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Sample records for electrochemical potential monitoring

  1. Electrochemical sensor for monitoring electrochemical potentials of fuel cell components

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, Harold R.; Breault, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor comprised of wires, a sheath, and a conduit can be utilized to monitor fuel cell component electric potentials during fuel cell shut down or steady state. The electrochemical sensor contacts an electrolyte reservoir plate such that the conduit wicks electrolyte through capillary action to the wires to provide water necessary for the electrolysis reaction which occurs thereon. A voltage is applied across the wires of the electrochemical sensor until hydrogen evolution occurs at the surface of one of the wires, thereby forming a hydrogen reference electrode. The voltage of the fuel cell component is then determined with relation to the hydrogen reference electrode.

  2. Monitoring Tensile Fatigue of Superelastic NiTi Wire in Liquids by Electrochemical Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racek, Jan; Stora, Marc; Šittner, Petr; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromir; Petrenec, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue of superelastic NiTi wires was investigated by cyclic tension in simulated biofluid. The state of the surface of the fatigued NiTi wire was monitored by following the evolution of the electrochemical open circuit potential (OCP) together with macroscopic stresses and strains. The ceramic TiO2 oxide layer on the NiTi wire surface cannot withstand the large transformation strain and fractures in the first cycle. Based on the analysis of the results of in situ OCP experiments and SEM observation of cracks, it is claimed that the cycled wire surface develops mechanochemical reactions at the NiTi/liquid interface leading to cumulative generation of hydrogen, uptake of the hydrogen by the NiTi matrix, local loss of the matrix strength, crack transfer into the NiTi matrix, accelerated crack growth, and ultimately to the brittle fracture of the wire. Fatigue degradation is thus claimed to originate from the mechanochemical processes occurring at the excessively deforming surface not from the accumulation of defects due to energy dissipative bulk deformation processes. Ironically, combination of the two exciting properties of NiTi—superelasticity due to martensitic transformation and biocompatibility due to the protective TiO2 surface oxide layer—leads to excessive fatigue damage during cyclic mechanical loading in biofluids.

  3. Wearable electrochemical sensors for monitoring performance athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Kevin J.; Curto, Vincenzo F.; Coyle, Shirley; Schazmann, Benjamin; Byrne, Robert; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-10-01

    Nowadays, wearable sensors such as heart rate monitors and pedometers are in common use. The use of wearable systems such as these for personalized exercise regimes for health and rehabilitation is particularly interesting. In particular, the true potential of wearable chemical sensors, which for the real-time ambulatory monitoring of bodily fluids such as tears, sweat, urine and blood has not been realized. Here we present a brief introduction into the fields of ionogels and organic electrochemical transistors, and in particular, the concept of an OECT transistor incorporated into a sticking-plaster, along with a printable "ionogel" to provide a wearable biosensor platform.

  4. Method of monitoring electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, G.J.; Chaskin, D.M.

    1986-02-12

    The physical and electrical condition of electrochemical cells of a battery is monitored on a continuous basis so that corrective action can be taken before explosion and/or venting occurs by a method including the steps of: A) coating the electrically conductive shell of each cell of the battery with a thin nonelectrically conductive layer, B) applying a sensor stripe over the non electrically conductive layer so that the sensor stripe does not make electrical contact to the shell of the cell, C) connecting leads to the sensor and then coating the sensor with a protective layer, and D) connecting the sensor leads of individual cells of the battery into an electrical series circuit, the remaining leads of the series sensor circuit being connected to an alarm/control network that monitors the conductivity of the series electrical path.

  5. Method of monitoring electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, G.J.; Chaskin, D.M.

    1988-02-23

    This patent describes the method of monitoring on a continuous basis the physical and electrical condition of electrochemical cells of a battery so that corrective action can be taken before explosion and/or venting occurs, and wherein each of the electrochemical cells has an electrically conductive shell. The method includes the steps of: (A) coating the electrically conductive shell of each cell of the battery with a thin non electrically conductive layer, (B) applying a sensor stripe over the non electrically conductive layer so that the sensor does not make electrical contact to the shell of the cell, wherein the sensor stripe is comprised of multiple sensor elements including a conductive thermally sensitive material and a conductive stress/strain material, and wherein the materials are connected together to form a continuous series electrical path using bonding pads of a metallic material to interface the junctions of the conductive thermally sensitive material and the sensor leads. (C) connecting leads to the sensor and then coating the sensor with a protective layer, and (D) connecting the sensor leads of individual cells of the battery into an electrical series circuit, the remaining leads of the series sensor circuit being connected to an alarm/control network that monitors the conductivity of the series electrical path.

  6. APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSORS TO ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses basic electrochemical immunoassay technology. Factors limiting the practical application of antibodies to anlaytical problems are also presented. It addresses the potential use of immunoassay methods based on electrochemical detection for the analysis of env...

  7. Laboratory measurements of the electrokinetic and electrochemical potential in chalk, with application to monitoring of saline intrusion in the UK chalk aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAllister, D.; Jackson, M.; Butler, A. P.; Vinogradov, J.

    2012-12-01

    Saline intrusion is a global phenomenon affecting the availability of freshwater in coastal aquifers. The aim of this work is to investigate whether measurements of spontaneous potential (SP) can be used to monitor the intrusion of seawater into coastal aquifers, with specific application to the chalk aquifer near Brighton on the south coast of the UK. SP arises to maintain electrical neutrality when a separation of charge occurs due to gradients in pressure (electrokinetic or streaming potential), concentration (electrochemical potential) and temperature (thermoelectric potential). Concentration gradients are a characteristic feature of saline intrusion and may give rise to a measureable electrochemical potential (EC). In addition the electrokinetic potential (EK) will arise during abstraction and up-coning of the saline front. The intruding saline front could therefore be detected and monitored continuously, with SP measurements in boreholes and at the surface providing dense monitoring in space and time. To determine the likely magnitude of EK and EC signals during saline intrusion into the chalk aquifer, we measured EK and EC potentials in samples of Seaford chalk saturated with (i) natural, potable groundwater from the aquifer and (ii) seawater sampled from the English Channel. The EK coupling coefficient, which relates the gradient in voltage to the gradient in water pressure when the total current is zero, was found to be -60 mV/MPa in samples saturated with groundwater. In seawater saturated samples it was found to be only -1 mV/MPa. This result agrees with earlier work suggesting the EK potential is suppressed in high salinity environments due to a compressed electrical double layer. The EK coupling coefficient was negative in both cases, suggesting that the surface charge of Seaford chalk is negative when in contact with groundwater and seawater. The electrochemical experiments involved establishing a concentration gradient across the chalk samples

  8. Monitoring of the proton electrochemical gradient in reconstituted vesicles: quantitative measurements of both transmembrane potential and intravesicular pH by ratiometric fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Holoubek, Ales; Vecer, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel

    2007-03-01

    Proteoliposomes carrying reconstituted yeast plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in their lipid membrane or plasma membrane vesicles are model systems convenient for studying basic electrochemical processes involved in formation of the proton electrochemical gradient (Deltamicro(H) (+)) across the microbial or plant cell membrane. Deltapsi- and pH-sensitive fluorescent probes were used to monitor the gradients formed between inner and outer volume of the reconstituted vesicles. The Deltapsi-sensitive fluorescent ratiometric probe oxonol VI is suitable for quantitative measurements of inside-positive Deltapsi generated by the reconstituted H(+)-ATPase. Its Deltapsi response can be calibrated by the K(+)/valinomycin method and ratiometric mode of fluorescence measurements reduces undesirable artefacts. In situ pH-sensitive fluorescent probe pyranine was used for quantitative measurements of pH inside the proteoliposomes. Calibration of pH-sensitive fluorescence response of pyranine entrapped inside proteoliposomes was performed with several ionophores combined in order to deplete the gradients passively formed across the membrane. Presented model system offers a suitable tool for simultaneous monitoring of both components of the proton electrochemical gradient, Deltapsi and DeltapH. This approach should help in further understanding how their formation is interconnected on biomembranes and even how transport of other ions is combined to it.

  9. Electrochemical potential of Microgramma vaccinifolia rhizome lectin.

    PubMed

    Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira de; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Souza, Sandra Rodrigues de; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-06-01

    This work reports the isolation of Microgramma vaccinifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) and the determination of electrochemical potentials of MvRL in the presence of Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺ and human type O erythrocytes. MvRL showed the highest specific hemagglutinating activity with human type O erythrocytes and showed a single polypeptide band of 17 kDa on SDS-PAGE. MvRL hemagglutinating activity was neutralized after dialysis with EDTA, and addition of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ restored the activity. Electrochemical potentials of MvRL in the presence of 100 mM Ca²⁺ (882 mV) and 60 mM Mg²⁺ (1051 mV) were higher (p<0.05) than in the presence of only 0.15 M NaCl (247 mV), indicating that the electrochemical system was sensitive to structural and physico-chemical changes promoted by these ions. MvRL potential did not change in the presence of type O erythrocytes. The electrochemical system was able to detect changes in electrochemical potentials of MvRL promoted by Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺, even in a complex environment (human serum supplemented with 40 and 60mM of these ions). The study reveals that the stimulatory effect of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ on hemagglutinating activity may be linked to conformational change and/or alterations in surface charge distribution of MvRL. PMID:22197266

  10. Corrosion monitoring of reinforcing steel in concrete by electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Guofu; Hong, Yi; Ou, Jinping

    2010-04-01

    Health degradation by corrosion of steel in civil engineering, especially in rough environment, is a persistent problem. Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques can lead to improved estimates of structural safety and serviceability. A novel all solid state-current confined corrosion sensor has been developed to provide the platform for corrosion monitoring of the steel bar in concrete beam by electrochemical method. Finite element method has been used to certify the current confined effect of the sensor. The sensors have been used in concrete beams to monitor the corrosion of the steel bar. Also, half-cell potential of the beam has obtained. The results shows that the corrosion sensor can effectively confine the current in the fixed area which is 45mm×π×Dsteel bar and the monitoring results of the corrosion sensor are accurate.

  11. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90

  12. Stretchable Electrochemical Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ling; Jin, Zi-He; Liu, Yan-Hong; Hu, Xue-Bo; Qin, Yu; Xu, Jia-Quan; Fan, Cui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2016-03-24

    Stretchable electrochemical sensors are conceivably a powerful technique that provides important chemical information to unravel elastic and curvilinear living body. However, no breakthrough was made in stretchable electrochemical device for biological detection. Herein, we synthesized Au nanotubes (NTs) with large aspect ratio to construct an effective stretchable electrochemical sensor. Interlacing network of Au NTs endows the sensor with desirable stability against mechanical deformation, and Au nanostructure provides excellent electrochemical performance and biocompatibility. This allows for the first time, real-time electrochemical monitoring of mechanically sensitive cells on the sensor both in their stretching-free and stretching states as well as sensing of the inner lining of blood vessels. The results demonstrate the great potential of this sensor in electrochemical detection of living body, opening a new window for stretchable electrochemical sensor in biological exploration.

  13. Research Update: Electrical monitoring of cysts using organic electrochemical transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, M.; Rivnay, J.; Ramuz, M.; Hama, A.; Owens, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    Organotypic three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models have the potential to act as surrogate tissues in vitro, both for basic research and for drug discovery/toxicology. 3D cultures maintain not only 3D architecture but also cell-cell and cell extracellular matrix interactions, particularly when grown in cysts or spheroids. Characterization of cell cultures grown in 3D formats, however, provides a significant challenge for cell biologists due to the incompatibility of these structures with commonly found optical or electronic monitoring systems. Electronic impedance spectroscopy is a cell culture monitoring technique with great potential; however, it has not been possible to integrate 3D cultures with commercially available systems to date. Cyst-like 3D cultures are particularly challenging due to their small size and difficulty in manipulation. Herein, we demonstrate isolation of cyst-like 3D cultures by capillarity and subsequent integration with the organic electrochemical transistor for monitoring the integrity of these structures. We show not only that this versatile device can be adapted to the cyst format for measuring resistance and, therefore, the quality of the cysts, but also can be used for quantitative monitoring of the effect of toxic compounds on cells in a 3D format. The ability to quantitatively predict effects of drugs on 3D cultures in vitro has large future potential for the fields of drug discovery and toxicology.

  14. Electrochemical Potential Derived from Atomic Cluster Structures.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinglian; Xiao, Debao; Wen, Bin; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Based on the atomic cluster structures and free electron approximation model, it is revealed that the electrochemical potential (ECP) for the system of interest is proportional to the reciprocal of atomic cluster radius squared, i.e., φ = k·(1/r(2)). Applied to elemental crystals, the correlation between atomic cluster radii and the ECP that we have predicted agrees well with the previously reported results. In addition, some other physicochemical properties associated with the ECP have also been found relevant to the atomic cluster radii of materials. Thus, the atomic cluster radii can be perceived as an effective characteristic parameter to measure the ECP and related properties of materials. Our results provide a better understanding of ECP directly from the atomic structures perspective. PMID:26801811

  15. Electrochemical Potential Derived from Atomic Cluster Structures.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinglian; Xiao, Debao; Wen, Bin; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Based on the atomic cluster structures and free electron approximation model, it is revealed that the electrochemical potential (ECP) for the system of interest is proportional to the reciprocal of atomic cluster radius squared, i.e., φ = k·(1/r(2)). Applied to elemental crystals, the correlation between atomic cluster radii and the ECP that we have predicted agrees well with the previously reported results. In addition, some other physicochemical properties associated with the ECP have also been found relevant to the atomic cluster radii of materials. Thus, the atomic cluster radii can be perceived as an effective characteristic parameter to measure the ECP and related properties of materials. Our results provide a better understanding of ECP directly from the atomic structures perspective.

  16. Monitoring early zeolite formation via in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brabants, G; Lieben, S; Breynaert, E; Reichel, E K; Taulelle, F; Martens, J A; Jakoby, B; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-01

    Hitherto zeolite formation has not been fully understood. Although electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has proven to be a versatile tool for characterizing ionic solutions, it was never used for monitoring zeolite growth. We show here that EIS can quantitatively monitor zeolite formation, especially during crucial early steps where other methods fall short. PMID:27020096

  17. Monitoring early zeolite formation via in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brabants, G; Lieben, S; Breynaert, E; Reichel, E K; Taulelle, F; Martens, J A; Jakoby, B; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-01

    Hitherto zeolite formation has not been fully understood. Although electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has proven to be a versatile tool for characterizing ionic solutions, it was never used for monitoring zeolite growth. We show here that EIS can quantitatively monitor zeolite formation, especially during crucial early steps where other methods fall short.

  18. Versatile electrochemical microsensors for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Hong, K.C. . Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.); Ashley, K. . Dept. of Chemistry); Granstaff, V.E. )

    1991-10-01

    The fabrication of novel multielement microelectrode array sensors is reported. With regard to individual array elements, two main concepts are pursued. One involves the use of relatively non-selective microelectrode elements, coupled with pattern recognition methods, for data analysis. This strategy is most applicable when prior knowledge about the chemical environment is limited, or when mainly qualitative information is sought. The second concept involves the development of arrays containing intrinsically more selective microelectrode elements. Our main concern here is the determination of specific contaminants. Most of our current emphasis is in the selection and development of appropriate elements for microelectrode arrays of this type, with a goal of quantitative analysis for a variety of compounds and elements. Other efforts are concerned with defining the behavior of microelectrodes and devising mass fabrication methods for these sensors. Two designs for the arrays are discussed, one employing photolithographic fabrication methods and another in which individual microelectrodes are encased in glass. Potential applications for these sensors include monitoring for toxic contaminants in natural waters, monitoring waste streams, and process control. 35 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Monitoring soil productive potential.

    PubMed

    Tongway, D

    1995-01-01

    Desertification involves the loss of soil productive potential, but a means of assessing and monitoring the progress of desertification on the soil has been elusive. Soil is so varied and complex that methods of assessing condition are too slow, tedious, and expensive for routine use. Moreover, differences in soil type can be confused with soil condition. This paper presents a structured method of assessing soil condition. This method is based on recognizing and classifying soil surface features and examining soil properties that reflect the status of the processes of erosion, infiltration, and nutrient cycling. Published in the form of a user manual, the method has the following three stages: (1) defining the geomorphic setting of the site, (2) recognizing patch/interpatch associations and the mode of erosion at the landscape scale, and (3) assessing soil surface condition ratings in quadrats sited within the landscape pattern patches. Stage 3 is achieved by observing each of 11 features in the field and classifying their status according to detailed fieldnotes and photographs. The method applies to a wide range of soil types and biogeographical regimes and has proven to be repeatable among observers and quickly transferred to new observers.

  20. Electrochemical methods for monitoring of environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Barek, J; Cvacka, J; Muck, A; Quaiserová, V; Zima, J

    2001-04-01

    The use of modern electroanalytical techniques, namely differential pulse polarography, differential pulse voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrode or carbon paste electrode, adsorptive stripping voltammetry and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the determination of trace amounts of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, azo compounds, heterocyclic compounds, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic and heterocyclic amines is discussed. Scope and limitations of these methods are described and some practical applications based on their combination with liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction are given.

  1. On-line biofilm monitoring by "BIOX" electrochemical probe.

    PubMed

    Mollica, A; Cristiani, P

    2003-01-01

    The innovative electrochemical monitoring probe (BIOX) recently developed to improve the antifouling treatments of cooling systems in industrial plants is presented. On the basis of the good results obtained from applications on marine sites, some research has been stated to validate this technique in biofilm growth and prevention of microbial corrosion in fresh and drinking waters.

  2. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  3. The effect of temperature on electrochemically driven denaturation monitored by SERS.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evanthia; Meneghello, Marta; Marafini, Pietro; Johnson, Robert P; Brown, Tom; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-01

    Scanning the electrochemical potential negative results in the gradual denaturation of dsDNA immobilised at a nanostructure gold electrode, the DNA melting is monitored by SERS. We demonstrate the effect of the experimental temperature on the electrochemically driven melting (E-melting) by carrying out experiments between 10 and 28 °C using two DNA duplexes (20 and 21 base pairs). Significant temperature dependence for both the melting potentials, Em, and the steepness of the melting curves was found over the range 10 to 18 °C. Above 18 °C the results were found to be independent of temperature. The relative temperature insensitivity of the melting potentials above 18 °C is advantageous for the application of the electrochemically driven melting technique because precise temperature control is not necessary for measurements that are carried out around room temperature. Conversely temperature dependence below 18 °C offers a way to improve discrimination for highly similar DNA sequences.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE BASED CORROSION MONITORING HANFORD SITE PROGRAM STATUS

    SciTech Connect

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    2005-03-21

    The Hanford Site near Richland, Washington has 177 underground waste tanks that store approximately 253 million liters of radioactive waste from 50 years of plutonium production. Prior to 1995 no online corrosion monitoring systems were in place at Hanford to facilitate the early detection of the onset of localized corrosion should it occur in a waste tank. Because of this, a program was started in 1995 to develop an electrochemical noise (EN) corrosion monitoring system to improve Hanford's corrosion monitoring strategy. Three systems are now installed and operating at Hanford. System design, performance history, data and the results of a recent analysis of tank vapor space data are presented.

  5. Ground potential rise monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Zachery W.; Zevenbergen, Gary A.

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  6. Alternating potentials assisted electrochemical deposition of mineralized collagen coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Junjun; Lin, Jun; Li, Juan; Weng, Wenjian; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Huiming

    2015-12-01

    Mineralized collagen coatings were synthesized by electrochemical deposition with alternating negative and positive potentials. The obtained coatings demonstrated a multi-layer structure alternating consisting of weakly and highly mineralized collagen layers and the proportion of each layer could be controlled by adjusting the deposition time. The coatings deposited using alternating potentials assisted electrochemical deposition (AP-ECD) showed significantly enhanced osteoblasts proliferation, and rhBMP-2 loading capability compared to those of the coatings deposited using constant potential electrochemical deposition (CP-ECD). The enhanced cytocompatibility and rhBMP-2 loading capability of the coatings might be attributed to their high proportion of weakly mineralized collagen layer. Furthermore, the deposition mechanism for alternating potentials is proposed as that positive potential induces deposition of negatively charged collagen fibrils to form a weakly mineralized collagen layer. Our results suggest that the present deposition method could be a promising approach to engineer mineralized collagen coating with better biological performances.

  7. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  8. Mass spectrometric methods for monitoring redox processes in electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Oberacher, Herbert; Pitterl, Florian; Erb, Robert; Plattner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemistry (EC) is a mature scientific discipline aimed to study the movement of electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. EC covers techniques that use a measurement of potential, charge, or current to determine the concentration or the chemical reactivity of analytes. The electrical signal is directly converted into chemical information. For in-depth characterization of complex electrochemical reactions involving the formation of diverse intermediates, products and byproducts, EC is usually combined with other analytical techniques, and particularly the hyphenation of EC with mass spectrometry (MS) has found broad applicability. The analysis of gases and volatile intermediates and products formed at electrode surfaces is enabled by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). In DEMS an electrochemical cell is sampled with a membrane interface for electron ionization (EI)-MS. The chemical space amenable to EC/MS (i.e., bioorganic molecules including proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and drugs) was significantly increased by employing electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. In the simplest setup, the EC of the ESI process is used to analytical advantage. A limitation of this approach is, however, its inability to precisely control the electrochemical potential at the emitter electrode. Thus, particularly for studying mechanistic aspects of electrochemical processes, the hyphenation of discrete electrochemical cells with ESI-MS was found to be more appropriate. The analytical power of EC/ESI-MS can further be increased by integrating liquid chromatography (LC) as an additional dimension of separation. Chromatographic separation was found to be particularly useful to reduce the complexity of the sample submitted either to the EC cell or to ESI-MS. Thus, both EC/LC/ESI-MS and LC/EC/ESI-MS are common.

  9. Mass spectrometric methods for monitoring redox processes in electrochemical cells

    PubMed Central

    Oberacher, Herbert; Pitterl, Florian; Erb, Robert; Plattner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemistry (EC) is a mature scientific discipline aimed to study the movement of electrons in an oxidation–reduction reaction. EC covers techniques that use a measurement of potential, charge, or current to determine the concentration or the chemical reactivity of analytes. The electrical signal is directly converted into chemical information. For in-depth characterization of complex electrochemical reactions involving the formation of diverse intermediates, products and byproducts, EC is usually combined with other analytical techniques, and particularly the hyphenation of EC with mass spectrometry (MS) has found broad applicability. The analysis of gases and volatile intermediates and products formed at electrode surfaces is enabled by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). In DEMS an electrochemical cell is sampled with a membrane interface for electron ionization (EI)-MS. The chemical space amenable to EC/MS (i.e., bioorganic molecules including proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and drugs) was significantly increased by employing electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. In the simplest setup, the EC of the ESI process is used to analytical advantage. A limitation of this approach is, however, its inability to precisely control the electrochemical potential at the emitter electrode. Thus, particularly for studying mechanistic aspects of electrochemical processes, the hyphenation of discrete electrochemical cells with ESI-MS was found to be more appropriate. The analytical power of EC/ESI-MS can further be increased by integrating liquid chromatography (LC) as an additional dimension of separation. Chromatographic separation was found to be particularly useful to reduce the complexity of the sample submitted either to the EC cell or to ESI-MS. Thus, both EC/LC/ESI-MS and LC/EC/ESI-MS are common. PMID:24338642

  10. The Variation of Electrochemical Cell Potentials with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical cell potentials have no simple relationship with temperature but depend on the interplay between the sign and magnitude of the isothermal temperature coefficient, dE[degrees]/dT, and on the magnitude of the reaction quotient, Q. The variations in possible responses of standard and non-standard cell potentials to changes in the…

  11. Microchip-based electrochemical detection for monitoring cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alicia S; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R Scott

    2013-04-01

    The use of microchip devices to study cellular systems is a rapidly growing research area. There are numerous advantages of using on-chip integrated electrodes to monitor various cellular processes. The purpose of this review is to give examples of advancements in microchip-based cellular analysis, specifically where electrochemistry is used for the detection scheme. These examples include on-chip detection of single-cell quantal exocytosis, electrochemical analysis of intracellular contents, the ability to integrate cell culture/immobilization with electrochemistry, and the use of integrated electrodes to ensure cell confluency in longer-term cell culture experiments. A perspective on future trends in this area is also given.

  12. Nanopillar based electrochemical biosensor for monitoring microfluidic based cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadharan, Rajan

    In-vitro assays using cultured cells have been widely performed for studying many aspects of cell biology and cell physiology. These assays also form the basis of cell based sensing. Presently, analysis procedures on cell cultures are done using techniques that are not integrated with the cell culture system. This approach makes continuous and real-time in-vitro measurements difficult. It is well known that the availability of continuous online measurements for extended periods of time will help provide a better understanding and will give better insight into cell physiological events. With this motivation we developed a highly sensitive, selective and stable microfluidic electrochemical glucose biosensor to make continuous glucose measurements in cell culture media. The performance of the microfluidic biosensor was enhanced by adding 3D nanopillars to the electrode surfaces. The microfluidic glucose biosensor consisted of three electrodes---Enzyme electrode, Working electrode, and Counter electrode. All these electrodes were enhanced with nanopillars and were optimized in their respective own ways to obtain an effective and stable biosensing device in cell culture media. For example, the 'Enzyme electrode' was optimized for enzyme immobilization via either a polypyrrole-based or a self-assembled-monolayer-based immobilization method, and the 'Working electrode' was modified with Prussian Blue or electropolymerized Neutral Red to reduce the working potential and also the interference from other interacting electro-active species. The complete microfluidic biosensor was tested for its ability to monitor glucose concentration changes in cell culture media. The significance of this work is multifold. First, the developed device may find applications in continuous and real-time measurements of glucose concentrations in in-vitro cell cultures. Second, the development of a microfluidic biosensor will bring technical know-how toward constructing continuous glucose

  13. Chemical Potentials and Activities: An Electrochemical Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, T. L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment which explores the effects of adding inert salts to electrolytic cells and demonstrates the difference between concentration and chemical activity. Examines chemical potentials as the driving force of reactions. Provides five examples of cell potential and concentration change. (JM)

  14. [Intraoperative Visual Evoked Potential Monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hironobu; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Visual evoked potential (VEP) is recorded from the back of the head, which is elicited by retinal stimulation transmitted through optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract lateral geniculate body, optic radiation and finally cortical visual area. VEP monitoring did not prevail since 1990s because marked intra-individual difference and instability of VEP recording limited the clinical usefulness under inhalation anesthetic management and techniques of VEP monitoring at the time. However, recent advances in techniques including a new light-stimulating device consisting of high-luminosity LEDs and induction of electroretinography to ascertain the arrival of the stimulus at the retina provided better conditions for stable VEP recording under general anesthesia. In addition, the introduction of total intravenous anesthesia using propofol is important for the successful VEP recordings because inhaled anesthetics have suppressive effect on VEP waveform. Intraoperative VEP has been considered to monitor the functional integrity of visual function during neurosurgical procedures, in which the optic pathway is at a risk of injury. Intraoperative VEP monitoring may allow us to detect reversible damage to the visual pathway intraoperatively and enable us to prevent permanent impairment.

