiments for the oxidation of nitrite and the reduction of iodate have shown that nano-Pts/CS/GCE can decrease the over-potential and increase the faradic current, which can be used for the sensitive determination of nitrite and iodate. Moreover, the prepared modified electrode exhibits good reproducibility and stability, and it is possible that this novel electrochemical sensor can be applied in the sensing and/or biosensing field.

  17. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on gold-silicon carbide nanocomposites for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Shuangmei; Deng, Shuangsheng; Lv, Qi; Lin, Jie; Li, Can-Peng

    2014-07-15

    Uniform and highly dispersed gold-silicon carbide (Au@SiC) nanocomposites were prepared via simple way and used for fabrication of label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Using Au@SiC as electrode material and using ferricyanide as mediator, the proposed immunosensor provides a simple and economic method with higher sensitivity and a wider concentration range for detection of hCG. Under the optimal condition, the approach provided a good linear response range from 0.1 to 5 IU/L and 5 to 1000 IU/L with a low detection limit of 0.042 IU/L. The immunosensor showed good selectivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of hCG in human serum samples. The proposed method provides a promising platform of clinical immunoassay for other biomolecules. In addition, the bio-functionalization of SiC combined with other nanomaterials will provide promising approach for electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform.

  18. Construction of an Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles for Trace Determination of Amoxicillin in Bovine Milk.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Yusof, Nor Azah; Hajian, Reza; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-01-20

    In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor was fabricated for determination of amoxicillin in bovine milk samples by decoration of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using ethylenediamine (en) as a cross linker (AuNPs/en-MWCNTs). The constructed nanocomposite was homogenized in dimethylformamide and drop casted on screen printed electrode. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the synthesized nanocomposites. The results show that the synthesized nanocomposites induced a remarkable synergetic effect for the oxidation of amoxicillin. Effect of some parameters, including pH, buffer, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and amount of casted nanocomposites, on the sensitivity of fabricated sensor were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, there was two linear calibration ranges from 0.2-10 µM and 10-30 µM with equations of Ipa (µA) = 2.88C (µM) + 1.2017; r = 0.9939 and Ipa (µA) = 0.88C (µM) + 22.97; r = 0.9973, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated as 0.015 µM and 0.149 µM, respectively. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for determination of Amoxicillin in bovine milk samples and all results compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method.

  19. Construction of an Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles for Trace Determination of Amoxicillin in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Yusof, Nor Azah; Hajian, Reza; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor was fabricated for determination of amoxicillin in bovine milk samples by decoration of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using ethylenediamine (en) as a cross linker (AuNPs/en-MWCNTs). The constructed nanocomposite was homogenized in dimethylformamide and drop casted on screen printed electrode. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the synthesized nanocomposites. The results show that the synthesized nanocomposites induced a remarkable synergetic effect for the oxidation of amoxicillin. Effect of some parameters, including pH, buffer, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and amount of casted nanocomposites, on the sensitivity of fabricated sensor were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, there was two linear calibration ranges from 0.2–10 µM and 10–30 µM with equations of Ipa (µA) = 2.88C (µM) + 1.2017; r = 0.9939 and Ipa (µA) = 0.88C (µM) + 22.97; r = 0.9973, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated as 0.015 µM and 0.149 µM, respectively. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for determination of Amoxicillin in bovine milk samples and all results compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method. PMID:26805829

  20. Gold nanoparticle-modified graphite pencil electrode for the high-sensitivity detection of hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Md; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser

    2013-10-15

    A novel gold nanoparticle-modified graphite pencil electrode (AuNP-GPE) is prepared just by immersing a bare GPE in AuNP solution, followed by heating for 15 min. The bare and modified GPEs are characterized by FE-SEM imaging and cyclic voltammetry. The AuNP-GPEs showed excellent electrocatalytic activities with respect to hydrazine oxidation, with good reproducibility. To reduce the quantification and detection limits, and increase the hydrazine sensitivity, the pH and square wave voltammetry parameters are optimized. A square wave voltammetry study as a function of the hydrazine concentration showed that the AuNP-GPE detector's quantification limit was 100 nmol L(-1) hydrazine, much lower than the value obtained using amperometry (10 µmol L(-1)). The limits of detection (at 3σ) for hydrazine sensing at AuNP-GPEs using square wave voltammetry and amperometry were 42 nmol L(-1) and 3.07 µmol L(-1). Finally, the modified electrode was used to determine the hydrazine concentration in drinking water, and satisfactory results are obtained. This simple, rapid, low-cost method for fabricating a modified electrode is an attractive approach to the development of new sensors.

  1. Specific detection of Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA using dual labeled gold nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Thiruppathiraja, Chinnasamy; Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Adaikkappan, Periyakaruppan; Santhosh, Devakirubakaran Jayakar; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2011-10-01

    The present study was aimed at the development and evaluation of a DNA electrochemical biosensor for Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA detection in a clinical specimen using a signal amplifier as dual-labeled AuNPs. The DNA electrochemical biosensors were fabricated using a sandwich detection strategy involving two kinds of DNA probes specific to Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA. The probes of enzyme ALP and the detector probe both conjugated on the AuNPs and subsequently hybridized with target DNA immobilized in a SAM/ITO electrode followed by characterization with CV, EIS, and DPV analysis using the electroactive species para-nitrophenol generated by ALP through hydrolysis of para-nitrophenol phosphate. The effect of enhanced sensitivity was obtained due to the AuNPs carrying numerous ALPs per hybridization and a detection limit of 1.25 ng/ml genomic DNA was determined under optimized conditions. The dual-labeled AuNP-facilitated electrochemical sensor was also evaluated by clinical sputum samples, showing a higher sensitivity and specificity and the outcome was in agreement with the PCR analysis. In conclusion, the developed electrochemical sensor demonstrated unique sensitivity and specificity for both genomic DNA and sputum samples and can be employed as a regular diagnostics tool for Mycobacterium sp. monitoring in clinical samples.

  2. Surface science and electrochemical studies of metal-modified carbides for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas Glenn

    Carbides of the early transition metals have emerged as low-cost catalysts that are active for a wide range of reactions. The surface chemistry of carbides can be altered by modifying the surface with small amounts of admetals. These metal-modified carbides can be effective replacements for Pt-based bimetallic systems, which suffer from the drawbacks of high cost and low thermal stability. In this dissertation, metal-modified carbides were studied for reactions with applications to renewable energy technologies. It is demonstrated that metal-modified carbides possess high activity for alcohol reforming and electrochemical hydrogen production. First, the surface chemistry of carbides towards alcohol decomposition is studied using density functional theory (DFT) and surface science experiments. The Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used to calculate the binding energies of alcohols and decomposition intermediates on metal-modified carbides. The calculated binding energies were then correlated to reforming activity determined experimentally using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the case of methanol decomposition, it was found that tungsten monocarbide (WC) selectively cleaved the C-O bond to produce methane. Upon modifying the surface with a single layer of metal such as Ni, Pt, or Rh, the selectivity shifted towards scission of the C-H bonds while leaving the C-O bond intact, producing carbon monoxide (CO) and H2. High resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to examine the bond breaking sequence as a function of temperature. From HREELS, it was shown that the surfaces followed an activity trend of Rh > Ni > Pt. The Au-modified WC surface possessed too low of a methanol binding energy, and molecular desorption of methanol was the most favorable pathway on this surface. Next, the ability of Rh-modified WC to break the C-C bond of C2 and C3 alcohols was demonstrated. HREELS showed that ethanol decomposed through an acetaldehyde

  3. A continuous glucose monitoring device by graphene modified electrochemical sensor in microfluidic system

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Zhihua; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin; Li, Dachao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous glucose monitoring microsystem consisting of a three-electrode electrochemical sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip, which was used to transdermally extract and collect subcutaneous interstitial fluid, was fabricated from five polydimethylsiloxane layers using micromolding techniques. The electrochemical sensor was integrated into the chip for continuous detection of glucose. Specifically, a single-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were decorated onto the working electrode (WE) of the sensor to construct a composite nanostructured surface and improve the resolution of the glucose measurements. Graphene was transferred onto the WE surface to improve the electroactive nature of the electrode to enable measurements of low levels of glucose. The AuNPs were directly electrodeposited onto the graphene layer to improve the electron transfer rate from the activity center of the enzyme to the electrode to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the composite nanostructured surface to specifically detect glucose. The factors required for AuNPs deposition and GOx immobilization were also investigated, and the optimized parameters were obtained. The experimental results displayed that the proposed sensor could precisely measure glucose in the linear range from 0 to 162 mg/dl with a detection limit of 1.44 mg/dl (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor exhibited the potential to detect hypoglycemia which is still a major challenge for continuous glucose monitoring in clinics. Unlike implantable glucose sensors, the wearable device enabled external continuous monitoring of glucose without interference from foreign body reaction and bioelectricity. PMID:26958097

  4. An Electrochemical Genosensing Assay Based on Magnetic Beads and Gold Nanoparticle-Loaded Latex Microspheres for Vibrio cholerae Detection.

    PubMed

    Low, Kim-Fatt; Rijiravanich, Patsamon; Singh, Kirnpal Kaur Banga; Surareungchai, Werasak; Yean, Chan Yean

    2015-04-01

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical genosensing assay was developed for the sequence-specific detection of Vibrio cholerae DNA using magnetic beads as the biorecognition surface and gold nanoparticle-loaded latex microspheres (latex-AuNPs) as a signal-amplified hybridization tag. This biorecognition surface was prepared by immobilizing specific biotinylated capturing probes onto the streptavidin-coupled magnetic beads. Fabricating a hybridization tag capable of amplifying the electrochemical signal involved loading multiple AuNPs onto polyelectrolyte multilayer film-coated poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) latex microspheres as carrier particles. The detection targets, single-stranded 224-bp asymmetric PCR amplicons of the V. cholerae lolB gene, were sandwich-hybridized to magnetic bead-functionalized capturing probes and fluorescein-labeled detection probes and tagged with latex-AuNPs. The subsequent electrochemical stripping analysis of chemically dissolved AuNPs loaded onto the latex microspheres allowed for the quantification of the target amplicons. The high-loading capacity of the AuNPs on the latex microspheres for sandwich-type dual-hybridization genosensing provided eminent signal amplification. The genosensing variables were optimized, and the assay specificity was demonstrated. The clinical applicability of the assay was evaluated using spiked stool specimens. The current signal responded linearly to the different V. cholerae concentrations spiked into stool specimens with a detection limit of 2 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The proposed latex-AuNP-based magnetogenosensing platform is promising, exhibits an effective amplification performance, and offers new opportunities for the ultrasensitive detection of other microbial pathogens.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICALLY DEPOSITED POLYMER-COATED GOLD ELECTRODES SELECTIVE FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electropolymerized membranes on gold electrodes doped with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were prepared from a solution containing resorcinol, o-phenylenediamine and 2,4-D. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the incorporation and interact...

  6. Inkjet printing of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for high-sensitive paper-like electrochemical oxygen sensors using ionic liquid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chengguo; Bai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yingkai; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Shengshui

    2012-04-17

    A simple approach to the mass production of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for electrochemical sensing of oxygen using ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes was established. The approach, combining the inkjet printing of gold nanoparticle (GNP) patterns with the self-catalytic growth of these patterns into conducting layers, can fabricate hundreds of self-designed gold arrays on cellulose membranes within several hours using an inexpensive inkjet printer. The resulting paper-based gold electrode arrays (PGEAs) had several unique properties as thin-film sensor platforms, including good conductivity, excellent flexibility, high integration, and low cost. The porous nature of PGEAs also allowed the addition of electrolytes from the back cellulose membrane side and controllably produced large three-phase electrolyte/electrode/gas interfaces at the front electrode side. A novel paper-based solid-state electrochemical oxygen (O(2)) sensor was therefore developed using an IL electrolyte, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF(6)). The sensor looked like a piece of paper but possessed high sensitivity for O(2) in a linear range from 0.054 to 0.177 v/v %, along with a low detection limit of 0.0075% and a short response time of less than 10 s, foreseeing its promising applications in developing cost-effective and environment-friendly paper-based electrochemical gas sensors.

  7. Controllable Synthesis of Formaldehyde Modified Manganese Oxide Based on Gas-Liquid Interfacial Reaction and Its Application of Electrochemical Sensing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wushuang; Sheng, Qinglin; Nie, Fei; Zheng, Jianbin

    2015-12-30

    Controllable synthesis of manganese oxides was performed via a simple one-step synthetic method. Then obtained manganese oxides which exhibit flower-like, cloud-like, hexagon-like, and rod-like morphologies were modified by formaldehyde based on a simple self-made gas-liquid reaction device respectively and the modified manganese oxides with coral-like, scallop-like and rod-like morphology were synthesized accordingly. The obtained materials were characterized and the formation mechanism was also researched. Then the modified manganese oxides were used to fabricate electrochemical sensors to detect H2O2. Comparison of electrochemical properties between three kinds of modified manganese oxides was investigated and the best one has been successfully employed as H2O2 sensor which shows a low detection limit of 0.01 μM, high sensitivity of 162.69 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), and wide linear range of 0.05 μM-12.78 mM. The study provides a new method for controllable synthesis of metal oxides, and electrochemical application of formaldehyde modified manganese oxides will provides a new strategy for electrochemical sensing with high performance, low cost, and simple fabrication.

  8. Multiplex electrochemical DNA platform for femtomolar-level quantification of genetically modified soybean.

    PubMed

    Manzanares-Palenzuela, C Lorena; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2015-06-15

    Current EU regulations on the mandatory labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with a minimum content of 0.9% would benefit from the availability of reliable and rapid methods to detect and quantify DNA sequences specific for GMOs. Different genosensors have been developed to this aim, mainly intended for GMO screening. A remaining challenge, however, is the development of genosensing platforms for GMO quantification, which should be expressed as the number of event-specific DNA sequences per taxon-specific sequences. Here we report a simple and sensitive multiplexed electrochemical approach for the quantification of Roundup-Ready Soybean (RRS). Two DNA sequences, taxon (lectin) and event-specific (RR), are targeted via hybridization onto magnetic beads. Both sequences are simultaneously detected by performing the immobilization, hybridization and labeling steps in a single tube and parallel electrochemical readout. Hybridization is performed in a sandwich format using signaling probes labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or digoxigenin (Dig), followed by dual enzymatic labeling using Fab fragments of anti-Dig and anti-FITC conjugated to peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase, respectively. Electrochemical measurement of the enzyme activity is finally performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes. The assay gave a linear range of 2-250 pM for both targets, with LOD values of 650 fM (160 amol) and 190 fM (50 amol) for the event-specific and the taxon-specific targets, respectively. Results indicate that the method could be applied for GMO quantification below the European labeling threshold level (0.9%), offering a general approach for the rapid quantification of specific GMO events in foods.

  9. Impedance spectroscopy study of a catechol-modified activated carbon electrode as active material in electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougnon, C.; Lebègue, E.; Pognon, G.

    2015-01-01

    Modified activated carbon (Norit S-50) electrodes with electrochemical double layer (EDL) capacitance and redox capacitance contributions to the electric charge storage were tested in 1 M H2SO4 to quantify the benefit and the limitation of the surface redox reactions on the electrochemical performances of the resulting pseudo-capacitive materials. The electrochemical performances of an electrochemically anodized carbon electrode and a catechol-modified carbon electrode, which make use both EDL capacitance of the porous structure of the carbon and redox capacitance, were compared to the performances obtained for the pristine carbon. Nitrogen gas adsorption measurements have been used for studying the impact of the grafting on the BET surface area, pore size distribution, pore volume and average pore diameter. The electrochemical behavior of carbon materials was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS data were discussed by using a complex capacitance model that allows defining the characteristic time constant, the global capacitance and the frequency at which the maximum charge stored is reached. The EIS measurements were achieved at different dc potential values where a redox activity occurs and the evolution of the capacitance and the capacitive relaxation time with the electrode potential are presented. Realistic galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements performed at different current rates corroborate the results obtained by impedance.

  10. Carboxybetaine Modified Interface for Electrochemical Glycoprofiling of Antibodies Isolated from Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Impedimetric lectin biosensors capable of recognizing two different carbohydrates (galactose and sialic acid) in glycans attached to antibodies isolated from human serum were prepared. The first step entailed the modification of a gold surface by a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) deposited from a solution containing a carboxybetaine-terminated thiol applied to the subsequent covalent immobilization of lectins and to resist nonspecific protein adsorption. In the next step, Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) or Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) was covalently attached to the SAM, and the whole process of building a bioreceptive layer was optimized and characterized using a diverse range of techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, quartz crystal microbalance, contact angle measurements, zeta-potential assays, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In addition, the application of the SNA-based lectin biosensor in the glycoprofiling of antibodies isolated from the human sera of healthy individuals and of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was successfully validated using an SNA-based lectin microarray. The results showed that the SNA lectin, in particular, is capable of discriminating between the antibodies isolated from healthy individuals and those from RA patients based on changes in the amount of sialic acid present in the antibodies. In addition, the results obtained by the application of RCA and SNA biosensors indicate that the abundance of galactose and sialic acid in antibodies isolated from healthy individuals is age-related. PMID:26048139

  11. The Central Role of Bicarbonate in the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Gold.

    PubMed

    Dunwell, Marco; Lu, Qi; Heyes, Jeffrey M; Rosen, Jonathan; Chen, Jingguang G; Yan, Yushan; Jiao, Feng; Xu, Bingjun

    2017-03-06

    Much effort has been devoted in the development of efficient catalysts for electrochemical reduction of CO2. Molecular level understanding of electrode-mediated process, particularly the role of bicarbonate in increasing CO2 reduction rates, is still lacking due to the difficulty of directly probing the electrochemical interface. We developed a protocol to observe normally invisible reaction intermediates with a surface enhanced spectroscopy by applying square-wave potential profiles. Further, we demonstrate that bicarbonate, through equilibrium exchange with dissolved CO2, rather than the supplied CO2, is the primary source of carbon in the CO formed at the Au electrode by a combination of in situ spectroscopic, isotopic labeling, and mass spectroscopic investigations. We propose that bicarbonate enhances the rate of CO production on Au by increasing the effective concentration of dissolved CO2 near the electrode surface through rapid equilibrium between bicarbonate and dissolved CO2.

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of polyethylene glycol in electroplating solution using paraffin composite copper hexacyanoferrate modified (PCCHM) anode.

    PubMed

    Bejankiwar, Rajesh S; Basu, Abir; Cementi, Max

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an acidic (pH 0.18 to 0.42) and high ionic strength electroplating solution was investigated. The electroplating solution is a major source of wastewater in the printing wiring board industry. A paraffin composite copper hexacyanoferrate modified (PCCHM) electrode was used as the anode and a bare graphite electrode was used as the cathode. The changes in PEG and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations during the course of the reaction were monitored. The efficiency of the PCCHM anode was compared with bare graphite anode and it was found that the former showed significant electrocatalytic property for PEG and TOC removal. Chlorides present in the solution were found to contribute significantly in the overall organic removal process. Short chain organic compounds like acetic acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and ethylene glycol formed during electrolysis were identified by HPLC method. Anode surface area and applied current density were found to influence the electro-oxidation process, in which the former was found to be dominating. Investigations of the kinetics for the present electrochemical reaction suggested that the two stage first-order kinetic model provides a much better representation of the overall mechanism of the process if compared to the generalized kinetic model.

  13. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 μl (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  14. Microstructure and electrochemical behavior of cerium conversion coating modified with silane agent on magnesium substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Li; Shi, Jing; Wang, Xin; Liu, Dan; Xu, Haigang

    2016-07-01

    The cerium conversion coating with and without different concentrations of silane agent bis-(γ-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tetrasulfide (BTESPT) modification is obtained on magnesium alloys. Detailed properties of the coatings and the role of BTESPT as an additive are studied and followed with careful discussion. The coating morphology, wettability, chemical composition and corrosion resistance are characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), water contact-angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of the coatings is investigated using EIS. The results indicate that the coating morphology and composition can be controlled by changing silane concentration. The combination of cerium ions and silane molecules could promote the formation of more homogenous and higher hydrophobic coating. The coating turns to be more compact and the adhesive strength between the coating and the magnesium substrate are strongly improved with the formation of Sisbnd Osbnd Si and Sisbnd Osbnd M chemical bonds. The optimum corrosion resistance of the coating in the corrosive media is obtained by 25 ml L-1 BTESPT modification. This whole study implies that the cerium conversion coating modified with certain silane agent deserves cautiousness before its application for corrosion resistance.

  15. Nano-TiO₂ modified carbon paste sensor for electrochemical nicotine detection using anionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Shehata, M; Azab, S M; Fekry, A M; Ameer, M A

    2016-05-15

    A newly competitive electrochemical sensor for nicotine (NIC) detection was successfully achieved. Nano-TiO2 with a carbon paste electrode (CPE) were used for the sensor construction, where Nano-TiO2 was considered as one of the richest and highly variable class of materials. The sensor showed electrocatalytic activity in both aqueous and micellar media toward the oxidation of NIC at Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution (4×10(-2)M) of pH range (2.0-8.0) containing (1.0mM) sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) techniques were also used. The linear range of detection for NIC using the new Nano-TiO2 Modified Carbon Paste sensor (NTMCP) was detected using diffrential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique and it was found between 2×10(-6)M and 5.4×10(-4)M with a detection limit of 1.34×10(-8)M. The obtained results clarified the simplicity, high sensitivity and selectivity of the new NTMCPE for nicotine determination in real cigarettes and urine samples.

  16. Graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide for label-free DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Pan, Genhua; Avent, Neil D; Lowry, Roy B; Madgett, Tracey E; Waines, Paul L

    2015-10-15

    A novel printed graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide was developed for the detection of a specific oligonucleotide sequence. The graphene oxide was immobilized onto the surface of a graphene electrode via π-π bonds and electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide was achieved by cyclic voltammetry. A much higher redox current was observed from the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode, a 42% and 36.7% increase, respectively, in comparison with that of a bare printed graphene or reduced graphene oxide electrode. The good electron transfer activity is attributed to a combination of the large number of electroactive sites in reduced graphene oxide and the high conductivity nature of graphene. The probe ssDNA was further immobilized onto the surface of the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode via π-π bonds and then hybridized with its target cDNA. The change of peak current due to the hybridized dsDNA could be used for quantitative sensing of DNA concentration. It has been demonstrated that a linear range from 10(-7)M to 10(-12)M is achievable for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 gene with a detection limit of 1.58 × 10(-13)M as determined by three times standard deviation of zero DNA concentration.

  17. Electrochemical Sensing of Bisphenol A by a Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide-Modified Expanded Graphite Paste Electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Sa; Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-07-01

    An electrochemical and sensitive sensing of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane [bisphenol A (BPA)] was developed based on a didodecyldimethylammonium bromide-modified expanded graphite paste electrode (DDAB-EGPE). The DDAB-EGPE was prepared by suspending an EGPE in a DDAB aqueous solution, and allowing the DDAB to form a hydrophobic film on the expanded graphite surface. Compared with the EGPE, the DDAB-EGPE showed improved electrochemical response of BPA because of the preconcentration of BPA in DDAB via hydrophobic interaction. Due to the electrocatalytic activity of BPA, a sensor for BPA was constructed based on the DDAB-EGPE. The DDAB-EGPE exhibited a wide linear response to BPA ranging from 6.0 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 7.1 nmol/L at S/N = 3. The designed sensor showed good reproducibility and stability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in three types of real plastic product samples. This sensor presented a simple, rapid, and sensitive platform for the determination of BPA and could become a versatile and powerful tool for food safety.

  18. Outstanding electrochemical performance of a graphene-modified graphite felt for vanadium redox flow battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Zoraida; Flox, Cristina; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos; Morante, Juan R.; Menéndez, Rosa; Santamaría, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The development of more efficient electrode materials is essential to obtain vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) with enhanced energy densities and to make these electrochemical energy storage devices more competitive. A graphene-modified graphite felt synthesized from a raw graphite felt and a graphene oxide water suspension by means of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is investigated as a suitable electrode material in the positive side of a VRFB cell by means of cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and charge/discharge experiments. The remarkably enhanced performance of the resultant hybrid material, in terms of electrochemical activity and kinetic reversibility towards the VO2+/VO2+, and mainly the markedly high energy efficiency of the VRFB cell (c.a. 95.8% at 25 mA cm-2) can be ascribed to the exceptional morphological and chemical characteristics of this tailored material. The 3D-architecture consisting of fibers interconnected by graphene-like sheets positively contributes to the proper development of the vanadium redox reactions and so represents a significant advance in the design of effective electrode materials.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical detection of ketorolac tromethamine at polypyrrole modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Senthil Kumar, Nagarajan; Renukadevi, Murugesan; Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar; Vasudevan, Thiyagarajan; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2007-04-01

    A glassy carbon electrode modified with a coating of polypyrrole (Ppy) exhibited an attractive performance for the detection and determination of a non-steroidal and non-narcotic analgesic compound, ketorolac tromethamine (KT). Cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry were used in a combined way to identify the electrochemical characteristics and to optimize the conditions for detection. For calibrating and estimating KT, square-wave voltammetry was mainly used. The drug shows a well-defined peak at -1.40 V vs. Ag/AgCl in the acetate buffer (pH 5.5). The existence of Ppy on the surface of the electrode gives higher electrochemical active sites at the electrode for the detection of KT and preconcentrate KT by adsorption. The square-wave stripping voltammetric response depends on the excitation signal and the accumulation time. The calibration curve is linear in the range 1 x 10(-11) to 1 x 10(-7) M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-12) M. Applicability to serum samples was also demonstrated. A detection limit of 1.0 ng ml for serum was observed. Square-wave voltammetry shows superior performance over UV spectroscopy and other techniques.

  20. Sensitive detection of hydrocarbon gases using electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO chemiresistors.

    PubMed

    Dilonardo, Elena; Penza, Michele; Alvisi, Marco; Cassano, Gennaro; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa; Cioffi, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Pristine and electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were proposed as active sensing layers in chemiresistive gas sensors for hydrocarbon (HC) gas detection (e.g., CH4, C3H8, C4H10). The presence of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of ZnO NRs, obtained after the thermal treatment at 550 °C, was revealed by morphological and surface chemical analyses, using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the Pd catalyst on the performance of the ZnO-based gas sensor was evaluated by comparing the sensing results with those of pristine ZnO NRs, at an operating temperature of 300 °C and for various HC gas concentrations in the range of 30-1000 ppm. The Pd-modified ZnO NRs showed a higher selectivity and sensitivity compared to pristine ZnO NRs. The mean sensitivity of Pd-modified ZnO NRs towards the analyzed HCs gases increased with the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the target gas molecule. Finally, the evaluation of the selectivity revealed that the presence or the absence of metal nanoparticles on ZnO NRs improves the selectivity in the detection of specific HCs gaseous molecules.