  15. Current-potential characteristics of electrochemical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, V.S.

    1993-07-01

    This dissertation contains investigations in three distinct areas. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an analysis of the effects of electromagnetic phenomena during the initial stages of cell discharge. Chapter 1 includes the solution to Maxwell`s equations for the penetration of the axial component of an electric field into an infinitely long cylindrical conductor. Chapter 2 contains the analysis of the conductor included in a radial circuit. Chapter 3 provides a complete description of the equations that describe the growth of an oxide film. A finite difference program was written to solve the equations. The system investigated is the iron/iron oxide in a basic, aqueous solution. Chapters 4 and 5 include the experimental attempts for replacing formaldehyde with an innocuous reducing agent for electroless deposition. In chapter 4, current-versus-voltage curves are provided for a sodium thiosulfate bath in the presence of a copper disk electrode. Also provided are the cathodic polarization curves of a copper/EDTA bath in the presence of a copper electrode. Chapter 5 contains the experimental results of work done with sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent. Mixed-potential-versus-time curves for solutions containing various combinations of copper sulfate, nickel chloride, and hypophosphite in the presence of a palladium disk electrode provide an indication of the reducing power of the solutions.

  16. Microchip-based electrochemical detection for monitoring cellular systems

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The use of microchip devices to study cellular systems is a rapidly growing research area. There are numerous advantages of using on-chip integrated electrodes to monitor various cellular processes. The purpose of this review article is to give examples of advancements in microchip-based cellular analysis, specifically where electrochemistry is used for the detection scheme. These examples include on-chip detection of single cell quantal exocytosis, electrochemical analysis of intracellular contents, the ability to integrate cell culture/immobilization with electrochemistry, and the use of integrated electrodes to ensure cell confluency in longer term cell culture experiments. A perspective on future trends in this area is also given. PMID:23340999

  17. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  18. Electrochemically monitoring the antibiotic susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Webster, Thaddaeus A; Sismaet, Hunter J; Chan, I-ping J; Goluch, Edgar D

    2015-11-01

    The condition of cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms was monitored via the electrochemical detection of the electro-active virulence factor pyocyanin in a fabricated microfluidic growth chamber coupled with a disposable three electrode cell. Cells were exposed to 4, 16, and 100 mg L(-1) colistin sulfate after overnight growth. At the end of testing, the measured maximum peak current (and therefore pyocyanin concentration) was reduced by approximately 68% and 82% in P. aeruginosa exposed to 16 and 100 mg L(-1) colistin sulfate, respectively. Samples were removed from the microfluidic chamber, analyzed for viability using staining, and streaked onto culture plates to confirm that the P. aeruginosa cells were affected by the antibiotics. The correlation between electrical signal drop and the viability of P. aeruginosa cells after antibiotic exposure highlights the usefulness of this approach for future low cost antibiotic screening applications.

  19. Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Raudzens, P A

    1982-01-01

    Sensory EPs were recorded intraoperatively in 173 neurosurgical procedures (71 VEPs, 66 BAEPs, and 31 SSEPs) to evaluate the utility of this technique. EPs could be safely recorded in all cases, but the yield of useful results varied with each sensory modality. BAEPs were recorded reliably in 100% of the cases and intraoperative latency changes accurately predicted postoperative hearing deficits in 10%. Potential hearing deficits were detected in another 15%. BAEP changes were associated with brainstem dysfunction in only one case. VEP changes were difficult to interpret intraoperatively because of contamination by a high degree of variability and both false negative and false positive results. Changes in VEP amplitudes related to surgical manipulation of the optic chiasm were only suggested. SSEP changes were recorded reliably in only 75% of the cases and no correlations between SSEP changes and postoperative sensory function were established. Again, intraoperative amplitude attenuation of the SSEP waveform with surgical manipulation only suggested a potential sensory deficit. Intraoperative EP monitoring is a valuable technique that provides a functional analysis of the sensory nervous system during surgical procedures. Specific sensory stimuli and improved data analysis will increase the utility of this CNS monitor.

  20. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Nanomaterials for Environmental Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2012-12-10

    This article review work relevant to the two fastest growing nanomaterials in electrochemical sensing of metal ions: organically modified ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanostructured self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silicas (SAMMS) materials are highly effective as electrode modifiers; they can be either mixed with conductive materials or spin-cast as a thin-film on electrode surface. The interfacial chemistry of SAMMS can be fine-tuned to selectively preconcentrate the specific metal ions of interest. The functional groups on SAMMS materials enable the preconcentration to be done without mercury, supporting electrolytes, applied potential, and solution degassing, all of which are often required in conventional adsorptive stripping voltammetric sensors. Since it was first introduced in 1991, CNTs have been widely investigated for electrochemical sensors of many important biomolecules because of their electrocatalytic and antifouling properties, biocompatibility, high surface, and mechanical strength. For trace metal analysis, CNT thin-film created by drop-coating of CNT-solvent suspensions on electrode surfaces has been explored in order to develop mercury-free sensors by exploiting the bulk properties of the CNTs. Array of low-site-density aligned carbon nanotubes has been grown on metal substrates by a non-lithographic method. Each CNT serves as a nanoelectrode which normally has greater mass transfer rate and higher mass sensitivity than conventional macroelectrodes. The array of millions of CNT nanoelectrodes provides magnified voltammetric signals for trace metal ions without the need for a signal amplifier.

  1. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Claudia; Ibáñez Civera, Javier; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2016-02-04

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA) equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions) gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R²) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were determined as R² > 0.944 and RMSEP < 1.782 for PLS and R² > 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step.

  2. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Conesa, Claudia; Ibáñez Civera, Javier; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA) equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions) gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R2) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were determined as R2 > 0.944 and RMSEP < 1.782 for PLS and R2 > 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step. PMID:26861317

  3. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Claudia; Ibáñez Civera, Javier; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA) equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions) gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R²) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were determined as R² > 0.944 and RMSEP < 1.782 for PLS and R² > 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step. PMID:26861317

  4. An on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for in situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mengning; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    In situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces is crucial for fundamental understanding and continued optimization of electrocatalysts. Conventional spectroscopic techniques are generally difficult to implement for in situ electrochemical studies. Here we report an on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for directly probing the electrochemical surfaces of metallic nanocatalysts in action. With a four-electrode device configuration, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ultrafine platinum nanowires are highly sensitive and selective to the electrochemical surface states, enabling a nanoelectronic signalling pathway that reveals electrochemical interface information during in-device cyclic voltammetry. Our results not only show a high degree of consistency with generally accepted conclusions in platinum electrochemistry but also offer important insights on various practically important electrochemical reactions. This study defines a nanoelectronic strategy for in situ electrochemical surface studies with high surface sensitivity and surface specificity. PMID:26245937

  5. An on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for in situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mengning; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-08-06

    In situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces is crucial for fundamental understanding and continued optimization of electrocatalysts. Conventional spectroscopic techniques are generally difficult to implement for in situ electrochemical studies. Here we report an on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for directly probing the electrochemical surfaces of metallic nanocatalysts in action. With a four-electrode device configuration, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ultrafine platinum nanowires are highly sensitive and selective to the electrochemical surface states, enabling a nanoelectronic signalling pathway that reveals electrochemical interface information during in-device cyclic voltammetry. Our results not only show a high degree of consistency with generally accepted conclusions in platinum electrochemistry but also offer important insights on various practically important electrochemical reactions. This study defines a nanoelectronic strategy for in situ electrochemical surface studies with high surface sensitivity and surface specificity.

  6. Research Update: Electrical monitoring of cysts using organic electrochemical transistors a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, M.; Rivnay, J.; Ramuz, M.; Hama, A.; Owens, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    Organotypic three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models have the potential to act as surrogate tissues in vitro, both for basic research and for drug discovery/toxicology. 3D cultures maintain not only 3D architecture but also cell-cell and cell extracellular matrix interactions, particularly when grown in cysts or spheroids. Characterization of cell cultures grown in 3D formats, however, provides a significant challenge for cell biologists due to the incompatibility of these structures with commonly found optical or electronic monitoring systems. Electronic impedance spectroscopy is a cell culture monitoring technique with great potential; however, it has not been possible to integrate 3D cultures with commercially available systems to date. Cyst-like 3D cultures are particularly challenging due to their small size and difficulty in manipulation. Herein, we demonstrate isolation of cyst-like 3D cultures by capillarity and subsequent integration with the organic electrochemical transistor for monitoring the integrity of these structures. We show not only that this versatile device can be adapted to the cyst format for measuring resistance and, therefore, the quality of the cysts, but also can be used for quantitative monitoring of the effect of toxic compounds on cells in a 3D format. The ability to quantitatively predict effects of drugs on 3D cultures in vitro has large future potential for the fields of drug discovery and toxicology.

  7. Electrochemical sensing of membrane potential and enzyme function using gallium arsenide electrodes functionalized with supported membranes.

    PubMed

    Gassull, Daniel; Ulman, Abraham; Grunze, Michael; Tanaka, Motomu

    2008-05-01

    We deposit phospholipid monolayers on highly doped p-GaAs electrodes that are precoated with methyl-mercaptobiphenyl monolayers and operate such a biofunctional electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) setup as an analogue of a metal-oxide-semiconductor setup. Electrochemical impedance spectra measured over a wide frequency range demonstrate that the presence of a lipid monolayer remarkably slows down the diffusion of ions so that the membrane-functionalized GaAs can be subjected to electrochemical investigations for more than 3 days with no sign of degradation. The biofunctional EIS setup enables us to translate changes in the surface charge density Q and bias potentials Ubias into the change in the interface capacitance Cp. Since Cp is governed by the capacitance of semiconductor space charge region CSC, the linear relationships obtained for 1/Cp2 vs Q and 1/Cp2 vs Ubias suggests that Cp can be used to detect the surface charges with a high sensitivity (1 charge per 18 nm2). Furthermore, the kinetics of phospholipids degradation by phospholipase A2 can also be monitored by a significant decrease in diffusion coefficients through the membrane by a factor of 104. Thus, the operation of GaAs membrane composites established here allows for electrochemical sensing of surface potential and barrier capability of biological membranes in a quantitative manner.

  8. Label-free electrochemical monitoring of protein addressing through electroactivated "click" chemistry on gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Meini, Nadir; Ripert, Micaël; Chaix, Carole; Farre, Carole; De Crozals, Gabriel; Kherrat, Rochdi; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    In this work, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have, for the first time, label-free monitored protein immobilization on a gold surface through a strategy of electroaddressing, compatible with the production of microarrays for multi-detection. This functionalization is achieved via the alkyne/azide cycloaddition, better known as the "click" reaction. The electroaddressing was applied to a polythiol hexynyl derivative previously grafted onto the gold surface. This compound consists of two dithiol phosphate groups and a hexynyl function and was synthesized through a supported synthesis approach, from a dithiol reagent, phosphoramidite (DTPA), and a hexynyl phosphoramidite. Next, an azide-PEG3-biotin derivative was grafted onto the modified gold surface by electro-chronocoulometry. The "click" reaction was controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, showing the change in impedance only when the electroaddressing was performed at -300 mV. No effect on the EIS signal was observed when a positive potential was applied, confirming the specificity of the electroactivation. Biotin-modified electrodes were used to fix streptavidin and the immobilization was monitored using EIS. Fluorescent streptavidin-functionalized silica nanoparticles were also specifically grafted onto the biotinylated gold surface in order to confirm the "click" reaction using fluorescence microscopy. The obtained streptavidin platform was used to detect the surface coverage by biotinylated human serum albumin (HSA). The lowest detectable concentration is 10 pg/mL, and surface saturation is obtained with concentrations higher than 100 ng/mL.

  9. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF{sub 6} releases

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC`s position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF{sub 6} release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring).

  10. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications. PMID:24932865

  11. A continuous glucose monitoring device by graphene modified electrochemical sensor in microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Pu, Zhihua; Zou, Chongwei; Wang, Ridong; Lai, Xiaochen; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin; Li, Dachao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous glucose monitoring microsystem consisting of a three-electrode electrochemical sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip, which was used to transdermally extract and collect subcutaneous interstitial fluid, was fabricated from five polydimethylsiloxane layers using micromolding techniques. The electrochemical sensor was integrated into the chip for continuous detection of glucose. Specifically, a single-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were decorated onto the working electrode (WE) of the sensor to construct a composite nanostructured surface and improve the resolution of the glucose measurements. Graphene was transferred onto the WE surface to improve the electroactive nature of the electrode to enable measurements of low levels of glucose. The AuNPs were directly electrodeposited onto the graphene layer to improve the electron transfer rate from the activity center of the enzyme to the electrode to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the composite nanostructured surface to specifically detect glucose. The factors required for AuNPs deposition and GOx immobilization were also investigated, and the optimized parameters were obtained. The experimental results displayed that the proposed sensor could precisely measure glucose in the linear range from 0 to 162 mg/dl with a detection limit of 1.44 mg/dl (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor exhibited the potential to detect hypoglycemia which is still a major challenge for continuous glucose monitoring in clinics. Unlike implantable glucose sensors, the wearable device enabled external continuous monitoring of glucose without interference from foreign body reaction and bioelectricity. PMID:26958097

  12. A continuous glucose monitoring device by graphene modified electrochemical sensor in microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Pu, Zhihua; Zou, Chongwei; Wang, Ridong; Lai, Xiaochen; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin; Li, Dachao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous glucose monitoring microsystem consisting of a three-electrode electrochemical sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip, which was used to transdermally extract and collect subcutaneous interstitial fluid, was fabricated from five polydimethylsiloxane layers using micromolding techniques. The electrochemical sensor was integrated into the chip for continuous detection of glucose. Specifically, a single-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were decorated onto the working electrode (WE) of the sensor to construct a composite nanostructured surface and improve the resolution of the glucose measurements. Graphene was transferred onto the WE surface to improve the electroactive nature of the electrode to enable measurements of low levels of glucose. The AuNPs were directly electrodeposited onto the graphene layer to improve the electron transfer rate from the activity center of the enzyme to the electrode to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the composite nanostructured surface to specifically detect glucose. The factors required for AuNPs deposition and GOx immobilization were also investigated, and the optimized parameters were obtained. The experimental results displayed that the proposed sensor could precisely measure glucose in the linear range from 0 to 162 mg/dl with a detection limit of 1.44 mg/dl (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor exhibited the potential to detect hypoglycemia which is still a major challenge for continuous glucose monitoring in clinics. Unlike implantable glucose sensors, the wearable device enabled external continuous monitoring of glucose without interference from foreign body reaction and bioelectricity.

  13. Label-free electrochemical monitoring of vasopressin in aptamer-based microfluidic biosensors.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Oncescu, Vlad; Lee, Seoho; Choi, Inhee; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    Vasopressin is an indicating biomarker for blood pressure in the human body and low vasopressin levels can be indicative of late-phase hemorrhagic shock or other traumatic injuries. In this paper we have developed an aptamer-based label-free microfluidic biosensor for the electrochemical detection of vasopressin. The detection area consists of aptamers immobilized on carbon nanotubes which specifically capture the vasopressin molecules in solution resulting in changes in conductivity across the sensor. We report a limit of detection of 43 pM in standard solutions and demonstrate high detection specificity toward vasopressin when different interferents are present. The miniaturized microfluidic biosensor offers continuous monitoring of different vasopressin levels with good potential for portability. Ultimately such a system could serve as a point-of-care diagnostics tool for patients with excessive bleeding when standard medical infrastructure is not available.

  14. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  15. Modern Electrochemical Methods for Monitoring of Chemical Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Barek, Jiri; Moreira, Josino Costa; Zima, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on our presentation at the 1st International Symposium on Sensor Science, Paris, 16-20 June 2003. It presents recent results regarding the electrochemical determination of submicromolar and nanomolar concentrations of various carcinogenic substances (nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, azo compounds, aromatic amino compounds, etc.) using both traditional (classical dropping mercury electrode, static mercury drop electrode, hanging mercury drop electrode) and non-traditional types of electrodes (solid amalgam electrodes, carbon paste electrodes, platinum tubular electrodes).

  16. Electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanoporous silica for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Conner, Marianne M.

    2004-12-01

    Nanostructured materials enable the development of miniature sensing devices that are compact, low-cost, low-energy-consumption, and easily integrated into field-deployable units. Recently we have successfully developed electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanostructured materials for the characterization of metal ions. Specifically, glycinyl-urea self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Gly-UR SAMMS) has been incorporated in carbon paste electrodes for the detection of toxic metals such as lead, copper, and mercury based on adsorptive stripping voltammetry, while acetamide phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS) has been used for the detection of uranium. Both electrochemical sensors yield reproducible measurements with excellent detection limits (at ppb level), are selective for target species, does not require the use of mercury film and chelating agents, and require little or no regeneration of electrode materials. The rigid, open, paralleled pore structure combined with suitable interfacial chemistry of SAMMS also results in fast responses of the electrochemical sensors.

  17. Electrochemical loading of TEM grids used for the study of potential dependent morphology of polyaniline nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Bhadu, Gopala Ram; Paul, Anirban; Perween, Mosarrat; Gupta, Rajeev; Chaudhari, Jayesh C; Srivastava, Divesh N

    2016-03-01

    An electrochemical method for loading electroactive materials over the TEM grid is reported. The protocol has been demonstrated using polyaniline as an example. The electroactive polymer was directly deposited over the Au TEM grid, used as working electrode in a 3 electrode electrochemical cell. The undisturbed as-deposited morphologies under the influence of various counter ions and ex situ electrochemical states have been studied and compared. Contrary to behaviour in bulk the individual polyaniline fibre was found thinner at anodic potentials. The movement of counter ions as a function of the electrochemical state of the polymer was studied using STEM-EDX elemental mapping. PMID:26694198

  18. Electrochemical loading of TEM grids used for the study of potential dependent morphology of polyaniline nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Bhadu, Gopala Ram; Paul, Anirban; Perween, Mosarrat; Gupta, Rajeev; Chaudhari, Jayesh C; Srivastava, Divesh N

    2016-03-01

    An electrochemical method for loading electroactive materials over the TEM grid is reported. The protocol has been demonstrated using polyaniline as an example. The electroactive polymer was directly deposited over the Au TEM grid, used as working electrode in a 3 electrode electrochemical cell. The undisturbed as-deposited morphologies under the influence of various counter ions and ex situ electrochemical states have been studied and compared. Contrary to behaviour in bulk the individual polyaniline fibre was found thinner at anodic potentials. The movement of counter ions as a function of the electrochemical state of the polymer was studied using STEM-EDX elemental mapping.

  19. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  20. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of the polymerase chain reaction by mediated redox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Deféver, Thibaut; Druet, Michel; Rochelet-Dequaire, Murielle; Joannes, Martine; Grossiord, Céline; Limoges, Benoit; Marchal, Damien

    2009-08-19

    We described the proof-of-principle of a nonoptical real-time PCR that uses cyclic voltammetry for indirectly monitoring the amplified DNA product generated in the PCR reaction solution after each PCR cycle. To enable indirect measurement of the amplicon produced throughout PCR, we monitor electrochemically the progressive consumption (i.e., the decrease of concentration) of free electroactive deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) used for DNA synthesis. This is accomplished by exploiting the fast catalytic oxidation of native deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) or its unnatural analogue 7-deaza-dGTP by the one-electron redox catalysts Ru(bpy)(3)(3+) (with bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) or Os(bpy)(3)(3+) generated at an electrode. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, a disposable array of eight miniaturized self-contained electrochemical cells (working volume of 50 microL) has been developed and implemented in a classical programmable thermal cycler and then tested with the PCR amplification of two illustrated examples of real-world biological target DNA sequences (i.e., a relatively long 2300-bp sequence from the bacterial genome of multidrug-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans and a shorter 283-bp target from the human cytomegalovirus). Although the method works with both mediator/base couples, the catalytic peak current responses recorded with the Ru(bpy)(3)(3+)/dGTP couple under real-time PCR conditions are significantly affected by a continuous current drift and interference with the background solvent discharge, thus leading to poorly reproducible data. Much more reproducible and reliable results are finally obtained with the Os(bpy)(3)(3+)/7-deaza-dGTP, a result that is attributed to the much lower anodic potential at which the catalytic oxidation of 7-deaza-dGTP by Os(bpy)(3)(3+) is detected. Under these conditions, an exponential decrease of the catalytic signal as a function of the number of PCR cycles is obtained, allowing definition of a cycle

  1. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-01-01

    A real-time, labeled-free and nanogram-sensitive mass sensor, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is used to monitor a cyclic voltammetric deposition of polyaniline (PANI). The results determined that the efficiency for PANI deposition and the anion-doping ratio is calculated in one single cyclic voltammetric.

  2. Electrochemical monitoring systems of demembranated flagellate algal motility for ATP sensing.

    PubMed

    Shitanda, Isao; Tanaka, Koji; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2014-02-21

    The ATP-induced behavior of the unicellular flagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was recorded as changes in the redox currents for a coexisting redox marker. The ATP concentration was estimated using the presented compact electrochemical system, which is based on monitoring of the motility of the flagellates. PMID:24336166

  3. Electrochemical monitoring of the fluorescence emission of tetrazine and bodipy dyes using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy coupled to electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Miomandre, F; Lépicier, E; Munteanu, S; Galangau, O; Audibert, J F; Méallet-Renault, R; Audebert, P; Pansu, R B

    2011-03-01

    A very sensitive technique where an electrochemical cell is coupled to a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy setup is described and applied for the first time to the electrochemical monitoring of the fluorescence of organic dyes in solution. It is shown that this setup basically allows both spatial and time resolution for the recorded fluorescence signal as a function of the electrode potential: indeed the variations of the emission intensity are recorded within the diffusion layer for a classical cyclic voltammetry or chronoamperometry experiment inducing the redox conversion of an emissive form into a non emissive one (and conversely). Simultaneously, the variations of the emissive state lifetime are measured to discriminate between a mechanism involving only the conversion into a non emissive form from one involving a quenching between the emitter and the electrogenerated species. The results concerning the investigation of the electrochemical monitoring of the fluorescence properties for two types of original dyes are presented, demonstrating the possibility to switch on and off the emission in a fully reversible way and to investigate in depth the mechanisms associated to this switch.

  4. Evaluation of the Technical-Economic Potential of Particle- Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites and Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, A.; Götze, U.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Lehnert, N.; Herold, F.; Meichsner, G.; Schmidt, A.

    2016-03-01

    Compared to conventional cutting, the processing of materials by electrochemical machining offers some technical advantages like high surface quality, no thermal or mechanical impact on the work piece and preservation of the microstructure of the work piece material. From the economic point of view, the possibility of process parallelization and the absence of any process-related tool wear are mentionable advantages of electrochemical machining. In this study, based on experimental results, it will be evaluated to what extent the electrochemical machining is technically and economically suitable for the finish-machining of particle- reinforced aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). Initial studies showed that electrochemical machining - in contrast to other machining processes - has the potential to fulfil demanding requirements regarding precision and surface quality of products or components especially when applied to AMCs. In addition, the investigations show that processing of AMCs by electrochemical machining requires less energy than the electrochemical machining of stainless steel. Therefore, an evaluation of electrochemically machined AMCs - compared to stainless steel - from a technical and an economic perspective will be presented in this paper. The results show the potential of electro-chemically machined AMCs and contribute to the enhancement of instruments for technical-economic evaluations as well as a comprehensive innovation control.

  5. Photocatalytically Renewable Micro-electrochemical Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Quan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Wang, Qian; Duo, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Li, Yu-Tao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-11-23

    Electrode fouling and passivation is a substantial and inevitable limitation in electrochemical biosensing, and it is a great challenge to efficiently remove the contaminant without changing the surface structure and electrochemical performance. Herein, we propose a versatile and efficient strategy based on photocatalytic cleaning to construct renewable electrochemical sensors for cell analysis. This kind of sensor was fabricated by controllable assembly of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO2 to form a sandwiching RGO@TiO2 structure, followed by deposition of Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the RGO shell. The Au NPs-RGO composite shell provides high electrochemical performance. Meanwhile, the encapsulated TiO2 ensures an excellent photocatalytic cleaning property. Application of this renewable microsensor for detection of nitric oxide (NO) release from cells demonstrates the great potential of this strategy in electrode regeneration and biosensing.

  6. Review: advances in electrochemical genosensors-based methods for monitoring blooms of toxic algae.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which have expanded worldwide in their occurrence and frequency, are a serious menace to aquatic ecosystems and humans. The development of rapid, accurate and cost-effective detection systems for toxic algal monitoring in aquatic environments is urgently required. Although many efforts have been devoted to develop reliable tools to monitor the entire spectrum of existing toxic algae, a portable semi-automated system that enables HAB monitoring at a low cost is still not available for general purchase. This work reviews the challenges and opportunities in translating the remarkable progress of electrochemical genosensors-based methods towards practical in situ HAB monitoring applications. It is specifically focused on reviewing the optimised methods for a detection system based on a sandwich hybridisation assay (SHA) performed over transducer platforms of different materials, geometries and dimensions and presenting the diverse advantages and disadvantages among them. Probe design and specificity and optimisation of the genosensor in terms of hybridisation conditions and electrochemical signal are discussed as well as their long-term stability and storage and semi-automation attempts. With continuous innovation and attention to key challenges, we expect semi-automatic devices containing DNA-based electrochemical biosensors to have an important impact upon monitoring of serious HAB events. PMID:23097073

  7. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  8. Continuous fatigue crack monitoring of bridges: Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshier, Monty A.; Nelson, Levi; Brinkerhoff, Ryan; Miceli, Marybeth

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracks in steel bridges degrade the load-carrying capacity of these structures. Fatigue damage accumulation caused by the repetitive loading of everyday truck traffic can cause small fatigue cracks initiate. Understanding the growth of these fatigue cracks is critical to the safety and reliability of our transportation infrastructure. However, modeling fatigue in bridges is difficult due to the nature of the loading and variations in connection integrity. When fatigue cracks reach critical lengths failures occur causing partial or full closures, emergency repairs, and even full structural failure. Given the aging US highway and the trend towards asset management and life extension, the need for reliable, cost effective sensors and monitoring technologies to alert bridge owners when fatigue cracks are growing is higher than ever. In this study, an innovative Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS) has been developed and introduced to meet the growing NDT marketplace demand for sensors that have the ability to continuously monitor fatigue cracks. The performance of the LTEFS has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. Data was collected using machined specimens with different lengths of naturally initiated fatigue cracks, applied stress levels, applied stress ratios, and for both sinusoidal and real-life bridge spectrum type loading. The laboratory data was evaluated and used to develop an empirically based algorithm used for crack detection. Additionally, beta-tests on a real bridge structure has been completed. These studies have conclusively demonstrated that LTEFS holds great potential for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel structures

  9. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjae; Choi, Tae Kyu; Lee, Young Bum; Cho, Hye Rim; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Wang, Liu; Choi, Hyung Jin; Chung, Taek Dong; Lu, Nanshu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its high carrier mobility, conductivity, flexibility and optical transparency, graphene is a versatile material in micro- and macroelectronics. However, the low density of electrochemically active defects in graphene synthesized by chemical vapour deposition limits its application in biosensing. Here, we show that graphene doped with gold and combined with a gold mesh has improved electrochemical activity over bare graphene, sufficient to form a wearable patch for sweat-based diabetes monitoring and feedback therapy. The stretchable device features a serpentine bilayer of gold mesh and gold-doped graphene that forms an efficient electrochemical interface for the stable transfer of electrical signals. The patch consists of a heater, temperature, humidity, glucose and pH sensors and polymeric microneedles that can be thermally activated to deliver drugs transcutaneously. We show that the patch can be thermally actuated to deliver Metformin and reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice.

  10. Monitoring Cooperative Binding Using Electrochemical DNA-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical DNA-based (E-DNA) sensors are utilized to detect a variety of targets including complementary DNA, small molecules, and proteins. These sensors typically employ surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides that are modified with a redox-active molecule on the distal 3′ terminus. Target-induced flexibility changes of the DNA probe alter the efficiency of electron transfer between the redox active methylene blue and the electrode surface, allowing for quantitative detection of target concentration. While numerous studies have utilized the specific and sensitive abilities of E-DNA sensors to quantify target concentration, no studies to date have demonstrated the ability of this class of collision-based sensors to elucidate biochemical-binding mechanisms such as cooperativity. In this study, we demonstrate that E-DNA sensors fabricated with various lengths of surface-bound oligodeoxythymidylate [(dT)n] sensing probes are able to quantitatively distinguish between cooperative and noncooperative binding of a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Specifically, we demonstrate that oligo(dT) E-DNA sensors are able to quantitatively detect nM levels (50 nM–4 μM) of gene 32 protein (g32p). Furthermore, the sensors exhibit signal that is able to distinguish between the cooperative binding of the full-length g32p and the noncooperative binding of the core domain (*III) fragment to single-stranded DNA. Finally, we demonstrate that this binding is both probe-length- and ionic-strength-dependent. This study illustrates a new quantitative property of this powerful class of biosensor and represents a rapid and simple methodology for understanding protein–DNA binding mechanisms. PMID:25517392

  11. Monitoring cooperative binding using electrochemical DNA-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Macazo, Florika C; Karpel, Richard L; White, Ryan J

    2015-01-20

    Electrochemical DNA-based (E-DNA) sensors are utilized to detect a variety of targets including complementary DNA, small molecules, and proteins. These sensors typically employ surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides that are modified with a redox-active molecule on the distal 3' terminus. Target-induced flexibility changes of the DNA probe alter the efficiency of electron transfer between the redox active methylene blue and the electrode surface, allowing for quantitative detection of target concentration. While numerous studies have utilized the specific and sensitive abilities of E-DNA sensors to quantify target concentration, no studies to date have demonstrated the ability of this class of collision-based sensors to elucidate biochemical-binding mechanisms such as cooperativity. In this study, we demonstrate that E-DNA sensors fabricated with various lengths of surface-bound oligodeoxythymidylate [(dT)n] sensing probes are able to quantitatively distinguish between cooperative and noncooperative binding of a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Specifically, we demonstrate that oligo(dT) E-DNA sensors are able to quantitatively detect nM levels (50 nM-4 μM) of gene 32 protein (g32p). Furthermore, the sensors exhibit signal that is able to distinguish between the cooperative binding of the full-length g32p and the noncooperative binding of the core domain (*III) fragment to single-stranded DNA. Finally, we demonstrate that this binding is both probe-length- and ionic-strength-dependent. This study illustrates a new quantitative property of this powerful class of biosensor and represents a rapid and simple methodology for understanding protein-DNA binding mechanisms.

  12. Self-Assembled Peptide Hydrogel as a Smart Biointerface for Enzyme-Based Electrochemical Biosensing and Cell Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lian, Meiling; Chen, Xu; Lu, Yanluo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-09-28

    A self-assembled peptide nanofibrous hydrogel composed of N-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) was used to construct a smart biointerface. This biointerface was then used for enzyme-based electrochemical biosensing and cell monitoring. The Fmoc-FF hydrogel had two functions. One was as a matrix to embed an enzyme model, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), during the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF peptides. The other was use as a robust substrate for cell adhesion. Experimental data demonstrated that HRP was immobilized in a stable manner within the peptide hydrogel, and that HRP retained its inherent bioactivity toward H2O2. The HRP also can realize direct electron transfer in the Fmoc-FF hydrogel. The resulting third-generation electrochemical H2O2 biosensor exhibited good analytical performance, including a low limit of detection of 18 nM, satisfactory reproducibility, and high stability and selectivity. HeLa cells were then adhered to the HRP/Fmoc-FF hydrogel-modified electrode. The sensitive in situ monitoring of H2O2 released from HeLa cells was realized. This biointerface based on the Fmoc-FF hydrogel was easily prepared, environmentally friendly, and also versatile for integration of other cells and recognized molecules for the monitoring of various cellular biomolecules. The smart biointerface has potential application in broad physiological and pathological investigations. PMID:27598654

  13. Electrochemical titrations and reaction time courses monitored in situ by magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Justin M; Butt, Julea N; Cheesman, Myles R

    2011-12-15

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra, at ultraviolet-visible or near-infrared wavelengths (185-2000 nm), contain the same transitions observed in conventional absorbance spectroscopy, but their bisignate nature and more stringent selection rules provide greatly enhanced resolution. Thus, they have proved to be invaluable in the study of many transition metal-containing proteins. For mainly technical reasons, MCD has been limited almost exclusively to the measurement of static samples. But the ability to employ the resolving power of MCD to follow changes at transition metal sites would be a potentially significant advance. We describe here the development of a cuvette holder that allows reagent injection and sample mixing within the 50-mm-diameter ambient temperature bore of an energized superconducting solenoid. This has allowed us, for the first time, to monitor time-resolved MCD resulting from in situ chemical manipulation of a metalloprotein sample. Furthermore, we report the parallel development of an electrochemical cell using a three-electrode configuration with physically separated working and counter electrodes, allowing true potentiometric titration to be performed within the bore of the MCD solenoid.

  14. Electrochemical biochip for applications to wireless and batteryless monitoring of free-moving mice.

    PubMed

    Baj-Rossi, Camilla; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    A multi-sensing platform for applications in wireless and batteryless monitoring of free-moving small animals is presented in this paper. The proposed platform hosts six sensors: four biosensors for sensing of both disease biomarkers and therapeutic compounds, and two further sensors (T and pH) for biosensor calibration. Electrodeposition of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the subsequent function-alization with proper enzymes is used to assure sensitivity and specificity in electrochemical biosensing. The realized sensors are demonstrated to be capable of measuring several parameters: lactate with a sensitivity of 77±26 μA/mM· cm(2) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 4±1 μM; glucose with a sensitivity of 63±15 μA/mM· cm(2) and a LOD of 8±2 μM; Etoposide (a well known anti-cancer agent) with a sensitivity of 0.15±0.04 mA/mM· cm(2) and a LOD of 4±1 μM; Open Circuit Potential (OCP) measurements are used on a Pt/IrOx junction to sense pH with a sensitivity of around -75±5mV/pH; while a Pt resistive thermal device is used to measure physiological temperature-range with an average sensitivity of 0.108±0.001 kΩ/°C. PMID:25570380

  15. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment.

  16. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment. PMID:25284768

  17. Miniaturized redox potential probe for in situ environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jang, Am; Lee, Jin-Hwan; Bhadri, Prashant R; Kumar, Suresh A; Timmons, William; Beyette, Fred R; Papautsky, Ian; Bishop, Paul L

    2005-08-15

    The need for accurate, robust in situ microscale monitoring of oxidation-reduction potentials (ORP) is required for continuous soil pore water quality monitoring. We are developing a suite of self-contained microelectrodes that can be used in the environment, such as at Superfund sites, to monitor ORP in contaminated soils and sediments. This paper presents details on our development of microelectrode sensor arrays for ORP measurements. The electrochemical performance of these ORP electrodes was fully characterized by measuring redox potentials in standard solutions. It found that the newly developed integrated ORP microelectrodes produced a very stable voltage response (the corresponding rate of the integrated microelectrode potential change was in the range of 0.6-1.1 mV/min), even when the measurement was carried out outside of a Faraday cage where signals from most conventional microelectrodes are usually inhibited by external electrical nose. These new microelectrodes were easier to fabricate and were more robust than conventional microelectrodes. The tip size of the integrated ORP microelectrode was approximately 200 nm square, with a taper angle of approximately 20 degrees and a length of 57 microm. The integrated ORP microelectrode exhibited better signal stability and substantially shorter response times (from less than a few milliseconds to 30 s, depending on the standard solution used) than the commercial millielectrode (a few minutes). Compared with the slope of the commercial millelectrode, the slope of the integrated microelectrode (61.5 mV/pH) was closerto the ideal slope against quinhydrone calibration solutions. Therefore, it is to be expected that the newly developed ORP microelectrode may have wider applications in contaminated soils, biofilms, and sediments. PMID:16173580

  18. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  19. A Plan to Develop and Demonstrate Electrochemical Noise Based Corrosion Monitoring Systems in Hanford Site Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-08-28

    This document describes changes that need to be made to the site's authorization basis and technical concerns that need to be resolved before proceduralized use of Electrochemical Noise based corrosion monitoring systems is fully possible at the Hanford Site.

  20. Triggering interface potential barrier: A controllable tuning mechanism for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Ding, Longjiang; Zhao, Minggang; Ma, Ye; Fan, Sisi; Wen, Zhen; Huang, Jingyun; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Shougang

    2016-11-15

    A novel theory of employing interface potential barriers as a controllabe tuning factor for electrochemical detection is proposed. The 3D NiO/PANI/ZnO hierarchical heterostructure is fabricated by thermal oxidation, electropolymerization and electrodeposition. The 3D NiO/PANI/ZnO heterostructure is then chose as a model for electrochemical detection of dopamine, uric acid and ascorbic acid. The p-n and p-p junction interface potential barriers are employed as tuning factors to achieve high selectivity and sensitivity. Our results demonstrate the electrochemical response to different targets can be controllable enhanced or weakened by rational design of interface potential barriers. The potential barrier height Φp-n is an enhanced tuning factor, and Φp-p is a selective tuning factor. We afford a controllable adjustive approach to achieve desired selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:27295574

  1. Two-Dimensional Imaging of Potential Waves in Electrochemical Systems by Surface Plasmon Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatgen, Georg; Krischer, Katharina; Pettinger, Bruno; Doblhofer, Karl; Junkes, Heinz; Ertl, Gerhard

    1995-08-01

    The potential dependence of resonance conditions for the excitation of surface plasmons was exploited to obtain two-dimensional images of the potential distribution of an electrode with high temporal resolution. This method allows the study of spatiotemporal patterns in electrochemical systems. Potential waves traveling across the electrode with a speed on the order of meters per second were observed in the bistable regime of an oscillatory electrochemical reaction. This velocity is close to that of excitation waves in nerve fibers and is far greater than the velocity of reaction-diffusion waves observed in other chemical systems.

  2. Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Schistosomiasis Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.-R.; Tang, L.-L.; Niu, H.-B.; Zhou, X.-N.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Ma, L.-L.; Zhou, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    densities is developed. The new model is validated with field data of Dongting Lake and the dynamic monitoring of schistosomiasis breeding in Dongting Lake region is presented. Finally, emphasis are placed on analyzing the potential of Sentinel satellites for schistosomiasis monitoring. The requirements of optical high resolution data on spectral resolution, spatial resolution, radiometric resolution/accuracy, as well as the requirements of synthetic aperture radar data on operation frequency, spatial resolution, polarization, radiometric accuracy, repeat cycle are presented and then compared with the parameters of Sentinel satellites. The parameters of Sentinel satellites are also compared with those of available remote satellites, such as Envisat, Landsat, whose data are being used for schistosomiasis monitoring. The application potential of Sentinel satellites for the schistosomiasis monitoring will be concluded in the end, which will benefit for the mission operation, model development, etc.

  3. The Potential to Machine Superconductors with Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Rebecca J.; Ivanov, Atanas; Babu-Nadendla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    Superconductors (SCs), such as gadolinium barium copper oxide, are brittle ceramics which are very difficult to machine conventionally due to the easy propagation of cracks. The cracks formed during conventional machining destroy the superconductive properties of the material. As a result a new method to machine ceramic SCs is needed. In this paper, polarization experiments were conducted in various nonaqueous salt electrolytes to determine whether electrochemical machining (ECM) is a suitable method for machining gadolinium barium copper oxide with silver inclusions (GdBCO-Ag) for the first time. Sodium chloride in formic acid proved to be the best electrolyte for this application with higher dissolution rates and achieving a better surface finish. It was noted that GdBCO-Ag dissolved at higher rates in NaCl in formic acid than in other salt-solvent systems.

  4. 16-Channel Organic Electrochemical Transistor Array for In Vitro Conduction Mapping of Cardiac Action Potential.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xi; Yao, Chunlei; Liu, Ying; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-09-01

    16-Channel organic electrochemical transistor arrays (OECTs) are developed for mapping the propagation and studying the characteristics of action potentials of primary cardiomyocytes. The physiological activities of a rat cardiomyocyte monolayer during a long-term culturing is revealed by this biocompatible, low-cost, and high transconductance organic electronic device. OECT has great potential to be used in cardiac and neuronal drug screening.

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of sugars at moderate potentials catalyzed by Rh porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shin-Ichi; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takeda, Sahori; Yasuda, Kazuaki

    2010-05-28

    In this communication, we demonstrate that certain kinds of Rh porphyrins on carbon black can electrochemically oxidize aldose at low potentials. The onset potential was much lower than those with the other complex-based catalysts. A product analysis suggested that this reaction involves 2-electron oxidation of the aldehyde group.

  6. Microbial Electrochemical Monitoring of Volatile Fatty Acids during Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA concentrations was first evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities and VFA levels from 1 to 30 mM (0.04 to 8.50 mA/m(2), R(2) = 0.97) and then from 30 to 200 mM (8.50 to 10.80 mA/m(2), R(2) = 0.95). The detection range was much broader than that of other existing VFA biosensors. The biosensor had no response to protein and lipid which are frequently found along with VFAs in organic waste streams from AD, suggesting the selective detection of VFAs. The current displayed different responses to VFA levels when different ionic strengths and external resistances were applied, though linear relationships were always observed. Finally, the biosensor was further explored with real AD effluents and the results did not show significance differences with those measured by GC. The simple and efficient biosensor showed promising potential for online, inexpensive, and reliable measurement of VFA levels during AD and other anaerobic processes.

  7. [Intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Jun; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Matsumoto, Masato; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2006-03-01

    Our success rate of intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potential (VEP) had been approximately 30% in the past. In order to improve recording rate of intraoperative VEP, we developed a new stimulating device using high power light emitting diodes. Electroretinogram was simultaneously recorded to understand whether flash stimulation reached the retina. In addition, total venous anesthesia with propofol was used to avoid the adverse effect of inhalation anesthesia. We report the results after introduction of these improvements. Intraoperative monitoring of VEP was attempted in 35 cases. We evaluated success rate of VEP recording, correlation between VEP findings and postoperative visual function, and reasons why recording was not successful. Stable and reproducible waveforms were obtained in 59 sides (84%). Two cases, whose VEP deteriorated intraoperatively, developed postoperative visual disturbance: In 11 sides (16%), stable waveforms were not obtained. There were two main causes. In 8 sides out of 11, the cause was attributed to pre-existing severe visual disturbance. In these 8 sides, VEP in the awake state was not recordable or was recordable, but with very low amplitudes under 1 microV. In the other 3 sides, the cause was attributed to movement of a stimulating device by reflecting the fronto-temporal scalp flap. In conclusion, the successful recording rate was increased to 84% from approximately 30%, after introduction of various trials. We need further improvement in recording intraoperative VEP to establish a reliable intraoperative monitoring method for VEP.

  8. Reactivity mapping with electrochemical gradients for monitoring reactivity at surfaces in space and time

    PubMed Central

    Krabbenborg, Sven O.; Nicosia, Carlo; Chen, Pengkun; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Studying and controlling reactions at surfaces is of great fundamental and applied interest in, among others, biology, electronics and catalysis. Because reaction kinetics is different at surfaces compared with solution, frequently, solution-characterization techniques cannot be used. Here we report solution gradients, prepared by electrochemical means, for controlling and monitoring reactivity at surfaces in space and time. As a proof of principle, electrochemically derived gradients of a reaction parameter (pH) and of a catalyst (Cu(I)) have been employed to make surface gradients on the micron scale and to study the kinetics of the (surface-confined) imine hydrolysis and the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, respectively. For both systems, the kinetic data were spatially visualized in a two-dimensional reactivity map. In the case of the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, the reaction order (2) was deduced from it. PMID:23575671

  9. Wearable autonomous microsystem with electrochemical gas sensor array for real-time health and safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Mu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaowen; Guo, Min; Jin, Rong; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high demand for a wearable autonomous multi-analyte gas sensor system for real-time environmental monitoring. This paper presents a system level solution through synergistic integration of sensors, electronics, and data analysis algorithms. Electrochemical sensors featuring ionic liquids were chosen to provide low-power room-temperature operation, rapid response, high sensitivity, good selectivity, and a long operating life with low maintenance. The system utilizes a multi-mode electrochemical instrumentation circuit that combines all signal condition functions within a single microelectronics chip to minimize system cost, size and power consumption. Embedded sensor array signal processing algorithms enable gas classification and concentration estimation within a real-world mixture of analytes. System design and integration methodologies are described, and preliminary results are shown for a first generation SO(2) sensor and a thumb-drive sized prototype system.

  10. Continuous monitoring of Naproxen by a cytochrome P450-based electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Baj-Rossi, C; Rezzonico Jost, T; Cavallini, A; Grassi, F; De Micheli, G; Carrara, S

    2014-03-15

    This paper reports the characterization of an electrochemical biosensor for the continuous monitoring of Naproxen based on cytochrome P450. The electrochemical biosensor is based on the drop-casting of multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs) and microsomal cytochrome P4501A2 (msCYP1A2) on a graphite screen-printed electrode (SPE). The proposed biosensor was employed to monitor Naproxen (NAP), a well-known anti-inflammatory compound, through cyclic voltammetry. The dynamic linear range for the amperometric detection of NAP had an upper limit of 300 µM with a corresponding limit of detection (LOD) of 16 ± 1 µM (S/N=3), which is included in NAP physiological range (9-300 µM). The MWCNT/msCYP1A2-SPE sensor was also calibrated for NAP detection in mouse serum that was previously extracted from mice, showing a slightly higher LOD (33 ± 18 µM). The stability of the msCYP1A2-based biosensor was assessed by longtime continuous cyclic voltammetric measurements. The ability of the sensor to monitor drug delivery was investigated by using a commercial micro-osmotic pump. Results show that the MWCNT/msCYP1A2-SPE sensor is capable of precisely monitoring the real-time delivery of NAP for 16 h. This work proves that the proposed electrochemical sensor might represent an innovative point-of-care solution for the personalization of drug therapies, as well as for pharmacokinetic studies in both animals and humans.

  11. Highly Sensitive and Long Term Stable Electrochemical Microelectrodes for Implantable Glucose Monitoring Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Liangliang

    A miniature wireless implantable electrochemical glucose system for continuous glucose monitoring with good selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and long term stability was developed. First, highly sensitive, long-term stable and reusable planar H2O2 microelectrodes have been fabricated by microlithography. These electrodes composed of a 300 nm Pt black layer situated on a 5 um thick Au layer, provide effective protection to the underlying chromium adhesion layer. Using repeated cyclic voltammetric sweeps in flowing buffer solution, highly sensitive Pt black working electrodes were realized with five-decade linear dynamic range and low detection limit (10 nM) for H2O2 at low oxidation potentials. Second, a highly sensitive, low cost and flexible microwire biosensor was described using 25-mum thick gold wire as working electrode together with 125-mum thick Pt/Ir and Ag wires as counter and reference electrode, embedded within a PDMS-filled polyethylene tube. Surface area and activity of sensor was enhanced by converting gold electrode to nanoporous configuration followed by electrodeposition of platinum black. Glucose oxidase based biosensors by electrodeposition of poly(o-phenylenediamine) and glucose oxidase on the working electrode, displayed a higher glucose sensitivity (1.2 mA mM-1 cm-2) than highest literature reported. In addition it exhibits wide detection range (up to 20 mM) and selectivity (>95%). Third, novel miniaturized and flexible microelectrode arrays with 8 of 25 mum electrodes displayed the much needed 3D diffusion profiles similar to a single 25 mum microelectrode, but with one order increase in current levels. These microelectrode arrays displayed a H2O2 sensitivity of 13 mA mM-1 cm-2, a wide dynamic range of 100 nM to 10 mM, limit of detection of 10 nM. These microwire based edge plane microsensors incorporated flexibility, miniaturization and low operation potential are an promising approach for continuous in vivo metabolic monitoring. Fourth

  12. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  13. Continuous Monitoring of Plant Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nick L.; Trickett, Edward S.; Ceresa, Anthony; Barrs, Henry D.

    1986-01-01

    Plant water potential was monitored continuously with a Wescor HR-33T dewpoint hygrometer in conjunction with a L51 chamber. This commercial instrument was modified by replacing the AC-DC mains power converter with one stabilized by zener diode controlled transistors. The thermocouple sensor and electrical lead needed to be thermally insulated to prevent spurious signals. For rapid response and faithful tracking a low resistance for water vapor movement between leaf and sensor had to be provided. This could be effected by removing the epidermis either by peeling or abrasion with fine carborundum cloth. A variety of rapid plant water potential responses to external stimuli could be followed in a range of crop plants (sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., var. Hysun 30); safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L., var. Gila); soybean (Glycine max L., var. Clark); wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Egret). These included light dark changes, leaf excision, applied pressure to or anaerobiosis of the root system. Water uptake by the plant (safflower, soybean) mirrored that for water potential changes including times when plant water status (soybean) was undergoing cyclical changes. PMID:16664805

  14. Continuous monitoring of plant water potential.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, N L; Trickett, E S; Ceresa, A; Barrs, H D

    1986-05-01

    Plant water potential was monitored continuously with a Wescor HR-33T dewpoint hygrometer in conjunction with a L51 chamber. This commercial instrument was modified by replacing the AC-DC mains power converter with one stabilized by zener diode controlled transistors. The thermocouple sensor and electrical lead needed to be thermally insulated to prevent spurious signals. For rapid response and faithful tracking a low resistance for water vapor movement between leaf and sensor had to be provided. This could be effected by removing the epidermis either by peeling or abrasion with fine carborundum cloth. A variety of rapid plant water potential responses to external stimuli could be followed in a range of crop plants (sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., var. Hysun 30); safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L., var. Gila); soybean (Glycine max L., var. Clark); wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Egret). These included light dark changes, leaf excision, applied pressure to or anaerobiosis of the root system. Water uptake by the plant (safflower, soybean) mirrored that for water potential changes including times when plant water status (soybean) was undergoing cyclical changes. PMID:16664805

  15. Electrochemical reduction of disulfide-containing proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mysling, Simon; Salbo, Rune; Ploug, Michael; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of disulfide bond-containing proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires reduction of the disulfide bonds under acidic and cold conditions, where the amide hydrogen exchange reaction is quenched (pH 2.5, 0 °C). The reduction typically requires a high concentration (>200 mM) of the chemical reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as its reduction rate constant is decreased at low pH and temperature. Serious adverse effects on chromatographic and mass spectrometric performances have been reported when using high concentrations of TCEP. In the present study, we explore the feasibility of using electrochemical reduction as a substitute for TCEP in HDX-MS analyses. Our results demonstrate that efficient disulfide bond reduction is readily achieved by implementing an electrochemical cell into the HDX-MS workflow. We also identify some challenges in using electrochemical reduction in HDX-MS analyses and provide possible conditions to attenuate these limitations. For example, high salt concentrations hamper disulfide bond reduction, necessitating additional dilution of the sample with aqueous acidic solution at quench conditions. PMID:24251601

  16. High-throughput real-time electrochemical monitoring of LAMP for pathogenic bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin; Ng, Andy; Zourob, Mohammed

    2014-08-15

    One of the significant challenges in healthcare is the development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. POC diagnostics require low-cost devices that offer portability, simplicity in operation and the ability for high-throughput and quantitative analysis. Here, we present a novel roll-to-roll ribbon fluid-handling device for electrochemical real-time monitoring of nucleic acid (NA) amplification and bacteria detection. The device rendered loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and real-time electrochemical detection based on the interaction between LAMP amplicon and the redox-reactive osmium complex. We have shown the detection of 30CFU/ml of Escherichia coli (in the range between 30 and 3×10(7)CFU/ml) and 200CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus (in the range of 200-2×10(5)CFU/ml) cultured samples in both real-time and end point detection. This device can be used for the detection of various Gram-negative and a number of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity in a high-throughput format. Using a roll-to-roll cassette approach, we could detect 12 samples in one assay. Since the LAMP and electrochemical analysis are implemented within sealed flexible biochips, time-consuming processing steps are not required and the risk of contamination is significantly reduced.

  17. Magnetic beads-based electrochemical immunosensor for monitoring allergenic food proteins.

    PubMed

    Čadková, Michaela; Metelka, Radovan; Holubová, Lucie; Horák, Daniel; Dvořáková, Veronika; Bílková, Zuzana; Korecká, Lucie

    2015-09-01

    Screen-printed platinum electrodes as transducer and magnetic beads as solid phase were combined to develop a particle-based electrochemical immunosensor for monitoring the serious food allergen ovalbumin. The standard arrangement of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay became the basis for designing the immunosensor. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed between magnetic particles functionalized with specific anti-ovalbumin immunoglobulin G and captured ovalbumin molecules, and secondary anti-ovalbumin antibodies conjugated with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase were subsequently added as label tag. The electrochemical signal proportional to the enzymatic reaction of horseradish peroxidase during the reduction of hydrogen peroxide with thionine as electron mediator was measured by linear sweep voltammetry. The newly established method of ovalbumin detection exhibits high sensitivity suitable for quantification in the range of 11 to 222nM and a detection limit of 5nM. Magnetic beads-based assay format using external magnets for rapid and simple separation has been proven to be an excellent basis for electrochemical detection and quantification of food allergens in highly complex sample matrices.

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O.; Loubier, Mathilde; Normandeau, Charles-O.; Viens, Jeff; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3− in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications. PMID:26197322

  19. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O; Loubier, Mathilde; Normandeau, Charles-O; Viens, Jeff; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-07-21

    With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3- in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications.

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O; Loubier, Mathilde; Normandeau, Charles-O; Viens, Jeff; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3- in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications. PMID:26197322

  1. Monitoring the premalignant potential of Barrett's oesophagus'

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David; Lipman, Gideon; Sehgal, Vinay; Lovat, Laurence B

    2016-01-01

    The landscape for patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) has changed significantly in the last decade. Research and new guidelines have helped gastroenterologists to better identify those patients with BE who are particularly at risk of developing oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In parallel, developments in endoscopic image enhancement technology and optical biopsy techniques have improved our ability to detect high-risk lesions. Once these lesions have been identified, the improvements in minimally invasive endoscopic therapies has meant that these patients can potentially be cured of early cancer and high-risk dysplastic lesions without the need for surgery, which still has a significant morbidity and mortality. The importance of reaching an accurate diagnosis of BE remains of paramount importance. More work is needed, however. The vast majority of those undergoing surveillance for their BE do not progress towards cancer and thus undergo a regular invasive procedure, which may impact on their psychological and physical well-being while incurring significant cost to the health service. New work that explores cheaper endoscopic or non-invasive ways to identify the at-risk individual provides exciting avenues for research. In future, the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with BE could move away from hospitals and into primary care. PMID:27761232

  2. The thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Travis P.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2014-11-14

    The free energy change for transferring a single ion across the water liquid/vapor interface includes an electrochemical surface potential contribution. Since this potential is not directly accessible to thermodynamic measurement, several extra-thermodynamic approaches have been employed to infer its sign and magnitude, with a resulting wide spread of values. Here, we examine further the thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water along three directions: (1) a basic relation of interfacial electrostatics and experimental results on ion distributions near a water/organic interface are employed to infer a solvent contribution to the electrochemical surface potential, (2) a re-analysis is performed of the existing bulk and cluster ion hydration data, and (3) extensive computational modeling is conducted to examine the size dependence of hydration enthalpy differences for the NaF ion pair between the small cluster and the converged bulk limits. The computational studies include classical polarizable models and high-level quantum chemical methods. The new theoretical analysis of existing experimental data and the combined classical/quantum modeling lead to results consistent with our previously derived proton hydration quantities.