  1. Ag Nanoparticles-Modified 3D Graphene Foam for Binder-Free Electrodes of Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tao; Jin, Jianli; Wang, Congxu; Sun, Youyi; Zhang, Yinghe; Liu, Yaqing

    2017-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles-modified 3D graphene foam was synthesized through a one-step in-situ approach and then directly applied as the electrode of an electrochemical sensor. The composite foam electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards Hg(II) oxidation with high limit of detection and sensitivity of 0.11 µM and 8.0 µA/µM, respectively. Moreover, the composite foam electrode for the sensor exhibited high cycling stability, long-term durability and reproducibility. These results were attributed to the unique porous structure of the composite foam electrode, which enabled the surface of Ag nanoparticles modified reduced graphene oxide (Ag NPs modified rGO) foam to become highly accessible to the metal ion and provided more void volume for the reaction with metal ion. This work not only proved that the composite foam has great potential application in heavy metal ions sensors, but also provided a facile method of gram scale synthesis 3D electrode materials based on rGO foam and other electrical active materials for various applications. PMID:28336878

  2. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Spray-Formed Boron-Modified Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Kiminami, Claudio S.; Botta, Walter J.; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2017-01-01

    Spray-formed boron-modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) grades are alloys developed to withstand severe wear conditions. The addition of boron to the conventional chemical composition of SMSS, combined with the solidification features promoted by the spray forming process, leads to a microstructure composed of low carbon martensitic matrix reinforced by an eutectic network of M2B-type borides, which considerably increases the wear resistance of the stainless steel. Although the presence of borides in the microstructure has a very beneficial effect on the wear properties of the alloy, their effect on the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel was not comprehensively evaluated. The present work presents a study of the effect of boron addition on the corrosion resistance of the spray-formed boron-modified SMSS grades by means of electrochemical techniques. The borides fraction seems to have some influence on the repassivation kinetics of the spray-formed boron-modified SMSS. It was shown that the Cr content of the martensitic matrix is the microstructural feature deciding the corrosion resistance of this sort of alloys. Therefore, if the Cr content in the alloy is increased to around 14 wt pct to compensate for the boron consumed by the borides formation, the corrosion resistance of the alloy is kept at the same level of the alloy without boron addition.

  3. Ag Nanoparticles-Modified 3D Graphene Foam for Binder-Free Electrodes of Electrochemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Jin, Jianli; Wang, Congxu; Sun, Youyi; Zhang, Yinghe; Liu, Yaqing

    2017-02-16

    Ag nanoparticles-modified 3D graphene foam was synthesized through a one-step in-situ approach and then directly applied as the electrode of an electrochemical sensor. The composite foam electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards Hg(II) oxidation with high limit of detection and sensitivity of 0.11 μM and 8.0 μA/μM, respectively. Moreover, the composite foam electrode for the sensor exhibited high cycling stability, long-term durability and reproducibility. These results were attributed to the unique porous structure of the composite foam electrode, which enabled the surface of Ag nanoparticles modified reduced graphene oxide (Ag NPs modified rGO) foam to become highly accessible to the metal ion and provided more void volume for the reaction with metal ion. This work not only proved that the composite foam has great potential application in heavy metal ions sensors, but also provided a facile method of gram scale synthesis 3D electrode materials based on rGO foam and other electrical active materials for various applications.

  4. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Spray-Formed Boron-Modified Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Kiminami, Claudio S.; Botta, Walter J.; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2017-04-01

    Spray-formed boron-modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) grades are alloys developed to withstand severe wear conditions. The addition of boron to the conventional chemical composition of SMSS, combined with the solidification features promoted by the spray forming process, leads to a microstructure composed of low carbon martensitic matrix reinforced by an eutectic network of M2B-type borides, which considerably increases the wear resistance of the stainless steel. Although the presence of borides in the microstructure has a very beneficial effect on the wear properties of the alloy, their effect on the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel was not comprehensively evaluated. The present work presents a study of the effect of boron addition on the corrosion resistance of the spray-formed boron-modified SMSS grades by means of electrochemical techniques. The borides fraction seems to have some influence on the repassivation kinetics of the spray-formed boron-modified SMSS. It was shown that the Cr content of the martensitic matrix is the microstructural feature deciding the corrosion resistance of this sort of alloys. Therefore, if the Cr content in the alloy is increased to around 14 wt pct to compensate for the boron consumed by the borides formation, the corrosion resistance of the alloy is kept at the same level of the alloy without boron addition.

  5. Sensitive detection of hydrocarbon gases using electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO chemiresistors

    PubMed Central

    Alvisi, Marco; Cassano, Gennaro; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Pristine and electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were proposed as active sensing layers in chemiresistive gas sensors for hydrocarbon (HC) gas detection (e.g., CH4, C3H8, C4H10). The presence of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of ZnO NRs, obtained after the thermal treatment at 550 °C, was revealed by morphological and surface chemical analyses, using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the Pd catalyst on the performance of the ZnO-based gas sensor was evaluated by comparing the sensing results with those of pristine ZnO NRs, at an operating temperature of 300 °C and for various HC gas concentrations in the range of 30–1000 ppm. The Pd-modified ZnO NRs showed a higher selectivity and sensitivity compared to pristine ZnO NRs. The mean sensitivity of Pd-modified ZnO NRs towards the analyzed HCs gases increased with the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the target gas molecule. Finally, the evaluation of the selectivity revealed that the presence or the absence of metal nanoparticles on ZnO NRs improves the selectivity in the detection of specific HCs gaseous molecules. PMID:28144567

  6. Electrochemical detection of phenolic estrogenic compounds at clay modified carbon paste electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkamssa, N.; Ouattara, L.; Kawachi, A.; Tsujimura, M.; Isoda, H.; Chtaini, A.; Ksibi, M.

    2015-04-01

    A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed to determine the Endocrine Disrupting chemical 4-tert-octylphenol on clay modified carbon paste electrode (Clay/CPE). The electrochemical response of the proposed electrode was studied by means of cyclic and square wave voltammetry. It has found that the oxidation of 4-tert-octylphenol on the clay/CPE displayed a well-defined oxidation peak. Under these optimal conditions, a linear relation between concentrations of 4-tert-octylphenol current response was obtained over range of 7.26×10-6 to 3.87×10-7 with a detection and quantification limit of 9.2×10-7 M and 3.06×10-6 M, respectively. The correlation coefficient is 0.9963. The modified electrode showed suitable sensitivity, high stability and an accurate detection of 4-tert-octylphenol. The modified electrode also relevant suitable selectivity for various phenolic estrogenic compounds.

  7. Facile fabrication of a novel anisotropic gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid/graphene modified electrode for the determination of theophylline and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangming; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a suspension solution containing anisotropic gold nanoparticle (GNP), chitosan (CHIT) and ionic liquid (IL, i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4]), is prepared by reducing HAuCl4 with sodium citrate in CHIT-IL aqueous solution. The hybrid solution is coated on a graphene (r-GO) modified glassy carbon electrode to construct an electrochemical sensor for the determination of theophylline (TP) and caffeine (CAF). The obtained hybrid film shows rough surface, and anisotropic GNPs are well dispersed on it. The factors concerning this assay strategy are carefully investigated, including the components of the hybrid film, the concentrations of r-GO, HAuCl4 and IL, and the pH of buffer solution. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response ranges are 2.50×10(-8)-2.10×10(-6) mol L(-1) and 2.50×10(-8)-2.49×10(-6) mol L(-1) for TP and CAF, respectively; the detection limits are 1.32×10(-9) mol L(-1) and 4.42×10(-9) mol L(-1), respectively. The electrochemical sensor shows good reproducibility, stability and selectivity, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of TP and CAF in real samples.

  8. Highly sensitive determination of sunset yellow FCF (E110) in food products based on Chitosan/Nanoparticles/MWCNTs with modified gold electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovina, K.; Siddiquee, S.; Shaarani, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Sunset Yellow belongs to the family of azo dyes, commonly used in food industry. High consumption of Sunset Yellow can cause health problem to human. Due to arising of the health issues, there are several analytical methods available for determination of Sunset Yellow. However, these methods are required skilled manpower, complicated procedures, time consuming and high cost. Herein, an electrochemical sensor was developed based on the combination of chitosan (CHIT), calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaONPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) sensing film for detection of Sunset Yellow in food products. Electrochemical behavior of the modified gold electrode in the presence of Sunset Yellow was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The morphological characteristics of CHIT/CaONPs/MWCNTs were observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Under optimal conditions, the DPV was detected with different concentrations of Sunset Yellow in the range of 0.9 to 10 ppm, with detection limit of 0.8 ppm. The developed method has successfully applied for monitoring the presence of Sunset Yellow with different food products including candy, royal jelly, ice cream and soft drink with satisfactory results.

  9. Rapid quantitative detection of Brucella melitensis by a label-free impedance immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Zuo, Yueming; Cui, Chuanjin; Yang, Wei; Ma, Haili; Wang, Xiaowen

    2013-07-04

    A rapid and simple method for quantitative monitoring of Brucella melitensis using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is reported for the first time. The label-free immunosensors were fabricated by immobilizing Brucella melitensis antibody on the surface of gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GNP-SPCEs). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and EIS were used to characterize the Brucella melitensis antigen interaction on the surface of GNP-SPCEs with antibody. A general electronic equivalent model of an electrochemical cell was introduced for interpretation of the impedance components of the system. The results showed that the change in electron-transfer resistance (Rct) was significantly different due to the binding of Brucella melitensis cells. A linear relationship between the Rct variation and logarithmic value of the cell concentration was found from 4 × 10(4) to 4 × 10(6) CFU/mL in pure culture. The label-free impedance biosensor was able to detect as low as 1 × 10(4) and 4 × 10(5) CFU/mL of Brucella melitensis in pure culture and milk samples, respectively, in less than 1.5 h. Moreover, a good selectivity versus Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus cells was obtained for our developed immunosensor demonstrating its specificity towards only Brucella melitensis.

  10. Electrochemical Biosensor: Multistep functionalization of thiolated ssDNA on gold-coated microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulanto Carbajal, Jorge

    Bio-chemical sensors are an emerging and vibrant area of research. The use of micromechanical cantilevers is relatively new as biomechanical recognition detectors. Reactions on a gold coated and chemically functionalized surface produce a mechanical deflection of the cantilever which is used as the input signal of the detector. Within the area of biosensors, DNA-sensors have a wide range of applications such as DNA hybridization detectors, DNA mismatch sequence detectors and protein detectors. We designed and built a microcantilever sensor system which allows for control and characterization of surface conditions. This includes controlled functionalization which can be a dominant factor in signal generation and reproducibility in these systems. Additionally, we developed a multistep functionalization protocol which consists of a sequence of short incubations and characterizations of thiolated ssDNA on a gold-coated cantilever. Multistep functionalization is a new protocol that is used to control the ssDNA surface density on a gold-coated cantilever. Repeatable responses and feasible biosensors are obtained using this protocol.

  11. Accelerated colorimetric immunosensing using surface-modified porous monoliths and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuag, Shao-Hsuan; Chen, Guan-Hua; Chou, Hsin-Hao; Shen, Shu-Wei; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2013-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive immunoassay platform integrating polymerized monoliths and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. The porous monoliths are photopolymerized in situ within a silica capillary and serve as solid support for high-mass transport and high-density capture antibody immobilization to create a shorter diffusion length for antibody-antigen interactions, resulting in a rapid assay and low reagent consumption. AuNPs are modified with detection antibodies and are utilized as signals for colorimetric immunoassays without the need for enzyme, substrate and sophisticated equipment for quantitative measurements. This platform has been verified by performing a human IgG sandwich immunoassay with a detection limit of 0.1 ng ml-1. In addition, a single assay can be completed in 1 h, which is more efficient than traditional immunoassays that require several hours to complete.

  12. Multidentate zwitterionic chitosan oligosaccharide modified gold nanoparticles: stability, biocompatibility and cell interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangsheng; Huang, Haoyuan; Liu, Gongyan; Zhou, Wenbo; Chen, Yangjun; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2013-04-01

    Surface engineering of nanoparticles plays an essential role in their colloidal stability, biocompatibility and interaction with biosystems. In this study, a novel multidentate zwitterionic biopolymer derivative is obtained from conjugating dithiolane lipoic acid and zwitterionic acryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine to the chitosan oligosaccharide backbone. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified by this polymer exhibit remarkable colloidal stabilities under extreme conditions including high salt conditions, wide pH range and serum or plasma containing media. The AuNPs also show strong resistance to competition from dithiothreitol (as high as 1.5 M). Moreover, the modified AuNPs demonstrate low cytotoxicity investigated by both MTT and LDH assays, and good hemocompatibility evaluated by hemolysis of human red blood cells. In addition, the intracellular fate of AuNPs was investigated by ICP-MS and TEM. It showed that the AuNPs are uptaken by cells in a concentration dependent manner, and they can escape from endosomes/lysosomes to cytosol and tend to accumulate around the nucleus after 24 h incubation but few of them are excreted out of the cells. Gold nanorods are also stabilized by this ligand, which demonstrates robust dispersion stability and excellent hemocompatibility. This kind of multidentate zwitterionic chitosan derivative could be widely used for stabilizing other inorganic nanoparticles, which will greatly improve their performance in a variety of bio-related applications.Surface engineering of nanoparticles plays an essential role in their colloidal stability, biocompatibility and interaction with biosystems. In this study, a novel multidentate zwitterionic biopolymer derivative is obtained from conjugating dithiolane lipoic acid and zwitterionic acryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine to the chitosan oligosaccharide backbone. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified by this polymer exhibit remarkable colloidal stabilities under extreme conditions including high salt

  13. Protein determination using graphene oxide-aptamer modified gold nanoparticles in combination with Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Li, Qin; Li, Raoqi; Deng, Zebin; Brady, Brendan; Xia, Ni; Chen, Guimin; Zhou, Yang; Xia, Hengchuan; Chen, Keping; Shi, Haixia

    2016-10-19

    Recently, graphene oxide (GO) has shown superiority for disease detection arising from its unique physical and chemical properties. However, proteins adsorbed on the surface of GO prevent sensitivity improvement in fluorescence-based detection methods. In this paper, a label-free method based on aptamer modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) combined with Tween 80 was shown to solve this problem using the detection of thrombin as an example. An aptamer was designed and bound to thrombin by changing its conformation. Tween 80 was used for rapid and reproducible synthesis of stable DNA-functionalized GNPs and prevented the thrombin from nonspecific binding to GO. Thrombin was detected with a limit of 0.68 pM by taking advantage of the efficient cross-linking effect of aptamer-GNPs to GO. The sensor was validated by determining thrombin concentration in human blood serum samples. The results indicate that this method has promising analytical application in medical diagnostic.

  14. Colorimetric sensing strategy for mercury(II) and melamine utilizing cysteamine-modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yujie; Jiang, Ling; Mei, Yajun; Song, Rongbin; Tian, Danbi; Huang, He

    2013-09-21

    A quantitative colorimetric sensing strategy utilizing cysteamine modified gold nanoparticles (CA-AuNPs) as reporters for Hg(2+) and melamine was demonstrated. Cysteamine is a cheap and commercially available aminothiol and is also the most important chelating ligand in coordination chemistry possessing the ability to coordinate to Hg(2+) and melamine. The terminal thiol group in cysteamine is used to bind to AuNPs and another terminal amine group is used as a colorimetric probe either for Hg(2+) or melamine. By adjusting the pH, protonation of cysteamine's terminal amine groups allows for tuning of the surface charge on the cysteamine-modified gold nanoparticles. At acidic pH, the CA-AuNPs are positively charged due to the protonated amine groups, which may electrostatically bind melamine resulting in aggregation of CA-AuNPs, while at alkaline pH, the amine groups are deprotonated, and if Hg(2+) is present, they may form an N-Hg(2+)-N structure to induce the aggregation of CA-AuNPs. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of Hg(2+) and melamine were 30 nM and 80 nM respectively, which were comparable with or even lower than those of other single analyte methods. The proposed sensing mechanisms, which are based on electrostatic attraction for melamine and the N-Hg(2+)-N structure for Hg(2+), were validated by zeta potential measurements. The facile one-step surface modification strategy for AuNPs is suitable for the effective analysis of large numbers of samples, which would open new opportunities for development of miniaturized Hg(2+) and melamine sensors.

  15. Mediatorless sugar/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells based on gold nanoparticle-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoju; Falk, Magnus; Ortiz, Roberto; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Bobacka, Johan; Ludwig, Roland; Bergelin, Mikael; Gorton, Lo; Shleev, Sergey

    2012-01-15

    We report on the fabrication and characterisation of a gold-nanoparticle (AuNP)-based mediatorless sugar/oxygen biofuel cell (BFC) operating in neutral sugar-containing buffers and human physiological fluids, such as blood and plasma. First, Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase (CtCDH) and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOx), used as anodic and cathodic bioelements, respectively, were immobilised on gold electrodes modified with 20 nm AuNPs. Detailed characterisation and optimisation of a new CDH/AuNP-based bioanode were performed and the following fundamental parameters were obtained: (i) the redox potential of the haem-containing centre of the enzyme was measured to be 75 mV vs. NHE, (ii) the surface coverage of CtCDH was found to be 0.65 pmol cm(-2) corresponding to a sub-monolayer coverage of the thiol-modified AuNPs by the enzyme, (iii) a turnover number for CtCDH immobilised on thiol-modified AuNPs was calculated to be ca. 0.5 s(-1), and (iv) the maximal current densities as high as 40 μA cm(-2) were registered in sugar-containing neutral buffers. Second, both biomodified electrodes, namely the CtCDH/AuNP-based bioanode and the MvBOx/AuNP-based biocathode, were combined into a functional BFC and the designed biodevices were carefully investigated. The following characteristics of the mediator-, separator- and membrane-less, miniature BFC were obtained: in phosphate buffer; an open-circuit voltage of 0.68 V, a maximum power density of 15 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.52 V and in human blood; an open-circuit voltage of 0.65 V, a maximum power density of 3 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.45 V, respectively. The estimated half-lives of the biodevices were found to be >12, <8, and <2 h in a sugar-containing buffer, human plasma, and blood, respectively. The basic characteristics of mediatorless sugar/oxygen BFCs were significantly improved compared with previously designed biodevices, because of the usage of three-dimensional AuNP-modified

  16. Catechol-modified activated carbon prepared by the diazonium chemistry for application as active electrode material in electrochemical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Pognon, Grégory; Cougnon, Charles; Mayilukila, Dilungane; Bélanger, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Activated carbon (Black Pearls 2000) modified with electroactive catechol groups was evaluated for charge storage application as active composite electrode material in an aqueous electrochemical capacitor. High surface area Black Pearls 2000 carbon was functionalized by introduction of catechol groups by spontaneous reduction of catechol diazonium ions in situ prepared in aqueous solution from the corresponding amine. Change in the specific surface area and pore texture of the carbon following grafting was monitored by nitrogen gas adsorption measurements. The electrochemical properties and the chemical composition of the catechol-modified carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Such carbon-modified electrode combines well the faradaic capacitance, originating from the redox activity of the surface immobilized catechol groups, to the electrochemical double layer capacitance of the high surface area Black Pearls carbon. Due to the faradaic contribution, the catechol-modified electrode exhibits a higher specific capacitance (250 F/g) than pristine carbon (150 F/g) over a potential range of -0.4 to 0.75 V in 1 M H(2)SO(4). The stability of the modified electrode evaluated by long-time charge/discharge cycling revealed a low decrease of the capacitance of the catechol-modified carbon due to the loss of the catechol redox activity. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that the benefit of redox groups persists for 10, 000 constant current charge/discharge cycles.

  17. Gold Electrodes Modified with Self-Assembled Monolayers for Measuring L-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Takashi; Perera, D. M. Neluni T.; Nagasaka, Shinobu

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate electrochemistry laboratory experiment in which the students measure the L-ascorbic acid content of a real sample. Gold electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thioctic acid and cysteamine are prepared to study the effects of surface modification on the electrode reaction of L-ascorbic…

  18. Studies on the electrochemical behavior of thiazolidine and its applications using a flow-through chronoamperometric sensor based on a gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Li, Wen-Jie

    2011-09-06

    The electrochemical behaviors of thiazolidine (tetrahydrothiazole) on gold and platinum electrodes were investigated in a Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 2.77-11.61), acetate buffer (pH 4.31), phosphate buffer solutions (pH 2.11 and 6.38) and methanol or acetonitrile containing various supporting electrolytes. Detection was based on a gold wire electrochemical signal obtained with a supporting electrolyte containing 20% methanol-1.0 mM of phosphate buffer (pH 6.87, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate) as the mobile phase. Comparison with results obtained with a commercial amperometric detector shows good agreement. Using the chronoamperometric sensor with the current at a constant potential, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.05 to 16 mg L-1 was found. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method for thiazolidine was found to be 1 ng.

  19. GoldMag nanocomposite-functionalized graphene sensing platform for one-step electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Huafeng; Cui, Yuling; Chen, Guonan

    2011-10-15

    A new flow-through electrochemical immunosensor was designed for sensitive detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum by using nanogold-functionalized magnetic graphene nanosheets as immunosensing probes. Initially, amino functionalized magnetic beads were covalently immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide nanosheets (MGPs), then nanogold particles were adsorbed on the amino groups of the MGPs to construct GoldMag nanocomposites functionalized graphene nanosheets (GMGPs), and then horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugates (HRP-anti-AFP) were assembled onto the surface of nanogold particles (bio-GMGP). With the aid of an external magnet, the formed bio-GMGPs were attached onto the base electrode in the flow system. With a non-competitive immunoassay format, the injected sample containing AFP antigens was produced transparent immunoaffinity reaction with the immobilized HRP-anti-AFP on the bio-GMGPs. The formed immunocomplex inhibited partly the active center of HRP, and decreased the labeled HRP toward the reduction of H(2)O(2). The performance and factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor displayed a wide working range of 0.01-200 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit (LOD) of 1.0 pg mL(-1) AFP (at 3s(B)). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were below 10%. In addition, the methodology was validated with real serum samples, receiving a good correlation with the results obtained from commercially available electrochemiluminescence automated analyzer.

  20. Growth of segmented gold nanorods with nanogaps by the electrochemical wet etching technique for single-electron transistor applications.

    PubMed

    Van Hoang, Nguyen; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2009-03-25

    The growth of multisegment nanorods comprising gold (Au) and sacrificial silver (Ag) segments (Au-Ag-Au or Au-Ag-Au-Ag-Au) using the electrochemical wet etching method is reported. The nanorods were fabricated using an alumina template of thickness 100 microm and pore size of 200 nm. A variety of nanorods from single to seven segments comprising alternate Au and Ag segments were fabricated with better control of growth rate. The multisegment nanorods were selectively etched by removing the Ag segments to create gaps in the fabricated nanorods. A careful investigation led to the creation of a wide variety of nanogaps in the fabricated multisegment nanorods. The size of the nanogap was controlled by the passage of current through the electrochemical process, and size below 10 nm was achievable at exchanged charges of approximately 1 mC. A further lowering in the size of nanogaps was achieved by diluting the silver plating solution and a segmented nanorod with nanogap (Au-nanogap-Au) of 3.8 nm at exchanged charges of 0.2 mC was successfully created. In addition, segmented nanorods with two or more nanogaps (Au-nanogap-Au-nanogap-Ag) placed symmetrically and asymmetrically on either side of the central Au segments were also created. A prototype of a single-electron transistor device based on segmented nanorods with two nanogaps is proposed. The results obtained could form the basis for the realization of quantum tunneling devices where the barrier thickness is very critical and demands values less than 5 nm. The encouraging results show the promise of multisegment nanorods for fabricating devices working at the de Broglie wavelength such as single-electron transistors.

  1. Flower-like self-assembly of gold nanoparticles for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of chromium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Bragg, Stefanie A.; Chambers, James Q.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    We report here the fabrication of a flower-like self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as a highly sensitive platform for ultratrace Cr(VI) detection. Two AuNPs layers are used in the current approach, in which the first is electroplated on the GCE surface as anchors for binding to an overcoated thiol sol-gel film derived from 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS). The second AuNPs layer is then self-assembled on the surface of the sol-gel film, forming flower-like gold nanoelectrodes enlarging the electrode surface. When functionalized by a thiol pyridinium, the fabricated electrode displays a well-defined peak for selective Cr(VI) reduction with an unusually large, linear concentration range of 10–1,200 ng L−1 and a low detection limit of 2.9 ng L−1. In comparison to previous approaches using MPTS and AuNPs on Au electrodes, the current work expands the use of AuNPs to the GCE. Subsequent functionalization of the secondary AuNPs by a thiol pyridinium and adsorption/preconcentration of Cr(VI) lead to the unusually large detection range and high sensitivity. The stepwise preparation of the electrode has been characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and IR. The newly designed electrode exhibits good stability, and has been successfully employed to measure chromium in a pre-treated blood sample. The method demonstrates acceptable fabrication reproducibility and accuracy. PMID:22444528

  2. Optimized design of a nanostructured SPCE-based multipurpose biosensing platform formed by ferrocene-tethered electrochemically-deposited cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Argoubi, Wicem; Saadaoui, Maroua

    2015-01-01

    Summary The demand for on-site nanodevices is constantly increasing. The technology development for the design of such devices is highly regarded. In this work, we report the design of a disposable platform that is structured with cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles (cfAuNPs) and we show its applications in immunosensing and enzyme-based detection. The electrochemical reduction of Au(III) allows for the electrodeposition of highly dispersed cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The nanostructures were functionalized using ferrocenylmethyl lipoic acid ester which allowed for the tethering of the ferrocene group to gold, which serves as an electrochemical transducer/mediator. The bioconjugation of the surface with anti-human IgG antibody (α-hIgG) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme yields biosensors, which have been applied for the selective electrochemical detection of human IgG (hIgG) or H2O2 as model analytes, respectively. Parameters such as the number of sweeps, amount of charge generated from the oxidation of the electrodeposited gold, time of incubation and concentration of the ferrocene derivatives have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Selectivity and specificity tests have been also performed in the presence of potentially interfering substances to either hIgG or H2O2. Results showed that the devised immunosensor is endowed with good selectivity and specificity in the presence of several folds of competitive analytes. The enzyme-based platform showed a good catalytic activity towards H2O2 oxidation which predestined it to potential applications pertaining to enzymatic kinetics studies. The levels of hIgG in human serum and H2O2 in honey were successfully determined and served as assessment tools of the applicability of the platforms for real samples analysis. PMID:26425435

  3. Glassy carbon electrodes sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers generation 4.5 for detecting uric acid in human serum without ascorbic acid interference.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Segovia, A S; Banda-Alemán, J A; Gutiérrez-Granados, S; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, F J; Godínez, Luis A; Bustos, E; Manríquez, J

    2014-02-17

    Glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNp@cysteamine) and PAMAM dendrimers generation 4.5 bearing 128-COOH peripheral groups (GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM), in order to explore their capabilities as electrochemical detectors of uric acid (UA) in human serum samples at pH 2. The results showed that concentrations of UA detected by cyclic voltammetry with GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM were comparable (deviation <±10%; limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.7×10(-4) and 5.8×10(-4) mg dL(-1), respectively) to those concentrations obtained using the uricase-based enzymatic-colorimetric method. It was also observed that the presence of dendrimers in the GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM system minimizes ascorbic acid (AA) interference during UA oxidation, thus improving the electrocatalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles.

  4. Electrochemical tuning of the activity and structure of a copper-cobalt micro-nano film on a gold electrode, and its application to the determination of glucose and of Chemical Oxygen Demand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinqi; Yao, Na; Li, Mei; Hu, Jia; Chen, Jianwei; Hao, Qiaoling; Wu, Kangbing; Zhou, Yikai

    Micro-nano structured Cu-Co was in situ fabricated on the surface of a gold electrode via electrochemical reduction of CuCl2 and Co(NO3)2. It is shown that the shape of the particles can be controlled by variation of deposition current, deposition time, pH value and the ratio of Cu(II) and Co(II) ions. If prepared under current of -200 μA in 0.1 M, pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution, the film possesses high catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose at a largely increased oxidation current compared to a non-modified surface. The electrochemical activity of this sensor can be easily tuned. Glucose is a standard compound for evaluating the chemical oxygen demand (COD), and we have therefore studied the application of the sensor to the determination of this parameter. Under optimized conditions, the sensor has linear response to glucose in the 1.92-768 mg L(-1) concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.609 mg L(-1) (at an S/N ratio of 3). A large number of surface water samples was studied, and the results obtained by this method were found to be linearly correlated to those obtained by the dichromate method (r = 0.995; n = 33). Graphical AbstractThis study describes the facile synthesis of micro-nano Cu-Co by one-step electrodeposition of Cu(II) and Co(II) on gold electrode. The alloy composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities, and was successfully applied on the COD determination of glucose and water samples.

  5. Electrochemical behavior of an antiviral drug acyclovir at fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shetti, Nagaraj P; Malode, Shweta J; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of acyclovir at fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode has been investigated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. In pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, acyclovir showed an irreversible oxidation peak at about 0.96V. The cyclic voltammetric results showed that fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acyclovir. The electrocatalytic behavior was further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the acyclovir determination by differential pulse voltammetry. Effects of anodic peak potential (E(p)/V), anodic peak current (I(p)/μA) and heterogeneous rate constant (k(0)) have been discussed. Under optimized conditions, the concentration range and detection limit were 9.0×10(-8) to 6.0×10(-6)M and 1.48×10(-8)M, respectively. The proposed method was applied to acyclovir determination in pharmaceutical samples and human biological fluids such as urine and blood plasma as a real sample. This method can also be employed in quality control and routine determination of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. Geographical and geological origin of natural graphite heavily influence the electrical and electrochemical properties of chemically modified graphenes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Colin Hong An; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Natural graphite is an important precursor for the production of chemically modified graphenes in bulk quantities for electrochemical applications. These natural graphites have varying fundamental properties due to the different geological processes and environments at their points of origin, which are expected to affect their chemical reactivity and hence the properties of the derived graphene materials. Four different natural graphites with known geographical and geological origins were exposed to a modified Hummers oxidation method and the resulting graphite oxides were studied. The graphite oxides were shown to have different extents of oxidation and types of oxygen groups, which directly influenced their electrochemical properties. These differences were propagated further in the subsequent chemical reduction of the graphite oxides, and the reduced graphene oxides exhibited significantly different reduction efficiencies and electrical conductivities. These findings show that the choice of natural graphite of known origin is important to synthesize chemically modified graphenes with a desired set of properties.

  7. Biosensors Based on Nano-Gold/Zeolite-Modified Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistors for Creatinine Detection.

    PubMed

    Ozansoy Kasap, Berna; Marchenko, Svitlana V; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Akata Kurc, Burcu

    2017-12-01

    The combination of advantages of using zeolites and gold nanoparticles were aimed to be used for the first time to improve the characteristic properties of ion selective field-effect transistor (ISFET)-based creatinine biosensors. The biosensors with covalently cross-linked creatinine deiminase using glutaraldehyde (GA) were used as a control group, and the effect of different types of zeolites on biosensor responses was investigated in detail by using silicalite, zeolite beta (BEA), nano-sized zeolite beta (Nano BEA) and zeolite BEA including gold nanoparticle (BEA-Gold). The presence of gold nanoparticles was investigated by ICP, STEM-EDX and XPS analysis. The chosen zeolite types allowed investigating the effect of aluminium in the zeolite framework, particle size and the presence of gold nanoparticles in the zeolitic framework.After the synthesis of different types of zeolites in powder form, bare biosensor surfaces were modified by drop-coating of zeolites and creatinine deiminase (CD) was adsorbed on this layer. The sensitivities of the obtained biosensors to 1 mM creatinine decreased in the order of BEA-Gold > BEA > Nano BEA > Silicalite > GA. The highest sensitivity belongs to BEA-Gold, having threefold increase compared to GA, which can be attributed to the presence of gold nanoparticle causing favourable microenvironment for CD to avoid denaturation as well as increased surface area. BEA zeolites, having aluminium in their framework, regardless of particle size, gave higher responses than silicalite, which has no aluminium in its structure. These results suggest that ISFET biosensor responses to creatinine can be tailored and enhanced upon carefully controlled alteration of zeolite parameters used to modify electrode surfaces.

  8. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the interaction between hepatitis B surface antibody and antigen on a gold electrode modified with cysteamine and colloidal gold via electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    He, Yan Bin; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2007-06-15

    Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) was immobilized to the surface of a gold electrode modified with cysteamine and colloidal gold as matrices to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method was used for the investigation of the specific interaction between the immobilized HBsAb and HBsAg in solution, which was followed as a change of peak current in DPV with time. With the modified gold electrode, the differences in affinity of HBsAb with HBsAg at the temperatures of 37 and 40 degrees C were easily distinguished and the kinetic rate constants (k(ass) and k(diss)) and kinetic affinity constant K were determined from the curves of current versus time. In addition, the thermodynamic constants, DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS, of the interaction at 37 degrees C were calculated, which were -56.65, -64.54 and -25.45 kJ mol(-1), respectively.

  9. Graphene-metallic nanocomposites as modifiers in electrochemical glucose biosensor transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, Derya Bal; Tepeli, Yudum; Anik, Ulku

    2016-09-01

    Graphene sheets and three different graphene-metallic nanocomposites including graphene-copper (graphene-Cu), graphene-nickel (graphene-Ni) and graphene-platinum (graphene-Pt) were prepared and characterized in the first place. Then the electrochemical performances of these nanocomposites were tested in glucose biosensor transducers, which were formed by combining these metallic nanocomposites with glucose oxidase enzyme and glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE). This is the first work that includes the usage of these graphene-Me nanocomposites as a part of glucose biosensor transducer. Fabricated amperometric biosensors linear ranges were obtained as follow: For the plain graphene, the linear range was found in the concentration range between 50 μM and 800 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 12.86% and LOD value of 7.2 μM. For graphene-Pt modified glucose biosensor, the linear range was between 10 μM and 600 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 3.45% and LOD value of 3.06 μM. In the case of graphene-Ni modified glucose biosensor, the values were 25 μM to 600 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 8.76% and LOD value of 24.71 μM and for graphene-Cu modified glucose biosensor linear range was 25 μM to 400 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 3.93% and LOD value of 2.87 μM.

  10. Multifunctional gold-silica nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of streptomycin residues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Yuling; Chen, Huafeng; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Tang, Dianping

    2011-12-01

    A facile and simple electrochemical immunoassay for ultrasensitive determination of streptomycin residues (STR) in food was designed by using nanogold-assembled mesoporous silica (GMSNs) as bionanolabels on a three-dimensional redox-active organosilica-functionalized sensing interface. To construct such a sensing interface, we initially synthesized organosilica colloids by using wet chemical method, and then utilized the prepared colloidal organosilica nanocomposites for the immobilization of monoclonal anti-STR antibodies on a glassy carbon electrode based on a sol-gel method. The bionanolabels were prepared based on coimmobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and STR-bovine serum albumin conjugates (STR-BSA) on the GMSNs. With a competitive-type immunoassay format, the assay toward STR analyte was carried out in pH 5.5 acetate acid buffer (ABS) by using redox-active organosilica nanocomposites as electron mediators, biofunctionalized GMSNs as traces, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as enzyme substrate. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current of the electrochemical immunosensor decreased with the increase in STR level in the sample, and displayed a wide dynamic range of 0.05-50 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit (LOD) of 5 pg mL(-1) at 3s(B). Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were less than 8.7 and 9.3% for STR detection, respectively. In addition, the methodology was validated with STR spiked samples including honey, milk, kidney, and muscle, receiving a good correspondence with the results obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  11. Nanoporous-Gold-Based Electrode Morphology Libraries for Investigating Structure-Property Relationships in Nucleic Acid Based Electrochemical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Zimple; Daggumati, Pallavi; Wang, Ling; Dorofeeva, Tatiana S; Li, Zidong; Seker, Erkin

    2017-01-31

    Nanoporous gold (np-Au) electrode coatings significantly enhance the performance of electrochemical nucleic acid biosensors because of their three-dimensional nanoscale network, high electrical conductivity, facile surface functionalization, and biocompatibility. Contrary to planar electrodes, the np-Au electrodes also exhibit sensitive detection in the presence of common biofouling media due to their porous structure. However, the pore size of the nanomatrix plays a critical role in dictating the extent of biomolecular capture and transport. Small pores perform better in the case of target detection in complex samples by filtering out the large nonspecific proteins. On the other hand, larger pores increase the accessibility of target nucleic acids in the nanoporous structure, enhancing the detection limits of the sensor at the expense of more interference from biofouling molecules. Here, we report a microfabricated np-Au multiple electrode array that displays a range of electrode morphologies on the same chip for identifying feature sizes that reduce the nonspecific adsorption of proteins but facilitate the permeation of target DNA molecules into the pores. We demonstrate the utility of the electrode morphology library in studying DNA functionalization and target detection in complex biological media with a special emphasis on revealing ranges of electrode morphologies that mutually enhance the limit of detection and biofouling resilience. We expect this technique to assist in the development of high-performance biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics and facilitate studies on the electrode structure-property relationships in potential applications ranging from neural electrodes to catalysts.

  12. Effective seed-assisted synthesis of gold nanoparticles anchored nitrogen-doped graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran Duy; Balamurugan, Jayaraman; Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2016-07-15

    A novel gold nanoparticle-anchored nitrogen-doped graphene (AuNP/NG) nanohybrid was synthesized through a seed-assisted growth method, as an effective electrocatalyst for glucose and dopamine detection. The AuNP/NG nanohybrids exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity toward glucose and dopamine sensing applications. The as-synthesized nanohybrids exhibited excellent catalytic activity toward glucose, with a linear response throughout the concentration range from 40μM to 16.1mM, a detection limit of 12μM, and a short response time (∼ 10s). It also exhibited an excellent response toward DA, with a wide detection range from 30nM to 48μM, a low detection limit of 10nM, and a short response time (∼ 8s). Furthermore, it also showed long-term stability and high selectivity for the target analytes. These results imply that such nanohybrids show a great potential for electrochemical biosensing application.

  13. Horseradish peroxidase functionalized gold nanorods as a label for sensitive electrochemical detection of alpha-fetoprotein antigen.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinjin; Han, Xiaowei; Wang, Junchun; Zhao, Junqing; Guo, Zilin; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2015-12-15

    In this study, a novel tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized gold nanorods (Au NRs) nanocomposites (HRP-Au NRs), was designed to label the signal antibodies for sensitive electrochemical measurement of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The preparation of HRP-Au NRs nanocomposites and the labeling of secondary antibody (Ab2) were performed by one-pot assembly of HRP and Ab2 on the surface of Au NRs. The immunosensor was fabricated by assembling carbon nanotubes (CNTs), Au NRs, and capture antibodies (Ab1) on the glassy carbon electrode. In the presence of AFP antigen, the labels were captured on the surface of the Au NRs/CNTs via specific recognition of antigen-antibody, resulting in the signal intensity being clearly increased. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed to record the response signal of the immunosensor in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Under optimal conditions, the signal intensity was linearly related to the concentration of AFP in the range of 0.1-100 ng ml(-1), and the limit of detection was 30 pg ml(-1) (at signal/noise [S/N] = 3). Furthermore, the immunoassay method was evaluated using human serum samples, and the recovery obtained was within 99.0 and 102.7%, indicating that the immunosensor has potential clinical applications.

  14. Comparative electrochemical and impedance studies of self-assembled rigid-rod molecular wires and alkanethiols on gold substrates.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Francisco A; Campos, Rui; Wang, Changsheng; Jitchati, Rukkiat; Batsanov, Andrei S; Bryce, Martin R; Kataky, Ritu

    2010-11-28

    A study of the charge transfer and self-assembly characteristics of two new rigid-rod molecular wires 1 and 2 assembled on polycrystalline gold electrodes was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. This class of wires have precisely controlled (ca. 1.5-2.5 nm) lengths of π-conjugation, with extended HOMO and LUMO wavefunctions. While rotations can occur around the C-C single bonds, the molecules cannot isomerise or fold due to their rigid backbone structures. The behaviour of these wires was compared with SAMs of heptanethiol (HPT) and dodecanethiol (DDT). It was found that SAMs of 1, which bears flexible hexyloxy sidechains, had randomly distributed pinholes which show microelectrode behaviour even when diluted with DDT. SAMs of 2, which do not have any sidechains, were well-organised at open-circuit potentials enabling evaluation of electron transfer kinetics assuming an average film thickness. However, impedance studies show that deviations from open circuit potentials resulted in an exponential decrease in charge transfer resistance, whereas capacitance remained constant, possibly attributable to conformational changes of the SAM. The syntheses and characterisation of the molecules is described.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of palmatine and its sensitive determination based on an electrochemically reduced L-methionine functionalized graphene oxide modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wenhua; Wang, Lu; Ye, Baoxian; Li, Gaiping; Li, Jianjun

    2015-12-07

    A new and sensitive voltammetric sensor for palmatine, based on an electrochemically reduced L-methionine functionalized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (L-Met-ERGO/GCE), is reported. The electrochemical characteristics of palmatine at the proposed sensor were studied systematically and some dynamic parameters were calculated for the first time. A reasonable reaction mechanism for palmatine on the L-Met-ERGO/GCE electrode was proposed and discussed, and this could be a reference for the pharmacological action of palmatine in clinical study. Under optimized conditions, the peak current had a linear relationship with palmatine concentration in the range of 1 × 10(-7) to 5 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 6 × 10(-8) mol L(-1). Additionally, the proposed method was also used to detect palmatine in human urine samples, medicinal tablets and the Chinese herb Fibraurea recisa Pierre with satisfactory results.

  16. Application of Chiral Ionic Liquid-Modified Gold Nanoparticles in the Chiral Recognition of Amino Acid Enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Chen, Yi-Ting; Li, Yan-Xia; Yu, Li-Shuang

    2016-07-14

    Two chiral ionic liquids (ILs), namely 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazole l-tartrate (EMIML-Tar) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazole l-lactate (EMIML-Lac), were used to modify gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for chiral recognition of amino acid enantiomers. Transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and capillary electrophoresis were used for the characterization of chiral IL-modified AuNPs. Meanwhile, the performance of l-tartaric acid and l-lactic acid as modifiers was investigated to make a comparison. The chiral recognition mechanism is further discussed.

  17. Amperometric detection of catechol using tyrosinase modified electrodes enhanced by the layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanocubes and polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Nurul; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Hye Jin

    2014-11-15

    A novel amperometric biosensor for catechol was developed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of positively charged hexadecyltrimethylammonium stabilized gold nanocubes (AuNCs), negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) and tyrosinase on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). A carboxylic acid terminated alkanethiol assembled on electrochemically deposited Au nanoparticles on a SPCE was used as a platform for LbL assembly. Each SPCE sensor surface was terminated with tyrosinase and the electrocatalytic response due to the tyrosinase reaction with catechol was measured using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The effect of introducing AuNCs into the LbL assembly to further enhance the catechol detection performance was then investigated by comparing the SWV results to those from biosensors created using both the tyrosinase modified LbL assembly in the absence of NCs and the covalent attachment of tyrosinase. A wide dynamic range from 10nM to 80 µM of catechol with an excellent sensitivity of 13.72 A/M and a detection limit of 0.4 nM were both achieved alongside a good selectivity and reproducibility for the AuNC-modified electrodes. As a demonstration, the optimized biosensor design was applied to determine catechol concentrations in tea samples.

  18. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance studies of DNA hybridization on gold/SiOx interfaces.

    PubMed

    Manesse, Maël; Stambouli, Valerie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2008-08-01

    The use of Au/SiO(x) interfaces for the investigation of DNA hybridization using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) simultaneously is demonstrated. Standard glass chemistry was used to link single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) on aldehyde-terminated Au/SiO(x) interfaces. The layer thickness and amount of grafted oligonucleotides (ODNs) were calculated from SPR on the basis of a multilayer system of glass/Ti/Au/SiO(x)/grafted molecule. Capacitance and resistance values of the modified interface before and after hybridization were calculated from EIS data using an equivalent circuit and allowed the affinity rate constant, K(A) = 4.07 x 10(5) M(-1), to be determined. The EIS results were comparable to those obtained by SPR hybridization kinetics recorded in parallel.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF GOLD-MODIFIED POLYOXYDIANILINE MEMBRANES: AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY. (R830906)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and computational analysis of mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes: antiproliferative and in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2014-12-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type [(DACH)Au(en)]Cl3, 1,2-Diaminocyclohexane ethylenediamine gold(III) chloride [where 1,2-DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2diaminocyclohexane and en = ethylenediamine] have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra; and solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and ethylenediamine (en) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. Their electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also reported at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The coordination sphere of these complexes around gold(III) center adopts distorted square planar geometry. The computational study also demonstrates that trans- conformations is slightly more stable than the cis-conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 1 is the most effective antiproliferative agent among mixed ligand based gold(III) complexes 1-3. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1 and 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells are fairly better than that of cisplatin.

  1. Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of protein tyrosine kinase-7 by gold nanoparticles and methylene blue assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangmin; Li, Zongbing; Zhu, Aihua; Feng, Zhaozhong; Tian, Jun; Peng, Xue

    2016-09-15

    We present here an ultrasensitive and simple strategy for protein tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK7) detection based on the recognition-induced structure change of sgc8 aptamer, and the signal change of methylene blue (MB) that interacted with sandwiched DNA complex. To construct such a sensor, an homogeneous nano-surface was formed firstly on the glass carbon electrode (GCE) by using negatively charged Nafion (Nf) as the inner layer and positively charged gold nanoparticles ((+)AuNPs) as the outer layer, followed by the immobilization of sgc8 aptamer based on Au-S bond. In the presence of helper probe (HP), sandwiched DNA complex was formed between the sgc8 aptamer and the DNA modified gold nanoparticle probe (DNA-AuNPs). Then, a strong current signal was produced due to the capture of abundant MB molecules by both the sandwiched DNA complex and the multiple DNAs that modified on AuNPs surface. However, the specific binding of sgc8 aptamer with PNK7 would trigger a structure transition of it, and directly prevented the following formation of sandwiched structure and the capture of MB. Thus, PTK7 detection could be realized based on monitoring the signal reduction of MB upon incubation of sgc8 aptamer with PTK7. Under optimal conditions, a low detection limit of 372 fM was obtained for PNK7 detection. Due to the employment of sgc8 aptamer, the proposed biosensor exhibited high selectivity to PNK7. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained when the proposed method was applied for PNK7 detection in cellular debris.

  2. Mediated electron transfer of cellobiose dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase at osmium polymer-modified nanoporous gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Scanlon, Micheál D; Baumeister, Tobias; Zahma, Kawah; Ludwig, Roland; Ó Conghaile, Peter; MacAodha, Domhnall; Leech, Dónal; Magner, Edmond

    2013-04-01

    Nanoporous and planar gold electrodes were utilised as supports for the redox enzymes Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOx) and Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase (CtCDH). Electrodes modified with hydrogels containing enzyme, Os-redox polymers and the cross-linking agent poly(ethylene glycol)diglycidyl ether were used as biosensors for the determination of glucose and lactose. Limits of detection of 6.0 (±0.4), 16.0 (±0.1) and 2.0 (±0.1) μM were obtained for CtCDH-modified lactose and glucose biosensors and GOx-modified glucose biosensors, respectively, at nanoporous gold electrodes. Biofuel cells composed of GOx- and CtCDH-modified gold electrodes were utilised as anodes, together with Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOD) or Melanocarpus albomyces laccase as cathodes, in biofuel cells. A maximum power density of 41 μW/cm(2) was obtained for a CtCDH/MvBOD biofuel cell in 5 mM lactose and O2-saturated buffer (pH 7.4, 0.1 M phosphate, 150 mM NaCl).

  3. On the High Sensitivity of the Electronic States of 1 nm Gold Particles to Pretreatments and Modifiers.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk, Oxana; Kotolevich, Yulia; Vélez, Rodrigo; Cabrera Ortega, Jesus Efren; Tiznado, Hugo; Zepeda Partida, Trino; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Pestryakov, Alexey; Bogdanchikova, Nina

    2016-03-31

    In this paper, the effect of modifiers and pretreatments on the electronic states of 1 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) supported on silica was systematically studied. AuNPs deposited on silica (particle size of 2-4 nm) modified with Ce, La and Fe oxides, were studied by FTIR of adsorbed CO after different redox treatments at 100, 300 and 500 °C. This study was conducted at room temperature to allow detecting the electronic states of gold, which is more likely involved in CO oxidation at the same temperature. AuNP size distribution was measured by HRTEM. It is shown that the electronic state of gold species (Aun(δ-), Au⁰, Aun(δ+), Au⁺) in 1 nm AuNPs is sensitive to the modifier as well as to the temperatures of redox pretreatments. Supports modified with the same additives but containing larger AuNPs (~3, 4, 5, and 7 nm) were also studied. They showed that Au⁰ remains stable irrespective of additives and redox pretreatments, indicating no significant effect of such treatments on the electronic properties of larger AuNPs. Samples with a predominant AuNP size of 2 nm are an intermediate case between these two groups of materials.

  4. Green synthesis and characterization of novel gold nanocomposites for electrochemical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Shivani; Ho, Ja-an Annie; Magi, Emanuele

    2013-12-15

    Synthesis, characterization and application of Au-PANI-Calix and Au-PANI-Nap nanocomposites, is reported herein. An easy template free green synthesis is proposed and discussed for easy expediency. A variety of analytical techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites: UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the nanocomposites. Surface morphology was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocomposites were immobilized on screen-printed electrode and showed electroactivity in neutral pH, making them promising candidates for various analytical applications. A sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+) was perceived on the Au-PANI-Calix modified electrode with no interference from ions K(+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+) with a detection limit of 10nM. The copper detection is facilitated for accessible ligation with 4-sulfocalix[4]arene, so as the Cu(II)-Calix complex formed. The electrode modified with Au-PANI-Nap showed sensing application towards H2O2 with a detection limit of 1 μM. The modified electrodes were reproducible and stable for 2 months.

  5. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study

    PubMed Central

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Aims: Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Methods: Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Results: Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). Conclusion: There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and

  6. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Studies of Imogolite and Fe-Modified Imogolite Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Carmen; Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolas; Acuña-Rougier, Cristina; Escudey, Mauricio; Tasca, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and other forms of carbon nanoparticles, as well as metal nanoparticles have been widely used in film electrochemistry because they allow for the immobilization of larger amounts of catalyst (either biological or inorganic) on the top of the modified electrodes. Nevertheless, those nanoparticles present high costs of synthesis and of separation and purification that hamper their employment. On the other hand, imogolites (Im), with the general formula (OH)3Al2O3SiOH, are naturally-occurring nanomaterials, which can be obtained from glassy volcanic ash soils and can also be synthesized at mild conditions. In this research paper, we characterize through spectroscopic techniques (i.e., fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) synthetized Im and Fe-modified imogolite (Im(Fe)). Moreover, the Im and Im(Fe) were physically adsorbed on the top of a graphite electrode (GE) and were characterized electrochemically in the potential region ranging from −0.8 to 0.8 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). When the film of the Im or of the Im(Fe) was present on the top of the electrode, the intensity of the charging/discharging current increased two-fold, but no redox activity in the absence of O2 could be appreciated. To show that Im and Im(Fe) could be used as support for catalysts, iron phthalocyanine (FePc) was adsorbed on the top of the Im or Im(Fe) film, and the electrocatalytic activity towards the O2 reduction was measured. In the presence of the Im, the measured electrocatalytic current for O2 reduction increased 30%, and the overpotential drastically decreased by almost 100 mV, proving that the Im can act as a good support for the electrocatalysts. PMID:28344285

  7. Electrochemical immunoassay platform for high sensitivity protein detection based on redox-modified carbon nanotube labels.

    PubMed

    Chunglok, Wilanee; Khownarumit, Porntip; Rijiravanich, Patsamon; Somasundrum, Mithran; Surareungchai, Werasak

    2011-07-21

    We report a highly sensitive immunoassay protocol based on the use of redox-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as electrochemical labels. The MWNTs were coated with methylene blue (MB) at an optically-determined loading of 3.41 × 10(-3) mol g(-1), and were then attached to secondary antibodies (Ab(2)) by adsorption. As a model analyte mouse IgG was collected by primary antibody (Ab(1))-coated magnetic beads. Following binding of the MB-MWNT-Ab(2) conjugates, IgG could be measured by MB reduction. Using differential pulse voltammetry for quantification, IgG was calibrated with a dynamic range of 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 100 pg mL(-1). Given the different possible Ab(1)-MB-MWNT-Ab(2) orientations on the magnetic beads, it was likely that not all the MB communicated with the electrode. A greater quantity of MB could be accessed by using the Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) redox couple as a solution phase mediator. This enabled us to lower the dynamic range down to 5 fg mL(-1) to 100 fg mL(-1).

  8. Electrochemical studies on the oxidation of guanine and adenine at cyclodextrin modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Noori, Abolhassan

    2008-12-01

    An electrochemical sensor for guanine and adenine using cyclodextrin-modified poly(N-acetylaniline) (PNAANI) on a carbon paste electrode has been developed. The oxidation mechanism of guanine and adenine on the surface of the electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the electrode processes are irreversible, pH dependent, and involve several reaction products. The electron transfer process occurs in consecutive steps with the formation of a strongly adsorbed intermediate on the electrode surface. Also, a new method for estimating the apparent formation constants of guanine and adenine with the immobilized cyclodextrins, through the change of surface coverage of studied analytes has been reported. Both guanine and adenine showed linear concentrations in the range of 0.1-10 microM by using differential pulse voltammetry, with an experimental limit of detection down to 0.05 microM. Linear concentration ranges of 2-150 microM for guanine and 6-104 microM for adenine have been found when cyclic voltammetry was used for determination of both analytes.