  3. The thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Travis P.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2014-11-01

    The free energy change for transferring a single ion across the water liquid/vapor interface includes an electrochemical surface potential contribution. Since this potential is not directly accessible to thermodynamic measurement, several extra-thermodynamic approaches have been employed to infer its sign and magnitude, with a resulting wide spread of values. Here, we examine further the thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water along three directions: (1) a basic relation of interfacial electrostatics and experimental results on ion distributions near a water/organic interface are employed to infer a solvent contribution to the electrochemical surface potential, (2) a re-analysis is performed of the existing bulk and cluster ion hydration data, and (3) extensive computational modeling is conducted to examine the size dependence of hydration enthalpy differences for the NaF ion pair between the small cluster and the converged bulk limits. The computational studies include classical polarizable models and high-level quantum chemical methods. The new theoretical analysis of existing experimental data and the combined classical/quantum modeling lead to results consistent with our previously derived proton hydration quantities.

  4. Electrochemical annealing of nanoporous gold by application of cyclic potential sweeps.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abeera; Bhattarai, Jay K; Alla, Allan J; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2015-02-27

    An electrochemical method for annealing the pore sizes of nanoporous gold (NPG) is reported. The pore sizes of NPG can be increased by electrochemical cycling with the upper potential limit being just at the onset of gold oxide formation. This study has been performed in electrolyte solutions including potassium chloride, sodium nitrate and sodium perchlorate. Scanning electron microscopy images have been used for ligament and pore size analysis. We examine the modifications of NPG due to annealing using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry and offer a comparison of the surface coverage using the gold oxide stripping method as well as the method in which electrochemically accessible surface area is determined by using a diffusing redox probe. The effect of additives adsorbed on the NPG surface when subjected to annealing in different electrolytes as well as the subsequent structural changes in NPG are also reported. The effect of the annealing process on the application of NPG as a substrate for glucose electro-oxidation is briefly examined. PMID:25649027

  5. Electrochemical annealing of nanoporous gold by application of cyclic potential sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Abeera; Bhattarai, Jay K.; Alla, Allan J.; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2015-02-01

    An electrochemical method for annealing the pore sizes of nanoporous gold (NPG) is reported. The pore sizes of NPG can be increased by electrochemical cycling with the upper potential limit being just at the onset of gold oxide formation. This study has been performed in electrolyte solutions including potassium chloride, sodium nitrate and sodium perchlorate. Scanning electron microscopy images have been used for ligament and pore size analysis. We examine the modifications of NPG due to annealing using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry and offer a comparison of the surface coverage using the gold oxide stripping method as well as the method in which electrochemically accessible surface area is determined by using a diffusing redox probe. The effect of additives adsorbed on the NPG surface when subjected to annealing in different electrolytes as well as the subsequent structural changes in NPG are also reported. The effect of the annealing process on the application of NPG as a substrate for glucose electro-oxidation is briefly examined.

  6. Electrochemical potential of intercalation phase: Li/V 2O 5 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-Hui

    2006-12-01

    In the communication, the use of photoelectron spectroscopy in evaluating the electrochemical potentials for intercalation phase (Li/V 2O 5 system) is presented. Two contributions, i.e. Fermi level shift and formation of surface dipole, are the main factors in the change of battery voltage during the Li intercalation. It was found that the formation of surface dipole plays more important role in the decrease of the battery voltage due to the adsorption of Li on the surface.

  7. Conducting polypyrrole films as a potential tool for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in textile wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Smith, Warren T; Wong, Danny K Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate conducting polypyrrole films as a potential green technology for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in wastewaters using Acid Red 1 as a model analyte. These films were synthesised by anodically polymerising pyrrole in the presence of Acid Red 1 as a supporting electrolyte. In this way, the anionic Acid Red 1 is electrostatically attracted to the cationic polypyrrole backbone formed to maintain electroneutrality, and is thus entrapped in the film. These Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole films were characterised by electrochemical, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Based on a two-level factorial design, the solution pH, Acid Red 1 concentration and polymerisation duration were identified as significant parameters affecting the entrapment efficiency. The entrapment process will potentially aid in decolourising Acid Red 1-containing wastewaters. Similarly, in a cathodic process, electrons are supplied to neutralise the polypyrrole backbone, liberating Acid Red 1 into a solution. In this work, following an entrapment duration of 480 min in 2000 mg L(-1) Acid Red 1, we estimated 21% of the dye was liberated after a reduction period of 240 min. This allows the recovery of Acid Red 1 for recycling purposes. A distinctive advantage of this electrochemical Acid Red 1 treatment, compared to many other techniques, is that no known toxic by-products are generated in the treatment. Therefore, conducting polypyrrole films can potentially be applied as an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents.

  8. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential.

    PubMed

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A; Peterka, Darcy S; Boyden, Edward S; Owen, Jonathan S; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-12

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV(-) state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials. PMID:27035935

  9. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential

    PubMed Central

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Boyden, Edward S.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV− state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials. PMID:27035935

  10. Synchronous plasma membrane electrochemical potential oscillations during yeast colony development and aging.

    PubMed

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuse; Gásková, Dana; Kucerová, Helena

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms that survive in natural environments form organized multicellular communities, biofilms and colonies with specific properties. During stress and nutrient limitation, slow growing and senescent cells in such communities retain vital processes by maintaining plasma membrane integrity and retaining the ability to generate transmembrane electrochemical gradients. We report the use of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonial model to show that population growth in a multicellular community depends on nutrient diffusion and that resting cells start to accumulate from the beginning of the second acidic phase of colony development. Despite differentiation of colony members, synchronous transmembrane potential oscillation was detected in the organized colony. The electrochemical membrane potential periodically oscillated at frequencies between those for circadian to infradian rhythms during colony aging and transiently decreased at time points previously linked with rebuilding of yeast metabolism. Despite extensive decreases in the intracellular ATP concentration and in the amount and activity of the plasma membrane proton pump during nutrient limited growth and colony aging, the transmembrane electrochemical potential appeared to be maintained above a level critical for population survival.

  11. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Boyden, Edward S.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV- state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  12. Integrated hybrid polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane device for monitoring cellular release with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Mehl, Benjamin T.; Martin, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a polystyrene (PS)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid device was developed to enable the integration of cell culture with analysis by microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection. It is shown that this approach combines the fundamental advantages of PDMS devices (the ability to integrate pumps and valves) and PS devices (the ability to permanently embed fluidic tubing and electrodes). The embedded fused-silica capillary enables high temporal resolution measurements from off-chip cell culture dishes and the embedded electrodes provide close to real-time analysis of small molecule neurotransmitters. A novel surface treatment for improved (reversible) adhesion between PS and PDMS is described using a chlorotrimethylsilane stamping method. It is demonstrated that a Pd decoupler is efficient at handling the high current (and cathodic hydrogen production) resulting from use of high ionic strength buffers needed for cellular analysis; thus allowing an electrophoretic separation and in-channel detection. The separation of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in highly conductive biological buffers was optimized using a mixed surfactant system. This PS-PDMS hybrid device integrates multiple processes including continuous sampling from a cell culture dish, on-chip pump and valving technologies, microchip electrophoresis, and electrochemical detection to monitor neurotransmitter release from PC 12 cells. PMID:25663849

  13. In situ monitoring of the Li-O2 electrochemical reaction on nanoporous gold using electrochemical AFM.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2014-03-11

    The lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) electrochemical reaction on nanoporous gold (NPG) is observed using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging coupled with potentiostatic measurement. Dense Li2O2 nanoparticles form a film at 2.5 V, which is decomposed at 3.8-4.0 V in an ether-based electrolyte.

  14. In situ monitoring of the Li-O2 electrochemical reaction on nanoporous gold using electrochemical AFM.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2014-03-11

    The lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) electrochemical reaction on nanoporous gold (NPG) is observed using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging coupled with potentiostatic measurement. Dense Li2O2 nanoparticles form a film at 2.5 V, which is decomposed at 3.8-4.0 V in an ether-based electrolyte. PMID:24469227

  15. Comparison of Electrochemical Methods to Determine Crevice Corrosion Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    K. Evans; A. Yilmaz; S. Day; L. Wong; J. Estill

    2004-08-23

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel-based alloy highly resistant to corrosion. In some aggressive conditions of high chloride concentration, temperature and applied potential, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized corrosion. There are several electrochemical methods that can be used to determine localized corrosion in metallic alloys. One of the most popular for rapid screening is the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP). This work compares the repassivation potentials obtained using CPP to related repassivation potential values obtained using the Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical (THE) method and the potentiostatic (POT) method. Studied variables included temperature and chloride concentration. The temperature was varied from 30 C and 120 C and the chloride concentration was varied between 0.0005 M to 4 M. Results show that similar repassivation potentials were obtained for Alloy 22 using CPP and THE methods. Generally, under more aggressive conditions, the repassivation potentials were more conservative using the CPP method. POT tests confirmed the validity of the repassivation potential as a threshold below which localized corrosion does not nucleate. The mode of attack in the tested specimens varied depending if the test method was CPP or THE; however, the repassivation potential remained the same.

  16. Electrochemical potential releases a membrane-bound secretion intermediate of maltose-binding protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Geller, B L

    1990-01-01

    A secretionary intermediate of the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein accumulated in the inner membrane when the membrane electrochemical potential was reduced and the cytosolic ATP concentration was normal. The intermediate was mature in size, but maintained a conformation similar to the cytosolic precursor form, and not the mature periplasmic protein, as measured by differences in susceptibility to proteinase K in vitro. The intermediate was located on the periplasmic side of the inner membrane. Restoration of the membrane electrochemical potential resulted in the movement of the intermediate from the inner membrane to the periplasm. In other experiments in which the ATP concentration was reduced by 96% and the electrochemical potential remained normal, no intermediate accumulated. Thus, the final step in the export of maltose-binding protein requires the electrochemical potential of the inner membrane and does not require ATP. Images PMID:2203734

  17. Magnetophoretic potential at the movement of cluster products of electrochemical reactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gorobets, O. Yu. Gorobets, Yu. I.; Rospotniuk, V. P.

    2015-08-21

    An electric field arises from the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field on charged colloid particles with magnetic susceptibility different from that of the surrounding liquid. It arises, for example, under the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field in clusters of electrochemical reaction products created during metal etching, deposition, and corrosion processes without an external electric current passing through an electrolyte near a magnetized electrode surface. The corresponding potential consists of a Nernst potential of inhomogeneous distribution of concentration of colloid particles and a magnetophoretic potential (MPP). This potential has been calculated using a thermodynamic approach based on the equations of thermodynamics of nonequilibrium systems and the Onsager relations for a mass flow of correlated magnetic clusters under a gradient magnetic force in the electrolyte. The conditions under which the MPP contribution to the total electric potential may be significant are discussed with a reference to the example of a corroding spherical ferromagnetic steel electrode.

  18. Development of advanced electrochemical emission spectroscopy for monitoring corrosion in simulated DOE liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    'Objective of this project is to develop and use Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy (EES) and other electrochemical techniques as in situ tools for exploring corrosion mechanisms of iron and carbon steel in highly alkaline solutions and for continuously monitoring corrosion on structural materials in DOE liquid waste storage system. In particular, the author will explore the fundamental aspects of the passive behavior of pure iron since breakdown of passivity leads to localized corrosion. This report summarizes work after 1 year of a 3 year project.'

  19. The Electrochemical Reduction of Chromium Sesquioxide in Molten Calcium Chloride under Cathodic Potential Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2007-11-01

    Electrochemical polarization and reduction experiments are reported which were performed with a three-terminal cell and a molten salt electrolyte consisting of calcium chloride with additions of calcium oxide. Employing a metal cathode, a graphite anode and a pseudo-reference electrode also made from graphite, polarization measurements were carried out with the aim to validate the performance of the pseudo-reference electrode and to assess the stability of the electrolyte. Using a chromium sesquioxide cathode in conjunction with a graphite anode and a graphite pseudo-reference electrode, electrochemical reduction experiments were conducted under potentiostatic control. The key results are: a graphite pseudo-reference electrode has been shown to be appropriate in the present type of molten salt electrochemical experiments that take place on a time scale of many hours; the conversion of chromium oxide into chromium metal has been accomplished under cathodic potential control and in the absence of calcium metal deposition; a significant amount of calcium oxide in the calcium chloride has been found necessary to preclude anodic chlorine formation throughout the entire experiment; a considerable overpotential has been identified at the anode.

  20. Real-Time Plasmonic Monitoring of Single Gold Amalgam Nanoalloy Electrochemical Formation and Stripping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Gang; Fossey, John S; Li, Meng; Xie, Tao; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Direct electrodeposition of mercury onto gold nanorods on an ITO substrate, without reducing agents, is reported. The growth of single gold amalgam nanoalloy particles and subsequent stripping was monitored in real-time monitoring by plasmonic effects and single-nanoparticle dark-field spectroelectrochemistry techniques. Time-dependent scattering spectral information conferred insight into the growth and stripping mechanism of a single nanoalloy particle. Four critical stages were observed: First, rapid deposition of Hg atoms onto Au nanorods; second, slow diffusion of Hg atoms into Au nanorods; third, prompt stripping of Hg atoms from Au nanorods; fourth, moderate diffusion from the inner core of Au nanorods. Under high Hg(2+) concentrations, homogeneous spherical gold amalgam nanoalloys were obtained. These results demonstrate that the morphology and composition of individual gold amalgam nanoalloys can be precisely regulated electrochemically. Moreover, gold amalgam nanoalloys with intriguing optical properties, such as modulated plasmonic lifetimes and quality factor Q, could be obtained. This may offer opportunities to extend applications in photovoltaic energy conversion and chemical sensing. PMID:26942394

  1. Interpretation of Self-Potential Anomalies Using Constitutive Relationships for Electrochemical and Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R. B.; Kasameyer, P. W.

    1988-01-01

    Constitutive relationships for electrochemical and thermoelectric cross-coupling coefficients are derived using ionic mobilities, applying a general derivative of chemical potential and employing the zero net current condition. The general derivative of chemical potential permits thermal variations which give rise to the thermoelectric effect. It also accounts for nonideal solution behavior. An equation describing electric field strength is similarly derived with the additional assumption of electrical neutrality in the fluid Planck approximation. The Planck approximation implies that self-potential (SP) is caused only by local sources and also that the electric field strength has only first order spatial variations. The derived relationships are applied to the NaCl-KCl concentration cell with predicted and measured voltages agreeing within 0.4 mV. The relationships are also applied to the Long Valley and Yellowstone geothermal systems. There is a high degree of correlation between predicted and measured SP response for both systems, giving supporting evidence for the validity of the approach. Predicted SP amplitude exceeds measured in both cases; this is a possible consequence of the Planck approximation. Electrochemical sources account for more than 90% of the predicted response in both cases while thermoelectric mechanisms account for the remaining 10%; electrokinetic effects are not considered. Predicted electrochemical and thermoelectric voltage coupling coefficients are comparable to values measured in the laboratory. The derived relationships are also applied to arbitrary distributions of temperature and fluid composition to investigate the geometric diversity of observed SP anomalies. Amplitudes predicted for hypothetical saline spring and hot spring environments are less than 40 mV. In contrast, hypothetical near surface steam zones generate very large amplitudes, over 2 V in one case. These results should be viewed with some caution due to the uncertain

  2. PULSED ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AT INTERFACES. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The mechanism of pulsed potential waveform for monitoring antibody¯antigen interactions at immunosensor interfaces is discussed. Some examples of antibody¯antigen interactions at quartz crystal microbalance and polymer-modified ...

  3. A generalized spin diffusion equation with four electrochemical potentials for channels with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Shehrin; Hong, Seokmin; Datta, Supriyo

    We will present a general semiclassical theory for an arbitrary channel with spin-orbit coupling (SOC), that uses four electrochemical potential (U + , D + , U - , and D -) depending on the sign of z-component of the spin (up (U) , down (D)) and the sign of the x-component of the group velocity (+ , -) . This can be considered as an extension of the standard spin diffusion equation that uses two electrochemical potentials for up and down spin states, allowing us to take into account the unique coupling between charge and spin degrees of freedom in channels with SOC. We will describe applications of this model to answer a number of interesting questions in this field such as: (1) whether topological insulators can switch magnets, (2) how the charge to spin conversion is influenced by the channel resistivity, and (3) how device structures can be designed to enhance spin injection. This work was supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  4. Electrochemical Potential Stabilization of Reconstructed Au(111) Structure by Monolayer Coverage with Graphene.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Kumagai, Ryota; Nakashima, Koji; Murakoshi, Kei

    2015-09-01

    The electrochemical properties of a monolayer graphene grown on a Au(111) electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). CV and EC-STM measurements in 0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous solution revealed that graphene grown on the reconstructed (22 × √3) Au(111) structure effectively inhibited potential-induced structural transitions between reconstructed (22 × √3) and unreconstructed (1 × 1), and the adsorption/desorption of SO4(2-) ions, which are intrinsic behavior of the bare Au(111) surface. The underlying reconstructed structure was significantly stabilized by covering with monolayer graphene over a wide potential range between -0.2 V and +1.35 V vs Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl), which is much wider than that for bare Au(111) (-0.2 to + 0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl)). Such high stability has not been reported to date; therefore, these results are considered to be important for understanding the fundamentals of surface reconstruction and also serve to open a new branch of electrochemistry related to graphene/metal-electrolyte interfaces. PMID:26279244

  5. Monitoring the Electrochemical Processes in the Lithium–Air Battery by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A multi-nuclear solid-state NMR approach is employed to investigate the lithium–air battery, to monitor the evolution of the electrochemical products formed during cycling, and to gain insight into processes affecting capacity fading. While lithium peroxide is identified by 17O solid state NMR (ssNMR) as the predominant product in the first discharge in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) based electrolytes, it reacts with the carbon cathode surface to form carbonate during the charging process. 13C ssNMR provides evidence for carbonate formation on the surface of the carbon cathode, the carbonate being removed at high charging voltages in the first cycle, but accumulating in later cycles. Small amounts of lithium hydroxide and formate are also detected in discharged cathodes and while the hydroxide formation is reversible, the formate persists and accumulates in the cathode upon further cycling. The results indicate that the rechargeability of the battery is limited by both the electrolyte and the carbon cathode stability. The utility of ssNMR spectroscopy in directly detecting product formation and decomposition within the battery is demonstrated, a necessary step in the assessment of new electrolytes, catalysts, and cathode materials for the development of a viable lithium–oxygen battery. PMID:24489976

  6. Thermoelectric and electrochemical self-potential anomalies induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulamali, Murtaza; Leinov, Eli; Jackson, Matthew; Pain, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Downhole measurements of electrokinetic (EK) streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, has been shown to be useful for informing production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric (TE) and/or electrochemical (EC) effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a study of the contribution of these effects based on numerical models of subsurface potentials during production. We find that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both TE and EC potential signals in an oil reservoir, which may be measured at the production well along with EK potential signals. In particular, there is a peak in the TE potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The EC potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the TE and EC coupling coefficient. When we use the maximum theoretical magnitude for the TE and EC coupling coefficients, in the case of a perfect membrane, the lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible TE potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the EC potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front approximately coincide. The dependence of the TE and EC coupling coefficients upon temperature, salinity and/or partial water

  7. Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Belaid, Chokri; Khadraoui, Moncef; Mseddii, Salma; Kallel, Monem; Elleuch, Boubaker; Fauvarque, Jean Frangois

    2013-01-01

    Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts: (1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes. This investigation deals with these two aspects, an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under platinized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination. The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution. Indeed, 87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation. Moreover, 55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced. On the other hand, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW. It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Grignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW. Among the monitoring analytical tools applied, cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR a re among th e techniques that are introduced for thefirst time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance.

  8. Theoretical models for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and local ζ-potential of unfolded proteins in nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Vitarelli, Michael J.; Talaga, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Single solid-state nanopores find increasing use for electrical detection and/or manipulation of macromolecules. These applications exploit the changes in signals due to the geometry and electrical properties of the molecular species found within the nanopore. The sensitivity and resolution of such measurements are also influenced by the geometric and electrical properties of the nanopore. This paper continues the development of an analytical theory to predict the electrochemical impedance spectra of nanopores by including the influence of the presence of an unfolded protein using the variable topology finite Warburg impedance model previously published by the authors. The local excluded volume of, and charges present on, the segment of protein sampled by the nanopore are shown to influence the shape and peak frequency of the electrochemical impedance spectrum. An analytical theory is used to relate the capacitive response of the electrical double layer at the surface of the protein to both the charge density at the protein surface and the more commonly measured zeta potential. Illustrative examples show how the theory predicts that the varying sequential regions of surface charge density and excluded volume dictated by the protein primary structure may allow for an impedance-based approach to identifying unfolded proteins. PMID:24050368

  9. Integrated microdevice for long-term automated perfusion culture without shear stress and real-time electrochemical monitoring of cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Chen, Shi-Jing; Guo, Shi-Shang; Français, Olivier; Cheng, Jie-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2011-12-15

    Electrochemical techniques based on ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) play a significant role in real-time monitoring of chemical messengers' release from single cells. Conversely, precise monitoring of cells in vitro strongly depends on the adequate construction of cellular physiological microenvironment. In this paper, we developed a multilayer microdevice which integrated high aspect ratio poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device for long-term automated perfusion culture of cells without shear stress and an independently addressable microelectrodes array (IAMEA) for electrochemical monitoring of the cultured cells in real time. Novel design using high aspect ratio between circular "moat" and ring-shaped micropillar array surrounding cell culture chamber combined with automated "circular-centre" and "bottom-up" perfusion model successfully provided continuous fresh medium and a stable and uniform microenvironment for cells. Two weeks automated culture of human umbilical endothelial cell line (ECV304) and neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have been realized using this device. Furthermore, the quantal release of dopamine from individual PC12 cells during their culture or propagation process was amperometrically monitored in real time. The multifunctional microdevice developed in this paper integrated cellular microenvironment construction and real-time monitoring of cells during their physiological process, and would possibly provide a versatile platform for cell-based biomedical analysis.

  10. Au nanostructured surfaces for electrochemical and localized surface plasmon resonance-based monitoring of α-synuclein-small molecule interactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin R; Wallace, Gregory Q; Lagugné-Labarthet, François; Kerman, Kagan

    2015-02-25

    In this proof-of-concept study, the fabrication of novel Au nanostructured indium tin oxide (Au-ITO) surfaces is described for the development of a dual-detection platform with electrochemical and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based biosensing capabilities. Nanosphere lithography (NSL) was applied to fabricate Au-ITO surfaces. Oligomers of α-synuclein (αS) were covalently immobilized to determine the electrochemical and LSPR characteristics of the protein. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were performed using the redox probe [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) to detect the binding of Cu(II) ions and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to αS on the Au-ITO surface. Electrochemical and LSPR data were complemented by Thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. EGCG was shown to induce the formation of amorphous aggregates that decreased the electrochemical signals. However, the binding of EGCG with αS increased the LSPR absorption band with a bathochromic shift of 10-15 nm. The binding of Cu(II) to αS enhanced the DPV peak current intensity. NSL fabricated Au-ITO surfaces provide a promising dual-detection platform to monitor the interaction of small molecules with proteins using electrochemistry and LSPR.

  11. Electrochemical Potential Gradient as a Quantitative in Vitro Test Platform for Cellular Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Carson; Atha, Donald; Reipa, Vytas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in a biological system is often defined as a redox imbalance within cells or groups of cells within an organism. Reductive-oxidative (redox) imbalances in cellular systems have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. To better understand the redox environment within cellular systems, it is important to be able to characterize the relationship between the intensity of the oxidative environment, characterized by redox potential, and the biomolecular consequences of oxidative damage. In this study, we show that an in situ electrochemical potential gradient can serve as a tool to simulate exogenous oxidative stress in surface-attached mammalian cells. A culture plate design, which permits direct imaging and analysis of the cell viability, following exposure to a range of solution redox potentials, was developed. The in vitro oxidative stress test vessel consists of a cell growth flask fitted with two platinum electrodes that support a direct current along the flask bottom. The applied potential span and gradient slope can be controlled by adjusting the constant current magnitude across the vessel with spatially localized media potentials measured with a sliding reference electrode. For example, the viability of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells under a gradient of redox potentials indicated that cell death was initiated at approximately 0.4 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) media potential and this potential could be modified with antioxidants. This experimental platform may facilitate studies of oxidative stress characteristics on different types of cells by enabling imaging live cell cultures that have been exposed to a gradient of exogenous redox potentials. PMID:27409641

  12. Electrochemical Potential Gradient as a Quantitative in Vitro Test Platform for Cellular Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carson; Atha, Donald; Reipa, Vytas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in a biological system is often defined as a redox imbalance within cells or groups of cells within an organism. Reductive-oxidative (redox) imbalances in cellular systems have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. To better understand the redox environment within cellular systems, it is important to be able to characterize the relationship between the intensity of the oxidative environment, characterized by redox potential, and the biomolecular consequences of oxidative damage. In this study, we show that an in situ electrochemical potential gradient can serve as a tool to simulate exogenous oxidative stress in surface-attached mammalian cells. A culture plate design, which permits direct imaging and analysis of the cell viability, following exposure to a range of solution redox potentials, was developed. The in vitro oxidative stress test vessel consists of a cell growth flask fitted with two platinum electrodes that support a direct current along the flask bottom. The applied potential span and gradient slope can be controlled by adjusting the constant current magnitude across the vessel with spatially localized media potentials measured with a sliding reference electrode. For example, the viability of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells under a gradient of redox potentials indicated that cell death was initiated at approximately 0.4 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) media potential and this potential could be modified with antioxidants. This experimental platform may facilitate studies of oxidative stress characteristics on different types of cells by enabling imaging live cell cultures that have been exposed to a gradient of exogenous redox potentials. PMID:27409641

  13. Electrochemical Potential Gradient as a Quantitative in Vitro Test Platform for Cellular Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carson; Atha, Donald; Reipa, Vytas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in a biological system is often defined as a redox imbalance within cells or groups of cells within an organism. Reductive-oxidative (redox) imbalances in cellular systems have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. To better understand the redox environment within cellular systems, it is important to be able to characterize the relationship between the intensity of the oxidative environment, characterized by redox potential, and the biomolecular consequences of oxidative damage. In this study, we show that an in situ electrochemical potential gradient can serve as a tool to simulate exogenous oxidative stress in surface-attached mammalian cells. A culture plate design, which permits direct imaging and analysis of the cell viability, following exposure to a range of solution redox potentials, was developed. The in vitro oxidative stress test vessel consists of a cell growth flask fitted with two platinum electrodes that support a direct current along the flask bottom. The applied potential span and gradient slope can be controlled by adjusting the constant current magnitude across the vessel with spatially localized media potentials measured with a sliding reference electrode. For example, the viability of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells under a gradient of redox potentials indicated that cell death was initiated at approximately 0.4 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) media potential and this potential could be modified with antioxidants. This experimental platform may facilitate studies of oxidative stress characteristics on different types of cells by enabling imaging live cell cultures that have been exposed to a gradient of exogenous redox potentials.