  9. Preparation and Electrochemical Characterization of a Carbon Ceramic Electrode Modified with Ferrocenecarboxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Skeika, Tatiane; Zuconelli, Cristiane R.; Fujiwara, Sergio T.; Pessoa, Christiana A.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the characterization of a carbon ceramic electrode modified with ferrocenecarboxylic acid (designated as CCE/Fc) by electrochemical techniques and its detection ability for dopamine. From cyclic voltammetric experiments, it was observed that the CCE/Fc presented a redox pair at Epa = 405 mV and Epc = 335 mV (ΔE = 70 mV), related to the ferrocene/ferrocenium process. Studies showed a considerably increase in the redox currents at the same oxidation potential of ferrocene (Epa = 414 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) in the presence of dopamine (DA), differently from those observed when using only the unmodified CCE, in which the anodic peak increase was considerably lower. From SWV experiments, it was observed that the AA (ascorbic acid) oxidation at CCE/Fc occurred in a different potential than the DA oxidation (with a peak separation of approximately 200 mV). Moreover, CCE/Fc did not respond to different AA concentrations, indicating that it is possible to determine DA without the AA interference with this electrode. PMID:22319356

  10. Selective Capture of Glycoproteins Using Lectin-modified Nanoporous Gold Monolith

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Allan J.; d’Andrea, Felipe B.; Bhattarai, Jay K.; Cooper, Jared A.; Tan, Yih Horng; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    The surface of nanoporous gold (np-Au) monoliths was modified via a flow method with the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) to develop a substrate for separation and extraction of glycoproteins. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of lipoic acid (LA) on the np-Au monoliths were prepared followed by activation of the terminal carboxyl groups to create amine reactive esters that were utilized in the immobilization of Con A. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the surface coverages of LA and Con A on np-Au monoliths which were found to be 1.31 × 1018 molecules m−2 and 1.85 × 1015 molecules m−2, respectively. An in situ solution depletion method was developed that enabled surface coverage characterization without damaging the substrate and suggesting the possibility of regeneration. Using this method, the surface coverages of LA and Con A were found to be 0.989 ×1018 molecules m−2 and 1.32 × 1015 molecules m−2, respectively. The selectivity of the Con A-modified np-Au monolith for the high mannose-containing glycoprotein ovalbumin (OVA) versus negative control non-glycosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) was demonstrated by the difference in the ratio of the captured molecules to the immobilized Con A molecules, with OVA:Con A = 2.3 and BSA:Con A = 0.33. Extraction of OVA from a 1:3 mole ratio mixture with BSA was demonstrated by the greater amount of depletion of OVA concentration during the circulation with the developed substrate. A significant amount of captured OVA was eluted using α-methyl mannopyranoside as a competitive ligand. This work is motivated by the need to develop new materials for chromatographic separation and extraction substrates for use in preparative and analytical procedures in glycomics. PMID:26554297

  11. Diamondoid-functionalized gold nanogaps as sensors for natural, mutated, and epigenetically modified DNA nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Ganesh; Amorim, Rodrigo G; Scheicher, Ralph H; Fyta, Maria

    2016-05-21

    Modified tiny hydrogen-terminated diamond structures, known as diamondoids, show a high efficiency in sensing DNA molecules. These diamond cages, as recently proposed, could offer functionalization possibilities for gold junction electrodes. In this investigation, we report on diamondoid-functionalized electrodes, showing that such a device would have a high potential in sensing and sequencing DNA. The smallest diamondoid including an amine modification was chosen for the functionalization. Here, we report on the quantum tunneling signals across diamondoid-functionalized Au(111) electrodes. Our work is based on quantum-transport calculations and predicts the expected signals arising from different DNA units within the break junctions. Different gating voltages are proposed in order to tune the sensitivity of the functionalized electrodes with respect to specific nucleotides. The relation of this sensitivity to the coupling or decoupling of the electrodes is discussed. Our results also shed light on the sensing capability of such a device in distinguishing the DNA nucleotides, in their natural and mutated forms.

  12. Modified titanium surface with gelatin nano gold composite increases osteoblast cell biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Bhattarai, Govinda; Aryal, Santosh; Lee, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Tae-Gun; Jhee, Eun-Chung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the gelatin nano gold (GnG) composite for surface modification of titanium in addition to insure biocompatibility on dental implants or biomaterials. The GnG composite was constructed by gelatin and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate in presence of reducing agent, sodium borohydrate (NabH 4). The GnG composite was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A dipping method was used to modify the titanium surface by GnG composite. Surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The MC-3T3 E1 cell viability was assessed by trypan blue and the expression of proteins to biocompatibility were analyzed by Western blotting. The GnG composite showed well dispersed character, the strong absorption at 530 nm, roughness, regular crystal and clear C, Na, Cl, P, and Au signals onto titanium. Further, this composite allowed MC-3T3 E1 growth and viability compared to gelatin and pure titanium. It induced ERK activation and the expression of cell adherent molecules, FAK and SPARC, and growth factor, VEGF. However, GnG decreased the level of SAPK/JNK. This shows that GnG composite coated titanium surfaces have a good biocompatibility for osteoblast growth and attachment than in intact by simple and versatile dipping method. Furthermore, it offers good communication between cell and implant surfaces by regulating cell signaling and adherent molecules, which are useful to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces.

  13. Lipase-nanoporous gold biocomposite modified electrode for reliable detection of triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Liu, Xueying; Li, Yufei; Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2014-03-15

    For triglycerides biosensor design, protein immobilization is necessary to create the interface between the enzyme and the electrode. In this study, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with lipase-nanoporous gold (NPG) biocomposite (denoted as lipase/NPG/GCE). Due to highly conductive, porous, and biocompatible three-dimensional structure, NPG is suitable for enzyme immobilization. In cyclic voltammetry experiments, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode displayed surface-confined reaction in a phosphate buffer solution. Linear responses were obtained for tributyrin concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg dl(-1) and olive oil concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 mg dl(-1). The value of apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for tributyrin was 10.67 mg dl(-1) and the detection limit was 2.68 mg dl(-1). Further, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode had strong anti-interference ability against urea, glucose, cholesterol, and uric acid as well as a long shelf-life. For the detection of triglycerides in human serum, the values given by the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode were in good agreement with those of an automatic biochemical analyzer. These properties along with a long self-life make the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for the construction of triglycerides biosensor.

  14. Novel Signal-Amplified Fenitrothion Electrochemical Assay, Based on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Dispersed Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Dong, Jinbo; Wang, Yulong; Cheng, Qi; Yang, Mingming; Cai, Jia; Liu, Fengquan

    2016-01-01

    A novel signal-amplified electrochemical assay for the determination of fenitrothion was developed, based on the redox behaviour of organophosphorus pesticides on a glassy carbon working electrode. The electrode was modified using graphene oxide dispersion. The electrochemical response of fenitrothion at the modified electrode was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, current-time curves, and square-wave voltammetry. Experimental parameters, namely the accumulation conditions, pH value, and volume of dispersed material, were optimised. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained between the oxidation peak current and the fenitrothion concentration. The linear range was 1–400 ng·mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng·mL−1 (signal-to-nose ratio = 3). The high sensitivity of the sensor was demonstrated by determining fenitrothion in pakchoi samples. PMID:27003798

  15. Enzyme-triggered tyramine-enzyme repeats on prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures for highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of tissue polypeptide antigen.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tisen; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Xuegui; Xie, Zhaohui; Li, Xiangyong

    2015-11-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay with sensitivity enhancement was developed for quantitative detection of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) by coupling with target-induced tyramine signal amplification on prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures. The immunosensor was prepared through immobilizing anti-TPA capture antibody on a cleaned screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Prussian blue-gold hybrid nanostructures (PBGNS) labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detection antibody were utilized as the signal-transduction tags. Upon target TPA introduction, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed between capture antibody and detection antibody on the electrode. The carried HRP could trigger the formation of tyramine-HRP repeats on the PBGNS in the presence of H2O2. Using the doped prussian blue as the electron mediator, the conjugated HRP could catalyze the reduction of H2O2. Under the optimal conditions, the catalytic currents increased with the increasing target TPA in the dynamic range from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.3 pg mL(-1). The reproducibility and specificity of the electrochemical immunoassay were acceptable. In addition, the contents of target TPA in nine human serum specimens were evaluated by using the developed electrochemical immunosensor, and the obtained results correlated well with those from commercially enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with a correlation coefficient of 0.9975.

  16. On-Electrode Synthesis of Shape-Controlled Hierarchical Flower-Like Gold Nanostructures for Efficient Interfacial DNA Assembly and Sensitive Electrochemical Sensing of MicroRNA.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Dan; Chao, Jie; Liu, Xingfen; Wan, Ying; Su, Yan; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    The performance for biomolecular detection is closely associated with the interfacial structure of a biosensor, which profoundly affects both thermodynamics and kinetics of the assembly, binding and signal transduction of biomolecules. Herein, it is reported on a one-step and template-free on-electrode synthesis method for making shape-controlled gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide substrates, which provide an electrochemical sensing platform for ultrasensitive detection of nucleic acids. Thus-prepared hierarchical flower-like gold nanostructures (HFGNs) possess large surface area that can readily accommodate the assembly of DNA probes for subsequent hybridization detection. It is found that the sensitivity for electrochemical DNA sensing is critically dependent on the morphology of HFGNs. By using this new strategy, a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor is developed for label-free detection of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21), a biomarker for lung cancers. Importantly, it is demonstrated that this biosensor can be employed to measure the miRNA-21 expression level from human lung cancer cell (A549) lysates and worked well in 100% serum, suggesting its potential for applications in clinical diagnosis and a wide range of bioanalysis.

  17. Gold nanoparticles-based electrochemical method for the detection of protein kinase with a peptide-like inhibitor as the bioreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Chang, Yong; Zhou, Binbin; Wang, Xiaojin; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a general method for the detection of protein kinase with a peptide-like kinase inhibitor as the bioreceptor, and it was done by converting gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based colorimetric assay into sensitive electrochemical analysis. In the colorimetric assay, the kinase-specific aptameric peptide triggered the aggregation of AuNPs in solution. However, the specific binding of peptide to the target protein (kinase) inhibited its ability to trigger the assembly of AuNPs. In the electrochemical analysis, peptides immobilized on a gold electrode and presented as solution triggered together the in situ formation of AuNPs-based network architecture on the electrode surface. Nevertheless, the formation of peptide–kinase complex on the electrode surface made the peptide-triggered AuNPs assembly difficult. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the change in surface property in the binding events. When a ferrocene-labeled peptide (Fc-peptide) was used in this design, the network of AuNPs/Fc-peptide produced a good voltammetric signal. The competitive assay allowed for the detection of protein kinase A with a detection limit of 20 mU/mL. This work should be valuable for designing novel optical or electronic biosensors and likely lead to many detection applications. PMID:28331314

  18. A 3D microfluidic chip for electrochemical detection of hydrolysed nucleic bases by a modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-22

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  19. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE. PMID:25621613

  20. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  1. Preconcentration of gold ions from water samples by modified organo-nanoclay sorbent prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Daryoush; Mostafavi, Ali; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    In this work, the applicability of modified organo nanoclay as a new and easy prepared solid sorbent for the preconcentration of trace amounts of Au(III) ion from water samples is studied. The organo nanoclay was modified with 5-(4'-dimethylamino benzyliden)-rhodanine and used as a sorbent for separation of Au(III) ions. The sorption of gold ions was quantitative in the pH range of 2.0-6.0. Quantitative desorption occurred with 6.0 mL of 1.0 mol L(-1) Na(2)S(2)O(3). The amount of eluted Au(III) was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial solution the linear dynamic range was in the range of 0.45 ng mL(-1) to 10.0 microg mL(-1), the detection limit was 0.1 ng mL(-1) and the preconcentration factor was 105. Also, the relative standard deviation was +/-2.3% (n=8 and C=2.0 microg mL(-1)) and the maximum capacity of the sorbent was 3.9 mg of Au(III) per gram of modified organo nanoclay. The influences of the experimental parameters including sample pH, eluent volume and eluent type, sample volume, and interference of some ions on the recoveries of the gold ion were investigated. The proposed method was applied for preconcentration and determination of gold in different samples.

  2. Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome bo Oxidase at a series of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Melin, Frederic; Meyer, Thomas; Lankiang, Styven; Choi, Sylvia K; Gennis, Robert B; Blanck, Christian; Schmutz, Marc; Hellwig, Petra

    2013-01-01

    New membrane-protein based electrodes were prepared incorporating cytochrome bo(3) from E. coli and gold nanoparticles. Direct electron transfer between the electrode and the immobilized enzymes was achieved, resulting in an electrocatalytic activity in presence of O(2). The size of the gold nanoparticles was shown to be important and smaller particles were shown to reduce the overpotential of the process.

  3. 12P-conjugated PEG-modified gold nanorods combined with near-infrared laser for tumor targeting and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Tao; Li, Pengfei; Bi, Shan; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei; Ren, Hui; Wang, Liping

    2012-09-01

    Gold nanorods have been reported as potential tumor photothermal therapy in vivo and in vitro. However, development of the safe and efficient tumor-targeting gold nanorods for in vivo localized tumor therapy is still a challenge. In our present study, we synthesized the PEG modified gold nanorods and demonstrated its negligible cytotoxicity in vitro. These nanorods also have been demonstrated to efficiently ablate the different kinds of tumor cells in vitro after exposure to the near-infrared laser. When the PEG modified gold nanorods conjugated with the 12P (sequence: TACHQHVRMVRP), this conjugate showed great tumor-targeting and hyperthermia effects on the human liver cancer cell line HepG2 in vitro when coupled with the near-infrared laser treatment. To determine the potential hyperthermia effect of PEG modified gold nanorods or 12P conjugate on tumor cells in vivo, the mice hepatic cancer cells were used to induce the subcutaneous tumor-bearing model in ICR mice. The significant inhibition effects of near-infrared laser mediated PEG modified gold nanorods or 12P conjugate on the tumor growth were observed. These composite results suggest that the 12P-conjugated PEG modified gold nanorods exhibit great biocompatible, particular tumor-targeting and effective photothermal ablation of tumor cells, which warrant the potential therapeutic value of this conjugate for further application in in vivo localized tumor therapy.

  4. Sensitive immunosensor for tumor necrosis factor α based on dual signal amplification of ferrocene modified self-assembled peptide nanowire and glucose oxidase functionalized gold nanorod.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhifang; Deng, Liu; Gan, Hao; Shen, Rujuan; Yang, Minghui; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-15

    Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of protein biomarker tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was reported that uses ferrocene carboxylic acid (Fc) functionalized self-assembled peptide nanowire (Fc-PNW) as sensor platform and glucose oxidase (GOx) modified gold nanorod (GNR) as label. Greatly enhanced sensitivity is achieved based on a dual signal amplification strategy: first, the synthesized Fc-PNW used as the sensor platform increased the loading of primary anti-TNF-α antibody (Ab(1)) onto electrode surface due to its large surface area. At the same time, the Fc moiety on the nanowire is used as a mediator for GOx to catalyze the glucose reaction. Second, multiple GOx and secondary anti-TNF-α antibody (Ab(2)) molecules are bounded onto each GNR to increase the sensitivity of the immunosensor. After the preparation of the immunosensor based on the traditional sandwich protocol, the response of the immunosensor towards glucose was used as a signal to differentiate various concentrations of TNF-α. The resulting immunosensor has high sensitivity, wide linear range (0.005-10ng/mL) and good selectivity. This immunosensor preparation strategy is a promising platform for clinical screening of protein biomarkers.

  5. Simple flow injection for determination of sulfite by amperometric detection using glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes-PDDA-gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Sroysee, Wongduan; Chairam, Sanoe; Nacapricha, Duangjai

    2015-02-01

    A new approach is presented for sensitive and selective measurement of sulfite (SO3(2-)) in beverages based on a simple flow injection system with amperometric detection. In this work, the sulfite sensor was a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-gold nanoparticles composites (CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC). Electrochemical oxidation of sulfite with this electrode was first studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) using cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC electrode possesses electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of sulfite with high sensitivity and selectivity. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurement with the new sensor at +0.4V vs Ag/AgCl in conjunction with flow injection. The linear working range for the quantitation of sulfite was 2-200 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with a detection limit of 0.03 mg L(-1) (3σ of blank) and an estimated precision of 1.5%.The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in fruit juices and wines with a sample throughput of 23 samples per hour.

  6. Ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on functionalized gold clusters/graphene nanohybrids coupling with exonuclease III-aided cascade target recycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bao, Ting; Zeng, Xi; Xiong, Huayu; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a novel and ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was constructed for DNA detection based on functionalized gold clusters/graphene nanohybrids (AuNCs/GR nanobybrids) and exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided cascade target recycling. By utilizing the capacity of GR as universal template, different metal nanoclusters including AuNCs/GR nanobybrids and PtNCs/GR nanohybrids were synthesized through convenient ultrasonic method. Exo III-aided cascade recycling was initiated by target DNA, generating the final cleavage product (S2), which acted as a linkage between capture probe and the functionalized metal nanoclusters/GR conjugates in the construction of the biosensor. The AuNCs/GR-DNA-enzyme conjugates acted as interfaces of enzyme-catalyzed silver deposition reaction, achieving DNA detection ranging from 0.02 fM to 20 pM with a detection limit of 0.057 fM. In addition, PtNCs/GR-DNA conjugates presented peroxidase-like activity and the functionalized PtNCs/GR nanohybrids-based electrochemical biosensor also realized DNA detection by catalyzing the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) system to produce electrochemical signal. This metal clusters/GR-based multiple-amplified electrochemical biosensor provided an universal method for DNA detection.

  7. Nanostructured multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/gold nanoparticles/glutathione for the electrochemical detection of dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsri, Ekarat; Rujipornsakul, Sirilak; Treetasayoot, Tanapong; Siriwattanamethanon, Pawarit

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and glutathione (GSH) were used to fabricate multilayer nanoscale thin films. The composite thin films were fabricated by layer-by-layer technique as the films were constructed by the alternate deposition of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. The MWCNTs were modified via a noncovalent surface modification method using poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) to form a cationic polyelectrolyte. An anionic polyelectrolyte was prepared by the chemical reduction of HAuCl4 using sodium citrate as both the stabilizing and reducing agent to form anionic AuNPs. GSH was used as an electrocatalyst toward the electro-oxidation of dopamine. The constructed composite electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine with a short response time and a wide linear range from 1 to 100 μmol/L. The limits of detection and quantitation of dopamine are (0.316 ± 0.081) μmol/L and (1.054 ± 0.081) μmol/L, respectively. The method is satisfactorily applied for the determination of dopamine in plasma and urine samples to obtain the recovery in the range from 97.90% to 105.00%.

  8. An ionic liquid-modified graphene based molecular imprinting electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of bovine hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zonghua; Li, Feng; Xia, Jianfei; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Feifei; Bi, Sai; Shi, Guoyu; Xia, Yanzhi; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Yanhui; Xia, Linhua

    2014-11-15

    A novel kind of molecular imprinted polymers based on ionic liquid-functionalized graphene (MIPs/IL/GR) was prepared by electro-polymerization, which was applied as a molecular recognition element to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to construct an electrochemical sensor (MIPs/IL/GR/GCE) for sensitive detection of bovine hemoglobin (BHb). The fabrication conditions that affect the performance of the imprinted sensor, such as pyrrole concentration, scan cycles and scan rates, have been discussed. Under the optimized conditions, the prepared molecular imprinting electrochemical sensor showed a fast rebinding dynamics, which was successfully applied to BHb detection with a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10(-10) to 1.0 × 10(-3)g/L (R=0.998) and a detection limit of 3.09 × 10(-11)g/L. Moreover, the fabricated sensor possessed a good selectivity and stability, providing a promising tool for immunoassays and clinical applications.

  9. Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome bo3 Oxidase at a series of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Frederic; Meyer, Thomas; Lankiang, Styven; Choi, Sylvia K.; Gennis, Robert B; Blanck, Christian; Schmutz, Marc; Hellwig, Petra

    2012-01-01

    New membrane-protein based electrodes were prepared incorporating cytochrome bo3 from E. coli and gold nanoparticles. Direct electron transfer between the electrode and the immobilized enzymes was achieved, resulting in an electrocatalytic activity in presence of O2. The size of the gold nanoparticles was shown to be important and smaller particles were shown to reduce the overpotential of the process. PMID:23335854

  10. Electroless Gold-Modified Diatoms as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Supports.

    PubMed

    Pannico, Marianna; Rea, Ilaria; Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Musto, Pellegrino; Voelcker, Nicolas H; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-12-01

    Porous biosilica from diatom frustules is well known for its peculiar optical and mechanical properties. In this work, gold-coated diatom frustules are used as low-cost, ready available, functional support for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Due to the morphology of the nanostructured surface and the smoothness of gold deposition via an electroless process, an enhancement factor for the p-mercaptoaniline Raman signal of the order of 10(5) is obtained.

  11. Electroless Gold-Modified Diatoms as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannico, Marianna; Rea, Ilaria; Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Musto, Pellegrino; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Porous biosilica from diatom frustules is well known for its peculiar optical and mechanical properties. In this work, gold-coated diatom frustules are used as low-cost, ready available, functional support for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Due to the morphology of the nanostructured surface and the smoothness of gold deposition via an electroless process, an enhancement factor for the p-mercaptoaniline Raman signal of the order of 105 is obtained.

  12. The Application of Nafion Metal Catalyst Free Carbon Nanotube Modified Gold Electrode: Voltammetric Zinc Detection in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Riehl, Bill L.; Johnson, Jay M.; Papautsky, Ian; Heineman, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Metal catalyst free carbon nanotube (MCFCNT) whiskers were first used as an electrode modification material on a gold electrode surface for zinc voltammetric measurements. A composite film of Nafion and MCFCNT whiskers was applied to a gold electrode surface to form a mechanically stable sensor. The sensor was then used for zinc detection in both acetate buffer solution and extracted bovine serum solution. A limit of detection of 53 nM was achieved for a 120 s deposition time. The zinc in bovine serum was extracted via a double extraction procedure using dithizone in chloroform as a zinc chelating ligand. The modified electrode was found to be both reliable and sensitive for zinc measurements in both matrices. PMID:24436574

  13. Electrochemical Aptasensor for Endocrine Disrupting 17β-Estradiol Based on a Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylthiopene)-Gold Nanocomposite Platform

    PubMed Central

    Olowu, Rasaq A.; Arotiba, Omotayo; Mailu, Stephen N.; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Baker, Priscilla; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical DNA aptasensor with high affinity for endocrine disrupting 17β-estradiol, was developed. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene) (PEDOT) doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was electrochemically synthesized and employed for the immobilization of biotinylated aptamer towards the detection of the target. The diffusion coefficient of the nanocomposite was 6.50 × 10−7 cm2 s−1, which showed that the nanocomposite was highly conducting. Electrochemical impedance investigation also revealed the catalytic properties of the nanocomposite with an exchange current value of 2.16 × 10−4 A, compared to 2.14 × 10−5 A obtained for the bare electrode. Streptavidin was covalently attached to the platform using carbodiimide chemistry and the aptamer immobilized via streptavidin—biotin interaction. The electrochemical signal generated from the aptamer–target molecule interaction was monitored electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]−3/−4 as a redox probe. The signal observed shows a current decrease due to interference of the bound 17β-estradiol. The current drop was proportional to the concentration of 17β-estradiol. The PEDOT/AuNP platform exhibited high electroactivity, with increased peak current. The platform was found suitable for the immobilization of the DNAaptamer. The aptasensor was able to distinguish 17β-estradiol from structurally similar endocrine disrupting chemicals denoting its specificity to 17β-estradiol. The detectable concentration range of the 17β-estradiol was 0.1 nM–100 nM, with a detection limit of 0.02 nM. PMID:22163445

  14. Gold nanoparticles-induced enhancement of the analytical response of an electrochemical biosensor based on an organic-inorganic hybrid composite material.

    PubMed

    Barbadillo, M; Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2009-12-15

    The design and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid composite material for glucose electrochemical sensing are described. This material is based on the entrapment of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and glucose oxidase, which was chosen as a model, into a sol-gel matrix. The addition of spectroscopic grade graphite to this system, which confers conductivity, leads to the development of a material particularly attractive for electrochemical biosensor fabrication. The characterization of the hybrid composite material was performed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This composite material was applied to the determination of glucose in presence of hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator. The system exhibits a clear electrocatalytic activity towards glucose, allowing its determination at 250 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The performance of the resulting enzyme biosensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, stability and accuracy. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response of the resulting biosensor induced by the presence of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by comparison with a similar organic-inorganic hybrid composite material without AuNPs.

  15. Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses. Objective The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique. Data, Sources, and Selection The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research. Results Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups. Conclusions The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies. PMID:27441840

  16. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.

  17. Ambient Filtration Method To Rapidly Prepare Highly Conductive, Paper-Based Porous Gold Films for Electrochemical Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Guntupalli, Bhargav; Liang, Pingping; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Yuehai; Yu, Haixiang; Canoura, Juan; He, Jin; Li, Wenzhi; Weizmann, Yossi; Xiao, Yi

    2015-12-16

    Thin gold films offer intriguing material properties for potential applications including fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electronic and photonic devices. We describe here an ambient filtration method that provides a simple and novel way to generate rapidly porous and thin gold films without the need for sophisticated instruments, clean-room environments, and any postgrowth process or sintering steps. Using this approach, we can fabricate highly conductive gold films composed of gold nanoparticles layered atop a matrix of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes on mixed cellulose ester filter paper within 20 min. These hybrid films (thickness ∼40 nm) exhibit fast electron transfer and excellent electrocatalytic properties that are similar to purchased gold films, but with a larger electroactive surface that lends itself to more sensitive analyte detection. We used the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin as benchmark analytes to demonstrate that our hybrid gold films can clearly discriminate the presence of both molecules in a mixture with resolution that greatly exceeds that of either purchased gold slides or electrodeposited gold films. Importantly, we postulate that this new approach could readily be generalized for the rapid fabrication of films from various other metals under ambient conditions, and could also be used as a prelude to transferring the resulting films onto glass or other flexible substrates.

  18. Evaluation of the electrochemical behavior of pentachlorophenol by cyclic voltammetry on carbon paste electrode modified by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Flávia P S; Da Silva, Wilson T L; Crespilho, Frank N; Rezende, Maria O O

    2007-01-01

    Humic substances, or natural recalcitrant organic matter, have an important role in the environment for their plant nutritional functions or for their capability to control the mobility of xenobiotic substances, such as pesticides. To verify the electrochemical behavior of pentachlorophenol (PCP), cyclic voltammetry was used because of its versatility. The following two different electrodes were used: carbon paste electrode (CPE) and carbon paste electrode chemically modified with humic acid (HACMCPE). The results demonstrated that PCP was better accumulated at the HACMCPE electrode, as a consequence of a larger current signal than at the CPE electrode. Cyclic voltammograms showed oxidation steps of PCP itself and probable production of quinonelike compounds.

  19. Electrochemical hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection of tin in canned foods using polyaniline-modified lead cathode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianjuan; Gan, Wuer; Wan, Lingzhong; Deng, Yun; Yang, Qinghua; He, Youzhao

    2010-12-15

    An electrochemical hydride generation system with polyaniline-modified lead cathode was developed for tin determination by coupling with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The tin fluorescence signal intensity was improved evidently as the polyaniline membrane could facilitate the transformation process from atomic tin to the SnH(4) and prevent the aggradation of Sn atom on Pb electrode surface. The effects of experimental parameters and interferences have been studied. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.5 ng mL(-1) (3σ) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.3% for 11 consecutive measurements of 50 ng mL(-1) Sn(IV) standard solution.

  20. Modifying the chemistry of graphene with substrate selection: A study of gold nanoparticle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniewski, Anna M.; Trimble, Christie J.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Graphene and metal nanoparticle composites are a promising class of materials with unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties. In this work, graphene is used as a reducing surface to grow gold nanoparticles out of solution-based metal precursors. The nanoparticle formation is found to strongly depend upon the graphene substrate selection. The studied substrates include diamond, p-type silicon, aluminum oxide, lithium niobate, and copper. Our results indicate that the chemical properties of graphene depend upon this selection. For example, for the same reaction times and concentration, the reduction of gold chloride to gold nanoparticles on graphene/lithium niobate results in 3% nanoparticle coverage compared to 20% coverage on graphene/silicon and 60% on graphene/copper. On insulators, nanoparticles preferentially form on folds and edges. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis is used to confirm the nanoparticle elemental makeup.

  1. Modifying the chemistry of graphene with substrate selection: A study of gold nanoparticle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniewski, Anna M.; Trimble, Christie J.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-03-23

    Graphene and metal nanoparticle composites are a promising class of materials with unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties. In this work, graphene is used as a reducing surface to grow gold nanoparticles out of solution-based metal precursors. The nanoparticle formation is found to strongly depend upon the graphene substrate selection. The studied substrates include diamond, p-type silicon, aluminum oxide, lithium niobate, and copper. Our results indicate that the chemical properties of graphene depend upon this selection. For example, for the same reaction times and concentration, the reduction of gold chloride to gold nanoparticles on graphene/lithium niobate results in 3% nanoparticle coverage compared to 20% coverage on graphene/silicon and 60% on graphene/copper. On insulators, nanoparticles preferentially form on folds and edges. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis is used to confirm the nanoparticle elemental makeup.

  2. An Electrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria Based on Immobilization of Antibodies on Self-Assembled Monolayers-Functionalized Gold Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Braiek, Mohamed; Rokbani, Karima Bekir; Chrouda, Amani; Mrabet, Béchir; Bakhrouf, Amina; Maaref, Abderrazak; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The detection of pathogenic bacteria remains a challenge for the struggle against biological weapons, nosocomial diseases, and for food safety. In this research, our aim was to develop an easy-to-use electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. The biosensor was elaborated by the immobilization of anti-S. aureus antibodies using a self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) of 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). These molecular assemblies were spontaneously formed by the immersion of the substrate in an organic solvent containing the SAMs that can covalently bond to the gold surface. The functionalization of the immunosensor was characterized using two electrochemical techniques: cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Here, the analysis was performed in phosphate buffer with ferro/ferricyanide as the redox probe. The EIS technique was used for affinity assays: antibody-cell binding. A linear relationship between the increment in the electron transfer resistance (RCT) and the logarithmic value of S. aureus concentration was observed between 10 and 106 CFU/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) was observed at 10 CFU/mL, and the reproducibility was calculated to 8%. Finally, a good selectivity versus E. coli and S. epidermidis was obtained for our developed immunosensor demonstrating its specificity towards only S. aureus. PMID:25586032

  3. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials.

    PubMed

    Furko, M; Jiang, Y; Wilkins, T A; Balázsi, C

    2016-05-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag(+) and Zn(2+) ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn(2+) is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements.

  4. Carbon nanotube-polyamidoamine dendrimer hybrid-modified electrodes for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA24.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengye; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Qiong; Guo, Xiang; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ultrasensitive microRNA (miRNA) electrochemical biosensor employing multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and methylene blue (MB) redox indicator is reported in this work. The assay utilizes a glass carbon (GC) electrode modified with MWCNT-PAMAM, on which the oligonucleotide capture probes are immobilized. The electrochemical detection of miRNAs is completed by measuring the reduction signal change of MB before and after the probe hybridization with target miRNA (miRNA24 is used as a model case). The MWCNT-PAMAM/GC electrode shows greatly enhanced signal to MB reduction in contrast to bare GC electrode. The functionalization of MWCNT with PAMAM maintains the electrochemical property of MWCNT to MB reduction but minimizes the undesired adsorption of MB on the MWCNT surface. The effect of experimental variables on the miRNA detection is investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 0.5 fM and a linear peak current density-concentration relationship up to 100 nM are obtained following 60 min hybridization. The proposed assay is successfully used to detect miRNA24 in total RNA sample extracted from HeLa cells.

  5. Electrochemical sensor for Isoniazid based on the glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide-Au nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhuo; Wang, Ze-Yu; Wang, Hui-Hua; Huang, Guo-Qing; Li, Meng-Meng

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor has been fabricated to detect Isoniazid (INZ) using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Au nanocomposites (RGO-Au). RGO-Au nanocomposites were synthesized by a solution-based approach of chemical co-reduction of Au(III) and graphene oxide (GO), and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The Au nanoparticles separate the RGO sheets in the precipitate and prevent RGO sheets from aggregation upon π-π stacking interactions. RGO-Au nanocomposites were used to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical properties of RGO-Au/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the RGO-Au/GCE exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities towards INZ. Under the optimized conditions, there was linear relationships between the peak currents and the concentrations in the range of 1.0×10(-7)M to 1.0×10(-3)M for INZ, with the limit of detection (LOD) (based on S/N=3) of 1.0×10(-8)M for INZ.

  6. Electrochemical Determination of Chlorpyrifos on a Nano-TiO₂Cellulose Acetate Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Ammasai; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai

    2015-07-15

    A rapid and simple method of determination of chlorpyrifos is important in environmental monitoring and quality control. Electrochemical methods for the determination of pesticides are fast, sensitive, reproducible, and cost-effective. The key factor in electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. The electrode materials should have good stability, reproducibility, more sensitivity, and easy method of preparation. Mercury-based electrodes have been widely used for the determination of chlorpyrifos. From an environmental point of view mercury cannot be used. In this study a biocompatible nano-TiO2/cellulose acetate modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by a simple method and used for the electrochemical sensing of chlorpyrifos in aqueous methanolic solution. Electroanalytical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and amperometry were used in this work. This electrode showed very good stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. A well-defined peak was obtained for the reduction of chlorpyrifos in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A smooth noise-free current response was obtained in amperometric analysis. The peak current obtained was proportional to the concentration of chlorpyrifos and was used to determine the unknown concentration of chlorpyrifos in the samples. Analytical parameters such as LOD, LOQ, and linear range were estimated. Analysis of real samples was also carried out. The results were validated through HPLC. This composite electrode can be used as an alternative to mercury electrodes reported in the literature.

  7. pH-insensitive fabrication of gold nanoparticles with high concentration by ultrasound-assisted electrochemical process via aid of chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Hsu, Ting-Chu; Tsai, Huei-Ian

    2010-01-15

    In this work, we report a new pathway to prepare pure gold nanoparticles with high concentrations in acid solutions via the aid of chitosan without the addition of other stabilizers and reductants based on electrochemical methods. Interestingly, this fabrication of gold nanoparticles with high concentrations in solutions is pH-insensitive. The characteristics of prepared gold nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) measurements. Experimental results indicate the concentration and the particle size of Au nanoparticles prepared in 0.1N HCl are ca. 50 ppm and 12 nm in diameter, respectively. Similar experiment performed in 0.1N NaCl with the aid of chitosan shows that the corresponding concentration of prepared Au nanoparticles is ca. 100 ppm. Further similar experiments performed in 0.1N HCl and 0.1N NaCl without the aid of chitosan show that the corresponding concentrations of prepared Au nanoparticles are ca. 1 and 60 ppm, respectively.

  8. Novel sensors for detection of azide and dopamine: Electrochemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmia, Avinash

    Electrochemical amperometric sensors have been used sucessfully for monitoring a wide variety of hazardous species. Electrochemical studies of azides have been conducted at carbon, platinum and gold to evaluate their sensing properties. The differences in electrochemical behavior of azides at carbon, platinum and gold are elucidated with rotating disc, ring-disc and DEMS (Differential Electrochemical mass spectroscopy). It has been observed that the electrooxidation of azides at carbon electrode results in formation of only nitrogen, whereas at platinum electrode, the electrooxidation of azides results in formation of both nitrogen and nitrogen oxides. Gold in presence of azide ions undergoes electrooxidation forming soluble gold azide complexes at lower potentials and nitrogen and nitrogen oxides at higher potentials. It was demonstrated that azides are much more electroactive than hydrazoic acid. This work has implication for design of electrochemical sensors to detect and monitor azide ions. Gold electrodes modified with self assembled monolayers offer possibilities of sensors with higher selectivity, stability, fast response time and higher sensitivity. In the second part of this thesis, gold electrodes modified with SAM (self assembled monolayer) with acidic end group for selective detection of catecholamines were evaluated. SAM modified substrates have been characterized using different techniques, i.e., electrochemical desorption, capacitance measurements, angle resolved XPS measurements, potentiometric measurements and cyclic voltammetric measurements. The electrochemical desorption measurements show that the coverage of SAM molecules corresponds to a monolayer. Capacitance measurements demonstrate that the capacitance depends on the length, end group and defects present in monolayers. Angle resolved XPS has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for studying the anisotropic atomic distribution in monolayer film. The cyclic voltammetric measurements show that

  9. Theoretical study on the electrochemical behavior of norepinephrine at Nafion multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified pyrolytic graphite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanzhi

    2007-08-01

    DFT-B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) and HF/6-31G (d, p) calculations are performed for deoxidized norepinephrineat (NP (R)) and its oxidized form (NP (O)). The electrochemistry of norepinephrineat (NP) was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified by Nafion multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in phosphate buffers at pH 6.0, showing that the standard electrode potential of half reaction for NP (O), H +/NP (R) is 0.75l V. This experimental standard electrode potential of half reaction is consistent with that calculated using the energies of solvation and sum of electronic and thermal free energies of NP (R) and NP (O). The frontier orbital theory and Mülliken charges of moleculer explain the electrochemical behavior of CV at modified electrode well. The singlet vertical excited states for NP (R) and NP (O) are also discussed.

  10. Beyond the use of modifiers in selective alkyne hydrogenation: silver and gold nanocatalysts in flow mode for sustainable alkene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilé, Gianvito; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2014-10-01

    We report on the excellent stereo and chemoselectivity of nanosized silver and gold catalysts in the three-phase hydrogenation of acetylenic compounds under flow chemistry conditions. The materials featuring metal nanoparticles in the range of 2-21 nm were prepared by spray deposition or incipient wetness impregnation of silver nitrate and sol immobilisation of gold chloride on different carriers (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and carbon), followed by activation in various atmospheres. The samples were characterised by ICP-OES, N2 sorption, XPS, HAADF-STEM, and HRTEM, and evaluated in a continuous-flow flooded-bed micro-reactor. Both metals display optimal activities for particles below 5 nm, enabling stable operation at T = 373 K and P = 10 bar. While the performance of the silver catalysts is less influenced by the support, the gold nanoparticles exhibit significant activity only when deposited on TiO2, likely due to the strong metal-support interaction. Hydrogenations of functionalised alkynes reveal that silver and gold match, and in some cases exceed, the selectivity of benchmark palladium-based catalysts. Furthermore, in contrast to Pd, the Ag and Au samples require no modifiers, which brings fundamental and practical simplifications for their understanding and large scale manufacture. Therefore, these materials could be advantageously used for the continuous production of olefinic intermediates in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries.We report on the excellent stereo and chemoselectivity of nanosized silver and gold catalysts in the three-phase hydrogenation of acetylenic compounds under flow chemistry conditions. The materials featuring metal nanoparticles in the range of 2-21 nm were prepared by spray deposition or incipient wetness impregnation of silver nitrate and sol immobilisation of gold chloride on different carriers (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and carbon), followed by activation in various atmospheres. The samples were characterised by ICP-OES, N2 sorption

  11. Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Peik-See, Teo; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Nay-Ming, Huang; Hong-Ngee, Lim; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE) and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 μM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 μM for AA and DA, respectively. PMID:25195850

  12. CdS quantum dots modified CuO inverse opal electrodes for ultrasensitive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lei; Xu, Lin; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    The CuO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and modified with CdS quantum dots by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). CdS QDs modified CuO IOPCs FTO electrodes of different SILAR cycles were fabricated and their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I–t). Structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The result indicated that the structure of IOPCs and loading of CdS QDs could greatly improve the electrochemical properties. Three SILAR cycles of CdS QDs sensitization was the optimum condition for preparing electrodes, it exhibited a sensitivity of 4345 μA mM-1 cm-2 to glucose with a 0.15 μM detection limit (S/N= 3) and a linear range from 0.15 μM to 0.5 mM under a working potential of +0.7 V. It also showed strong stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and fast amperometric response. This work provides a promising approach for realizing excellent photoelectrochemical nonenzymatic glucose biosensor of similar composite structure. PMID:26042520

  13. Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for propyl gallate based on PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles modified graphene-carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Huang, Jiadong; Wang, Yu; Wu, Yumin; Luo, Xiliang

    2015-06-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for propyl gallate (PG) determination was developed via electropolymerization of an o-phenylenediamine membrane in the presence of template molecules on glassy carbon electrode surface modified by PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles-capped graphene-carbon nanotubes composites (PtAu-GrCNTs). The modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and chronoamperometry. Moreover, experimental parameters such as scan cycles, incubation time, molar ratios of template molecules to functional monomers and extraction time were optimized. It was found that the PtAu-GrCNTs composite could effectively enhance the electron transfer efficiency and remarkably improve the sensitivity of the sensor. The results revealed the sensor displayed superb resistance to no-specific binding, very attractive detection limit as low as 2.51×10(-8) mol/L, and a wide linear range from 7×10(-8) mol/L to 1×10(-5) mol/L towards PG. Furthermore, the MIPs sensor was also successfully used for the detection of PG in food samples. Therefore, the MIPs-based electrochemical sensing strategy might provide a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective method for PG determination and related food safety analysis.

  14. Nitrogen-doped multiple graphene aerogel/gold nanostar as the electrochemical sensing platform for ultrasensitive detection of circulating free DNA in human serum.

    PubMed

    Ruiyi, Li; Ling, Liu; Hongxia, Bei; Zaijun, Li

    2016-05-15

    Graphene aerogel has attracted increasing attention due to its large specific surface area, high-conductivity and electronic interaction. The paper reported a facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped multiple graphene aerogel/gold nanostar (termed as N-doped MGA/GNS) and its use as the electrochemical sensing platform for detection of double stranded (dsDNA). On the one hand, the N-doped MGA offers a much better electrochemical performance compared with classical graphene aerogel. Interestingly, the performance can be enhanced by only increasing the cycle number of graphene oxide gelation. On the other hand, the hybridization with GNS further enhances the electrocatalytic activity towards Fe(CN)6(3-/4-). In addition, the N-doped MGA/GNS provides a well-defined three-dimensional architecture. The unique structure make it is easy to combine with dsDNA to form the electroactive bioconjugate. The integration not only triggers an ultrafast DNA electron and charge transfer, but also realizes a significant synergy between N-doped MGA, GNS and dsDNA. As a result, the electrochemical sensor based on the hybrid exhibits highly sensitive differential pulse voltammetric response (DPV) towards dsDNA. The DPV signal linearly increases with the increase of dsDNA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-)(21) g ml(-)(1) to 1.0×10(-16) g ml(-1) with the detection limit of 3.9×10(-22) g ml(-1) (S/N=3). The sensitivity is much more than that of all reported DNA sensors. The analytical method was successfully applied in the electrochemical detection of circulating free DNA in human serum. The study also opens a window on the electrical properties of multiple graphene aerogel and DNA as well their hybrids to meet the needs of further applications as special nanoelectronics in molecule diagnosis, bioanalysis and catalysis.

  15. Optimized dendrimer-encapsulated gold nanoparticles and enhanced carbon nanotube nanoprobes for amplified electrochemical immunoassay of E. coli in dairy product based on enzymatically induced deposition of polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinai; Shen, Jianzhong; Ma, Haile; Jiang, Yuxiang; Huang, Chenyong; Han, En; Yao, Boshui; He, Yunyao

    2016-06-15

    A highly sensitive immunosensor was reported for Escherichia coli assay in dairy product based on electrochemical measurement of polyaniline (PAn) that was catalytically deposited by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labels. Herein, the immunosensor was developed by using poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (PAMAM(Au)) as sensing platform. Importantly, the optimal HAuCl4/PAMAM ratio was investigated to design the efficient PAMAM(Au) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were proven to not only increase the amount of immobilized capture antibody (cAb), but also accelerate the electron transfer process. Moreover, the {dAb-CNT-HRP} nanoprobes were prepared by exploiting the amplification effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for loading detection antibody (dAb) and enormous HRP labels. After a sandwich immunoreaction, the quantitatively captured nanoprobes could catalyze oxidation aniline to produce electroactive PAn for electrochemical measurement. On the basis of signal amplification of the PAMAM(Au)-based immunosensor and the {dAb-CNT-HRP} nanoprobes, the proposed strategy exhibited a linear relationship between the peak current of PAn and the logarithmic value of E. coli concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10(2) to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 50 cfu mL(-1) (S/N=3), and the electrochemical detection of E. coli could be achieved in 3h. The electrochemical immunosensor was also used to determine E. coli in dairy product (pure fresh milk, infant milk powder, yogurt in shelf-life and expired yogurt), and the recoveries of standard additions were in the range of 96.8-108.7%. Overall, this method gave a useful protocol for E. coli assay with high sensitivity, acceptable accuracy and satisfying stability, and thus provided a powerful tool to estimate the quality of dairy product.

  16. Ethylenediamine-modified oriented MCM-41 at the electrode surface, cobalt adsorption ability and electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Mohammad; Karimi, Babak; Arshi, Simin; Vali, Hojatollah

    2014-03-28

    Mesoporous silica thin films (MCM-41) functionalized with ethylenediamine groups were electrochemically fabricated on electrode surfaces. These ligand functionalized film were a promising matrix for the immobilization of cobalt ions and preparation of cobalt complexes covalently bound to the MCM-41 support. The constructed MCM-41 were characterized by TEM, EDS and TGA analysis. This method yields uniform thin films with hexagonal mesochannels aligned and accessible to electrode surface. Well-defined electrode responses were, therefore, observed for the anchored complexes which made the electrochemical analysis of the structure possible as well. Voltammetric studies revealed the reactivity of the covalently bound complexes differed significantly from the dissolved ones. The anchored complexes preferred to be in their oxidized form which inhibits formation of oxygen adducts. The covalently bound complexes had relatively good leaching stability with good catalytic performance towards hydrogen peroxide reduction.

  17. Electropolymerization of a calix[4]arene modified by N-substituted pyrrole moieties. New sensitive layer for ionic electrochemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffenoir, A.; Bidan, G.

    1998-06-01

    A calix[4]arene modified by grafting N-substituted pyrrole moieties at the upper rim was synthetised. Electropolymerisation of this new calix[4]arene in a Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN solution is described. The obtained film presents a rather stable electroactivity to electrochemical cycling but its growing is limited to a few monolayers. It's the first example of homopolymerisation of a calix[4]arene modified by electropolymerisable monomers. Un calix[4]arène modifié sur sa couronne supérieure par des pyrroles N-substitués a été synthétisé. Son électropolymérisation en milieu Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN par balayage de potentiels est décrite. Le film obtenu présente une électroactivité assez stable au cyclage électrochimique mais sa croissance est limitée à quelques monocouches. C'est le premier exemple d'homopolymérisation d'un calix[4]arène modifié par des monomères électropolymérisables.

  18. An electrochemical biosensor for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 with highly efficient bi-functional glucose oxidase-polydopamine nanocomposites and Prussian blue modified screen-printed interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2016-09-21

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food manufacturers. Therefore, the demand for advanced detection methods that can sensitively and rapidly detect these pathogens has been of great importance. This study reports an electrochemical biosensor for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 with the integration of bifunctional glucose oxidase (GOx)-polydopamine (PDA) based polymeric nanocomposites (PMNCs) and Prussian blue (PB) modified screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SP-IDMEs). The core-shell magnetic beads (MBs)-GOx@PDA PMNCs were first synthesized by the self-polymerization of dopamine (DA). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were dispersed on the surface of PMNCs through biochemical synthesis to achieve further highly efficient adsorption of antibodies (ABs) and GOx. The final product ABs/GOxext/AuNPs/MBs-GOx@PDA PMNCs served as the carrier to separate target bacteria from food matrices as well as the amplifier for electrochemical measurement. The unbound PMNCs were separated by a filtration step and transferred into glucose solution to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur. The change of the current response was measured with an electrochemical detector using PB-modified SP-IDMEs. The constructed biosensor has been proven to be able to detect E. coli O157:H7 with the detection limit of 10(2) cfu ml(-1). The bifunctional PMNCs contain a high load of enzyme and can optimally utilize the binding sites on bacterial cells, which efficiently amplify the signals for measurement. The biosensor in this study exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, and stability and is expected to have a great impact on applications in the detection of foodborne pathogens.

  19. Bisphosphonate-modified gold nanoparticles: a useful vehicle to study the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanord, Fedena; Fairbairn, Korie; Kim, Harry; Garces, Amanda; Bhethanabotla, Venkat; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2011-01-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a juvenile form of osteonecrosis of the femoral head that presents in children aged 2-14 years. To date, there is no effective medical therapy for treating LCPD largely due to an inability to modulate the repair process, including the predominance of bone resorption. This investigation aims to evaluate the feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) that are surface modified with a bisphosphonate compound for the treatment of osteonecrosis at the cellular level. Studies have found osteoclast-mediated resorption to be a process that contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of femoral head deformities arising from Perthes disease. Our in vitro model was designed to elucidate the effect of alendronate-(a bisphosphonate) modified GNPs, on osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were cultured with recombinant mouse receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), which stimulates osteoclastogenesis, and were then treated with alendronate-modified GNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell proliferation, osteoclast function, and osteoclast morphology were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. Comparative studies were performed with GNPs that were only stabilized with citrate ions and with alendronate alone. Neither osteoclastogenesis nor osteoclast function were adversely affected by the presence of the citrate-GNP. Alendronate-modified GNPs had an enhanced effect on inducing osteoclast apoptosis and impairing osteoclast function when compared to unbound alendronate populations.

  20. Electrochemical detection of nitrite on poly(pyronin Y)/graphene nanocomposites modified ITO substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şinoforoğlu, Mehmet; Dağcı, Kader; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat; Meral, Kadem

    2016-06-01

    The present study reports on an easy preparation of poly(pyronin Y)/graphene (poly(PyY)/graphene) nanocomposites thin films on indium tin oxide coated glass substrates (ITO). The thin films of poly(PyY)/graphene nanocomposites are prepared by a novel method consisting of three steps; (i) preparation of graphene oxide (GO) thin films on ITO by spin-coating method, (ii) self-assembly of PyY molecules from aqueous solution onto the GO thin film, (iii) surface-confined electropolymerization (SCEP) of the adsorbed PyY molecules on the GO thin film. The as-prepared poly(PyY)/graphene nanocomposites thin films are characterized by using electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques. Afterwards, the graphene-based polymeric dye thin film on ITO is used as an electrode in an electrochemical cell. Its performance is tested for electrochemical detection of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, the electrocatalytical effect of the nanocomposites thin film through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite is better than that of GO coated ITO.

  1. Predicting susceptibility of alloy 600 to intergranular stress corrosion cracking using a modified electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, M.K.; Kwon, H.S.; Lee, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Modified double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) tests were applied to evaluate the degree of sensitization (DOS) for alloy 600 aged at 700 C. Results of the modified DL-EPR test were compared to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibilities determined in deaerated 0.01 M sodium tetrathionate under deformation at a constant strain rate of 0.93 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/s. By analyzing the effects of solution concentration, temperature, and scan rate on the electrochemical response in the EPR tests and the morphologies, the optimal modified DL-EPR test condition for alloy 600 was obtained in 0.01 M sulfuric acid + 10 ppm potassium thiocyanate at 25 C and at a scan rate of 0.5 mV/s. The standard DL-EPR test, performed under conditions of 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.01 M KCNS at 30 C and a scan rate of 1.67 mV/s, provided very poor discriminating power for various DOS of alloy 600 because general and pitting corrosion occurred, in addition to intergranular corrosion. The modified test, however, was highly discriminating because of its highly selective corrosion attack at grain boundaries. IGSCC occurred in samples of alloy 600 aged for < 20 h, and susceptibility to IGSCC{sub s} increased with decreasing aging times up to 1 h, showing maximum IGSCC{sub s} in the sample aged for 1 h. IGSCC{sub s} for the alloy was found to be associated closely with the chromium-depleted profile across grain boundaries. The deeper and narrower chromium-depleted zone produced greater IGSCC{sub s}. It was demonstrated that DOS measured by the modified DL-EPR test was correlated more closely with IGSCC{sub s} than was DOS measured by the standard EPR test. This correlation resulted from the fact that the modified EPR test selectively attacked the more deeply chromium-depleted regions in comparison to the standard EPR test.

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of dihydronicotineamide adenine dinucleotide on gold electrode modified with catechol-terminated alkanethiol self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Koji; Ohkubo, Kimihiko; Taira, Hiroaki; Takagi, Makoto; Imato, Toshihiko

    2008-06-30

    Synthesis of a mercaptoundecaneamide derivative having a terminus of catechol is described. FT-IR spectroscopic characterization showed that the new molecular entry simply undergoes molecular self-assembly on Au substrate surfaces promoting intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form well-packed monolayers. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements on the monolayer-modified Au electrode revealed that the surface adlayer possesses specific electrochemical activity due to the reversible catechol/o-quinone redox reaction having characteristics of a surface process and also pH-dependence in its formal potential (59 mV per pH). Detailed analysis of CVs gave fundamental electrochemical parameters including the electroactive surface coverage (0.20-0.24 nmol cm(-2)), the transfer coefficients (0.24 in oxidation and 0.81 in reduction), and also the electron transfer rate constant (1.10-2.76 s(-1)). These data were almost consistent to those seen in literature. We have also found that the catechol monolayer modified electrode exhibits an electrocatalytic function in NADH oxidation. That is, the faradaic current appeared reinforcingly at around the same potential where catechol function is oxidized in the monolayer and increased with an increase in the NADH concentration from 1 to 5 mM, and then reached to a plateau indicating a catalyzed reaction pathway. Detailed analyses revealed that the present system could be characterized by its weak stability of the intermediate compound formed and prompt reaction rate compared with the previously reported chemically modified electrode (CME) systems. We think this type of achievement should be important for the basics of biosensors that rely on dehydrogenase enzymes.