  14. Reactor Materials Program electrochemical potential measurements by ORNL with unirradiated and irradiated stainless steel specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    Effect of irradiation of stainless steel on electrochemical potential (ECP) was investigated by measurements in dilute HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions, conditions simulating reactor moderator. The electrodes were made from unirradiated/irradiated, unsensitized/sensitized specimens from R-reactor piping. Results were inconclusive because of budgetary restrictions. The dose rate may have been too small to produce a significant radiolytic effect. Neither the earlier CERT corrosion susceptibility tests nor the present ECP measurements showed a pronounced effect of irradiation on susceptibility of the stainless steel to IGSCC; this is confirmed by the absence in the stainless steel of the SRS reactor tanks (except for the C Reactor tank knuckle area).

  15. Electrochemical monitoring of piroxicam in different pharmaceutical forms with multi-walled carbon nanotubes paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Mirzajani, Roya

    2007-05-01

    The electrochemical behavior of piroxicam on a multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrode for the first time was investigated. A highly sensitive and fast responding sensor for determination of piroxicam was simply and conveniently fabricated. The constructed electrode exhibits efficiently catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of piroxicam at a reduced over potential with high sensitivity, stability, and long lifetime in the wide concentration rang of piroxicam. The oxidation process was found to be dependent on the pH of the supporting electrolyte. The behavior is further exploited as a sensitive detection method for piroxicam determination by differential pulse voltammetry. Under the optimized conditions the calibration plots are linear in the concentration range of 0.15-5 microg ml(-1). Application of the method for the determination of the drug in the dosage form (Feledene capsules and tablets and also piroxicam gel), without any interference, from the excipients, resulted in acceptable deviation from the stated concentrations. Recoveries were obtained in the range 96.35-104.16%. The detection limit of 0.1 microg ml(-1) was obtained for piroxicam determination.

  16. A limited anodic and cathodic potential window of MoS2: limitations in electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad Zafir Mohamad; Sofer, Zdenek; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Molybdenum disulphide has been touted as a good material with diverse possible applications such as an energy storage and sensing platform. However, we demonstrate here the limitation of MoS2 as an analytical sensing platform due to the limited potential window in both the anodic and cathodic regions attributed to the inherent electrochemistry (oxidation of Mo4+ to Mo6+) and the catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction due to H3O+ reduction on the MoS2 surface, respectively. The electrochemical window of MoS2 lies in the region of ~-0.6 V to +0.7 V (vs. AgCl). We show that such a limited working potential window characteristic of MoS2 precludes the detection of important analytes such as nitroaromatic explosives, pesticides and mycotoxins which are instead detectable on carbon surfaces. The limited potential window of MoS2 has to be taken into consideration in the construction of electroanalytical devices based on MoS2.Molybdenum disulphide has been touted as a good material with diverse possible applications such as an energy storage and sensing platform. However, we demonstrate here the limitation of MoS2 as an analytical sensing platform due to the limited potential window in both the anodic and cathodic regions attributed to the inherent electrochemistry (oxidation of Mo4+ to Mo6+) and the catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction due to H3O+ reduction on the MoS2 surface, respectively. The electrochemical window of MoS2 lies in the region of ~-0.6 V to +0.7 V (vs. AgCl). We show that such a limited working potential window characteristic of MoS2 precludes the detection of important analytes such as nitroaromatic explosives, pesticides and mycotoxins which are instead detectable on carbon surfaces. The limited potential window of MoS2 has to be taken into consideration in the construction of electroanalytical devices based on MoS2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06899h

  17. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  18. Periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic potentials generated by electrochemical concentration cells: Local and global dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyer, K.-P.; Münster, A. F.; Hauser, M. J. B.; Schneider, F. W.

    1994-09-01

    We extend previous work describing the passive electrical coupling of two periodic chemical states to include quasiperiodic and chaotic states. Our setup resembles an electrochemical concentration cell (a battery) whose half cells [continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs)] each contain the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. For a closed electrical circuit the two half cells are weakly coupled by an external variable resistance and by a constant low mass flow. This battery may produce either periodic, quasiperiodic, or chaotic alternating current depending on the dynamic BZ states chosen in the half cells. A lower fractal dimensionality is calculated from the electrical potential of a single chaotic CSTR than from the difference potential (relative potential) of the two chaotic half cell potentials. A similar situation is observed in model calculations of a chaotic spatiotemporal system (the driven Brusselator in one space dimension) where the dimensionality derived from a local time series is lower than the dimensionality of the global trajectory calculated from the Karhunen-Loeve coefficients.

  19. Integrated Microfluidics/Electrochemical Sensor System for Field-Monitoring of Toxic Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Thrall, K D.; Timchalk, Chuck; W. Ehrfeld

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a miniaturized analytical system based on a microfluidics/electrochemical detection scheme. Individual modules, such as microfabricated piezoelectrically actuated pumps, a micro-membrane separator and a microelectrochemical cell will be integrated onto a portable platform.

  20. The Performance of Dammar-based Paint System Evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Potential Time Measurement (PTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, N. M.; Ahmad, A. Hanom

    2009-06-01

    The coating resistance of the Dammar-based paint system was determined by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), whereas, the corrosion potential analysis was determined by using potential time measurement (PTM) method. Carotenoid pigment obtained from Capsicum Annum (dried chili pepper) was added into the mixture of dammar and acrylic polyol resin and the paint systems were proofed on Aluminium steel Q-panels as a substrate. Result shows that the paint system with a composition of 35% dammar (CD35%) possessed the higher corrosion resistance after 30 days of exposure in 3% NaCl solution for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and also can withstand the longest time for delimitation protection in PTM analysis. The results prove that the developed organic paint system can improve the electrochemical and corrosion protection properties of a paint system.

  1. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. PMID:27619088

  2. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays.

  3. Contribution of thermoelectric and electrochemical effects to spontaneous potential signals induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulamali, M. Y.; Saunders, J. H.; Jackson, M.; Pain, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that downhole measurements of streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, may be used to inform production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric and/or electrochemical effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a workflow to numerically model spontaneous potentials in the subsurface and ascertain their magnitude in oil reservoirs during production. Our results suggest that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both thermoelectric and electrochemical potential signals which may be measured at the production well. We observe a peak in the thermoelectric potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The electrochemical potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the thermoelectric or electrochemical coupling coefficient. The lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible thermoelectric potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the electrochemical potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front coincide. However, the dependency of the thermoelectric and electrochemical coupling coefficients upon temperature and/or salinity is still uncertain, especially at partial water saturation. We

  4. In situ monitoring of discharge/charge processes in Li-O2 batteries by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Pinedo, Ricardo; Ignacio Ruiz de Larramendi, José; Rojo, Teófilo

    2014-03-01

    Gaining insight into the reaction mechanisms underway during charge and discharge in Li-air batteries is essential to allow the target development of improved power and performance devices. This work reports the in situ monitoring of Li-air cells by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and, for the first time, the development of an electrochemical model allowing the identification and attribution of the processes involved. The voltage at which each reaction product forms has been identified, including Li2O2 or Li2CO3 during discharge, together with the delithiation of the outer part of Li2O2 and oxidation reactions and electrolyte decomposition. The developed model can be used as a valuable tool for the optimisation of composition and structure of the air electrode through the investigation of the resistance associated with each process.

  5. Intraoperative Monitoring: Recent Advances in Motor Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Koht, Antoun; Sloan, Tod B

    2016-09-01

    Advances in electrophysiological monitoring have improved the ability of surgeons to make decisions and minimize the risks of complications during surgery and interventional procedures when the central nervous system (CNS) is at risk. Individual techniques have become important for identifying or mapping the location and pathway of critical neural structures. These techniques are also used to monitor the progress of procedures to augment surgical and physiologic management so as to reduce the risk of CNS injury. Advances in motor evoked potentials have facilitated mapping and monitoring of the motor tracts in newer, more complex procedures.

  6. Intraoperative Monitoring: Recent Advances in Motor Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Koht, Antoun; Sloan, Tod B

    2016-09-01

    Advances in electrophysiological monitoring have improved the ability of surgeons to make decisions and minimize the risks of complications during surgery and interventional procedures when the central nervous system (CNS) is at risk. Individual techniques have become important for identifying or mapping the location and pathway of critical neural structures. These techniques are also used to monitor the progress of procedures to augment surgical and physiologic management so as to reduce the risk of CNS injury. Advances in motor evoked potentials have facilitated mapping and monitoring of the motor tracts in newer, more complex procedures. PMID:27521196

  7. Investigation of the potential for using electrochemical technology to reduce drill bit wear

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Glowka, D.A.

    1982-02-01

    Recent work has shown that an important drill bit wear mechanism in aqueous environments is electrochemical in nature. The synergistic effects of corrosion and abrasion are responsible for a large percentage of bit wear in laboratory studies. It has been shown that measured wear rates can be reduced by factors of two to five with the application of a voltage potential which opposes and exceeds the galvanic potential generated by the corrosion cells existing downhole. The present study investigates the potential for applying this technique in the downhole environment. The results demonstrate that a downhole generator sub powered by drilling fluid is a possible electrical power source. Graphite is chosen as the optimal nonsacrificial anode material for this application. Steel is also shown to be a possible anode material, but the anode would be sacrificial in this case, requiring periodic replacement. The electrical power required to achieve the desired effect for 4-1/2 inch drill bit is determined to be on the order of one milliwatt. Additionally, up to 250 feet of 4 inch drill pipe could be protected from corrosion with power levels on the order of 150 milliwatts. These relatively low power levels suggest that dry cell batteries could alternatively be employed as the power source; however, the temperature limitations of commercially available batteries would have to be overcome for geothermal applications.

  8. Biophysical significance of the inner mitochondrial membrane structure on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong Hoon; Park, Jonghyun; Maurer, Laura L.; Lu, Wei; Philbert, Martin A.; Sastry, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    The available literature supports the hypothesis that the morphology of the inner mitochondrial membrane is regulated by different energy states, that the three-dimensional morphology of cristae is dynamic and that both are related to biochemical function. Examination of the correlation between the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) structure and mitochondrial energetic function is critical to an understanding of the links between meso-scale morphology and function in progressive mitochondrial dysfunction such as aging, neurodegeneration, and disease. To investigate this relationship, we develop a model to examine the effects of three-dimensional IMM morphology on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria. The 2D axisymmetric finite element method is used to simulate mitochondrial electric potential and proton concentration distribution. This simulation model demonstrates that the proton motive force (PMF) produced on the membranes of cristae can be higher than that on the inner boundary membrane. The model also shows that high proton concentration in cristae can be induced by the morphology-dependent electric potential gradient along the outer side of the IMM. Furthermore, simulation results show that a high PMF is induced by the large surface-to-volume ratio of an individual crista, whereas a high capacity for ATP synthesis can primarily be achieved by increasing the surface area of an individual crista. The mathematical model presented here provides compelling support for the idea that morphology at the meso-scale is a significant driver of mitochondrial function. PMID:24483502

  9. Biophysical significance of the inner mitochondrial membrane structure on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong Hoon; Park, Jonghyun; Maurer, Laura L.; Lu, Wei; Philbert, Martin A.; Sastry, Ann Marie

    2013-12-01

    The available literature supports the hypothesis that the morphology of the inner mitochondrial membrane is regulated by different energy states, that the three-dimensional morphology of cristae is dynamic, and that both are related to biochemical function. Examination of the correlation between the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) structure and mitochondrial energetic function is critical to an understanding of the links between mesoscale morphology and function in progressive mitochondrial dysfunction such as aging, neurodegeneration, and disease. To investigate this relationship, we develop a model to examine the effects of three-dimensional IMM morphology on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria. The two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method is used to simulate mitochondrial electric potential and proton concentration distribution. This simulation model demonstrates that the proton motive force (Δp) produced on the membranes of cristae can be higher than that on the inner boundary membrane. The model also shows that high proton concentration in cristae can be induced by the morphology-dependent electric potential gradient along the outer side of the IMM. Furthermore, simulation results show that a high Δp is induced by the large surface-to-volume ratio of an individual crista, whereas a high capacity for ATP synthesis can primarily be achieved by increasing the surface area of an individual crista. The mathematical model presented here provides compelling support for the idea that morphology at the mesoscale is a significant driver of mitochondrial function.

  10. Surface modification of β-Type titanium alloy by electrochemical potential pulse polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Raman, Vedarajan; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, we report the formation of a porous oxide/hydroxide surface layer on the Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ) alloy achieved by the combination of an alkali immersion and a potential pulse polarisation process. The alkali treatment has been employed for pure titanium to produce amorphous and porous layer prior to hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth. But, in the case of TNTZ, immersion in 5M NaOH at the open circuit potential (OCP) at 60°C for 24 hours, did not yield any uniform layer, instead a thick deposited layer with highly cracked one. The cracks were attributed to the growth of a tantalum enriched particulate. In order to avoid the crack formation, the electrochemical behaviour of the alloy and the pure alloying elements (Ti, Nb, Ta and Zr) was investigated to produce a uniform surface with the application of a square wave modulated potential pulse polarization, leading to the formation of a relatively uniform porous layer on the alloy.

  11. Stability enhancement of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical potential window

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, HongShik; Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Gyu Han, Moon E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr

    2014-02-03

    The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external electric field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during electrical switching. By introducing larger electrochemical potential window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.

  12. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  13. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips. PMID:27098564

  14. Potential drop monitoring of creep damage at a weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Joseph; Nagy, Peter B.; Cawley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Creep failure at welds will often be the life limiting factor for pressurised power station components, offering a site for local damage accumulation. Monitoring the creep state of welds will be of great value to power station management and potential drop monitoring may provide a useful tool. This paper provides a preliminary study of potential drop monitoring of creep damage at a weldment, suggesting a measurement arrangement for a previously documented quasi-DC technique that is well suited to the application. The industrial context of the problem of creep damage at a weldment is explored, together with a numerical simulation of the effect of cracking, finally, a cross-weld accelerated creep test demonstrating the promise of the technique is presented.

  15. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples. PMID:23270758

  16. Monitoring underground migration of sequestered CO2 using self-potential methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishido, T.; Pritchett, J.; Tosha, T.; Nishi, Y.; Nakanishi, S.

    2013-12-01

    An appropriate monitoring program is indispensable for an individual geologic storage project to aid in answering various operational questions by detecting changes within the reservoir and to provide early warning of potential CO2 leakage through the caprock. Such a program is also essential to reduce uncertainties associated with reservoir parameters and to improve the predictive capability of reservoir models. Repeat geophysical measurements performed at the earth surface show particular promise for monitoring large subsurface volumes. To appraise the utility of geophysical techniques, Ishido et al. carried out numerical simulations of an aquifer system underlying a portion of Tokyo Bay and calculated the temporal changes in geophysical observables caused by changing underground conditions as computed by reservoir simulation (Energy Procedia, 2011). They used 'geophysical postprocessors' to calculate the resulting temporal changes in the earth-surface distributions of microgravity, self-potential (SP), apparent resistivity (from MT surveys) and seismic observables. The applicability of any particular method is likely to be highly site-specific, but these calculations indicate that none of these techniques should be ruled out altogether. Some survey techniques (gravity, MT resistivity) appear to be suitable for characterizing long-term changes, whereas others (seismic reflection, SP) are quite responsive to short term disturbances. The self-potential postprocessor calculates changes in subsurface electrical potential induced by pressure disturbances through electrokinetic coupling (Ishido & Pritchett, JGR 1999). In addition to electrokinetic coupling, SP anomalies may be generated by various other mechanisms such as thermoelectric coupling, electrochemical diffusion potential, etc. In particular, SP anomalies of negative polarity, which are frequently observed near wells, appear to be caused by an underground electrochemical mechanism similar to a galvanic cell

  17. Electrochemical attosyringe

    PubMed Central

    Laforge, François O.; Carpino, James; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Mirkin, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to manipulate ultrasmall volumes of liquids is essential in such diverse fields as cell biology, microfluidics, capillary chromatography, and nanolithography. In cell biology, it is often necessary to inject material of high molecular weight (e.g., DNA, proteins) into living cells because their membranes are impermeable to such molecules. All techniques currently used for microinjection are plagued by two common problems: the relatively large injector size and volume of injected fluid, and poor control of the amount of injected material. Here we demonstrate the possibility of electrochemical control of the fluid motion that allows one to sample and dispense attoliter-to-picoliter (10−18 to 10−12 liter) volumes of either aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. By changing the voltage applied across the liquid/liquid interface, one can produce a sufficient force to draw solution inside a nanopipette and then inject it into an immobilized biological cell. A high success rate was achieved in injections of fluorescent dyes into cultured human breast cells. The injection of femtoliter-range volumes can be monitored by video microscopy, and current/resistance-based approaches can be used to control injections from very small pipettes. Other potential applications of the electrochemical syringe include fluid dispensing in nanolithography and pumping in microfluidic systems. PMID:17620612

  18. Potential of plant genetic systems for monitoring and screening mutagens.

    PubMed

    Nilan, R A

    1978-12-01

    Plants have too long been ignored as useful screening and monitoring systems of environmental mutagens. However, there are about a dozen reliable, some even unique, plant genetic systems that can increase the scope and effectiveness of chemical and physical mutagen screening and monitoring procedures. Some of these should be included in the Tier II tests. Moreover, plants are the only systems now in use as monitors of genetic effects caused by polluted atmosphere and water and by pesticides. There are several major advantages of the plant test systems which relate to their reproductive nature, easy culture and growth habits that should be considered in mutagen screening and monitoring. In addition to these advantages, the major plant test systems exhibit numerous genetic and chromosome changes for determining the effects of mutagens. Some of these have not yet been detected in other nonmammalian and mammalian test systems, but probably occur in the human organism. Plants have played major roles in various aspects of mutagenesis research, primarily in mutagen screening (detection and verification of mutagenic activity), mutagen monitoring, and determining mutagen effects and mechanisms of mutagen action. They have played lesser roles in quantification of mutagenic activity and understanding the nature of induced mutations.Mutagen monitoring with plants, especially in situ on land or in water, will help determine potential genetic hazards of air and water pollutants and protect the genetic purity of crop plants and the purity of the food supply. The Tradescantia stamen-hair system is used in a mobile laboratory for determining the genetic effects of industrial and automobile pollution in a number of sites in the U.S.A. The fern is employed for monitoring genetic effects of water pollution in the Eastern states. The maize pollen system and certain weeds have monitored genetic effects of pesticides. Several other systems that have considerable value and should be

  19. Potential of plant genetic systems for monitoring and screening mutagens

    PubMed Central

    Nilan, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Plants have too long been ignored as useful screening and monitoring systems of environmental mutagens. However, there are about a dozen reliable, some even unique, plant genetic systems that can increase the scope and effectiveness of chemical and physical mutagen screening and monitoring procedures. Some of these should be included in the Tier II tests. Moreover, plants are the only systems now in use as monitors of genetic effects caused by polluted atmosphere and water and by pesticides. There are several major advantages of the plant test systems which relate to their reproductive nature, easy culture and growth habits that should be considered in mutagen screening and monitoring. In addition to these advantages, the major plant test systems exhibit numerous genetic and chromosome changes for determining the effects of mutagens. Some of these have not yet been detected in other nonmammalian and mammalian test systems, but probably occur in the human organism. Plants have played major roles in various aspects of mutagenesis research, primarily in mutagen screening (detection and verification of mutagenic activity), mutagen monitoring, and determining mutagen effects and mechanisms of mutagen action. They have played lesser roles in quantification of mutagenic activity and understanding the nature of induced mutations. Mutagen monitoring with plants, especially in situ on land or in water, will help determine potential genetic hazards of air and water pollutants and protect the genetic purity of crop plants and the purity of the food supply. The Tradescantia stamen-hair system is used in a mobile laboratory for determining the genetic effects of industrial and automobile pollution in a number of sites in the U.S.A. The fern is employed for monitoring genetic effects of water pollution in the Eastern states. The maize pollen system and certain weeds have monitored genetic effects of pesticides. Several other systems that have considerable value and should be

  20. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  1. Electrochemical Removal of Metal Cations from Wastewater Monitored by Differential Pulse Polarography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Delphine; Kuhn, Alexander; Sojic, Neso

    2004-01-01

    Electrodeposition eliminates wastewater pollutants such as electrochemically active metal cations, with different pulse polarography (DPP) scrutinizing the kinetics of the treatment process. These mechanisms produce qualitative and quantitative data about the removal process, while students appreciate the use of electrochemistry in resolving…

  2. Lipoxygenase-modified Ru-bpy/graphene oxide: Electrochemical biosensor for on-farm monitoring of non-esterified fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Hunter, Robert; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2016-04-15

    Elevated concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in biological fluids are recognized as critical biomarkers for early diagnosis of dairy cow metabolic diseases. Herein, a cost-effective, electrochemically active, and bio-friendly sensor element based on ruthenium bipyridyl complex-modified graphene oxide nanosheets ([Ru(bpy)3](2+)-GO) is proposed as a biosensor platform for NEFA detection. Electrochemical analysis demonstrates that the [Ru(bpy)3](2+)-GO electrodes exhibit superior and durable redox properties compared to the pristine carbon and GO electrodes. Target specificity is accomplished through immobilization of the enzyme, lipoxygenase, which catalyzes the production of redox active species from NEFA. Lipoxygenases retain their catalytic ability upon immobilization and exhibit changes to amperometric signals upon interaction with various concentrations of standard NEFA and serum samples. Our study demonstrates that the [Ru(bpy)3](2+)-GO electrode has the potential to serve as a biosensor platform for developing a field deployable, rapid, and user-friendly detection tool for on-farm monitoring of dairy cow metabolic diseases.

  3. A multimodal optical and electrochemical device for monitoring surface reactions: redox active surfaces in porous silicon Rugate filters.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Simone; Guan, Bin; Darwish, Nadim A; Zhu, Ying; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2012-12-21

    Herein, mesoporous silicon (PSi) is configured as a single sensing device that has dual readouts; as a photonic crystal sensor in a Rugate filter configuration, and as a high surface area porous electrode. The as-prepared PSi is chemically modified to provide it with stability in aqueous media and to allow for the subsequent coupling of chemical species, such as via Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions between 1-alkynes and azides ("click" reactions). The utility of the bimodal capabilities of the PSi sensor for monitoring surface coupling procedures is demonstrated by the covalent coupling of a ferrocene derivative, as well as by demonstrating ligand-exchange reactions (LER) at the PSi surface. Both types of reactions were monitored through optical reflectivity measurements, as well as electrochemically via the oxidation/reduction of the surface tethered redox species.

  4. Synthesis, biological and electrochemical evaluation of novel nitroaromatics as potential anticancerous drugs.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; Mckee, Vickie; Bolte, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nitroaromatics i.e. 1-nitro-4-phenoxybenzene (1), 4-(4-nitrophenyloxy) biphenyl (2), 1-(4-nitrophenoxy) naphthalene (3) and 2-(4-nitrophenoxy) naphthalene (4) were synthesized by Williamson etherification and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C), UV-visible spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their brine shrimp cytotoxicity resulted in LD50 values <1 μg/mL indicating significant antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 29.0 to 8.4 μg/mL. They are highly active in protecting DNA against hydroxyl free radicals in a concentration dependent manner. Voltammetric studies showed one electron reversible reduction at a platinum electrode with diffusion coefficient (Do) values of the order ~10(-6)-10(-7) cm(2)s(-1). Strong interaction with the human blood DNA through intercalative mode was contemplated through electrochemical and UV-visible spectroscopic studies which are in agreement with the conclusions drawn from biological analysis, unravelling the potential anticancerous nature of the synthesized compounds. PMID:25911402

  5. Theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems: Application to electrode potential dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Kenji; Noda, Masashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2014-09-28

    We propose a theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems. The fundamental equation to be solved is based on a time-dependent density functional theory in real-time and real-space in combination with its finite temperature formula treating an electrode potential. Solvation effects are evaluated by a dielectric continuum theory. The approach allows us to treat optical response in electrochemical systems at the atomistic level of theory. We have applied the method to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4-mercaptopyridine on an Ag electrode surface. It is shown that the SERS intensity has a peak as a function of the electrode potential. Furthermore, the real-space computational approach facilitates visualization of variation of the SERS intensity depending on an electrode potential.

  6. Electrochemical study of quinone redox cycling: A novel application of DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Jamei, Hamid Reza; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of voltammetric and impedimetric DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biological and chemical redox cycling reactions involving free radical intermediates. The concept is based on associating the amounts of radicals generated with the electrochemical signals produced, using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly-diallydimethlammonium chloride decorated with double stranded fish sperm DNA was prepared to detect DNA damage induced by the radicals generated from a redox cycling quinone (i.e., menadione (MD; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone)). Menadione was employed as a model compound to study the redox cycling of quinones. A direct relationship was found between free radical production and DNA damage. The relationship between MD-induced DNA damage and free radical generation was investigated in an attempt to identify the possible mechanism(s) involved in the action of MD. Results showed that DPV and EIS were appropriate, simple and inexpensive techniques for the quantitative and qualitative comparisons of different reducing reagents. These techniques may be recommended for monitoring DNA damages and investigating the mechanisms involved in the production of redox cycling compounds.

  7. In operando observation system for electrochemical reaction by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy with potential modulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Masanari Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Yuzawa, Hayato; Horigome, Toshio

    2014-10-15

    In order to investigate local structures of electrolytes in electrochemical reactions under the same scan rate as a typical value 100 mV/s in cyclic voltammetry (CV), we have developed an in operando observation system for electrochemical reactions by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a potential modulation method. XAS spectra of electrolytes are measured by using a transmission-type liquid flow cell with built-in electrodes. The electrode potential is swept with a scan rate of 100 mV/s at a fixed photon energy, and soft X-ray absorption coefficients at different potentials are measured at the same time. By repeating the potential modulation at each fixed photon energy, it is possible to measure XAS of electrochemical reaction at the same scan rate as in CV. We have demonstrated successful measurement of the Fe L-edge XAS spectra of aqueous iron sulfate solutions and of the change in valence of Fe ions at different potentials in the Fe redox reaction. The mechanism of these Fe redox processes is discussed by correlating the XAS results with those at different scan rates.