  3. RGD peptide-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles enable highly efficient and specific gene delivery to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingdan; Alves, Carla S; Hou, Wenxiu; Qiu, Jieru; Möhwald, Helmuth; Tomás, Helena; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-03-04

    We report the use of arginine-glycine-aspartic (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD) peptide-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) for highly efficient and specific gene delivery to stem cells. In this study, generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers modified with RGD via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer and with PEG monomethyl ether were used as templates to entrap gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The native and the RGD-modified PEGylated dendrimers and the respective well characterized Au DENPs were used as vectors to transfect human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with plasmid DNA (pDNA) carrying both the enhanced green fluorescent protein and the luciferase (pEGFPLuc) reporter genes, as well as pDNA encoding the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) gene. We show that all vectors are capable of transfecting the hMSCs with both pDNAs. Gene transfection using pEGFPLuc was demonstrated by quantitative Luc activity assay and qualitative evaluation by fluorescence microscopy. For the transfection with hBMP-2, the gene delivery efficiency was evaluated by monitoring the hBMP-2 concentration and the level of osteogenic differentiation of the hMSCs via alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion, calcium deposition, and von Kossa staining assays. Our results reveal that the stem cell gene delivery efficiency is largely dependent on the composition and the surface functionality of the dendrimer-based vectors. The coexistence of RGD and AuNPs rendered the designed dendrimeric vector with specific stem cell binding ability likely via binding of integrin receptor on the cell surface and improved three-dimensional conformation of dendrimers, which is beneficial for highly efficient and specific stem cell gene delivery applications.

  4. Highly sensitive electrochemical stripping detection of hepatitis B surface antigen based on copper-enhanced gold nanoparticle tags and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Yun

    2010-07-26

    On the basis of copper-enhanced gold nanoparticle tags as an amplification approach, we introduced, in this paper, magnetic nanoparticles for further improving performance of electrochemical immunoassay by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a glassy-carbon electrode. Due to the use of antibody-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, the immunoreaction between antibody and antigen takes place in a homogeneous bulk solution phase. Compared with traditional solid interface reaction, the proposed strategy can provide some advantages such as easy of separation, shorter analytical time, wider linear range, and lower detection limit. It was also successfully applied to HBsAg determination in a linear range of 0.1-1500 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 87 pg mL(-1). The proposed analytical strategy holds good selectivity, sensitivity and repeatability and also great promise for the extended application in the fields of clinical diagnosis, bio-affinity assay and environmental monitoring.

  5. Functionalized gold nanorod-based labels for amplified electrochemical immunoassay of E. coli as indicator bacteria relevant to the quality of dairy product.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinai; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Hongyin; Shen, Jianzhong; Han, En; Dong, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report an amplified electrochemical immunoassay for Escherichia coli as indicator bacteria relevant to the quality of dairy product using the functionalized gold nanorod-based labels ({dAb-AuNR-FCA}). The {dAb-AuNR-FCA} labels were designed by exploiting silica-functionalized gold nanorods (AuNR@SiO2) as the carriers for immobilization of detection antibody (dAb) and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA), in which dAb was used for recognition of E. coli and FCA tags served as signal-generating molecule. Greatly amplified signal was achieved in the sandwich-type immunoassay when enormous FCA linked to AuNR@SiO2. Compared with the commercially available {dAb-FCA}, the {dAb-AuNR-FCA} labels exhibited a better performance for E. coli assay due to the advantages of AuNR@SiO2 as carriers. Under optimal experimental conditions, it showed a linear relationship between the peak current of FCA and the logarithmic value of E. coli concentration ranging from 1.0×10(2) to 5.0×10(4) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 60 cfu mL(-1) (S/N=3), and the electrochemical detection of E. coli could be achieved in 3h. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine E. coli in dairy product (pure fresh milk, yogurt in shelf-life, and expired yogurt), and the recoveries of standard additions were in the range of 95.1-106%. This proposed strategy exhibited rapid response, high sensitivity and specificity for E. coli assay in dairy product, and could become a promising technique to estimate the quality of dairy product.

  6. Wettability Control of Gold Surfaces Modified with Benzenethiol Derivatives: Water Contact Angle and Thermal Stability.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Shingo; Kuzumoto, Yasutaka; Kitamura, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    The water wettability of Au surfaces has been controlled using various benzenethiol derivatives including 4-methylbenzenethiol, pentafluorobenzenethiol, 4-flubrobenzenethiol, 4-methoxy-benzenethiol, 4-nitrobenzenethiol, and 4-hydroxybenzenethiol. The water contact angle of the Au surface modified with the benzenethiol derivative was found to vary in the wide range of 30.9° to 88.3°. The contact angle of the modified Au films annealed was also measured in order to investigate their thermal stability. The change in the contact angle indicated that the modified surface is stable at temperatures below about 400 K. Meanwhile, the activation energy of desorption from the modified surface was estimated from the change in the contact angle. The modified Au surface was also examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. Facile formation of dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles modified with diatrizoic acid for enhanced computed tomography imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Li, Kangan; Cao, Xueyan; Xiao, Tingting; Hou, Wenxiu; Zheng, Linfeng; Guo, Rui; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-10-01

    We report a facile approach to forming dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) through the use of amine-terminated fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified by diatrizoic acid (G5.NH2-DTA) as stabilizers for enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging applications. In this study, by simply mixing G5.NH2-DTA dendrimers with gold salt in aqueous solution at room temperature, dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) with a mean core size of 2.5 nm were able to be spontaneously formed. Followed by an acetylation reaction to neutralize the dendrimer remaining terminal amines, Au DSNPs with a mean size of 6 nm were formed. The formed DTA-containing [(Au0)50-G5.NHAc-DTA] DSNPs were characterized via different techniques. We show that the Au DSNPs are colloid stable in aqueous solution under different pH and temperature conditions. In vitro hemolytic assay, cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry analysis, and cell morphology observation reveal that the formed Au DSNPs have good hemocompatibility and are non-cytotoxic at a concentration up to 3.0 μM. X-ray absorption coefficient measurements show that the DTA-containing Au DSNPs have enhanced attenuation intensity, much higher than that of [(Au0)50-G5.NHAc] DENPs without DTA or Omnipaque at the same molar concentration of the active element (Au or iodine). The formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs can be used for CT imaging of cancer cells in vitro as well as for blood pool CT imaging of mice in vivo with significantly improved signal enhancement. With the two radiodense elements of Au and iodine incorporated within one particle, the formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs may be applicable for CT imaging of various biological systems with enhanced X-ray attenuation property and detection sensitivity.We report a facile approach to forming dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) through the use of amine-terminated fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified by diatrizoic acid

  8. Electrochemical properties of modified highly ordered pyrolytic graphite by using ambient plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Jeong, HaeKyung

    2016-01-01

    Surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is reformed by using ambient plasma. The HOPG film shows various pore structures after the plasma treatment, indicating improved electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications because of the increase of the surface area. We also compare water effect on the film during the plasma treatment. Water might protect HOPG surface from the plasma and provide oxygen functional groups onto it, resulting in lower infected pores and higher impedance compared with them of HOPG film without water. Ambient plasma, therefore, could be considered as an economic and effective method for sample reformations.

  9. Clean Transformation of Ethanol to Useful Chemicals. The Behavior of a Gold-Modified Silicalite Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Falletta, Ermelinda; Rossi, Michele; Teles, Joaquim Henrique; Della Pina, Cristina

    2016-03-19

    Upon addition of gold to silicalite-1 pellets (a MFI-type zeolite), the vapor phase oxidation of ethanol could be addressed to acetaldehyde or acetic acid formation. By optimizing the catalyst composition and reaction conditions, the conversion of ethanol could be tuned to acetaldehyde with 97% selectivity at 71% conversion or to acetic acid with 78% selectivity at total conversion. Considering that unloaded silicalite-1 was found to catalyze the dehydration of ethanol to diethylether or ethene, a green approach for the integrated production of four important chemicals is herein presented. This is based on renewable ethanol as a reagent and a modular catalytic process.

  10. An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on signal amplification strategy of gold nanoparticles functionalized magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes loaded with lead ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Faying; Han, Jian; Jiang, Liping; Wang, Yulan; Li, Yueyun; Dong, Yunhui; Wei, Qin

    2015-06-15

    In this study, a novel and ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was prepared for the quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a well-known hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-Fe3O4) were prepared and utilized for the adsorption of lead ions (Pb(2+)) and the secondary antibodies (Ab2). The resultant nanocomposites (Pb(2+)@Au@MWCNTs-Fe3O4) were used as the label for signal amplification, showing better electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than MWCNTs, MWCNTs-Fe3O4 or Au@MWCNTs-Fe3O4 due to the synergetic effect presented in Pb(2+)@Au@MWCNTs-Fe3O4. Moreover, Au NPs were electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the effective immobilization of primary antibodies (Ab1). Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 10 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL and a detection limit of 3.33 fg/mL were obtained. The proposed electrochemical sandwich-type immunosensor shows high sensitivity, good selectivity and stability for the quantitative detection of AFP, holding a great potential in clinical and diagnostic applications.

  11. Revealing and Resolving the Restrained Enzymatic Cleavage of DNA Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold: Electrochemical Quantitation and ESI-MS Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyi; Geng, Mingxi; Li, Yunchao; Wang, Xinglin; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2017-02-21

    Herein, we report a combined electrochemical and ESI-MS study of the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of DNA self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, platform systems for understanding nucleic acid surface chemistry, and for constructing DNA-based biosensors. Our electrochemical approach is based on the comparison of the amounts of surface-tethered DNA nucleotides before and after exonuclease I (Exo I) incubation using electrostatically bound [Ru(NH3)6](3+) as redox indicators. It is surprising to reveal that the hydrolysis efficiency of ssDNA SAMs does not depend on the packing density and base sequence, and that the cleavage ends with surface-bound shorter strands (9-13 mers). The ex-situ ESI-MS observations confirmed that the hydrolysis products for ssDNA SAMs (from 24 to 56 mers) are dominated with 10-15 mer fragments, in contrast to the complete digestion in solution. Such surface-restrained hydrolysis behavior is due to the steric hindrance of the underneath electrode to the Exo I/DNA binding, which is essential for the occurrence of Exo I-catalyzed processive cleavage. More importantly, we have shown that the hydrolysis efficiency of ssDNA SAMs can be remarkably improved by adopting long alkyl linkers (locating DNA strands further away from the substrates).

  12. Electrochemical aptamer/antibody based sandwich immunosensor for the detection of EGFR, a cancer biomarker, using gold nanoparticles as a signaling probe.

    PubMed

    Ilkhani, Hoda; Sarparast, Morteza; Noori, Abolhassan; Zahra Bathaie, S; Mousavi, Mir F

    2015-12-15

    Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in biological fluids is of paramount importance, since it has significant application in cancer diagnosis, drug development, and therapy monitoring. EGFR is a cancer biomarker, and its overexpression is associated with the development of some types of cancer. Herein, we report on the development of a sensitive and selective electrochemical aptamer/antibody (Apt/Ab) sandwich immunosensor for detection of EGFR. In this study, a biotinylated anti-human EGFR Apt was immobilized on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (MB) and served as a capture probe. A polyclonal anti-human EGFR Ab was conjugated to citrate-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and used as a signaling probe. In the presence of EGFR, an Apt-EGFR-Ab sandwich was formed on the MB surface. The extent of the complexation was evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry of AuNPs after their dissolution in HCl. Under optimal conditions, the dynamic concentration range of the immunosensor for EGFR spanned from 1 to 40 ng/mL, with a low detection limit of 50 pg/mL, and RSD percent of less than 4.2%. The proposed approach takes advantage of sandwich assay for high specificity, MBs for fast separation, and electrochemical method for cost-effective and sensitive detection. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate the potential clinical efficacy of the immunosensor for monitoring of chemotherapy effectiveness in breast cancer samples.

  13. Sensitive electrochemical detection of telomerase activity using spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles triggered mimic-hybridization chain reaction enzyme-free dual signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Jing-Jing; Rui, Kai; Gai, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-03-03

    We report an electrochemical sensor for telomerase activity detection based on spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles (SNAs AuNPs) triggered mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) enzyme-free dual signal amplification. In the detection strategy, SNAs AuNPs and two hairpin probes were employed. SNAs AuNPs as the primary amplification element, not only hybridized with the telomeric repeats on the electrode to amplify signal but also initiated the subsequent secondary amplification, mimic-hybridization chain reaction of two hairpin probes. If the cells' extracts were positive for telomerase activity, SNAs AuNPs could be captured on the electrode. The carried initiators could trigger an alternative hybridization reaction of two hairpin probes that yielded nicked double helices. The signal was further amplified enzyme-free by numerous hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting into double-helix DNA long chain by electrostatic interaction, each of which could generate an electrochemical signal at appropriate potential. With this method, a detection limit of down to 2 HeLa cells and a dynamic range of 10-10,000 cells were achieved. Telomerase activities of different cell lines were also successfully evaluated.

  14. Electrochemical in-situ dissolution study of structurally ordered, disordered and gold doped PtCu3 nanoparticles on carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovič, Primož; Šelih, Vid Simon; Šala, Martin; Hočevar, Samo B.; Pavlišič, Andraž; Gatalo, Matija; Bele, Marjan; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Čekada, Miha; Hodnik, Nejc; Gaberšček, Miran

    2016-09-01

    Commercial deployment of low-temperature-fuel cells is still hugely restricted by platinum alloy catalysts corrosion. Extensive research of the last years is focused on increasing stability of the catalyst composite, however a comprehensive understanding is still lacking. In pursuing this fundamentally and practically very important objective we present a comparative corrosion study of a PtCu3 nano-alloy system by investigating the effects of structural ordering and gold doping. For that purpose a recently developed electrochemical flow cell (EFC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is employed. This approach provides potential- and time-resolved insight into dissolution process at extremely low concentrations (ppb level). Our results show a structure-dependent copper corrosion, where ordering and gold-doping significantly improve copper retention in the native alloy. Two assumptions can be drawn from the measured Pt dissolution profiles: (i) a better Pt re-deposition efficiency in catalysts with higher porosity and (ii) the beneficial effect of Au surface doping that lowers the amount of dissolved Pt amount and shifts the Pt cathodic dissolution to lower potentials. A 2.6 nm Pt/C standard catalyst with the same carbon loading shows a much lower stability which is due to the well-known particle size effect.

  15. A facile and green strategy for preparing newly-designed 3D graphene/gold film and its application in highly efficient electrochemical mercury assay.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Yan; Ding, Shiming; Chu, Zhenyu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Danfeng; Luo, Jingyi; Jin, Wanqin

    2017-03-15

    In this work, we report a facile and green strategy for in situ and one step preparation of a novel 3D graphene/gold (G/Au) film. Triggering with unique driving force from hydrothermal growth, a 3D interlaced graphene framework with hierarchically porous structures was directly attached on a gold substrate pretreated with a self-assembled monolayer. Simultaneously, highly dispersive Au nanoparticles with tunable morphologies were anchored on the framework utilizing generated graphene as an endogenous reductant. Newly-designed 3D G/Au film possessed excellent properties of significantly large specific area, good electrical conductivity, high structure stability and substrate binding strength, etc. As a paradigm, an electrochemical Hg(2+) biosensor was constructed on 3D G/Au film, in which an exonuclease III-assisted target recycling was introduced. Impressively, an ultralow detection limit of 50 aM (S/N=3), a wide linear range from 0.1 fM to 0.1μM, a high selectivity and a good reliability for Hg(2+) assay in real water and serum samples were realized using prepared biosensor. It is highly envisioned that this work opens the door towards simply fabricating varying types of 3D graphene based hybrid films, and such G/Au film will have widespread applications in electroanalysis and electrocatalysis.

  16. A label-free, PCR-free and signal-on electrochemical DNA biosensor for Leishmania major based on gold nanoleaves.

    PubMed

    Moradi, M; Sattarahmady, N; Rahi, A; Hatam, G R; Sorkhabadi, S M Rezayat; Heli, H

    2016-12-01

    Detection of leishmaniasis is important in clinical diagnoses. In the present study, identification of Leishmania parasites was performed by a label-free, PCR-free and signal-on ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor. Gold nanoleaves were firstly electrodeposited by an electrodeposition method using spermidine as a shape directing agent. The biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of a Leishmania major specific DNA probe onto gold nanoleaves, and methylene blue was employed as a marker. Hybridization of the complementary single stranded DNA sequence with the biosensor under the selected conditions was then investigated. The biosensor could detect a synthetic DNA target in a range of 1.0×10(-10) to 1.0×10(-19)molL(-1) with a limit of detection of 1.8×10(-20)molL(-1), and genomic DNA in a range of 0.5-20ngμL(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.07ngμL(-1). The biosensor could distinguish Leishmania major from a non-complementary-sequence oligonucleotide and the tropica species with a high selectivity. The biosensor was applicable to detect Leishmania major in patient samples.

  17. Iron oxide/gold core/shell nanomagnetic probes and CdS biolabels for amplified electrochemical immunosensing of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M; Viswanathan, S; Nouws, H P A; Oliveira, M B P P; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-01-15

    There is an imminent need for rapid methods to detect and determine pathogenic bacteria in food products as alternatives to the laborious and time-consuming culture procedures. In this work, an electrochemical immunoassay using iron/gold core/shell nanoparticles (Fe@Au) conjugated with anti-Salmonella antibodies was developed. The chemical synthesis and functionalization of magnetic and gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles is reported. Fe@Au nanoparticles were functionalized with different self-assembled monolayers and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and voltammetric techniques. The determination of Salmonella typhimurium, on screen-printed carbon electrodes, was performed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry through the use of CdS nanocrystals. The calibration curve was established between 1×10(1) and 1×10(6) cells/mL and the limit of detection was 13 cells/mL. The developed method showed that it is possible to determine the bacteria in milk at low concentrations and is suitable for the rapid (less than 1h) and sensitive detection of S. typhimurium in real samples. Therefore, the developed methodology could contribute to the improvement of the quality control of food samples.

  18. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun

    2017-02-01

    In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM-1 cm-2 in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  19. Electrochemical sensor for multiplex screening of genetically modified DNA: identification of biotech crops by logic-based biomolecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Ching; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2013-12-15

    Genetically modified (GM) technique, one of the modern biomolecular engineering technologies, has been deemed as profitable strategy to fight against global starvation. Yet rapid and reliable analytical method is deficient to evaluate the quality and potential risk of such resulting GM products. We herein present a biomolecular analytical system constructed with distinct biochemical activities to expedite the computational detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The computational mechanism provides an alternative to the complex procedures commonly involved in the screening of GMOs. Given that the bioanalytical system is capable of processing promoter, coding and species genes, affirmative interpretations succeed to identify specified GM event in terms of both electrochemical and optical fashions. The biomolecular computational assay exhibits detection capability of genetically modified DNA below sub-nanomolar level and is found interference-free by abundant coexistence of non-GM DNA. This bioanalytical system, furthermore, sophisticates in array fashion operating multiplex screening against variable GM events. Such a biomolecular computational assay and biosensor holds great promise for rapid, cost-effective, and high-fidelity screening of GMO.

  20. Enhanced Electrochemical Sensing with Carbon Nanotubes Modified with Bismuth and Magnetic Nanoparticles in a Lab-on-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Jothimuthu, Preetha; Hsu, Joe L.; Chen, Robert; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Jan, Antony; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays an especially important role in human physiological functions and pathological impairments. The superior properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their modification with bismuth and magnetic nanoparticles as developed in this work have led to an extraordinary and novel material to facilitate ultrasensitive detection in the nanomolar range. Here, we present the development of an electrochemical sensor for detection of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) iron by means of CNTs modified with bismuth and magnetic nanoparticles for higher sensitivity of detection. The sensor fabrication includes microfabrication methodologies, soft lithography, and electrodeposition. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry are used for the electroanalytical studies and detection of the ions in samples. The sensor has a dynamic range of detection from 0.01 nm to 10 mm. The performance of the sensor with modified CNTs was explored for sensitivity and specificity. CNTs, modified with bismuth and magnetic nanoparticles by means of electrodeposition, enhanced the detection limit significantly down to 0.01 nm. PMID:27857882

  1. Precipitation of PEG/Carboxyl-Modified Gold Nanoparticles with Magnesium Pyrophosphate: A New Platform for Real-Time Monitoring of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ailin; Fu, Lok Tin; Wong, Jacky K F; Chau, Li Yin; Yip, Shea Ping; Lee, Thomas M H

    2017-03-29

    Gold nanoparticles have proven to be promising for decentralized nucleic acid testing by virtue of their simple visual readout and absorbance-based quantification. A major challenge toward their practical application is to achieve ultrasensitive detection without compromising simplicity. The conventional strategy of thermocycling amplification is unfavorable (because of both instrumentation and preparation of thermostable oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes). Herein, on the basis of a previously unreported co-precipitation phenomenon between thiolated poly(ethylene glycol)/11-mercaptoundecanoic acid co-modified gold nanoparticles and magnesium pyrophosphate crystals (an isothermal DNA amplification reaction byproduct), a new ultrasensitive and simple DNA assay platform is developed. The binding mechanism underlying the co-precipitation phenomenon is found to be caused by the complexation of carboxyl and pyrophosphate with free magnesium ions. Remarkably, poly(ethylene glycol) does not hinder the binding and effectively stabilizes gold nanoparticles against magnesium ion-induced aggregation (without pyrophosphate). In fact, a similar phenomenon is observed in other poly(ethylene glycol)- and carboxyl-containing nanomaterials. When the gold nanoparticle probe is incorporated into a loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction, it remains as a red dispersion for a negative sample (in the absence of a target DNA sequence) but appears as a red precipitate for a positive sample (in the presence of a target). This results in a first-of-its-kind gold nanoparticle-based DNA assay platform with isothermal amplification and real-time monitoring capabilities.

  2. Facile synthesis of thermally stable poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-modified gold surfaces by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Sun, Kai; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Lu, Jianhong; Song, Bo; Tong, Weifang; Shi, Xiujuan; Chen, Hong

    2012-06-26

    Well-controlled polymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) on Au surfaces by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) was carried out at room temperature by a silanization method. Initial attempts to graft poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) layers from initiators attached to alkanethiol monolayers yielded PVP films with thicknesses less than 5 nm. The combined factors of the difficulty in the controllable polymerization of NVP and the instability of alkanethiol monolayers led to the difficulty in the controlled polymerization of NVP on Au surfaces. Therefore, the silanization method was employed to form an adhesion layer for initiator attachment. This method allowed well-defined ATRP polymerization to occur on Au surfaces. Water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and reflectance Fourier transform infrared (reflectance FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified surfaces. The PVP-modified gold surface remained stable at 130 °C for 3 h, showing excellent thermal stability. Thus, postfunctionalization of polymer brushes at elevated temperatures is made possible. The silanization method was also applied to modify SPR chips and showed potential applications in biosensors and biochips.

  3. Highly Sensitive Glucose Sensor Based on Organic Electrochemical Transistor with Modified Gate Electrode.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xudong; Chan, Paddy K L

    2017-01-01

    An organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) with a glucose oxidase (GOx) and poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) gate electrode was successfully integrated with a microfluidic channel to act as a highly sensitive chip-based glucose sensor. The sensing mechanism relies on the enzymatic reaction between glucose and GOx followed by electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced in the enzymatic reaction. This process largely increases the electrolyte potential that applies on PEDOT:PSS channel and causes more cations penetrate into PEDOT:PSS film to reduce it to semi-conducting state resulting in lower electric current between the source and the drain. The extremely high sensitivity and low detection limit (0.1 μM) of the sensor was achievable due to highly efficient Pt NPs catalysis in oxidation of H2O2. Pt NPs were deposited by a bias-free two-step dip coating method followed by a UV-Ozone post-treatment to enhance catalytic ability. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel was directly attached to the OECT active layer, providing a short detection time (~1 min) and extremely low analyte consumption (30 μL). Our sensor has great potential for real-time, noninvasive, and portable glucose sensing applications due to its compact size and high sensitivity.

  4. Hematite Nanoparticles-Modified Electrode Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Zangeneh Kamali, Khosro; Alagarsamy, Pandikumar; Huang, Nay Ming; Ong, Boon Hoong; Lim, Hong Ngee

    2014-01-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by the solid transformation of ferrous hydroxide and ferrihydrite in hydrothermal condition. The as-prepared α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, PL, XRD, Raman, TEM, AFM, FESEM, and EDX analysis. The experimental results indicated the formation of uniform hematite nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm and perfect crystallinity. The electrochemical behavior of a GC/α-Fe2O3 electrode was studied using CV and EIS techniques with an electrochemical probe, [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity was investigated toward DA oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) by varying different experimental parameters. The chronoamperometric study showed a linear response in the range of 0–2 μM with LoD of 1.6 μM for DA. Square wave voltammetry showed a linear response in the range of 0–35 μM with LoD of 236 nM for DA. PMID:25136664

  5. Aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer cells through light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Fen; Lin, Yang-Wei; Lin, Zong-Hong; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the potential use of nucleic acid ligand (aptamers) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for cancer cell detection. Through specific binding of the aptamers toward platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells (cancer cells) that over-express PDGF, interact with Apt-AuNPs to a greater extent than do H184B5F5/M10 cells (normal cells). These results were confirmed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurements of the gold ion concentrations within these cells. Aggregation of the Apt-AuNPs in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells led to the generation of an intense scattered light upon photo-illumination; this phenomenon allows the differentiation of cancer cells from normal cells using a dark field optical microscope. The presence of Apt-AuNPs suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, but not H184B5F5/M10 cells.

  6. Chemically modified cellulose strips with pyridoxal conjugated red fluorescent gold nanoclusters for nanomolar detection of mercuric ions.

    PubMed

    Bothra, Shilpa; Upadhyay, Yachana; Kumar, Rajender; Ashok Kumar, S K; Sahoo, Suban K

    2017-04-15

    One-pot approach was adopted for the synthesis of highly luminescent near-infrared (NIR)-emitting gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a protecting agent. The vitamin B6 cofactor pyridoxal was conjugated with the luminescent BSA-AuNCs through the free amines of BSA and then employed for the nanomolar detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous medium via selective fluorescence quenching of AuNCs. This nano-assembly was successfully applied for the real sample analysis of Hg(2+) in fish, tap water and river water. The study also presents chemically-modified cellulosic paper strips with the pyridoxal conjugated BSA-AuNCs for detecting Hg(2+) ion up to 1nM.

  7. Visual and light scattering spectrometric method for the detection of melamine using uracil 5'-triphosphate sodium modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lijiao; Zhen, Shujun; Huang, Chengzhi

    2017-02-15

    A highly selective method was presented for colorimetric determination of melamine using uracil 5'-triphosphate sodium modified gold nanoparticles (UTP-Au NPs) in this paper. Specific hydrogen-bonding interaction between uracil base (U) and melamine resulted in the aggregation of AuNPs, displaying variations of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features such as color change from red to blue and enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance light scattering (LSPR-LS) signals. Accordingly, the concentration of melamine could be quantified based on naked eye or a spectrometric method. This method was simple, inexpensive, environmental friendly and highly selective, which has been successfully used for the detection of melamine in pretreated liquid milk products with high recoveries.

  8. Solid-phase extraction based on ground methacrylate monolith modified with gold nanoparticles for isolation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Barberán, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2016-04-21

    In this study, a novel polymeric material functionalized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for isolation of proteins. The sorbent was synthesized from a powdered poly(glycidyl-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, and modified with ammonia, followed by immobilization of AuNPs on the pore surface of the material. To evaluate the performance of this SPE support, proteins were selected as test solutes, being the extraction conditions and other parameters (loading capacity and regenerative ability of sorbent) established. The results indicated that this sorbent could be employed to selectively capture proteins according to their pI, on the basis of the strong affinity of these biomacromolecules towards to AuNPs surface. The applicability of this sorbent was demonstrated by isolating protein species of interest (bovine serum albumin, cytochrome c and lectins in European mistletoe leaves), followed by SDS-PAGE analysis.