  8. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Digby D.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, the examination of electrochemical noise data comprised three main approaches: one, a computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity relating to corrosion on a metal surface; two, experimental modeling of the electrochemical environment inside nuclear waste storage containers and collection of EN generated; and three, Wavelet analysis of the EN data from the first two parts. The simulation of EN proved to be effective in replicating the EN data of both general and pitting corrosion. Using competition mechanisms for the anodic and cathodic sites on the surface, the long-term, low-frequency data generated by localized pitting corrosion was reproduced. Disabling one or more of the rules of the simulation eliminated the low-frequency character of the data, and eliminating all of the rules effectively reproduced general corrosion noise. The simulation accuracy benefited from comparison to experimental data, and conversely, it improved the EN analysis by providing theory for the underlying mechanisms. The experimental electrochemical cell modeled the important factors in nuclear waste storage containers for this EN study; mainly increased temperature and the concentrations of corrosion-inducing or inhibiting chemicals. It also provided a platform for studying how the EN was affected by the competing chemicals.

  9. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 μL of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells μL(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells μL(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries.

  10. Electrochemical monitoring of the interaction between Temozolamide and nucleic acids by using disposable pencil graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Altay, Cansu; Eksin, Ece; Congur, Gulsah; Erdem, Arzum

    2015-11-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an anticancer drug used for the treatment of adult brain tumour and skin cancer. The biomolecular interaction between TMZ and DNA was investigated for the first time in this study using disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) in combination with electrochemical techniques. The surface confined interactions between TMZ and different type of nucleic acids were performed. Before/after surface confined interaction process, the oxidation signals of TMZ, guanine and adenine were measured using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and PGE and accordingly, the changes at the oxidation signals were evaluated. The detection limit (DL) was also estimated based on the oxidation signal of TMZ. The interaction of TMZ with single stranded poly [A], poly [G], or double stranded poly [A]-poly[T] and poly [G]-poly[C] was also explored. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were utilized for detection the interaction between TMZ and DNA. The features of this single-use electrochemical sensor was discussed in comparison to other reports that were developed for TMZ detection.

  11. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 μL of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells μL(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells μL(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. PMID:26264263

  12. In situ monitoring magnetism and resistance of nanophase platinum upon electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Steyskal, Eva-Maria; Topolovec, Stefan; Landgraf, Stephan; Krenn, Heinz; Würschum, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Controlled tuning of material properties by external stimuli represents one of the major topics of current research in the field of functional materials. Electrochemically induced property tuning has recently emerged as a promising pathway in this direction making use of nanophase materials with a high fraction of electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The present letter reports on electrochemical property tuning of porous nanocrystalline Pt. Deeper insight into the underlying processes could be gained by means of a direct comparison of the charge-induced response of two different properties, namely electrical resistance and magnetic moment. For this purpose, four-point resistance measurements and SQUID magnetometry were performed under identical in situ electrochemical control focussing on the regime of electrooxidation. Fully reversible variations of the electrical resistance and the magnetic moment of 6% and 1% were observed upon the formation or dissolution of a subatomic chemisorbed oxygen surface layer, respectively. The increase of the resistance, which is directly correlated to the amount of deposited oxygen, is considered to be primarily caused by charge-carrier scattering processes at the metal-electrolyte interfaces. In comparison, the decrease of the magnetic moment upon positive charging appears to be governed by the electric field at the nanocrystallite-electrolyte interfaces due to spin-orbit coupling.

  13. A new electrochemical noise technique for monitoring the localized corrosion of 304 stainless steel in chloride-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Benish, M.L.; Sikora, J.; Shaw, B.; Sikora, E.; Yaffe, M.; Krebs, A.; Martinchek, G.

    1998-12-31

    A new electrochemical noise technique was developed to investigate metastable pitting by applying a bias potential between two nominally identical working electrodes. The current flowing between the biased working electrodes was measured with a zero resistance ammeter. Potential was measured between one working electrode and a reference electrode. These tests were conducted using 304 stainless steel working electrodes in a 0.5 M NaCl + borate buffer solution. A bias potential of 150 to 200 mV was used to localize the anodic and cathodic reactions to their respective electrodes. The noise signal was significantly affected by conditioning the electrodes at open circuit. When the electrodes were conditioned for several days, the breakdown potential increased, and the frequency and magnitude of the current transients increased. However, when the conditioning time was increased to a month, all metastable pitting transients disappeared, indicating an enhanced passive film.

  14. Electrochemical Surface Potential due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Marcel D.; Stern, Abraham C.; Levin, Yan; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-06-07

    Herein, we present research that suggests that the underlying physics that drive simple empirical models of anions (e.g. point charge, no polarization) to the air-water interface, with water described by SPC/E, or related partial charge models is different than when both ions and water are modeled with quantum mechanical based interactions. Specifically, we will show that the driving force of ions to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and the negative electrochemical surface potential. We will demonstrate that we can fully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory (DCT). Our research suggests that a significant part of the electrochemical surface potential in empirical models appears to be an artifact of the failure of point charge models in the vicinity of a broken symmetry. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle.

  15. A New Measure for Monitoring Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Choi, Young Doo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To propose a new measure for effective monitoring of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and to validate the feasibility of this measure for evoked potentials (EP) and single trials with a retrospective data analysis study. Methods The proposed new measure (hereafter, a slope-measure) was defined as the relative slope of the amplitude and latency at each EP peak compared to the baseline value, which is sensitive to the change in the amplitude and latency simultaneously. We used the slope-measure for EP and single trials and compared the significant change detection time with that of the conventional peak-to-peak method. When applied to single trials, each single trial signal was processed with optimal filters before using the slope-measure. In this retrospective data analysis, 7 patients who underwent cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery for unruptured aneurysm middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation were included. Results We found that this simple slope-measure has a detection time that is as early or earlier than that of the conventional method; furthermore, using the slope-measure in optimally filtered single trials provides warning signs earlier than that of the conventional method during MCA clipping surgery. Conclusion Our results have confirmed the feasibility of the slope-measure for intraoperative SEP monitoring. This is a novel study that provides a useful measure for either EP or single trials in intraoperative SEP monitoring. PMID:25628803

  16. Electrochemical monitoring-on-chip (E-MoC) of HIV-infection in presence of cocaine and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Atluri, Venkata; Shah, Pratikkumar; Vashist, Arti; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Yandart, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan

    2016-12-15

    Electrochemical monitoring-on-chip (E-MoC)-based approach for rapid assessment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection in the presence of cocaine (Coc) and specific drugs namely i.e., tenofovir (Tef), rimcazole (RA) is demonstrated here, for the first time, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An in-vitro primary human astrocytes (HA) model was developed using a cultureware chip (CC, used for E-MoC) for HIV-infection, Coc exposure and treatment with anti-HIV drug i.e., Tef, and Coc antagonist i.e., RA. The charge transfer resistance (Rct) value of each CC well varies with respect to infection and treatment demonstrated highly responsive sensitivity of developed chip. The results of E-MoC, a proof-of-the concept, suggested that HIV-infection progression due to Coc ingestion and therapeutic effects of highly specific drugs are measurable on the basis of cell electrophysiology. Though, this work needs various molecular biology-based optimizations to promote this technology as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of HIV-infection in a patient to manage HIV diseases for timely diagnosis. The presented study is based on using CNS cells and efforts are being made to perform this method using peripheral cells such as monocytes derived dendritic cells.

  17. Microfluidic Electrochemical Sensor for On-line Monitoring of Aerosol Oxidative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeff; Boonsong, Kanokporn; Sun, Yele; Collett, Jeffrey; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has a significant impact on human morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity are poorly defined. A leading hypothesis states that airborne PM induces harm by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in and around human tissues, leading to oxidative stress. We report here, a system employing a microfluidic electrochemical sensor coupled directly to a Particle-into-Liquid-Sampler (PILS) system to measure aerosol oxidative activity in an on-line format. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol assay (DTT assay) where after oxidized by PM, the remaining reduced DTT was analyzed by the microfluidic sensor. The sensor consists of an array of working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic device. Cobalt (II) phthalocyanine (CoPC)-modified carbon paste was used as the working electrode material allowing selective detection of reduced DTT. The electrochemical sensor was validated off-line against the traditional DTT assay using filter samples taken from urban environments and biomass burning events. After off-line characterization, the sensor was coupled to a PILS to enable on-line sampling/analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. Urban dust and industrial incinerator ash samples were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber and analyzed for their oxidative activity. The on-line sensor reported DTT consumption rates (oxidative activity) in good correlation with aerosol concentration (R2 from 0.86–.97) with a time-resolution of approximately 3 minutes. PMID:22651886

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  19. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J F M; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring F(E)NO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 110(-9)) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). F(E)NO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  20. Monitoring of malolactic fermentation in wine using an electrochemical bienzymatic biosensor for L-lactate with long term stability.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2016-01-28

    L-lactic acid is monitored during malolactic fermentation process of wine and its evolution is strongly related with the quality of the final product. The analysis of L-lactic acid is carried out off-line in a laboratory. Therefore, there is a clear demand for analytical tools that enabled real-time monitoring of this process in field and biosensors have positioned as a feasible alternative in this regard. The development of an amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination showing long-term stability is reported in this work. The biosensor architecture includes a thin-film gold electrochemical transducer selectively modified with an enzymatic membrane, based on a three-dimensional matrix of polypyrrole (PPy) entrapping lactate oxidase (LOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes. The experimental conditions of the biosensor fabrication regarding the pyrrole polymerization and the enzymes entrapment are optimized. The biosensor response to L-lactate is linear in a concentration range of 1 × 10(-6)-1 × 10(-4) M, with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10(-7) M and a sensitivity of - (13500 ± 600) μA M(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor shows an excellent working stability, retaining more than 90% of its original sensitivity after 40 days. This is the determining factor that allowed for the application of this biosensor to monitor the malolactic fermentation of three red wines, showing a good agreement with the standard colorimetric method.

  1. Monitoring of malolactic fermentation in wine using an electrochemical bienzymatic biosensor for L-lactate with long term stability.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2016-01-28

    L-lactic acid is monitored during malolactic fermentation process of wine and its evolution is strongly related with the quality of the final product. The analysis of L-lactic acid is carried out off-line in a laboratory. Therefore, there is a clear demand for analytical tools that enabled real-time monitoring of this process in field and biosensors have positioned as a feasible alternative in this regard. The development of an amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination showing long-term stability is reported in this work. The biosensor architecture includes a thin-film gold electrochemical transducer selectively modified with an enzymatic membrane, based on a three-dimensional matrix of polypyrrole (PPy) entrapping lactate oxidase (LOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes. The experimental conditions of the biosensor fabrication regarding the pyrrole polymerization and the enzymes entrapment are optimized. The biosensor response to L-lactate is linear in a concentration range of 1 × 10(-6)-1 × 10(-4) M, with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10(-7) M and a sensitivity of - (13500 ± 600) μA M(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor shows an excellent working stability, retaining more than 90% of its original sensitivity after 40 days. This is the determining factor that allowed for the application of this biosensor to monitor the malolactic fermentation of three red wines, showing a good agreement with the standard colorimetric method. PMID:26755146

  2. Assessment Of The Functionality Of A Pilot-Scale Reactor And Its Potential For Electrochemical Degradation Of Calmagite, A Sulfonated Azo-Dye

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrochemical degradation (ECD) is a promising technology for in situ remediation of diversely contaminated environmental matrices by application of a low level electric potential gradient. This investigation, prompted by successful bench-scale ECD of trichloroethylene,...

  3. Visual evoked potential monitoring of optic nerve function during surgery.

    PubMed

    Harding, G F; Bland, J D; Smith, V H

    1990-10-01

    A study was made with intra-operative flash--visual evoked potentials (VEP) monitored using a fibre-optic/contact lens photo stimulator in 57 patients undergoing intra-orbital surgical procedures with potential risk to the optic nerve. The VEPs recorded under enflurane and nitrous oxide anaesthesia did not differ significantly in latency or amplitude from the pre-operative recordings. Transient abolition of the VEP was seen under many circumstances and did not correlate with the outcome of surgery, but absence of a previously normal VEP for more than four minutes during surgical manipulation within the orbit did show a correlation with post operative impairment of vision. The technique provides early warning to the surgeon of threats to the integrity of the optic nerve.

  4. Visual evoked potential monitoring of optic nerve function during surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, G F; Bland, J D; Smith, V H

    1990-01-01

    A study was made with intra-operative flash--visual evoked potentials (VEP) monitored using a fibre-optic/contact lens photo stimulator in 57 patients undergoing intra-orbital surgical procedures with potential risk to the optic nerve. The VEPs recorded under enflurane and nitrous oxide anaesthesia did not differ significantly in latency or amplitude from the pre-operative recordings. Transient abolition of the VEP was seen under many circumstances and did not correlate with the outcome of surgery, but absence of a previously normal VEP for more than four minutes during surgical manipulation within the orbit did show a correlation with post operative impairment of vision. The technique provides early warning to the surgeon of threats to the integrity of the optic nerve. PMID:2266371

  5. Saliva: a potential media for disease diagnostics and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyi; Duan, Yixiang

    2012-07-01

    Within the past 10 years, the use of saliva as a diagnostic tool has gained considerable attention and become a well-accepted method. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers superiority over serum due to both a noninvasive collection method by specially trained persons and a cost-effective approach for screening of large populations. Collection of saliva offers a reduced risk of infection compared to the collection of serum. Moreover, obtaining saliva samples from infant, disabled or anxious patients, is much easier than obtaining other samples. There is a lot of useful components-changing information in saliva when a person is in sick. Therefore, we define these changing components as "biomarkers". The utilization of biomarkers as early predictors for clinical disease not only contributes to the effective prevention and treatment of diseases, but also enhances the assessment of potential health risks. In this article, we have reviewed the properties of saliva, the salivary analysis method for biomarker discovery, and the diagnostic potentials of salivary biomarkers in monitoring and detecting periodontal disease, Oral and Breast cancers, and Sjögren's syndrome. We also discussed some barriers of applications of saliva as a diagnostic media as well as recent improvements. We also prospected the future processing directions of using biomarkers in disease diagnosis and draw a conclusion that saliva is indeed an effective media in various disease monitoring and diagnosis.

  6. Evaluation of a personal monitor employing an electrochemical sensor for assessing exposure to hydrogen peroxide in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongim; Plese, Marcia R; Puskar, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    A commercially available direct-reading instrument designed for personal monitoring of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was evaluated in the laboratory and the workplace. Monitoring VHP has gained increasing importance in the pharmaceutical industry because sterilization using VHP has proven to be a good alternative to previously used sterilizing methods. The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration impinger method for VHP measurements, based on bubbling air through an acid solution with subsequent laboratory analysis, is not practical for monitoring personal exposures. By employing an electrochemical sensor, the instrument evaluated provides real-time exposure data with auxiliary functions such as displaying concentrations in parts per million, data logging, and alarms. A double-dilution technique using a syringe pump was used to generate dynamic test atmospheres ranging from 0.2 to 10 ppm in an exposure chamber. Time-weighted average concentration data from the direct-reading instrument was compared with concentration data from the impingers. The overall accuracy was less than the +/-25%, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. No significant differences in accuracy were observed at three humidity levels (i.e., 15, 50, and 80%). The instrument was similarly evaluated in a workplace under typical conditions. The results agreed within +/-0.2 ppm. Selected performance characteristics of the instrument also were investigated, including reproducibility, response and recovery times, calibration frequency, and suitability of the calibration adapter. Results of the investigation suggest that the instrument provides a means for simple and accurate monitoring of personal exposures to VHP in workplace environments.

  7. Combined Photoemission Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Study of a Mixture of (Oxy)carbides as Potential Innovative Supports and Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, Laura; Valero-Vidal, Carlos; Agnoli, Stefano; Sezen, Hikmet; Rüdiger, Celine; Kunze-Liebhäuser, Julia; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Active and stable non-noble metal materials, able to substitute Pt as catalyst or to reduce the Pt amount, are vitally important for the extended commercialization of energy conversion technologies, such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Here, we report a fundamental study of nonstoichiometric tungsten carbide (WxC) and its interaction with titanium oxycarbide (TiOxCy) under electrochemical working conditions. In particular, the electrochemical activity and stability of the WxC/TiOxCy system toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction (EOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are investigated. The chemical changes caused by the applied potential are established by combining photoemission spectroscopy and electrochemistry. WxC is not active toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction at room temperature but it is highly stable under these conditions thanks to the formation of a passive thin film on the surface, consisting mainly of WO2 and W2O5, which prevents the full oxidation of WxC. In addition, WxC is able to adsorb ethanol, forming ethoxy groups on the surface, which constitutes the first step for the ethanol oxidation. The interaction between WxC and TiOxCy plays an important role in the electrochemical stability of WxC since specific orientations of the substrate are able to stabilize WxC and prevent its corrosion. The beneficial interaction with the substrate and the specific surface chemistry makes tungsten carbide a good electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells. However, WxC is active toward the HER and chemically stable under hydrogen reduction conditions, since no changes in the chemical composition or dissolution of the film are observed. This makes tungsten carbide a good candidate as electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for the electrochemical production of hydrogen. PMID:27399154

  8. Combined Photoemission Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Study of a Mixture of (Oxy)carbides as Potential Innovative Supports and Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, Laura; Valero-Vidal, Carlos; Agnoli, Stefano; Sezen, Hikmet; Rüdiger, Celine; Kunze-Liebhäuser, Julia; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Active and stable non-noble metal materials, able to substitute Pt as catalyst or to reduce the Pt amount, are vitally important for the extended commercialization of energy conversion technologies, such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Here, we report a fundamental study of nonstoichiometric tungsten carbide (WxC) and its interaction with titanium oxycarbide (TiOxCy) under electrochemical working conditions. In particular, the electrochemical activity and stability of the WxC/TiOxCy system toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction (EOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are investigated. The chemical changes caused by the applied potential are established by combining photoemission spectroscopy and electrochemistry. WxC is not active toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction at room temperature but it is highly stable under these conditions thanks to the formation of a passive thin film on the surface, consisting mainly of WO2 and W2O5, which prevents the full oxidation of WxC. In addition, WxC is able to adsorb ethanol, forming ethoxy groups on the surface, which constitutes the first step for the ethanol oxidation. The interaction between WxC and TiOxCy plays an important role in the electrochemical stability of WxC since specific orientations of the substrate are able to stabilize WxC and prevent its corrosion. The beneficial interaction with the substrate and the specific surface chemistry makes tungsten carbide a good electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells. However, WxC is active toward the HER and chemically stable under hydrogen reduction conditions, since no changes in the chemical composition or dissolution of the film are observed. This makes tungsten carbide a good candidate as electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for the electrochemical production of hydrogen.

  9. Electrochemical Potential Gradients of H+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl- across the Tonoplast of the Green Alga Eremosphaera Viridis.

    PubMed Central

    Bethmann, B.; Thaler, M.; Simonis, W.; Schonknecht, G.

    1995-01-01

    Using ion-selective microelectrodes, we measured the activity of H+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl- and the electrical potential both in the vacuole and in the cytoplasm of the unicellular green alga Eremosphaera viridis to obtain comparable values of the named parameters from the same object under identical conditions. The cytosol had a pH of 7.3, and activities of the other ions were 130 mM K+, 160 nM Ca2+, and 2.2 mM Cl-. We observed only small and transient light-dependent changes of the cytosolic Ca2+ activity. The vacuolar K+ activity did not differ significantly from the cytosolic one. The Ca2+ activity inside the vacuole was approximately 200 [mu]M, the pH was 5.0, and the Cl- activity was 6.2 mM. The concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and Cl- in cell extracts were measured by induction-coupled plasma spectroscopy and anion chromatography. This confirmed the vacuolar activities for K+ and Cl- obtained with ion-selective microelectrodes and indicated that approximately 60% of the vacuolar Ca2+ was buffered. The tonoplast potential was vanishingly low ([less than or equal to][plus or minus]2 mV). There was no detectable electrochemical potential gradient for K+ across the tonoplast, but there was, however, an obvious electrochemical potential gradient for Cl- (-26 mV), indicating an active accumulation of Cl- inside the vacuole. PMID:12228672

  10. The relationship between redox enzyme activity and electrochemical potential-cellular and mechanistic implications from protein film electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gates, Andrew J; Kemp, Gemma L; To, Chun Yip; Mann, James; Marritt, Sophie J; Mayes, Andrew G; Richardson, David J; Butt, Julea N

    2011-05-01

    In protein film electrochemistry a redox protein of interest is studied as an electroactive film adsorbed on an electrode surface. For redox enzymes this configuration allows quantification of the relationship between catalytic activity and electrochemical potential. Considered as a function of enzyme environment, i.e., pH, substrate concentration etc., the activity-potential relationship provides a fingerprint of activity unique to a given enzyme. Here we consider the nature of the activity-potential relationship in terms of both its cellular impact and its origin in the structure and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. We propose that the activity-potential relationship of a redox enzyme is tuned to facilitate cellular function and highlight opportunities to test this hypothesis through computational, structural, biochemical and cellular studies.

  11. The relationship between redox enzyme activity and electrochemical potential-cellular and mechanistic implications from protein film electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gates, Andrew J; Kemp, Gemma L; To, Chun Yip; Mann, James; Marritt, Sophie J; Mayes, Andrew G; Richardson, David J; Butt, Julea N

    2011-05-01

    In protein film electrochemistry a redox protein of interest is studied as an electroactive film adsorbed on an electrode surface. For redox enzymes this configuration allows quantification of the relationship between catalytic activity and electrochemical potential. Considered as a function of enzyme environment, i.e., pH, substrate concentration etc., the activity-potential relationship provides a fingerprint of activity unique to a given enzyme. Here we consider the nature of the activity-potential relationship in terms of both its cellular impact and its origin in the structure and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. We propose that the activity-potential relationship of a redox enzyme is tuned to facilitate cellular function and highlight opportunities to test this hypothesis through computational, structural, biochemical and cellular studies. PMID:21423952

  12. Online monitoring of Mezcal fermentation based on redox potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Minakata, P; Ibarra-Junquera, V; Rosu, H C; De León-Rodríguez, A; González-García, R

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the continuous monitoring of the biomass and ethanol concentrations as well as the growth rate in the Mezcal fermentation process. The algorithm performs its task having available only the online measurements of the redox potential. The procedure combines an artificial neural network (ANN) that relates the redox potential to the ethanol and biomass concentrations with a nonlinear observer-based algorithm that uses the ANN biomass estimations to infer the growth rate of this fermentation process. The results show that the redox potential is a valuable indicator of the metabolic activity of the microorganisms during Mezcal fermentation. In addition, the estimated growth rate can be considered as a direct evidence of the presence of mixed culture growth in the process. Usually, mixtures of microorganisms could be intuitively clear in this kind of processes; however, the total biomass data do not provide definite evidence by themselves. In this paper, the detailed design of the software sensor as well as its experimental application is presented at the laboratory level.

  13. Assessment of the functionality of a pilot-scale reactor and its potential for electrochemical degradation of calmagite, a sulfonated azo-dye.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shirish; Cluxton, Phillip; Kemper, Mark; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2008-10-01

    Electrochemical degradation (ECD) is a promising technology for in situ remediation of diversely contaminated environmental matrices by application of a low level electric potential gradient. This investigation, prompted by successful bench-scale ECD of trichloroethylene, involved development, parametric characterization and evaluation of a pilot-scale electrochemical reactor for degradation of calmagite, a sulfonated azo-dye used as a model contaminant. The reactor has two chambers filled with granulated graphite for electrodes. The system has electrical potential, current, conductivity, pH, temperature, water-level and flow sensors for automated monitoring. The reactor supports outdoor and fail-safe venting, argon purging, temperature regulation and auto-shutdown for safety. Treatment involves recirculating the contaminated solution through the electrode beds at small flow velocities mimicking low fluid-flux in groundwater and submarine sediments. The first phase of the investigation involved testing of the reactor components, its parametric probes and the automated data acquisition system for performance as designed. The results showed hydraulic stability, consistent pH behavior, marginal temperature rise (<5 degrees C) and overall safe and predictable performance under diverse conditions. Near complete removal of calmagite was seen at 3-10V of applied voltage in 8-10h. The effects of voltage and strength of electrolyte on degradation kinetics have been presented. Further, it was observed from the absorption spectra that as calmagite degrades over time, new peaks appear. These peaks were associated with degradation products identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A reaction mechanism for ECD of calmagite has also been proposed.

  14. Ballistocardiogram: Mechanism and Potential for Unobtrusive Cardiovascular Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Ober, Stephanie L; McMurtry, M Sean; Finegan, Barry A; Inan, Omer T; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century, it has been known that the body recoils each time the heart ejects blood into the arteries. These subtle cardiogenic body movements have been measured with increasingly convenient ballistocardiography (BCG) instruments over the years. A typical BCG measurement shows several waves, most notably the "I", "J", and "K" waves. However, the mechanism for the genesis of these waves has remained elusive. We formulated a simple mathematical model of the BCG waveform. We showed that the model could predict the BCG waves as well as physiologic timings and amplitudes of the major waves. The validated model reveals that the principal mechanism for the genesis of the BCG waves is blood pressure gradients in the ascending and descending aorta. This new mechanistic insight may be exploited to allow BCG to realize its potential for unobtrusive monitoring and diagnosis of cardiovascular health and disease. PMID:27503664

  15. Ballistocardiogram: Mechanism and Potential for Unobtrusive Cardiovascular Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Ober, Stephanie L.; McMurtry, M. Sean; Finegan, Barry A.; Inan, Omer T.; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century, it has been known that the body recoils each time the heart ejects blood into the arteries. These subtle cardiogenic body movements have been measured with increasingly convenient ballistocardiography (BCG) instruments over the years. A typical BCG measurement shows several waves, most notably the “I”, “J”, and “K” waves. However, the mechanism for the genesis of these waves has remained elusive. We formulated a simple mathematical model of the BCG waveform. We showed that the model could predict the BCG waves as well as physiologic timings and amplitudes of the major waves. The validated model reveals that the principal mechanism for the genesis of the BCG waves is blood pressure gradients in the ascending and descending aorta. This new mechanistic insight may be exploited to allow BCG to realize its potential for unobtrusive monitoring and diagnosis of cardiovascular health and disease. PMID:27503664

  16. Potential biomarkers for monitoring therapeutic response in patients with CIDP.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2011-06-01

    Although the majority of patients with CIDP variably respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), steroids, or plasmapheresis, 30% of them are unresponsive or insufficiently responsive to these therapies. The heterogeneity in therapeutic responses necessitates the need to search for biomarkers to determine the most suitable therapy from the outset and explore the best means for monitoring disease activity. The ICE study, which led to the first FDA-approved indication for IVIg in CIDP, has shown that maintenance therapy prevents relapses and axonal loss. In this paper, the multiple actions exerted by IVIg on the immunoregulatory network of CIDP are discussed as potential predictors of response to therapies. Emerging molecular markers, promising in identifying responders to IVIg from non-responders, include modulation of FcγRIIB receptors on monocytes and genome-wide transcription studies related to inflammatory mediators, demyelination, or axonal degeneration. Skin biopsies, Peripheral Blood Lymhocytes, CSF, and sera are accessible surrogate tissues for further exploring these molecules during therapies.

  17. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring. PMID:26557929

  18. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring.