  9. A gold nanoparticles enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of ischemia-modified albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Li, Xian; Yang, Meng; Chen, Meng-Meng; Chen, Long-Cong; Xiong, Xing-Liang

    2013-09-25

    In this study a novel sensitive nanogold particle sensor enhancement based on mixed self-assembled monolayers was explored and used to construct a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor to detect Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA). Compared with a direct binding SPR assay at a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 ng/L, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of 10 nm dramatically improved the LOD of IMA to 10 ng/L. Meanwhile, no interfering substance that may lead to false positive results was identified. These results suggested that the SPR biosensor presented superior properties, and provided a simple label-free strategy to increase assay sensitivity for further acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnosis.

  10. SERS Taper-Fiber Nanoprobe Modified by Gold Nanoparticles Wrapped with Ultrathin Alumina Film by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjie; Chen, Zhenyi; Chen, Na; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Shupeng; Hu, Xinmao; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun

    2017-02-25

    A taper-fiber SERS nanoprobe modified by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with ultrathin alumina layers was fabricated and its ability to perform remote Raman detection was demonstrated. The taper-fiber nanoprobe (TFNP) with a nanoscale tip size under 80 nm was made by heated pulling combined with the chemical etching method. The Au-NPs were deposited on the TFNP surface with the electrostatic self-assembly technology, and then the TFNP was wrapped with ultrathin alumina layers by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The results told us that with the increasing thickness of the alumina film, the Raman signals decreased. With approximately 1 nm alumina film, the remote detection limit for R6G aqueous solution reached 10(-6) mol/L.

  11. SERS Taper-Fiber Nanoprobe Modified by Gold Nanoparticles Wrapped with Ultrathin Alumina Film by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenjie; Chen, Zhenyi; Chen, Na; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Shupeng; Hu, Xinmao; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun

    2017-01-01

    A taper-fiber SERS nanoprobe modified by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with ultrathin alumina layers was fabricated and its ability to perform remote Raman detection was demonstrated. The taper-fiber nanoprobe (TFNP) with a nanoscale tip size under 80 nm was made by heated pulling combined with the chemical etching method. The Au-NPs were deposited on the TFNP surface with the electrostatic self-assembly technology, and then the TFNP was wrapped with ultrathin alumina layers by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The results told us that with the increasing thickness of the alumina film, the Raman signals decreased. With approximately 1 nm alumina film, the remote detection limit for R6G aqueous solution reached 10−6 mol/L. PMID:28245618

  12. Electrochemical assay for the determination of nitric oxide metabolites using copper(II) chlorophyllin modified screen printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Murugesan; Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a novel electrochemical assay for the collective measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and its metabolites nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) in volume miniaturized sample at low cost using copper(II) chlorophyllin (CuCP) modified sensor electrode. Zinc oxide (ZnO) incorporated screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was used as a host matrix for the immobilization of CuCP. The morphological changes of the ZnO and CuCP modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization of CuCP-ZnO-SPCE exhibited the characteristic quasi-reversible redox peaks at the potential +0.06 V versus Ag/AgCl. This biosensor electrode showed a wide linear range of response over NO concentrations from 200 nM to 500 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM and sensitivity of 85.4 nA μM(-1). Furthermore, NO2(-) measurement showed linearity of 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 100 nM for NO2(-) and sensitivity of 96.4 nA μM(-1). Then, the concentration of NO3(-) was measured after its enzymatic conversion into NO2(-). Using this assay, the concentrations of NO, NO2(-), and NO3(-) present in human plasma samples before and after beetroot supplement were estimated using suitable membrane coated CuCP-ZnO-SPCE and validated with the standard Griess method.

  13. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Meininger, M; Wolf-Brandstetter, C; Zerweck, J; Wenninger, F; Gbureck, U; Groll, J; Moseke, C

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr(2+) ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr(2+) into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr(2+) ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant-bone interface.

  14. Electrodes and electrochemical storage cells utilizing tin-modified active materials

    DOEpatents

    Anani, Anaba; Johnson, John; Lim, Hong S.; Reilly, James; Schwarz, Ricardo; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    1995-01-01

    An electrode has a substrate and a finely divided active material on the substrate. The active material is ANi.sub.x-y-z Co.sub.y Sn.sub.z, wherein A is a mischmetal or La.sub.1-w M.sub.w, M is Ce, Nd, or Zr, w is from about 0.05 to about 1.0, x is from about 4.5 to about 5.5, y is from 0 to about 3.0, and z is from about 0.05 to about 0.5. An electrochemical storage cell utilizes such an electrode as the anode. The storage cell further has a cathode, a separator between the cathode and the anode, and an electrolyte.

  15. Selectable Ultrasensitive Detection of Hg2+ with Rhodamine 6G-Modified Nanoporous Gold Optical Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Heping

    2016-07-01

    An extremely sensitive fluorescence sensor has been developed for selectively detection of mercury ions based on metallophilic Hg2+-Au+ interactions, which results in an effective release of pre-adsorbed rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules from the nanoporous gold substrate, associated with a significant decrease of fluorescence intensity. The optical sensor has a detection sensitivity down to 0.6 pM for Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ ions, in particular a superior selectivity in a complex aqueous system containing 13 different types of metal ions, meanwhile maintaining a long-term stability after 10 cycles. Such a fluorescence sensor combining multiple advantages therefore present promising potentials in various applications.

  16. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence detection of thrombin based on aptamer and cystamine modified gold nanoparticle probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ruixue; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2011-11-01

    Recently, our group showed that one can detect specific oligonucleotides at low femtomolar levels with the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biobarcode approach based on tris-(2, 2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled cysteamine. It would be a significant advance to use the cysteamine assisted ECL biobarcode assay to detect protein targets in addition to DNA targets. Taking advantage of sandwich binding of two affinity aptamers for increased specificity, TBR-cysteamine as biobarcode for signal amplification and magnetic beads based ECL technology for rapid detection, a promising assay for thrombin quantification is developed. The sandwich complex could be selectively captured by micromagnetic particles and then quantified by ECL signals. Current cysteamine-Gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugates based ECL biobarcode assay is expected to become a powerful tool for protein analysis.

  17. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence detection of thrombin based on aptamer and cystamine modified gold nanoparticle probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ruixue; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2012-03-01

    Recently, our group showed that one can detect specific oligonucleotides at low femtomolar levels with the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biobarcode approach based on tris-(2, 2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled cysteamine. It would be a significant advance to use the cysteamine assisted ECL biobarcode assay to detect protein targets in addition to DNA targets. Taking advantage of sandwich binding of two affinity aptamers for increased specificity, TBR-cysteamine as biobarcode for signal amplification and magnetic beads based ECL technology for rapid detection, a promising assay for thrombin quantification is developed. The sandwich complex could be selectively captured by micromagnetic particles and then quantified by ECL signals. Current cysteamine-Gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugates based ECL biobarcode assay is expected to become a powerful tool for protein analysis.

  18. Selectable Ultrasensitive Detection of Hg2+ with Rhodamine 6G-Modified Nanoporous Gold Optical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    An extremely sensitive fluorescence sensor has been developed for selectively detection of mercury ions based on metallophilic Hg2+-Au+ interactions, which results in an effective release of pre-adsorbed rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules from the nanoporous gold substrate, associated with a significant decrease of fluorescence intensity. The optical sensor has a detection sensitivity down to 0.6 pM for Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ ions, in particular a superior selectivity in a complex aqueous system containing 13 different types of metal ions, meanwhile maintaining a long-term stability after 10 cycles. Such a fluorescence sensor combining multiple advantages therefore present promising potentials in various applications. PMID:27403721

  19. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices with integrated wrinkled gold micro-/nano textured electrodes for electrochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, C M; Adams-McGavin, R C; Vanderfleet, O M; Soleymani, L

    2015-08-21

    Fully-integrated electro-fluidic systems with micro-/nano-scale features have a wide range of applications in lab-on-a-chip systems used for biosensing, biological sample processing, and environmental monitoring. Rapid prototyping of application-specific electro-fluidic systems is envisioned to facilitate the testing, validation, and market translation of several lab-on-a-chip systems. Towards this goal, we developed a rapid prototyping process for creating wrinkled micro-/nano-textured electrodes on shrink memory polymers, fabricating microfluidics using molds patterned by a craft-cutter, and bonding electrical and fluidic circuitries using a PDMS partial curing method optimized for creating void-free bonds at the side walls and surfaces of tall (>5 μm) micro-/nano-textured wrinkled electrodes. The resulting electro-fluidic devices, featuring closely spaced high topography electrodes for electrochemical analysis, can withstand flow-rates and burst pressures larger than 25 mL min(-1) and 125 kPa, respectively. In addition, the fully-integrated electrochemical flow-cell developed here demonstrates excellent electrochemical behaviour, with negligible scan to scan variation for over 100 cyclic voltammetry scans, and expected redox signatures measured under various voltage scan rates and fluidic flow rates.

  20. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT CARBON NANOTUBE MODIFIED ELECTRODES. (R830900)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibiting a strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards sulfide are described. A substantial (400 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the sulfide oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is...

  1. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of DNA hybridization on DNA microarrays enhanced by HRP-modified SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huajun; Wang, Xiaolan; Jiao, Fang; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2013-07-02

    Imaging of localized hybridization of nucleic acids immobilized on a glass DNA microarray was performed by means of generation collection (GC) mode scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Amine-tethered oligodeoxynucleotide probes, spotted on the glass surface, were hybridized with an unmodified target sequence and a biotinylated indicator probe via sandwich hybridization. Spots where sequence-specific hybridization had occurred were modified by streptavidin-horseradish-peroxidase-(HRP)-wrapped SiO2 nanoparticles through the biotin-streptavidin interaction. In the presence of H2O2, hydroquinone (H2Q) was oxidized to benzoquinone (BQ) at the modified spot surface through the HRP catalytic reaction, and the generated BQ corresponding to the amount of target DNA was reduced in solution by an SECM tip. With this DNA microarray, a number of genes could be detected simultaneously and selectively enough to discriminate between complementary sequences and those containing base mismatches. The DNA targets at prepared spots could be imaged in SECM GC mode over a wide concentration range (10(-7)-10(-12) M). This technique may find applications in genomic sequencing.

  2. An electrochemical sensor for detection of neurotransmitter-acetylcholine using metal nanoparticles, 2D material and conducting polymer modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nidhi; Chawla, Sheetal; Pundir, C S; Jain, Utkarsh

    2017-03-15

    An essential biological sensor for acetylcholine (ACh) detection is constructed by immobilizing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO), on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite modified fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). The qualitative and quantitative measurements of nanocomposites properties were accomplished by scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). This prepared biological sensor delineated a wide linear range of 4.0nM to 800μM with a response time less than 4s and detection limit (based on S/N ratio) of 4.0nM. The sensor showed perfect sensitivity, excessive selectivity and stability for longer period of time during storage. Besides its very high-sensitivity, the biosensor has displayed a low detection limit which is reported for the first time in comparison to previously reported ACh sensors. By fabricating Fe2O3NPs/rGO/PEDOT modified FTO electrode for determining ACh level in serum samples, the applicability of biosensor has increased immensely as the detection of the level neurotransmitter is first priority for patients suffering from memory loss or Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  3. Evaluation of the electrochemical behavior and analytical potentialities of a carbon paste electrode modified with a ruthenium (III) piperidinedithiocarbamate complex.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Antônio; Cavalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo

    2005-02-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a carbon paste electrode modified with bis(N,N-piperidinedithiocarbamate)-mu-tris(N,N-piperidinedithiocarbamate)diruthenium(III) complex, alpha-[Ru2(Pip)5]Cl are described. The best voltammetric response was obtained for a 10% (m/m) alpha-[Ru2(Pip)5]Cl content in the paste, potassium acid phthalate solution pH 4.0 as supporting electrolyte and scan rate of 100 mV s-1. The analytical potentialities of the electrode have been evaluated using L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as a probe. A sensitive linear voltammetric response for L-ascorbic acid was obtained in the concentration range 4.50-113x10(-5) mol l-1 (7.92-200 mg l-1) with a slope of 1.12x10(4) microA mol-1, and a detection limit (3sigma/slope) of 7.00x10(-6) mol l-1 using cyclic voltammetry. The concentrations of L-ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and liquid) were determined using the modified electrode and compared with an iodimetric procedure with good agreement at the 95% confidence and relative error lower than 1%.

  4. DNA-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrochemical biosensor for the detection of Escherichia coli from real samples.

    PubMed

    Ozkan-Ariksoysal, Dilsat; Kayran, Yasin Ugur; Yilmaz, Fethiye Ferda; Ciucu, Anton Alexandru; David, Iulia Gabriela; David, Vasile; Hosgor-Limoncu, Mine; Ozsoz, Mehmet

    2017-05-01

    This paper introduces DNA-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified genosensor for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified real samples while Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was used to investigate the selectivity of the biosensor. The capture probe specifically recognizing E. coli DNA and it was firstly interacted with MWCNTs for wrapping of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) onto the nanomaterial. DNA-wrapped MWCNTs were then immobilised on the surface of disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) for the detection of DNA hybridization. Electrochemical behaviors of the modified PGEs were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The sequence selective DNA hybridization was determined and evaluated by changes in the intrinsic guanine oxidation signal at about 1.0V by DPV. Numerous factors affecting the hybridization were optimized such as target concentration, hybridization time, etc. The designed DNA sensor can well detect E. coli DNA in 20min detection time with 0.5pmole of detection limit in 30µL of sample volume.

  5. Electrochemical detection of malathion pesticide using acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with conducting polymer film.

    PubMed

    Guler, Muhammet; Turkoglu, Vedat; Kivrak, Arif

    2016-06-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor based on conducting poly([2,2̍';5̍' 2″]-terthiophene-3̍-carbaldehyde) (PTT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. AChE was immobilized on PTT film surface through the covalent bond between aldehyde and amino groups. The properties of PTT modified GCE were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biosensor showed an oxidation peak at +0.83 V related to the oxidation of thiocholine, hydrolysis product of acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCI), catalyzed by AChE. The optimum current response of the biosensor was observed at pH 7.5-8.0, 40 °C and 120 U/cm(2) of AChE concentration. The biosensor showed a high sensitivity (183.19 μA/mM), a linear range from 0.015 to 1.644 mM, and a good reproducibility with 1.7 % of relative standard deviation (RSD). The biosensor showed a good stability. The interference of glycin, ascorbic acid, histidine, uric acid, dopamine, and arginine on the biosensor response was studied. An important analytical response from these inteferents that overlaps the biosensor response was not observed. The inhibition rate of malathion as a model pesticide was proportional to its concentrations from 9.99 to 99.01 nM. The detection limit was 4.08 nM.

  6. Resonance light scattering detection of fructose bisphosphates using uranyl-salophen complex-modified gold nanoparticles as optical probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijun; Liao, Lifu; Wu, Rurong; Yang, Yanyan; Xu, Li; Xiao, Xilin; Nie, Changming

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report a resonance light scattering (RLS) method for the determination of fructose bisphosphates (FBPs) in water solution using fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP) as a model analyte without the procedure of extracting target analyte. The method used a type of modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as optical probe. The modified GNPs are uranyl-salophen-cysteamine-GNPs (U-Sal-Cy-GNPs) which are obtained through the acylation reaction of carboxylated salophen with cysteamine-capped GNPs (Cy-GNPs) to form Sal-Cy-GNPs and then the chelation reaction of uranyl with tetradentate ligand salophen in the Sal-Cy-GNPs. A FBP molecule is used easily to connect two U-Sal-Cy-GNPs to cause the aggregation of the GNPs by utilizing the specific affinity of uranyl-salophen complex to phosphate group, resulting in the production of strong RLS signal from the system. The amount of FBPs can be determined through detecting the RLS intensity change of the system. A linear range was found to be 2.5 to 75 nmol/L with a detection limit of 0.91 nmol/L under optimal conditions. The method has been successfully used to determine FBPs in real samples with the recoveries of 96.5-103.5 %.

  7. Polyethylene glycol-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles enhance CT imaging of blood pool in atherosclerotic mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report a new use of dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) with good biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo imaging of atherosclerotic mice by computed tomography (CT). In this study, Au DENPs were synthesized using poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) modified by PEG monomethyl ether (G5.NH2-mPEG20) as templates. In vitro cytotoxicity and flow cytometry assays show that the formed PEGylated Au DENPs have good biocompatibility and are non-cytotoxic at the Au concentration up to 300 μM. Silver staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirm that the Au DENPs are able to be uptaken by macrophages and are located dominantly in the lysosomes of the cells. Importantly, the formed PEGylated Au DENPs are able to be used for CT imaging of murine macrophages in vitro and macrophages in atherosclerotic mice in vivo using apolipoprotein-E-gene-deficient mice as a model. These findings suggest that the formed PEGylated Au DENPs are a promising contrast agent for CT imaging of atherosclerosis. PMID:25288918

  8. Generic phosphatase activity detection using zinc mediated aggregation modulation of polypeptide-modified gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selegård, Robert; Enander, Karin; Aili, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme. Phosphatase activity generates inorganic phosphate that forms an insoluble complex with Zn2+. In a sample containing a preset concentration of Zn2+, phosphatase activity will markedly reduce the concentration of dissolved Zn2+ from the original value, which in turn affects the aggregation of gold nanoparticles functionalized with a designed Zn2+ responsive polypeptide. The change in nanoparticle stability thus provides a rapid and sensitive readout of the phosphatase activity. The assay is not limited to a particular enzyme or enzyme substrate, which is demonstrated using three completely different phosphatases and five different substrates, and thus constitutes a highly interesting system for drug screening and diagnostics.A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme

  9. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T

    2015-03-03

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 μL) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system includes a nanostructured Au surface that serves dual roles as the electrochemical working electrode (WE) and SERS substrate, a microfabricated Pt counter electrode (CE), and an external Ag/AgCl reference electrode (RE). The nanostructured Au WE enables highly sensitive in situ SERS spectroscopy through large and reproducible SERS enhancements, which eliminates the need for resonant wavelength matching of the laser excitation source with the electronic absorption of the target molecule. The new SEC analysis system has the merits of wide applicability to target molecules, small sample volume, and a low detection limit. We demonstrate in situ SERS spectroelectrochemistry measurements of the metalloporphyrin hemin showing shifts of the iron oxidation marker band ν4 with the nanostructured Au working electrode under precise potential control.

  10. Electrochemical reduction of nalidixic acid at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Yolanda; Pilehvar, Sanaz; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador; De Wael, Karolien

    2017-02-05

    The aqueous phase electrochemical degradation of nalidixic acid (NAL) is studied in this work, using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) as instrumental techniques. The promotional effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the performance of glassy carbon electrodes is demonstrated, being observed that these materials catalyze the NAL reduction. The effect of surface functional groups on MWCNT -MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-NH2-was also studied. The modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with MWCNT leads to an improved performance for NAL reduction following the order of MWCNT>MWCNT-NH2>MWCNT-COOH. The best behavior at MWCNT-GCE is mainly due to both the increased electrode active area and the enhanced MWCNT adsorption properties. The NAL degradation was carried out under optimal conditions (pH=5.0, deposition time=20s and volume of MWCNT=10μL) using MWCNT-GCE obtaining an irreversible reduction of NAL to less toxic products. Paramaters as the number of DPV cycles and the volume/area (V/A) ratio were optimized for maximize pollutant degradation. It was observed that after 15 DPV scans and V/A=8, a complete reduction was obtained, obtaining two sub-products identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

  11. Electrochemical determination of hydrazine using a ZrO2 nanoparticles-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sayed Zia; Beitollahi, Hadi; Bani Asadi, Elina

    2015-03-01

    In the present paper, the use of a carbon paste electrode modified by 3-(4'-amino-3'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (3,4'AA) and ZrO2 nanoparticles prepared by a simple and rapid method was described. The heterogeneous electron transfer properties of (3,4'AA) coupled to ZrO2 nanoparticles at the carbon paste electrode were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square wave voltammetry in aqueous buffer solutions. Under the optimized conditions, the square wave voltammetric peak currents of hydrazine increased linearly with hydrazine concentrations in the range of 2.5 × 10(-8) to 5.0 × 10(-5) M, and detection limit of 14 nM was obtained for hydrazine. Finally, this modified electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in water samples, using standard addition method.

  12. Gold nanoparticles modified ZnO nanorods with improved photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lanlan; Zhao, Dongxu; Song, Zhiming; Shan, Chongxin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Li, Binghui; Shen, Dezhen

    2011-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) slide by the hydrothermal method and used as templates for preparing ZnO/Au composite nanoarrays. The optical and morphological properties of ZnO/Au composites under various HAuCl(4) concentrations were explored via UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The density and size of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on ZnO NRs can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of HAuCl(4). The optimal ZnO/Au composites display complete photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) within 60 min, which is superior to that with pure ZnO NRs prepared by the same method. The reason of better photocatalytic performance is that Au NPs act as electron traps and it prevents the rapid recombination of electrons and holes, resulting in the improvement of photocatalytic efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO/Au composites is mainly controlled by the density of Au NPs formed on ZnO NRs. The application in rapid photodegradation of MB shows the potential of ZnO/Au composite as a convenient catalyst for the environmental purification of organic pollutants.

  13. Role of fluorosurfactant-modified gold nanoparticles in selective detection of homocysteine thiolactone: remover and sensor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2008-08-15

    In this article, we report a simple approach for the selective sensing of homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) using fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as aminothiol removers and as sensors. We have shown that HTL did not bind to the surface of the FSN-AuNPs in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. In contrast, under these pH conditions, the FSN-AuNPs are aggregated upon the addition of homocysteine (HCys) and cysteine (Cys). On the basis of this feature, we have demonstrated that FSN-AuNPs are effective sorbent materials for HCys and Cys, but not for HTL. It is found that the FSN-AuNPs can remove of >98% of HCys and >99% of Cys from an aqueous solution. Thus, after the centrifugation of a solution containing AuNPs, HTL, and other aminothiols, only HTL remains in the supernatant. When NaOH is added to the supernatant, HTL is hydrolyzed to HCys, leading to the aggregation of the FSN-AuNPs. As a result, the selectivity of the probe is significantly higher for HTL in aqueous solutions than for other aminthiols. The sensitivity of FSN-AuNPs toward HTL can be further improved by optimizing the AuNP concentrations. Under optimum conditions, the lowest detectable concentration of HTL through this approach is 100 nM. We have validated the applicability of our method through the analyses of HTL in urine samples.

  14. Methylene blue and neutral red electropolymerisation on AuQCM and on modified AuQCM electrodes: an electrochemical and gravimetric study.

    PubMed

    Barsan, Madalina M; Pinto, Edilson M; Brett, Christopher M A

    2011-03-28

    The phenazine monomers neutral red (NR) and methylene blue (MB) have been electropolymerised on different quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrates: MB at AuQCM and nanostructured ultrathin sputtered carbon AuQCM (AuQCM/C), and NR on AuQCM and on layer-by-layer films of hyaluronic acid with myoglobin deposited on AuQCM (AuQCM-{HA/Mb}(6)). The surface of the electrode substrates was characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the frequency changes during potential cycling electropolymerisation of the monomer were monitored by the QCM. The study investigates how the monomer chemical structure together with the electrode morphology and surface structure can influence the electropolymerisation process and the electrochemical properties of the phenazine-modified electrodes. Differences between MB and NR polymerisation, as well as between the different substrates were found. The electrochemical properties of the PNR-modified electrodes were analysed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared with the unmodified AuQCM. The results are valuable for future applications of modified AuQCM as substrates for electroactive polymer film deposition and applications in redox-mediated electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  15. A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for catechol using conducting polymer reduced graphene oxide-metal oxide enzyme modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, V; Muthuraja, P; Anandha Raj, J; Manisankar, P

    2016-10-15

    The fabrication, characterization and analytical performances were investigated for a catechol biosensor, based on the PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The graphene oxide (GO) doped conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was prepared through electrochemical polymerization by potential cycling. Reduction of PEDOT-GO was carried out by amperometric method. Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol by hydrothermal method. The mixture of Fe2O3, PPO and glutaraldehyde was casted on the PEDOT-rGO electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrodes was studied by FE-SEM and AFM. Cyclic voltammetric studies of catechol on the enzyme modified electrode revealed higher reduction peak current. Determination of catechol was carried out successfully by Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) technique. The fabricated biosensor investigated shows a maximum current response at pH 6.5. The catechol biosensor exhibited wide sensing linear range from 4×10(-8) to 6.20×10(-5)M, lower detection limit of 7×10(-9)M, current maxima (Imax) of 92.55µA and Michaelis-Menten (Km) constant of 30.48µM. The activation energy (Ea) of enzyme electrode is 35.93KJmol(-1) at 50°C. There is no interference from d-glucose and l-glutamic acid, ascorbic acid and o-nitrophenol. The PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO biosensor was stable for at least 75 days when stored in a buffer at about 4°C.

  16. A silk derived carbon fiber mat modified with Au@Pt urchilike nanoparticles: A new platform as electrochemical microbial biosensor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Guo, Shaojun; Zhou, Ming; Liu, Ling; Liu, Chang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-06-15

    We present here a facile and efficient route to prepare silk derived carbon mat modified with Au@Pt urchilike nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs) and develop an Escherichia coli (E. coli)-based electrochemical sensor using this material. Silk is a natural protein fiber, and it is abundant with kinds of functionalities which are important in the development of the derived material. The S-derived carbon fiber mat have amino, pyridine and carbonyl functional groups, these natural existent functionalities allow the Au@Pt NPs to self-assemble on the carbon fiber surface and provide a biocompatible microenvironment for bacteria. The Au@Pt NPs modified S-derived carbon fiber is sensitive to detect the E. coli activities with a low detection limit, where glucose is used as a prelimiltary substrate to evaluate them. The performance of Au@Pt/carbon fiber mat based biosensor is much better than that of commercial carbon paper based biosensor. The high sensitivity of this biosensor stems from the unique electrocatalytic properties of Au@Pt urchilike NPs and quinone groups presented in S-derived carbon fiber. This biosensor is also tested for detection of organophosphate pesticides, fenamiphos. The relative inhibition of E. coli activity is linear with -log[fenamiphos] at the concentration range from 0.5mg/L to 36.6 mg/L with lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of 0.09 mg/L. The Au@Pt NPs modified S-derived carbon fiber mat possesses high conductivity, biocompatibility and high electrocatalytic activity and be can used as advanced electrode materials for microbial biosensor improvement. The microbial biosensor based on this material shows potential applications in environmental monitoring.

  17. Electrochemical Characterization and Catalytic Application of Gold-Supported Ferrocene-Containing Diblock Copolymer Thin Films in Ethanol Solution

    DOE PAGES

    Ghimire, Govinda; Coceancigh, Herman; Yi, Yi; ...

    2017-01-25

    This study reports the electrochemical behavior and catalytic property of electrode-supported thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl ferrocenecarboxylate) (PS-b-PAEFc) in an ethanol (EtOH) solution. The electrochemical properties of PS-b-PAEFc films with different PAEFc volume fractions (fPAEFc = 0.47, 0.30, and 0.17) in 0.1 M ethanolic sodium hexafluorophosphate were compared with those in an acetonitrile (MeCN) solution of 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate. Pristine PS-b-PAEFc films did not afford significant faradaic currents in the EtOH solution because EtOH is a nonsolvent for both PS and PAEFc. However, the films could be rendered redox-active in the EtOH solution by applying potentials in the MeCN solutionmore » to induce the redox-associated incorporation of the supporting electrolytes into the films. Atomic force microscopy images verified the stability of PAEFc microdomains upon electrochemical measurements in these solutions. Cyclic voltammograms measured in the EtOH solution for PS-b-PAEFc with the larger fPAEFc were diffusion-controlled regardless of ellipsometric film thickness (23 – 152 nm) at relatively slow scan rates, in contrast to those in the MeCN solution that were controlled by surface-confined redox species. The electron propagation efficiency in the EtOH solution was significantly lower than that in the MeCN solution due to the poorer swelling of the films, which limited the migration of counter ions and the collisional motions of the ferrocene moieties. PS-b-PAEFc films were applied as electrochemically-responsive heterogeneous catalysts based on the ferrocenium moieties for Michael addition reaction between methyl vinyl ketone and ethyl 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate (E2OC) in 0.1 M NaPF6/EtOH. The catalytic activities of thin films were similar regardless of fPAEFc, suggesting that the catalytic reaction took place for the reactants that could penetrate through the film and reach PAEFc microdomains

  18. Electrochemical characterization and catalytic application of gold-supported ferrocene-containing diblock copolymer thin films in ethanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ghimire, Govinda; Coceancigh, Herman; Yi, Yi; Ito, Takashi

    2016-12-26

    This study reports the electrochemical behavior and catalytic property of electrode-supported thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl ferrocenecarboxylate) (PS-b-PAEFc) in an ethanol (EtOH) solution. The electrochemical properties of PS-b-PAEFc films with different PAEFc volume fractions (fPAEFc = 0.47, 0.30, and 0.17) in 0.1 M ethanolic sodium hexafluorophosphate were compared with those in an acetonitrile (MeCN) solution of 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate. Pristine PS-b-PAEFc films did not afford significant faradaic currents in the EtOH solution because EtOH is a nonsolvent for both PS and PAEFc. However, the films could be rendered redox-active in the EtOH solution by applying potentials in the MeCN solution to induce the redox-associated incorporation of the supporting electrolytes into the films. Atomic force microscopy images verified the stability of PAEFc microdomains upon electrochemical measurements in these solutions. Cyclic voltammograms measured in the EtOH solution for PS-b-PAEFc with the larger fPAEFc were diffusion-controlled regardless of ellipsometric film thickness (23 – 152 nm) at relatively slow scan rates, in contrast to those in the MeCN solution that were controlled by surface-confined redox species. The electron propagation efficiency in the EtOH solution was significantly lower than that in the MeCN solution due to the poorer swelling of the films, which limited the migration of counter ions and the collisional motions of the ferrocene moieties. PS-b-PAEFc films were applied as electrochemically-responsive heterogeneous catalysts based on the ferrocenium moieties for Michael addition reaction between methyl vinyl ketone and ethyl 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate (E2OC) in 0.1 M NaPF6/EtOH. The catalytic activities of thin films were similar regardless of fPAEFc, suggesting that the catalytic reaction took place for the

  19. Visual detection of STAT5B gene expression in living cell using the hairpin DNA modified gold nanoparticle beacon.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianpeng; Shan, Lingling; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Yang; Zhu, Hongyan; Deng, Dawei; Qian, Zhiyu; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-03-15

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) is an important protein in JAK-STAT signaling pathway that is responsible for the metastasis and proliferation of tumor cells. Determination of the STAT5B messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) relating to the STAT5B expression provides insight into the mechanism of tumor progression. In this study, we designed and used a special hairpin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for human STAT5B mRNA to functionalize gold nanoparticles, which served as a beacon for detecting human STAT5B expression. Up to 90% quenching efficiency was achieved. Upon hybridizing with the target mRNA, the hairpin DNA modified gold nanoparticle beacons (hDAuNP beacons) release the fluorophores attached at 5' end of the oligonucleotide sequence. The fluorescence properties of the beacon before and after the hybridization with the complementary DNA were confirmed in vitro. The stability of hDAuNP beacons against degradation by DNase I and GSH indicated that the prepared beacon is stable inside cells. The detected fluorescence in MCF-7 cancer cells correlates with the specific STAT5B mRNA expression, which is consistent with the result from PCR measurement. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the hDAuNP beacons internalized in cells without using transfection agents, with intracellular distribution in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus. The results demonstrated that this beacon could directly provide quantitative measurement of the intracellular STAT5B mRNA in living cells. Compared to the previous approaches, this beacon has advantages of higher target to background ratio of detection and an increased resistance to nuclease degradation. The strategy reported in this study is a promising approach for the intracellular measurement of RNA or protein expression in living cells, and has great potential in the study of drug screening and discovery.

  20. Selective detection of dopamine in the presence of uric acid using a gold nanoparticles-poly(luminol) hybrid film and multi-walled carbon nanotubes with incorporated β-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dong; Dai, Jianyuan; Yuan, Hongyan; Lei, Ling; Xiao, Dan

    2011-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles-poly(luminol) (Plu-AuNPs) hybrid film and multi-walled carbon nanotubes with incorporated β-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode (β-CD-MWCNTs/Plu-AuNPs/GCE) was successfully prepared for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The surface of the modified electrode has been characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) have been used to investigate the β-CD-MWCNTs/Plu-AuNPs composite film. Gold nanoparticles anchored into poly(luminol) film exhibited catalytic activity for DA. MWCNTs with incorporated β-CD can greatly promote the direct electron transfer. In 0.10 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.0), the DPV response of the β-CD-MWCNTs/Plu-AuNPs/GCE sensor to DA is about 8-fold as compared with the Plu-AuNPs/GCE sensor, and the detection limit for DA is about one order of magnitude lower than the Plu-AuNPs/GCE sensor. The steady-state current response increases linearly with DA concentration from 1.0 × 10(-6) to 5.6 × 10(-5)M with a low detection limit (S/N=3) of 1.9 × 10(-7)M. Moreover, the interferences of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) are effectively diminished. The applicability of the prepared electrode has been demonstrated by measuring DA contents in dopamine hydrochloride injection.

  1. Photo-electrochemical communication between cyanobacteria (Leptolyngbia sp.) and osmium redox polymer modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Bekir Yildiz, Huseyin; Sperling, Eva; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Packer, Michael A; Leech, Dónal; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2014-12-07

    Photosynthetic microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) are an emerging technology for renewable solar energy conversion. Major efforts have been made to explore the electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria, mostly using practically unsustainable reagents. Here we report on photocurrent generation (≈8.64 μA cm(-2)) from cyanobacteria immobilized on electrodes modified with an efficient electron mediator, an Os(2+/3+) redox polymer. Upon addition of ferricyanide to the electrolyte, cyanobacteria generate the maximum current density of ≈48.2 μA cm(-2).

  2. Surface Modified Pinecone Shaped Hierarchical Structure Fluorinated Mesocarbon Microbeads for Ultrafast Discharge and Improved Electrochemical Performances

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Yang; Fang, Yuan; Cai, Sendan; ...

    2016-12-01

    Among all primary lithium batteries, Li/CFx primary battery possesses the highest energy density of 2180 Wh kg-1. However, a key limitation is its poor rate capability because the cathode material CFx is intrinsically a poor electronic conductor. Here, we developed a so-called “doing subtraction” method to modify the pinecone shaped fluorinated mesocarbon microbead (F-MCMB). The modified fluorinated mesocarbon microbead (MF-MCMB), manifests the advantage of open-framed structure, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes transport barrier for lithium ions. Thus, high capacity performance and excellent rate capability without compromising capacity can be obtained. A capacity of 343 mAhg-1 and a maximum powermore » density of 54600 W kg-1 are realized at an ultrafast rate of 40 C (28A g-1). Additionally, the MF-MCMB cathode does not show any voltage delay even at 5C during the discharge, which is a remarkable improvement over the state-of-the-art CFxmaterials.« less

  3. Electrochemical behavior of a typical redox mediator on a modified electrode surface: Experiment and computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilán Arriazu, E. M.; Paz Zanini, Verónica I.; Gulotta, Florencia A.; Araujo, Virginia M.; Pinto, O. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the study of a redox species electrosorption on a modified electrode by experimental measurements and computer simulation. The propose model is based on the fact that charges are transferred to the electrode when an electroactive species is adsorbed on its surface. The electrode surface is modified by the irreversible adsorption of a non-electroactive species, which blocks a percentage of the adsorption sites. Hence, the electroactive species can only be adsorbed on the surface vacancies, and, when this phenomenon occurs, interact laterally with the non-electroactive one. Lattice-gas models and Monte Carlo simulations in the Gran Canonical Ensemble are used. The analysis conducted is based on the study of adsorption isotherms and voltammograms, for several values of energies and adsorption degrees of the non-electroactive species. In the case of experimental measurements, an artificial clay (Laponite®) represents the non-electroactive species while the redox probe Fe(CN)64- is the electroactive one. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with experimental voltammograms.

  4. Surface Modified Pinecone Shaped Hierarchical Structure Fluorinated Mesocarbon Microbeads for Ultrafast Discharge and Improved Electrochemical Performances

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yang; Fang, Yuan; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Yan, Hao; Xie, Jingying; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Takeuchi, Esther; Zhu, Yimei

    2016-12-01

    Among all primary lithium batteries, Li/CFx primary battery possesses the highest energy density of 2180 Wh kg-1. However, a key limitation is its poor rate capability because the cathode material CFx is intrinsically a poor electronic conductor. Here, we developed a so-called “doing subtraction” method to modify the pinecone shaped fluorinated mesocarbon microbead (F-MCMB). The modified fluorinated mesocarbon microbead (MF-MCMB), manifests the advantage of open-framed structure, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes transport barrier for lithium ions. Thus, high capacity performance and excellent rate capability without compromising capacity can be obtained. A capacity of 343 mAhg-1 and a maximum power density of 54600 W kg-1 are realized at an ultrafast rate of 40 C (28A g-1). Additionally, the MF-MCMB cathode does not show any voltage delay even at 5C during the discharge, which is a remarkable improvement over the state-of-the-art CFxmaterials.

  5. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped activated graphene aerogel/gold nanoparticles and its application for electrochemical detection of hydroquinone and o-dihydroxybenzene.

    PubMed

    Juanjuan, Zhang; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2014-05-21

    Graphene aerogel materials have attracted increasing attention owing to their large specific surface area, high conductivity and electronic interactions. Here, we report for the first time a novel strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped activated graphene aerogel/gold nanoparticles (N-doped AGA/GNs). First, the mixture of graphite oxide, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, urea and potassium hydroxide was dispersed in water and subsequently heated to form a graphene oxide hydrogel. Then, the hydrogel was dried by freeze-drying and reduced by thermal annealing in an Ar/H2 environment in sequence. Finally, GNs were adsorbed on the surface of the N-doped AGA. The resulting N-doped AGA/GNs offers excellent electronic conductivity (2.8 × 10(3) S m(-1)), specific surface area (1258 m(2) g(-1)), well-defined 3D hierarchical porous structure and apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (40.78 ± 0.15 cm s(-1)), which are notably better than that of previous graphene aerogel materials. Moreover, the N-doped AGA/GNs was used as a new sensing material for the electrochemical detection of hydroquinone (HQ) and o-dihydroxybenzene (DHB). Owing to the greatly enhanced electron transfer and mass transport, the sensor displays ultrasensitive electrochemical response to HQ and DHB. Its differential pulse voltammetric peak current linearly increases with the increase of HQ and DHB in the range of 5.0 × 10(-8) to 1.8 × 10(-4) M for HQ and 1 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-4) M for DHB. The detection limit is 1.5 × 10(-8) M for HQ and 3.3 × 10(-9) M for DHB (S/N = 3). This method provides the advantage of sensitivity, repeatability and stability compared with other HQ and DHB sensors. The sensor has been successfully applied to detection of HQ and DHB in real water samples with the spiked recovery in the range of 96.8-103.2%. The study also provides a promising approach for the fabrication of various graphene aerogel materials with improved electrochemical performances, which

  6. Direct, Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction by Laccase on Anthracene-2-methanethiol Modified Gold.

    PubMed

    Thorum, Matthew S; Anderson, Cyrus A; Hatch, Jeremy J; Campbell, Andrew S; Marshall, Nicholas M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Lu, Yi; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2010-08-01

    Laccase, a multicopper oxidase, catalyses the four electron reduction of oxygen to water. Upon adsorption to an electrode surface, laccase is known to reduce oxygen at overpotentials lower than the best noble metal electrocatalysts usually employed. While the electrocatalytic activity of laccase is well established on carbon electrodes, laccase does not typically adsorb to better defined noble metal surfaces in an orientation that allows for efficient electrocatalysis. In this work, we utilized anthracene-2-methanethiol (AMT) to modify the surface of Au electrodes and examined the electrocatalytic activity of adsorbed laccase. AMT facilitated the adsorption of laccase, and the onset of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction was observed as high as 1.13 V(RHE). We observed linear Tafel behavior with a 144 mV/dec slope, consistent with an outer sphere single electron transfer from the electrode to a Cu site in the enzyme as the rate determining step of the oxygen reduction mechanism.

  7. Electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization by using a zirconia modified renewable carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Ling-Fan; Yuan, Hui-Hui; Lan, Min-Bo; Lawrance, Geoffrey A; Wei, Gang

    2009-02-01

    A simple, polishable and renewable DNA biosensor was fabricated based on a zirconia modified carbon paste electrode. Zirconia was mixed with graphite powder and paraffin wax to produce the paste for the electrode, and response-optimized at 56% graphite powder, 19% ZrO(2) and 25% paraffin wax. An oligonucleotide probe with a terminal 5'-phosphate group was attached to the surface of the electrode via the strong affinity of zirconia for phosphate groups. DNA immobilization and hybridization were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, using methylene blue as indicator. Examination of changes in response with complementary or non-complementary DNA sequences showed that the developed biosensor had a high selectivity and sensitivity towards hybridization detection (< or =2x10(-10) M complementary DNA detectable). The surface of the biosensor can be renewed quickly and reproducibly (signal RSD+/-4.6% for five successive renewals) by a simple polishing step.

  8. Polymer modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of caffeine in coffee.

    PubMed

    Amare, Meareg; Admassie, Shimelis

    2012-05-15

    4-Amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid (AHNSA) was electropolymerized on a glassy carbon electrode. The deposited film showed electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of caffeine. The polymer-modified electrode showed high sensitivity, selectivity and stability in the determination of caffeine in coffee. The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of caffeine in the range of 6 × 10(-8) to 4 × 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 1.37 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) (LoD = 3δ/slope). Analysis of caffeine in coffee was affected neither by sample matrices nor by structurally similar compounds. Recoveries ranging between 93.75 ± 2.32 and 100.75 ± 3.32 were achieved from coffee extracts indicating the applicability of the developed method for real sample analyses.

  9. Understanding Moisture and Carbon Dioxide Involved Interfacial Reactions on Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Air Batteries Catalyzed by Gold/Manganese-Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Huang, Liliang; Liu, Shuangyu; Xie, Jian; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-11-04

    Lithium-air (Li-air) battery works essentially based on the interfacial reaction of 2Li + O2 ↔ Li2O2 on the catalyst/oxygen-gas/electrolyte triphase interface. Operation of Li-air batteries in ambient air still remains a great challenge despite the recent development, because some side reactions related to moisture (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) will occur on the interface with the formation of some inert byproducts on the surface of the catalyst. In this work, we investigated the effect of H2O and CO2 on the electrochemical performance of Li-air batteries to evaluate the practical operation of the batteries in ambient air. The use of a highly efficient gold/δ-manganese-dioxide (Au/δ-MnO2) catalyst helps to understand the intrinsic mechanism of the effect. We found that H2O has a more detrimental influence than CO2 on the battery performance when operated in ambient air. The battery operated in simulated dry air can sustain a stable cycling up to 200 cycles at 400 mA g(-1) with a relatively low polarization, which is comparable with that operated in pure O2. This work provides a possible method to operate Li-air batteries in ambient air by using optimized catalytic electrodes with a protective layer, for example a hydrophobic membrane.

  10. Gold nanoparticles hosted in a water-soluble silsesquioxane polymer applied as a catalytic material onto an electrochemical sensor for detection of nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo Sérgio da; Gasparini, Bianca C; Magosso, Hérica A; Spinelli, Almir

    2014-05-30

    The water-soluble 3-n-propyl-4-picolinium silsesquioxane chloride (Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)) polymer was prepared, characterized and used as a stabilizing agent for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (nAu). The ability of Si4Pic(+)Cl(-) to adsorb anionic metal complexes such as AuCl4(-) ions allowed well-dispersed nAu to be obtained with an average particle size of 4.5nm. The liquid suspension of nAu-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-) was deposited by the drop coating method onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface to build a sensor (nAu-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)/GCE) which was used for the detection of o-nitrophenol (o-NP) and p-nitrophenol (p-NP). Under optimized experimental conditions the reduction peak current increased with increasing concentrations of both nitrophenol isomers in the range of 0.1-1.5μmolL(-1). The detection limits were 46nmolL(-1) and 55nmolL(-1) for o-NP and p-NP, respectively. These findings indicate that the nAu-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-) material is a very promising candidate to assemble electrochemical sensors for practical applications in the field of analytical chemistry.

  11. Challenges in nanoelectrochemical and nanomechanical studies of individual anisotropic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Knittel, P; Bibikova, O; Kranz, C

    2016-11-01

    The characterization of nanoparticles and the correlation of physical properties such as size and shape to their (electro)chemical properties is an emerging field, which may facilitate future optimization and tuning of devices involving nanoparticles. This requires the investigation of individual particles rather than obtaining averaged information on large ensembles. Here, we present atomic force - scanning electrochemical microscopy (AFM-SECM) measurements of soft conductive PDMS substrates modified with gold nanostars (i.e., multibranched Au nanoparticles) in peak force tapping mode, which next to the electrochemical characterization provides information on the adhesion, deformation properties, and Young's modulus of the sample. AFM-SECM probes with integrated nanodisc electrodes (radii < 50 nm) have been used for these measurements. Most studies attempting to map individual nanoparticles have to date been performed at spherical nanoparticles, rather than highly active asymmetric gold nanoparticles. Consequently, this study discusses challenges during the nanocharacterization of individual anisotropic gold nanostars.

  12. Fluoride-modified electrical properties of lead borate glasses and electrochemically induced crystallization in the glassy state

    SciTech Connect

    M'Peko, Jean-Claude; Souza, Jose E. de; Rojas, Seila S.; Hernandes, Antonio C.

    2008-02-15

    Lead fluoroborate glasses were prepared by the melt-quenching technique and characterized in terms of (micro)structural and electrical properties. The study was conducted on as prepared as well as temperature- and/or electric field-treated glass samples. The results show that, in the as-prepared glassy-state materials, electrical conductivity improved with increasing the PbF{sub 2} glass content. This result involves both an increase of the fluoride charge carrier density and, especially, a decrease of the activation energy from a glass structure expansion improving charge carrier mobility. Moreover, for the electric field-treated glass samples, surface crystallization was observed even below the glass transition temperature. As previously proposed in literature, and shown here, the occurrence of this phenomenon arose from an electrochemically induced redox reaction at the electrodes, followed by crystallite nucleation. Once nucleated, growth of {beta}-PbF{sub 2} crystallites, with the indication of incorporating reduced lead ions (Pb{sup +}), was both (micro)structurally and electrically detectable and analyzed. The overall crystallization-associated features observed here adapt well with the floppy-rigid model that has been proposed to further complete the original continuous-random-network model by Zachariasen for closely addressing not only glasses' structure but also crystallization mechanism. Finally, the crystallization-modified kinetic picture of the glasses' electrical properties, through application of polarization/depolarization measurements originally combined with impedance spectroscopy, was extensively explored.

  13. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-04-13

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%-104.7% and 102.2%-103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine.

  14. Electrochemical sensor based on magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles at surfactant modified magnetic electrode for determination of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lili; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2014-04-15

    A selective electrochemical sensor based on magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles was developed for determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The particles with regular morphology, high saturation magnetization and good monodispersion were prepared. The hydrophilicity, sensitivity and anti-fouling of the sensor were enhanced by modifying carbon paste electrode with surfactant CTAB in advanced. The results demonstrated that the response of BPA on imprinted electrode was 2.6 times as much as that on non-imprinted sensor. Moreover, the separation factors of BPA to β-estradiol, estriol and diethylstilbestrol were 16.5, 17.3 and 6.6, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the currents were found to be proportional to the BPA concentrations in the range of 6.0×10(-7)-1.0×10(-4) mol/L with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-7) mol/L (S/N=3). A rapid response of the imprinted sensor was obtained within 3 min. The developed sensor was successfully used for determination of BPA in actual samples such as drink bottles and lake water.

  15. Hydrogen Sorption Kinetics on Bare and Platinum-Modified Palladium Nanofilms, Grown by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD)

    DOE PAGES

    Jagannathan, Kaushik; Benson, David M.; Robinson, David B.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Nanofilms of Pd were grown using an electrochemical form of atomic layer deposition (E-ALD) on 100 nm evaporated Au films on glass. Multiple cycles of surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) were used to grow deposits. Each SLRR involved the underpotential deposition (UPD) of a Cu atomic layer, followed by open circuit replacement via redox exchange with tetrachloropalladate, forming a Pd atomic layer: one E-ALD deposition cycle. That cycle was repeated in order to grow deposits of a desired thickness. 5 cycles of Pd deposition were performed on the Au on glass substrates, resulting in the formation of 2.5 monolayers of Pd.more » Those Pd films were then modified with varying coverages of Pt, also formed using SLRR. The amount of Pt was controlled by changing the potential for Cu UPD, and by increasing the number of Pt deposition cycles. Hydrogen absorption was studied using coulometry and cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M H2SO4 as a function of Pt coverage. The presence of even a small fraction of a Pt monolayer dramatically increased the rate of hydrogen desorption. However, this did not reduce the films’ hydrogen storage capacity. The increase in desorption rate in the presence of Pt was over an order of magnitude.« less

  16. Selective label-free electrochemical impedance measurement of glycated haemoglobin on 3-aminophenylboronic acid-modified eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Heiskanen, Arto; Chailapakul, Orawan; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-07-01

    We propose a novel alternative approach to long-term glycaemic monitoring using eggshell membranes (ESMs) as a new immobilising platform for the selective label-free electrochemical sensing of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a vital clinical index of the glycaemic status in diabetic individuals. Due to the unique features of a novel 3-aminophenylboronic acid-modified ESM, selective binding was obtained via cis-diol interactions. This newly developed device provides clinical applicability as an affinity membrane-based biosensor for the identification of HbA1c over a clinically relevant range (2.3 - 14 %) with a detection limit of 0.19%. The proposed membrane-based biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility. When analysing normal and abnormal HbA1c levels, the within-run coefficients of variation were 1.68 and 1.83%, respectively. The run-to-run coefficients of variation were 1.97 and 2.02%, respectively. These results demonstrated that this method achieved the precise and selective measurement of HbA1c. Compared with a commercial HbA1c kit, the results demonstrated excellent agreement between the techniques (n = 15), demonstrating the clinical applicability of this sensor for monitoring glycaemic control. Thus, this low-cost sensing platform using the proposed membrane-based biosensor is ideal for point-of-care diagnostics.

  17. Electrochemical Determination of Brilliant Blue and Tartrazine Based on an Ionic Liquid-Modified Expanded Graphite Paste Electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Brilliant Blue (BB) and tartrazine (Tz) using an ionic liquid-modified expanded graphite paste electrode (IL-EGPE). The IL-EGPE was prepared by mixing ionic liquid-expanded graphite composite (IL-EG) with solid paraffin. Compared with the EGPE, the IL-EGPE remarkably enhanced the electrocatalytic oxidation signals of BB and Tz. Under optimal experimental conditions, the designed IL-EGPE exhibited wide linear responses to BB and Tz ranging from 5.0×10(-9) to 4.0×10(-6) M and 1.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-6) M, respectively. The detection limits for BB and Tz were 2.0×10(-9) M (1.6 ng/mL) and 3.3×10(-9) M (1.8 ng/mL) at an S/N of 3, respectively. This electrode showed good reproducibility, stability, and reusability. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of BB and Tz in a soft drink with satisfactory results.

  18. Electrochemical Behavior and Determination of Chlorogenic Acid Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Screen-Printed Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Yang, Hongqiao; Xiong, Huabin; Li, Xiaofen; Gao, Jinting; Gao, Yuntao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrode (MWCNTs/SPE) was prepared and the MWCNTs/SPE was employed for the electrochemical determination of the antioxidant substance chlorogenic acids (CGAs). A pair of well-defined redox peaks of CGA was observed at the MWCNTs/SPE in 0.10 mol/L acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.2) and the electrode process was adsorption-controlled. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods for the determination of CGA were proposed based on the MWCNTs/SPE. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method exhibited linear ranges from 0.17 to 15.8 µg/mL, and the linear regression equation was Ipa (µA) = 4.1993 C (×10−5 mol/L) + 1.1039 (r = 0.9976) and the detection limit for CGA could reach 0.12 µg/mL. The recovery of matrine was 94.74%–106.65% (RSD = 2.92%) in coffee beans. The proposed method is quick, sensitive, reliable, and can be used for the determination of CGA. PMID:27801797

  19. Hydrogen Sorption Kinetics on Bare and Platinum-Modified Palladium Nanofilms, Grown by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannathan, Kaushik; Benson, David M.; Robinson, David B.; Stickney, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Nanofilms of Pd were grown using an electrochemical form of atomic layer deposition (E-ALD) on 100 nm evaporated Au films on glass. Multiple cycles of surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) were used to grow deposits. Each SLRR involved the underpotential deposition (UPD) of a Cu atomic layer, followed by open circuit replacement via redox exchange with tetrachloropalladate, forming a Pd atomic layer: one E-ALD deposition cycle. That cycle was repeated in order to grow deposits of a desired thickness. 5 cycles of Pd deposition were performed on the Au on glass substrates, resulting in the formation of 2.5 monolayers of Pd. Those Pd films were then modified with varying coverages of Pt, also formed using SLRR. The amount of Pt was controlled by changing the potential for Cu UPD, and by increasing the number of Pt deposition cycles. Hydrogen absorption was studied using coulometry and cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M H2SO4 as a function of Pt coverage. The presence of even a small fraction of a Pt monolayer dramatically increased the rate of hydrogen desorption. However, this did not reduce the films’ hydrogen storage capacity. The increase in desorption rate in the presence of Pt was over an order of magnitude.

  20. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%–104.7% and 102.2%–103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine. PMID:27089341