  19. Thunderstorm detection and warning system atmospheric potential monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An new type of electric field instrumentation was developed for lighting prediction at KSC. Currently, it is being installed at several government laboratories and is being made available to the public. It has important advantages over the previous method for measuring electric fields with motor driven field mills: (1) it has no moving parts and requires little maintenance compared to rotating machinery; (2) it is unaffected by rain, snow, sand, or insects, all of which can influence field mills; and (3) the lightweight sensor can be mounted easily on a tall mast. By mounting the instrumentation on a tall mast the instrumentation is placed above much of the blanket of point discharge ions that are emitted from objects on the ground during thunderstorms. This space charge limits the ability of any ground based electric field sensor to accurately measure cloud electric fields which produce lightning. The elevated mounting was demonstrated to significantly improve monitoring of thunderstorm electric fields. This instrumentation measures the atmospheric potential relative to earth at a corona needle sensor on top of a mast which normally is mounted on a tower or roof. The needle is kept in corona at all times by a low power high voltage power supply. This produces a small cloud of ions around the needle allowing a current to flow. Measurement of the current provides the atmospheric potential. The potential divided by the height of the needle above the ground is proportional to the average electric field between the needle and earth. The potential on top of a tall pole or above a rooftop is more representative of the intensity of cloud electrification than electric field measurements made at ground level. Photographs that depict the computer terminal, video display of a two sensor system, and the individual components installed on a tower are presented.

  20. A new electrochemical substrate for rapid and sensitive in vivo monitoring of β-galactosidase gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Manibalan, Kesavan; Mani, Veerappan; Huang, Chih-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Chang, Pu-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    A 4-Methoxyphenyl-β-galactopyranoside (4-MPGal) substrate incorporating 4-methoxy phenol (4-MP) as an electrochemical reporter is described for the monitoring of β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) gene expressions. β-Gal derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) were investigated, while a graphene oxide film modified electrode was employed as the transducer. The electrochemical signal of 4-MPG within 4-MPGal was masked by protecting their hydroxyl group with galactose. The externally added β-Gal triggered the deprotection through specific enzymatic hydrolysis with concomitant release of 4-MP. The apparent Km and Vmax values of 4-MPGal are determined to be 0.21 mM and 0.51 μM min(-1) mg of β-Gal(-1) (E. coli), which is consistent with the previous reports. To detect β-Gal derived from E. coli, cyclic voltammetry (CV) provides linear ranges of 12-1200 ng mL(-1) and 1.2-12 μg mL(-1) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5 ng mL(-1), while differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) shows a linear range of 1.2-120 ng mL(-1) and LOD of 1 ng mL(-1). To detect β-Gal derived from A. oryzae, CV provides linear ranges of 0.1-100 ng mL(-1) and 0.1-1 μg mL(-1) with a LOD of 0.06 ng mL(-1), while DPV shows a linear range of 10 pg mL(-1)-10 ng mL(-1) with a LOD of 8 pg mL(-1). Moreover, we set up a platform for the real-time in vivo monitoring of β-Gal gene expressions in E. coli cultivated through microbiological culture. The developed sensing platform using 4-MPGal as a substrate is simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and advantageous over its laborious optical analogues.

  1. Potentials and limitations of miniaturized calorimeters for bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Maskow, Thomas; Schubert, Torsten; Wolf, Antje; Buchholz, Friederike; Regestein, Lars; Buechs, Jochen; Mertens, Florian; Harms, Hauke; Lerchner, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    In theory, heat production rates are very well suited for analysing and controlling bioprocesses on different scales from a few nanolitres up to many cubic metres. Any bioconversion is accompanied by a production (exothermic) or consumption (endothermic) of heat. The heat is tightly connected with the stoichiometry of the bioprocess via the law of Hess, and its rate is connected to the kinetics of the process. Heat signals provide real-time information of bioprocesses. The combination of heat measurements with respirometry is theoretically suited for the quantification of the coupling between catabolic and anabolic reactions. Heat measurements have also practical advantages. Unlike most other biochemical sensors, thermal transducers can be mounted in a protected way that prevents fouling, thereby minimizing response drifts. Finally, calorimetry works in optically opaque solutions and does not require labelling or reactants. It is surprising to see that despite all these advantages, calorimetry has rarely been applied to monitor and control bioprocesses with intact cells in the laboratory, industrial bioreactors or ecosystems. This review article analyses the reasons for this omission, discusses the additional information calorimetry can provide in comparison with respirometry and presents miniaturization as a potential way to overcome some inherent weaknesses of conventional calorimetry. It will be discussed for which sample types and scientific question miniaturized calorimeter can be advantageously applied. A few examples from different fields of microbiological and biotechnological research will illustrate the potentials and limitations of chip calorimetry. Finally, the future of chip calorimetry is addressed in an outlook. PMID:21808971

  2. Potential amoebicidal activity of hydrazone derivatives: synthesis, characterization, electrochemical behavior, theoretical study and evaluation of the biological activity.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Navarro-Olivarria, Marisol; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Manzanera-Estrada, Mayra; Ortiz-Frade, Luis; Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Meléndrez-Luevano, Ruth Ma; Cabrera-Vivas, Blanca M

    2015-01-01

    Four new hydrazones were synthesized by the condensation of the selected hydrazine and the appropriate nitrobenzaldehyde. A complete characterization was done employing 1H- and 13C-NMR, electrochemical techniques and theoretical studies. After the characterization and electrochemical analysis of each compound, amoebicidal activity was tested in vitro against the HM1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica. The results showed the influence of the nitrobenzene group and the hydrazone linkage on the amoebicidal activity. meta-Nitro substituted compound 2 presents a promising amoebicidal activity with an IC50 = 0.84 μM, which represents a 7-fold increase in cell growth inhibition potency with respect to metronidazole (IC50 = 6.3 μM). Compounds 1, 3, and 4 show decreased amoebicidal activity, with IC50 values of 7, 75 and 23 µM, respectively, as a function of the nitro group position on the aromatic ring. The observed differences in the biological activity could be explained not only by the redox potential of the molecules, but also by their capacity to participate in the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Redox potentials as well as the amoebicidal activity can be described with parameters obtained from the DFT analysis. PMID:26035095

  3. Electrochemical methods for autonomous chemical (phosphate and oxygen) monitoring in the ocean in the Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonca, J.; Thouron, D.; Comtat, C.; Revsbech, N. P.; Garçon, V.

    2012-04-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ), mainly localized in the EBUS, are known to play a crucial role on climate evolution via greenhouse gases budgets and on marine ecosystems (respiratory barrier, modifications of the nitrogen cycle). Deoxygenation will have widespread consequences due to the role oxygen plays in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and other important elements such as Fe, S. Developing new sensors for improving our understanding of the coupled biogeochemical cycles (P-O-C-N) in these regions constitutes an immense challenge. Electrochemistry provides promising liquid reagentless methods by going further in miniaturization, decreasing the response time and energy requirements and thus increasing our observing capacities in the ocean. We present an electrochemical method for phosphate determination in seawater based on the anodic oxidation of molybdenum in seawater in order to create molybdophosphate complexes amperometrically detected on a gold electrode by means of amperometry or square-wave voltammetry. We propose a solution to address the silicate interference issue based on an appropriate ratio of proton/molybdate within an electrochemical cell using specialized membrane technology. The detection limit can be as low as 180 nM. An application of this method is presented in the OMZ offshore Peru. The results show excellent agreement when compared to colorimetry with an average deviation of 5.1%. This work is a first step to develop an autonomous in situ sensor for electrochemical detection of phosphate in seawater. The STOX sensor for the measurements of ultra-low oxygen concentrations was improved by decreasing the distance between the sensing and guard cathodes. The modification of the sensor tip was done by development of a method for gold plating on the front silicone rubber membrane in order to form a guard cathode. Then, the traditional and modified STOX sensors were compared and the preliminary studies showed a great potential

  4. Tunable electrochemical pH modulation in a microchannel monitored via the proton-coupled electro-oxidation of hydroquinone

    PubMed Central

    Contento, Nicholas M.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemistry is a promising tool for microfluidic systems because it is relatively inexpensive, structures are simple to fabricate, and it is straight-forward to interface electronically. While most widely used in microfluidics for chemical detection or as the transduction mechanism for molecular probes, electrochemical methods can also be used to efficiently alter the chemical composition of small (typically <100 nl) microfluidic volumes in a manner that improves or enables subsequent measurements and sample processing steps. Here, solvent (H2O) electrolysis is performed quantitatively at a microchannel Pt band electrode to increase microchannel pH. The change in microchannel pH is simultaneously tracked at a downstream electrode by monitoring changes in the i-V characteristics of the proton-coupled electro-oxidation of hydroquinone, thus providing real-time measurement of the protonated forms of hydroquinone from which the pH can be determined in a straightforward manner. Relative peak heights for protonated and deprotonated hydroquinone forms are in good agreement with expected pH changes by measured electrolysis rates, demonstrating that solvent electrolysis can be used to provide tunable, quantitative pH control within a microchannel. PMID:25379105

  5. Application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring allergen-antibody reactions using gold nanoparticle-based biomolecular immobilization method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haizhen; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Xiurong

    2006-09-15

    Gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the immobilization amount and retain the immunoactivity of recombinant dust mite allergen Der f2 immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The interaction between allergen and antibody was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Self-assembled Au colloid layer (ø=16nm) deposited on (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS)-modified GCE offered a basis to control the immobilization of allergen Der f2. The impedance measurements were based on the charge transfer kinetics of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) redox pair, compared with bare GCE, the immobilization of allergen Der f2 and the allergen-antibody interaction that occurred on the electrode surface altered the interfacial electron transfer resistance and thereby slowed down the charge transfer kinetics by reducing the active area of the electrode or by preventing the redox species in electrolyte solution from approaching the electrode. The interactions of allergen with various concentrations of monoclonal antibody were also monitored through the change of impedance response. The results showed that the electron transfer resistance increased with increasing concentrations of monoclonal antibody. PMID:16836968

  6. Electrochemical and structural properties of the electrical double layer of two-component electrolytes in response to varied electrode potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyohara, Kenji; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical and structural properties of the electrical double layers for two-component electrolytes were studied by Monte Carlo simulations using simple models. When the electrolyte contains two species of cations that have different diameters, the capacitance on the cathode dramatically increases as a large negative potential is applied. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the one reported in an experimental work that has used Li-containing ionic liquid as the electrolyte [M. Yamagata et al., Electrochim. Acta 110, 181-190 (2013)], in which it has also been reported that addition of Li ions to the electrolyte enhances the potential window to the negative side. The analysis of the ionic structure showed that the electrical double layer on the cathode is dominantly formed by the larger cations under small negative potentials, while they are replaced by the smaller cations under large negative potentials. This transition of the ionic structure with electrode potential is also consistent with the enhancement of the potential window that was found in the experimental work, which suggests that the organic cations are expelled from the electrical double layer under large negative potentials and the chance of decomposition is reduced.

  7. Electrochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

  8. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods.

  9. A Novel Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor as a Potential Net Energy Producer for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One possible way to address both water and energy shortage issues, the two of major global challenges, is to recover energy and water resource from wastewater. Herein, a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed to recover energy from wastewater and meantime harvest clean water for reuse. With the help of the microorganisms in the biocatalysis and biodegradation process, net electricity could be recovered from a low-strength synthetic wastewater after estimating total energy consumption of this system. In addition, high-quality clean water was obtained for reuse. The results clearly demonstrate that, under the optimized operating conditions, it is possible to recover net energy from wastewater, while at the same time to harvest high-quality effluent for reuse with this novel wastewater treatment system. PMID:23689529

  10. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  11. Electronic defects and interface potentials for Al oxide films on Al and their relationship to electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN,JOHN P.; DUNN,ROBERTO G.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; WALL,FREDERICK D.; MISSERT,NANCY A.; BUCHHEIT,R.G.

    2000-06-01

    The relative electronic defect densities and oxide interface potentials were determined for naturally-occurring and synthetic Al oxides on Al. In addition, the effect of electrochemical treatment on the oxide electrical properties was assessed. The measurements revealed (1) that the open circuit potential of Al in aqueous solution is inversely correlated with the oxide electronic defect density (viz., lower oxide conductivities are correlated with higher open circuit potentials), and (2) the electronic defect density within the Al oxide is increased upon exposure to an aqueous electrolyte at open circuit or applied cathodic potentials, while the electronic defect density is reduced upon exposure to slight anodic potentials in solution. This last result, combined with recent theoretical predictions, suggests that hydrogen may be associated with electronic defects within the Al oxide, and that this H may be a mobile species, diffusing as H{sup +}. The potential drop across the oxide layer when immersed in solution at open circuit conditions was also estimated and found to be 0.3 V, with the field direction attracting positive charge towards the Al/oxide interface.

  12. First principles reaction modeling of the electrochemical interface: Consideration and calculation of a tunable surface potential from atomic and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher D.; Wasileski, Sally A.; Filhol, Jean-Sebastien; Neurock, Matthew

    2006-04-01

    A method for calculating and subsequently tuning the electrochemical potential of a half cell using periodic plane-wave density functional theory and a homogenous counter-charge is presented and evaluated by comparison to simulations which explicitly model the countercharge by a plane of ions. The method involves the establishment of two reference potentials, one related to the potential of the free electron in vacuo, and the other related to the potential of H2O species far from the electrode. The surface potential can be specifically adjusted by the explicit introduction of excess or deficit surface charges in the simulation cell and the application of periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate the absence of field emission from the electrode over the range of realistic electrochemical potentials covered and confirm that the method can explicitly determine reaction energies and adsorption geometries as a function of electrochemical potential. This latter point is most useful as it asserts the viability of this method to model electrochemical and electrocatalytical systems of academic as well as applied interest. We present two case studies. The first examines the changes in the structure of water at the metal interface as a function of potential over Cu(111) . At cathodic potential, we observe the repulsion of H2O from the interface and the rotation of the water dipole toward the interface. The second study follows the initial pathways for the electrocatalytical activation of methanol over Pt(111) and the corresponding potential dependent reaction energetics for these paths. The results demonstrate that changes in the electrochemical potential can significantly alter the reaction energetics as well as the overall reaction selectivity. While the case studies presented herein described equilibrium geometries (i.e., the ideal forms at zero kelvin), the method is also suitable for application to ensembles of thermally activated systems.

  13. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  14. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Organic Conjugated Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Aminur; Kumar, Pankaj; Park, Deog-Su; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2008-01-01

    Organic conjugated polymers (conducting polymers) have emerged as potential candidates for electrochemical sensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods, unique properties, and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energy storage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, chemical sensors, and electrocatalysts. Conducting polymers are also known to be compatible with biological molecules in a neutral aqueous solution. Thus, these are extensively used in the fabrication of accurate, fast, and inexpensive devices, such as biosensors and chemical sensors in the medical diagnostic laboratories. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors play an important role in the improvement of public health and environment because rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity are achievable for environmental monitoring and clinical diagnostics. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors, which covers chemical sensors (potentiometric, voltammetric, amperometric) and biosensors (enzyme based biosensors, immunosensors, DNA sensors).

  15. Preselection of Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys as potential canister materials for vitrified high active nuclear waste by electrochemical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bort, H.; Wolf, I.; Leistikow, S.

    1987-07-01

    Several Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys (Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Sanicro 28, Incoloy 825, Inconel 690) were tested by electrochemical methods to characterize their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions at various temperatures and pH-values in respect to their application as canister materials for final radioactive waste storage. Especially, Hastelloy C4 was tested by potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostic measurements. As electrolytes H 2SO 4 solutions were used, as parameters temperature, chloride content and pH-value were varied. All tested alloys showed a clearly limited resistance against pitting corrosion phenomena; under severe conditions even crevice corrosion phenomena were observed. The best corrosion behavior, however, is shown by Hastelloy C4, which has the lowest passivation current density of all tested alloys and the largest potential region with protection against local corrosion phenomena.

  16. Effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on localized electrochemical deposition of micrometer copper columns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiao, Hongbin; He, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Micrometer copper columns were fabricated via a technology named localized electrochemical deposition (LECD). This paper studies the effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on the LECD process. The surface and cross sectional morphologies, as well as the average deposition rate were investigated to evaluate the quality of the deposited copper columns. Results demonstrated that the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with few voids inside at lower potential (<2.4 V). Whereas,the copper columns tended to be dendriform-shape with lots of voids inside at larger potential (>2.8 V). The average deposition rate increased with the raise of potential. In addition, the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with the initial gap between electrodes to be 10 μm or below. However, the copper columns tended to be cone-shape when the initial gap between electrodes became larger (35 μm or above). The number of voids inside the copper column and the average deposition rate both decreased with the increase of the initial gap. Moreover, the process of LECD under varied electric field has also been simulated using COMSOL software, and the formation of cylindrical and conical copper columns was further explained based on the electric field distribution at the cathode. PMID:27185742

  17. Effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on localized electrochemical deposition of micrometer copper columns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiao, Hongbin; He, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Micrometer copper columns were fabricated via a technology named localized electrochemical deposition (LECD). This paper studies the effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on the LECD process. The surface and cross sectional morphologies, as well as the average deposition rate were investigated to evaluate the quality of the deposited copper columns. Results demonstrated that the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with few voids inside at lower potential (<2.4 V). Whereas,the copper columns tended to be dendriform-shape with lots of voids inside at larger potential (>2.8 V). The average deposition rate increased with the raise of potential. In addition, the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with the initial gap between electrodes to be 10 μm or below. However, the copper columns tended to be cone-shape when the initial gap between electrodes became larger (35 μm or above). The number of voids inside the copper column and the average deposition rate both decreased with the increase of the initial gap. Moreover, the process of LECD under varied electric field has also been simulated using COMSOL software, and the formation of cylindrical and conical copper columns was further explained based on the electric field distribution at the cathode. PMID:27185742

  18. Effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on localized electrochemical deposition of micrometer copper columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiao, Hongbin; He, Hu

    2016-05-01

    Micrometer copper columns were fabricated via a technology named localized electrochemical deposition (LECD). This paper studies the effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on the LECD process. The surface and cross sectional morphologies, as well as the average deposition rate were investigated to evaluate the quality of the deposited copper columns. Results demonstrated that the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with few voids inside at lower potential (<2.4 V). Whereas,the copper columns tended to be dendriform-shape with lots of voids inside at larger potential (>2.8 V). The average deposition rate increased with the raise of potential. In addition, the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with the initial gap between electrodes to be 10 μm or below. However, the copper columns tended to be cone-shape when the initial gap between electrodes became larger (35 μm or above). The number of voids inside the copper column and the average deposition rate both decreased with the increase of the initial gap. Moreover, the process of LECD under varied electric field has also been simulated using COMSOL software, and the formation of cylindrical and conical copper columns was further explained based on the electric field distribution at the cathode.

  19. Status of biomolecular recognition using electrochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Omowunmi A; Aluoch, Austin O; Zhou, Ailing

    2009-05-15

    The use of nanoscale materials (e.g., nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanorods) for electrochemical biosensing has seen explosive growth in recent years following the discovery of carbon nanotubes by Sumio Ijima in 1991. Although the resulting label-free sensors could potentially simplify the molecular recognition process, there are several important hurdles to be overcome. These include issues of validating the biosensor on statistically large population of real samples rather than the commonly reported relatively short synthetic oligonucleotides, pristine laboratory standards or bioreagents; multiplexing the sensors to accommodate high-throughput, multianalyte detection as well as application in complex clinical and environmental samples. This article reviews the status of biomolecular recognition using electrochemical detection by analyzing the trends, limitations, challenges and commercial devices in the field of electrochemical biosensors. It provides a survey of recent advances in electrochemical biosensors including integrated microelectrode arrays with microfluidic technologies, commercial multiplex electrochemical biosensors, aptamer-based sensors, and metal-enhanced electrochemical detection (MED), with limits of detection in the attomole range. Novel applications are also reviewed for cancer monitoring, detection of food pathogens, as well as recent advances in electrochemical glucose biosensors.

  20. Electrochemical vaginal potential during the estral cycle and pregnancy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zipper, J; Angelo, S

    1980-01-01

    Potentials were measured with nonpolarizable salt electrodes (agar KCl-AgCl) during the estral cycle and pregnancy of the rat. The vaginal fundus is positive in regard to the external end of the vagina and does not present changes associated with the estral cycle. Vaginal-tongue potentials present biphasic cyclic changes associated with the estral cycle, the vagina being (-) during estro and (+) during diestro. Vaginal-abdominal skin potentials present monophasic modifications associated with the estral cycle. Vaginal-tongue potentials registered during pregnancy were (-) on the first day of pregnancy, (+) throughout pregnancy, and (-) on the first day postpartum.

  1. Punicalagin Green Functionalized Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Potential Electrochemical Transducer and Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuku, X.; Kaviyarasu, K.; Matinise, N.; Maaza, M.

    2016-09-01

    A novel ternary Punica granatum L-Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanocomposite was successfully synthesised via green route. In this work, we demonstrate that the green synthesis of metal oxides is more viable and facile compare to other methods, i.e., physical and chemical routes while presenting a potential electrode for energy applications. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by both microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed different transitional phases with an average nanocrystallite size of 29-20 mm. It was observed that the nanocomposites changed from amorphous-slightly crystalline Cu/Cu2O to polycrystalline Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO at different calcination temperatures (room temperature-RT- 600 °C). The Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO metal oxides proved to be highly crystalline and showed irregularly distributed particles with different sizes. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the purity while together with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy proved the proposed mechanism of the synthesised nanocomposite. UV-Vis showed improved catalytic activity of the prepared metal oxides, evident by narrow band gap energy. The redox and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite were achieved by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). The maximum specific capacitance ( C s) was calculated to be 241 F g-1 at 50 mV s-1 for Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanoplatelets structured electrode. Moreover, all the CuO nanostructures reveal better power performance, excellent rate as well as long term cycling stability. Such a study will encourages a new design for a wide spectrum of materials for smart electronic device applications.

  2. Punicalagin Green Functionalized Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Potential Electrochemical Transducer and Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fuku, X; Kaviyarasu, K; Matinise, N; Maaza, M

    2016-12-01

    A novel ternary Punica granatum L-Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanocomposite was successfully synthesised via green route. In this work, we demonstrate that the green synthesis of metal oxides is more viable and facile compare to other methods, i.e., physical and chemical routes while presenting a potential electrode for energy applications. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by both microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed different transitional phases with an average nanocrystallite size of 29-20 mm. It was observed that the nanocomposites changed from amorphous-slightly crystalline Cu/Cu2O to polycrystalline Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO at different calcination temperatures (room temperature-RT- 600 °C). The Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO metal oxides proved to be highly crystalline and showed irregularly distributed particles with different sizes. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the purity while together with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy proved the proposed mechanism of the synthesised nanocomposite. UV-Vis showed improved catalytic activity of the prepared metal oxides, evident by narrow band gap energy. The redox and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite were achieved by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). The maximum specific capacitance (C s) was calculated to be 241 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1) for Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanoplatelets structured electrode. Moreover, all the CuO nanostructures reveal better power performance, excellent rate as well as long term cycling stability. Such a study will encourages a new design for a wide spectrum of materials for smart electronic device applications. PMID:27596839

  3. Punicalagin Green Functionalized Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Potential Electrochemical Transducer and Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fuku, X; Kaviyarasu, K; Matinise, N; Maaza, M

    2016-12-01

    A novel ternary Punica granatum L-Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanocomposite was successfully synthesised via green route. In this work, we demonstrate that the green synthesis of metal oxides is more viable and facile compare to other methods, i.e., physical and chemical routes while presenting a potential electrode for energy applications. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by both microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed different transitional phases with an average nanocrystallite size of 29-20 mm. It was observed that the nanocomposites changed from amorphous-slightly crystalline Cu/Cu2O to polycrystalline Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO at different calcination temperatures (room temperature-RT- 600 °C). The Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO metal oxides proved to be highly crystalline and showed irregularly distributed particles with different sizes. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the purity while together with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy proved the proposed mechanism of the synthesised nanocomposite. UV-Vis showed improved catalytic activity of the prepared metal oxides, evident by narrow band gap energy. The redox and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite were achieved by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). The maximum specific capacitance (C s) was calculated to be 241 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1) for Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanoplatelets structured electrode. Moreover, all the CuO nanostructures reveal better power performance, excellent rate as well as long term cycling stability. Such a study will encourages a new design for a wide spectrum of materials for smart electronic device applications.

  4. Cathodic Potential Dependence of Electrochemical Reduction of SiO2 Granules in Molten CaCl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Yasuda, Kouji; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Homma, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    As part of an ongoing fundamental study to develop a new process for producing solar-grade silicon, this paper examines the effects of cathodic potential on reduction kinetics, current efficiency, morphology, and purity of Si product during electrolysis of SiO2 granules in molten CaCl2 at 1123 K (850 °C). SiO2 granules were electrolyzed potentiostatically at different cathodic potentials (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 V vs Ca2+/Ca). The reduction kinetics was evaluated based on the growth of the reduced Si layer and the current behavior during electrolysis. The results suggest that a more negative cathodic potential is favorable for faster reduction. Current efficiencies in 60 minutes are greater than 65 pct at all the potentials examined. Si wires with sub-micron diameters are formed, and their morphologies show little dependence on the cathodic potential. The impurities in the Si product can be controlled at low level. The rate-determining step for the electrochemical reduction of SiO2 granules in molten CaCl2 changes with time. At the initial stage of electrolysis, the electron transfer is the rate-determining step. At the later stage, the diffusion of O2- ions is the rate-determining step. The major cause of the decrease in reduction rate with increasing electrolysis time is the potential drop from the current collector to the reaction front due to the increased contact resistance among the reduced Si particles.

  5. The influence of the electrochemical stressing (potential step and potential-static holding) on the degradation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yuyan; Kou, Rong; Wang, Jun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

    The understanding of the degradation mechanisms of electrocatalysts is very important for developing durable electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The degradation of Pt/C electrocatalysts under potential-static holding conditions (at 1.2 V and 1.4 V vs. RHE) and potential step conditions with the upper potential of 1.4 V for 150 s and lower potential limits (0.85 V and 0.60 V) for 30 s in each period [denoted as Pstep(1.4V_150s-0.85V_30s) and Pstep(1.4V_150s-0.60V_30s), respectively] were investigated. The electrocatalysts and support were characterized with electrochemical voltammetry, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Pt/C degrades much faster under Pstep conditions than that under potential-static holding conditions. Pt/C degrades under the Pstep(1.4V_150s-0.85V_30s) condition mainly through the coalescence process of Pt nanoparticles due to the corrosion of carbon support, which is similar to that under the conditions of 1.2 V- and 1.4 V-potential-static holding; however, Pt/C degrades mainly through the dissolution/loss and dissolution/redeposition process if stressed under Pstep(1.4V_150s-0.60V_30s). The difference in the degradation mechanisms is attributed to the chemical states of Pt nanoparticles: Pt dissolution can be alleviated by the protective oxide layer under the Pstep(1.4V_150s-0.85V_30s) condition and the potential-static holding conditions. These findings are very important for understanding PEM fuel cell electrode degradation and are also useful for developing fast test protocol for screening durable catalyst support materials.

  6. Monitoring of flash visual evoked potentials during neurosurgical operations.

    PubMed

    Cedzich, C; Schramm, J

    1990-01-01

    In summary, our results suggest that flash VEP monitoring is not specific for visual acuity and has not proved helpful as an intraoperative warning system. The future challenge will be to devise a method which activates only those fibers specific to visual acuity and which provides reproducible and reliable information quickly enough that adjustments in patient management can be made.

  7. Solvent Tuning of Electrochemical Potentials in the Active Sites of HiPIP Versus Ferredoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, A.; Francis, E.J.; Adams, M.W.W.; Babini, E.; Takahashi, Y.; Fukuyama, K.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hedman, B.; Solomon, E.I.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept. /Georgia U. /Bologna U. /Osaka U. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-29

    A persistent puzzle in the field of biological electron transfer is the conserved iron-sulfur cluster motif in both high potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) and ferredoxin (Fd) active sites. Despite this structural similarity, HiPIPs react oxidatively at physiological potentials, whereas Fds are reduced. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy uncovers the substantial influence of hydration on this variation in reactivity. Fe-S covalency is much lower in natively hydrated Fd active sites than in HiPIPs but increases upon water removal; similarly, HiPIP covalency decreases when unfolding exposes an otherwise hydrophobically shielded active site to water. Studies on model compounds and accompanying density functional theory calculations support a correlation of Fe-S covalency with ease of oxidation and therefore suggest that hydration accounts for most of the difference between Fd and HiPIP reduction potentials.

  8. Electrochemical Behavior of meso-Substituted Porphyrins: The Role of Cation Radicals to the Half-Wave Oxidation Potential Splitting.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thai T H; Chang, Yan-Ru; Hoang, Tuan K A; Kuo, Ming-Yu; Su, Yuhlong O

    2016-07-21

    In this study, the electrochemical behavior of free base and zinc meso-substituted porphyrins is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the half-wave oxidation potential splitting of the two oxidation states (ΔE= second E1/2 - first E1/2) of tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) and its zinc complex (ZnTPP) are higher than those of porphyrins and their zinc complexes with meso-substituted five-membered heterocylic rings. The ΔE values follow the trend of TPP > T(3'-thienyl)P > T(3'-furyl)P > T(2'-thienyl)P for both meso-porphyrins and their respective zinc complexes. By employing DFT calculations, we have found that the trend of ΔE values is consistent with that of highest spin density (HSD) distribution and HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of cationic radicals as well as the π-conjugation between central porphyrin and meso-substituted rings. Also, they exhibit the better resonance between the porphyrin ring with meso-substituted rings as moving from porphyrins and their zinc complexes with phenyl rings to five-membered heterocyclic rings. A good agreement between calculated and experimental results indicates that cationic radicals, especially their spin density distribution, do play an important role in half-wave oxidation potential splitting of meso-porphyrins and their zinc complexes. PMID:27379447

  9. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  10. Continuous, real-time monitoring of cocaine in undiluted blood serum via a microfluidic, electrochemical aptamer-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Swensen, James S; Xiao, Yi; Ferguson, Brian S; Lubin, Arica A; Lai, Rebecca Y; Heeger, Alan J; Plaxco, Kevin W; Soh, H Tom

    2009-04-01

    The development of a biosensor system capable of continuous, real-time measurement of small-molecule analytes directly in complex, unprocessed aqueous samples has been a significant challenge, and successful implementation has been achieved for only a limited number of targets. Toward a general solution to this problem, we report here the Microfluidic Electrochemical Aptamer-based Sensor (MECAS) chip wherein we integrate target-specific DNA aptamers that fold, and thus generate an electrochemical signal, in response to the analyte with a microfluidic detection system. As a model, we demonstrate the continuous, real-time (approximately 1 min time resolution) detection of the small-molecule drug cocaine at near physiological, low micromolar concentrations directly in undiluted, otherwise unmodified blood serum. We believe our approach of integrating folding-based electrochemical sensors with miniaturized detection systems may lay the groundwork for the real-time, point-of-care detection of a wide variety of molecular targets.

  11. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. PMID:26887579

  12. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  13. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, M.; Arbain, D.; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; Ahmad, M. S.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α- d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau ( Ehretis laevis), Cemumar ( Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong ( Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  14. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators.

  15. Commissioning Measurements and Experience Obtained from the Installation of a Fissile Mass Flow monitor in the URAL Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) in Novouralsk

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J; Mastal, E; Powell, D; Sumner, J; Uckan, T; Vines, V

    1999-07-25

    The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) equipment sent earlier to the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) at Novouralsk, Russia, was installed and implemented successfully on February 2, 1999. The BDMS installation supports the highly enriched uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program for material subject to monitoring under the HEU purchase agreement between the United States of America (USA) and the Russian Federation (RF). The BDMS consists of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile (uranium-235) Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Enrichment Monitor (EM). Two BDMS's for monitoring the Main and Reserve HEU blending process lines were installed at UEIP. Independent operation of the FMFM Main and FMFM Reserve was successfully demonstrated for monitoring the fissile mass flow as well as the traceability of HEU to the product low enriched uranium. The FMFM systems failed when both systems were activated during the calibration phase due to a synchronization problem between the systems. This operational failure was caused by the presence of strong electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the blend point. The source-modulator shutter motion of the two FMFM systems was not being properly synchronized because of EMI producing a spurious signal on the synchronization cable connecting the two FMFM cabinets. The signature of this failure was successfully reproduced at ORNL after the visit. This unexpected problem was eliminated by a hardware modification and software improvements during a recent visit (June 9-11, 1999) to UEIP, and both systems are now operating as expected.

  16. Potential of hybrid sensing technology to monitor soil ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    To study and monitor environments, a plethora of sensors in last decades have been proposed and claimed to be as the most specific, sensitive, reliable, durable, affordable or whatever. However, they rarely take into account probable interactions of compounds of interest with other substances (i.e. molecules, matrices, surfaces, etc.) occurring in the environments where the analytes are present (although some corrections due to a few interfering compounds have been sometimes carried out), then, generating misinterpretations of results (e.g. overestimation or underestimation) or incorrect evaluation of effects (e.g. about toxicity and disease diagnoses). Another quite rare evaluation in the detection of analytes in environments concerns the partition of substances of interest into different phases, as well as adsorption/desorption and absorption/release events, thus often leading to misinterpretations of results. That issue is of outmost importance in complex multiphasic environments, such as soil, where these phenomena commonly occur. An improvement in sensor applications to environmental monitoring, as concerns the competition and interference of other compounds in measurements, has been the development of electronic noses. The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology, where the presence of arrays of several suitable but unspecific sensors for volatiles and gases can deal with this problem, since the different features of sensors, despite overlapping responses to different compounds, are then evaluated in post-measurement data processing analyses (namely multivariate analyses) and integrated into a chemical image reproducing the fingerprint of the sample headspace or atmosphere (i.e. the odour), such as occurs in the olfactory system of mammalians. E-noses in the last decade have been extensively used to monitor volatile and gaseous analytes and odours in several contexts and environments. In the last 5 years, a very few groups have applied this technology

  17. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  18. A time-based potential step analysis of electrochemical impedance incorporating a constant phase element: a study of commercially pure titanium in phosphate buffered saline.

    PubMed

    Ehrensberger, Mark T; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2010-05-01

    The measurement of electrochemical impedance is a valuable tool to assess the electrochemical environment that exists at the surface of metallic biomaterials. This article describes the development and validation of a new technique, potential step impedance analysis (PSIA), to assess the electrochemical impedance of materials whose interface with solution can be modeled as a simplified Randles circuit that is modified with a constant phase element. PSIA is based upon applying a step change in voltage to a working electrode and analyzing the subsequent current transient response in a combined time and frequency domain technique. The solution resistance, polarization resistance, and interfacial capacitance are found directly in the time domain. The experimental current transient is numerically transformed to the frequency domain to determine the constant phase exponent, alpha. This combined time and frequency approach was tested using current transients generated from computer simulations, from resistor-capacitor breadboard circuits, and from commercially pure titanium samples immersed in phosphate buffered saline and polarized at -800 mV or +1000 mV versus Ag/AgCl. It was shown that PSIA calculates equivalent admittance and impedance behavior over this range of potentials when compared to standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This current transient approach characterizes the frequency response of the system without the need for expensive frequency response analyzers or software.

  19. Fine tuning of magnetite nanoparticle size distribution using dissymmetric potential pulses in the presence of biocompatible surfactants and the electrochemical characterization of the nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, A; Cruz-Rivera, J J; Elías-Alfaro, C G; Betancourt, I; Ruiz-Silva, H; Antaño-López, R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of varying the surfactant concentration and the anodic pulse potential on the properties and electrochemical behaviors of magnetite nanoparticles were investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized with an electrochemical method based on applying dissymmetric potential pulses, which offers the advantage that can be used to tune the particle size distribution very precisely in the range of 10 to 50 nm. Under the conditions studied, the surfactant concentration directly affects the size distribution, with higher concentrations producing narrower distributions. Linear voltammetry was used to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the synthesized nanoparticles in both the anodic and cathodic regions, which are attributed to the oxidation of Fe(2+) and the reduction of Fe(3+); these species are part of the spinel structure of magnetite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data indicated that the reduction and oxidation reactions of the nanoparticles are not controlled by the mass transport step, but by the charge transfer step. The sample with the highest saturation magnetization was that synthesized in the presence of polyethylene glycol. PMID:25492019

  20. Fine tuning of magnetite nanoparticle size distribution using dissymmetric potential pulses in the presence of biocompatible surfactants and the electrochemical characterization of the nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, A; Cruz-Rivera, J J; Elías-Alfaro, C G; Betancourt, I; Ruiz-Silva, H; Antaño-López, R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of varying the surfactant concentration and the anodic pulse potential on the properties and electrochemical behaviors of magnetite nanoparticles were investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized with an electrochemical method based on applying dissymmetric potential pulses, which offers the advantage that can be used to tune the particle size distribution very precisely in the range of 10 to 50 nm. Under the conditions studied, the surfactant concentration directly affects the size distribution, with higher concentrations producing narrower distributions. Linear voltammetry was used to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the synthesized nanoparticles in both the anodic and cathodic regions, which are attributed to the oxidation of Fe(2+) and the reduction of Fe(3+); these species are part of the spinel structure of magnetite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data indicated that the reduction and oxidation reactions of the nanoparticles are not controlled by the mass transport step, but by the charge transfer step. The sample with the highest saturation magnetization was that synthesized in the presence of polyethylene glycol.

  1. Nanobarcode gene expression monitoring system for potential miniaturized space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Weiming; Eastman, P. Scott; Cooke, Patrick A.; Park, Jennifer S.; Chu, Julia S. F.; Gray, Joe W.; Li, Song; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    Manned mission to space has been threatened by various cosmos risks including radiation, mirogravity, vacuum, confinement, etc., which may cause genetic variations of astronauts and eventually lead to damages of their health. Thus, the development of small biomedical devices, which can monitor astronaut gene expression changes, is useful for future long-term space missions. Using magnetic microbeads packed with nanocrystal quantum dots at controlled ratios, we were able to generate highly multiplexed nanobarcodes, which can encode a flexible panel of genes. Also, by using a reporter quantum dot, this nanobarcode platform can monitor and quantify gene expression level with improved speed and sensitivity. As a comparison, we studied TGF-β1 induced transcription changes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with both the nanobarcode microbead system and the Affymetrix GeneChip ® HTA system, which is currently considered as the industrial standard. Though using only 1/20 of the sample RNA, the nanobarcode system showed sensitivity equivalent to Affymetrix GeneChip ® system. The coefficient of variation, dynamic range, and accuracy of the nanobarcodes measurement is equivalent to that of the GeneChip ® HTA system. Therefore, this newly invented nanobarcode microbead platform is thought to be sensitive, flexible, cost-effective and accurate in a level equivalent to the conventional methods. As an extension of the use of this new platform, spacecrafts may carry this miniaturized system as a diagnostic tool for the astronauts.

  2. Effects of anodic potential and chloride ion on overall reactivity in electrochemical reactors designed for solar-powered wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kangwoo; Qu, Yan; Kwon, Daejung; Zhang, Hao; Cid, Clément A; Aryanfar, Asghar; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2014-02-18

    We have investigated electrochemical treatment of real domestic wastewater coupled with simultaneous production of molecular H2 as useful byproduct. The electrolysis cells employ multilayer semiconductor anodes with electroactive bismuth-doped TiO2 functionalities and stainless steel cathodes. DC-powered laboratory-scale electrolysis experiments were performed under static anodic potentials (+2.2 or +3.0 V NHE) using domestic wastewater samples, with added chloride ion in variable concentrations. Greater than 95% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium ion were achieved within 6 h. In addition, we experimentally determined a decreasing overall reactivity of reactive chlorine species toward COD with an increasing chloride ion concentration under chlorine radicals (Cl·, Cl2(-)·) generation at +3.0 V NHE. The current efficiency for COD removal was 12% with the lowest specific energy consumption of 96 kWh kgCOD(-1) at the cell voltage of near 4 V in 50 mM chloride. The current efficiency and energy efficiency for H2 generation were calculated to range from 34 to 84% and 14 to 26%, respectively. The hydrogen comprised 35 to 60% by volume of evolved gases. The efficacy of our electrolysis cell was further demonstrated by a 20 L prototype reactor totally powered by a photovoltaic (PV) panel, which was shown to eliminate COD and total coliform bacteria in less than 4 h of treatment.

  3. Effects of anodic potential and chloride ion on overall reactivity in electrochemical reactors designed for solar-powered wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kangwoo; Qu, Yan; Kwon, Daejung; Zhang, Hao; Cid, Clément A; Aryanfar, Asghar; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2014-02-18

    We have investigated electrochemical treatment of real domestic wastewater coupled with simultaneous production of molecular H2 as useful byproduct. The electrolysis cells employ multilayer semiconductor anodes with electroactive bismuth-doped TiO2 functionalities and stainless steel cathodes. DC-powered laboratory-scale electrolysis experiments were performed under static anodic potentials (+2.2 or +3.0 V NHE) using domestic wastewater samples, with added chloride ion in variable concentrations. Greater than 95% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium ion were achieved within 6 h. In addition, we experimentally determined a decreasing overall reactivity of reactive chlorine species toward COD with an increasing chloride ion concentration under chlorine radicals (Cl·, Cl2(-)·) generation at +3.0 V NHE. The current efficiency for COD removal was 12% with the lowest specific energy consumption of 96 kWh kgCOD(-1) at the cell voltage of near 4 V in 50 mM chloride. The current efficiency and energy efficiency for H2 generation were calculated to range from 34 to 84% and 14 to 26%, respectively. The hydrogen comprised 35 to 60% by volume of evolved gases. The efficacy of our electrolysis cell was further demonstrated by a 20 L prototype reactor totally powered by a photovoltaic (PV) panel, which was shown to eliminate COD and total coliform bacteria in less than 4 h of treatment. PMID:24417418

  4. Laboratory and field measurements of the self-potential (SP) in chalk, with application to monitoring of saline intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAllister, D.; Jackson, M.; Butler, A. P.; Vinogradov, J.

    2013-12-01

    Saline intrusion is a global phenomenon, affecting the availability of freshwater in coastal aquifers. The aim of this work is to investigate whether measurements of self-potential (SP) can be used to monitor the intrusion of seawater into coastal aquifers, with specific application to the UK chalk aquifer in the vicinity of Brighton on the south coast of the UK. The SP arises to maintain electrical neutrality when a separation of charge occurs due to gradients in pressure (electrokinetic (EK) or streaming potential) and concentration (electrochemical (EC) potential). Concentration gradients are a characteristic feature of saline intrusion and may give rise to a measureable EC potential. In addition, an EK potential will arise during abstraction. Laboratory and field SP measurements are used to investigate the magnitude of the EK and EC potentials in the UK chalk aquifer during saline intrusion. Laboratory measurements yield an EK coupling coefficient, relating the gradient in voltage to the gradient in pressure when the total current is zero, of -60 mV/MPa in samples saturated with groundwater, and -1 mV/MPa in samples saturated with seawater. This result agrees with earlier work suggesting the EK potential is suppressed at high salinity due to a compressed electrical double layer. The EC coupling is dominated by diffusion potentials arising from the concentration gradient across the saline front. Field experiments suggest that the EK component of the SP in the chalk is very small under ambient conditions, even in freshwater zones, because gradients in hydraulic head are small owing to the high conductivity of the pervasive fracture networks. However, a pumping test conducted in the chalk aquifer at a field site in Berkshire induced a measureable EK response with a coupling coefficient of magnitude consistent with the freshwater EK coupling coefficient obtained in the laboratory. SP monitoring at an observation borehole near Brighton reveals semi-diurnal SP

  5. Potential of Uav Based Convergent Photogrammetry in Monitoring Regeneration Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepakomma, U.; Cormier, D.; Thiffault, N.

    2015-08-01

    Several thousand hectares of forest blocks are regenerating after harvest in Canada. Monitoring their performance over different stages of growth is critical in ensuring future productivity and ecological balance. Tools for rapid evaluation can support timely and reliable planning of interventions. Conventional ground surveys or visual image assessments are either time intensive or inaccurate, while alternate operational remote sensing tools are unavailable. In this study, we test the feasibility and strength of UAV-based photogrammetry with an EO camera on a UAV platform in assessing regeneration performance. Specifically we evaluated stocking, spatial density and height distribution of naturally growing (irregularly spaced stems) or planted (regularly spaced stems) conifer regeneration in different phases of growth. Standard photogrammetric workflow was applied on the 785 acquired images for 3D reconstruction of the study sites. The required parameters were derived based on automated single stem detection algorithm developed in-house. Comparing with field survey data, preliminary results hold promise. Future studies are planned to expand the scope to larger areas and different stand conditions.

  6. Electrochemical response of a biofilm community to changes in electron-acceptor redox potential elucidated using microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbour, T.; Wrighton, K. C.; Mullin, S. W.; Luef, B.; Gilbert, B.; Banfield, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. We studied how the microbial activity changed when the anode potential was varied. Altering the anode potential caused reversible changes in the mid-point potential(s), Em, measured using CV. Qualitatively, the average Em always shifted toward the set anode potential. A maximum shift in the peak of the derivative CV spectra of ~100 mV defines the approximate upper and lower Em values for the proteins contributing to this feature. The change in the electrochemical response was complete ~30 minutes after a 400 mV anode-potential step. We attribute these observations to either a switch in the principle electron-transport pathway (different enzymes) that individual species use to deliver electrons to the anode or changes in the relative contributions of different community members, or both. However, some impact of changes in pH within the biofilm could contribute to the change in Em. Ongoing investigations attempt to resolve these possibilities.

  7. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  8. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  9. WINCS-BASED WIRELESS ELECTROCHEMICAL MONITORING OF SEROTONIN (5-HT) USING FAST-SCAN CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY: PROOF OF PRINCIPLE

    PubMed Central

    Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object We previously reported the development of a Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for measuring dopamine and suggested that this technology may be useful for evaluating deep brain stimulation (DBS)-related neuromodulatory effects on neurotransmitter systems. WINCS supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially resolved neurotransmitter measurements. The FSCV parameters used to establish WINCS dopamine measurements are not suitable for serotonin, a neurotransmitter implicated in depression, because they lead to CFM fouling and a loss of sensitivity. Here, we incorporate into WINCS a previously described N-shaped waveform applied at a high scan rate to establish wireless serotonin monitoring. Methods FSCV optimized for the detection of serotonin consisted of an N-shaped waveform scanned linearly from a resting potential of, in V, +0.2 to +1.0, then to −0.1 and back to +0.2 at a rate of 1000 V/s. Proof of principle tests included flow injection analysis and electrically evoked serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat brain slices. Results Flow cell injection analysis demonstrated that the N waveform applied at a scan rate of 1000 V/s significantly reduced serotonin fouling of the CFM, relative to that observed with FSCV parameters for dopamine. In brain slices, WINCS reliably detected sub-second serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus evoked by local high-frequency stimulation. Conclusion WINCS supported high-fidelity wireless serotonin monitoring by FSCV at a CFM. In the future such measurements of serotonin in large animal models and in humans may help to establish the mechanism of DBS for psychiatric disease. PMID:20415521

  10. Solid-state probe based electrochemical aptasensor for cocaine: a potentially convenient, sensitive, repeatable, and integrated sensing platform for drugs.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Chen, Chaogui; Yin, Jianyuan; Li, Bingling; Zhou, Ming; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2010-02-15

    Aptamers, which are artificial oligonucleotides selected in vitro, have been employed to design novel biosensors (i.e., aptasensors). In this work, we first constructed a label-free electrochemical aptasensor introducing a probe immobilization technique by the use of a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled multilayer with ferrocene-appended poly(ethyleneimine) (Fc-PEI) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) array electrode for detection of cocaine. The Fc-PEI and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were LBL assembled on the electrode surface via electrostatic interaction. Then, cocaine aptamer fragments, SH-C2, were covalently labeled onto the outermost AuNP layer. When the target cocaine and cocaine aptamer C1 were present simultaneously, the SH-C2 layer hybridized partly with C1 to bind the cocaine, which led to a decreased differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal of Fc-PEI. This DPV signal change could be used to sensitively detect cocaine with the lowest detectable concentration down to 0.1 microM and the detection range up to 38.8 microM, which falls in the the expected range for medical use of detecting drug abuse involving cocaine. Meanwhile, the sensor was specific to cocaine in complex biologic fluids such as human plasma, human saliva, etc. The sensing strategy had general applicability, and the detection of thrombin could also be realized, displayed a low detection limit, and exhibited worthiness to other analytes. The aptasensor based on the array electrode held promising potential for integration of the sensing ability in multianalysis for simultaneous detection.

  11. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions. PMID:26503827

  12. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency. PMID:24504195

  13. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  14. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions.

  15. Current-limited imposed-potential technique for inducing and monitoring metastable pitting events

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, F.D.

    1999-11-24

    A technique has been developed to selectively induce metastable pitting while preventing the transition to stable pit growth. The current-limited imposed-potential (CLIP) technique limits available cathodic current to an initiated site using a resistor in series with the working electrode to form a voltage divider. Potentiodynamic CLIP testing yields a distribution of breakdown potentials from a single experiment. Potentiostatic CLIP testing yields induction time data, which can be used as input to a calculation of germination rate. Initial data indicate that a one-to-one correlation exists between electrochemical transients and observed pitting sites. The CLIP technique provides a consistent means of gathering quantitative potential and current transients associated with localized oxide breakdown.

  16. Unlocking the potential of continuous glucose monitoring: a new guideline supports the development of continuous glucose monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    D'Archangelo, Melissa J

    2009-03-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a new technology that allows patients to measure glucose levels continuously over several days. It has several advantages over traditional glucose meters in that it does not involve repeated finger sticks and can measure trends and track changes in glucose levels over time. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, working with the Diabetes Technology Society, published Performance Metrics for Continuous Interstitial Glucose Monitoring; Approved Guideline, which provides recommendations for methods for determining analytical and clinical metrics of CGMs. The document provides guidance on how CGM data should be presented, compared between devices, and compared between measurement technologies. The document serves as a roadmap for the testing of CGM devices and will ultimately advance the potential of this exciting technology. Performance Metrics for Continuous Interstitial Glucose Monitoring; Approved Guideline represents the consensus view on preparing and presenting CGM data. PMID:20144368

  17. Processing inferences derived from event-related potential measures in a monitoring task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horst, R. L.; Munson, R. C.; Ruchkin, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the scalp of subjects as they monitored changing digital readouts for values that went 'out-of-bounds'. Workload was manipulated by varying the number of readouts that were monitored concurrently. The ERPs elicited by changes in the readouts showed long latency positivities that increased in amplitude, not only with the number of readouts monitored, but also with the number of monitored readouts that were 'in danger' of going out-of-bounds. No effects were found due to the number of nonmonitored readouts 'in danger'. This evidence indicates that subjects (1) selectively attended to the monitored readouts and (2) processed the monitored readouts differently as the readouts approached the out-of-bounds levels to which an overt response was required.

  18. Spatiotemporal Variability in Potential Evapotranspiration across an Urban Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. R.; Long, M. R.; Fipps, G.; Swanson, C.; Traore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration in urban and peri-urban environments is difficult to measure and predict. Barriers to accurate assessment include: the wide range of microclimates caused by urban canyons, heat islands, and park cooling; limited instrument fetch; and the patchwork of native soils, engineered soils, and hardscape. These issues combine to make an accurate assessment of the urban water balance difficult, as evapotranspiration calculations require accurate meteorological data. This study examines nearly three years of data collected by a network of 18 weather stations in Dallas, Texas, designed to measure potential evapotranspiration (ETo) in support of the WaterMyYard conservation program (http://WaterMyYard.org). Variability amongst stations peaked during the summer irrigation months, with a maximum standard deviation of 0.3 mm/hr and 4 mm/d. However, we found a significant degree of information overlap in the network. Most stations had a high correlation (>0.75) with at least one other station in the network, and many had a high correlation with at least 10 others. Correlation strength between station ETo measurements did not necessarily decrease with Euclidean distance, as expected, but was more closely related to differences in station elevation and longitude. Stations that had low correlations with others in the network typically had siting and fetch issues. ETo showed a strong temporal persistence; average station autocorrelation was 0.79 at a 1-hour lag and 0.70 at a 24-hour lag. To supplement the larger-scale network data, we deployed a mobile, vehicle-mounted weather station to quantify deviations present in the atmospheric drivers of evapotranspiration: temperature, humidity, wind, and solar radiation. Data were collected at mid-day during the irrigation season. We found differences in mobile and station ETo predictions up to 0.2 mm/hr, primarily driven by wind speed variations. These results suggest that ETo variation at the neighborhood to municipality

  19. Potential of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor for the monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanter, L.; Aben, I.; Tol, P.; Krijger, J. M.; Hollstein, A.; Köhler, P.; Damm, A.; Joiner, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Landgraf, J.

    2015-03-01

    Global monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is improving our knowledge about the photosynthetic functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The feasibility of SIF retrievals from spaceborne atmospheric spectrometers has been demonstrated by a number of studies in the last years. In this work, we investigate the potential of the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite mission for SIF retrieval. TROPOMI will sample the 675-775 nm spectral window with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm and a pixel size of 7 km × 7 km. We use an extensive set of simulated TROPOMI data in order to assess the uncertainty of single SIF retrievals and subsequent spatio-temporal composites. Our results illustrate the enormous improvement in SIF monitoring achievable with TROPOMI with respect to comparable spectrometers currently in-flight, such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument. We find that TROPOMI can reduce global uncertainties in SIF mapping by more than a factor of 2 with respect to GOME-2, which comes together with an approximately 5-fold improvement in spatial sampling. Finally, we discuss the potential of TROPOMI to map other important vegetation parameters at a global scale with moderate spatial resolution and short revisit time. Those include leaf photosynthetic pigments and proxies for canopy structure, which will complement SIF retrievals for a self-contained description of vegetation condition and functioning.

  20. Half-cell potential analysis of an ammonia sensor with the electrochemical cell Au | YSZ | Au, V2O5-WO3-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Schönauer-Kamin, Daniela; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2013-04-10

    Half-cell potentials of the electrochemical cell Au, VWT | YSZ | Au are analyzed in dependence on oxygen and ammonia concentration at 550 °C. One of the gold electrodes is covered with a porous SCR catalyst, vanadia-tungstenia-titania (VWT). The cell is utilized as a potentiometric ammonia gas sensor and provides a semi-logarithmic characteristic curve with a high NH3 sensitivity and selectivity. The analyses of the Au | YSZ and Au, VWT | YSZ half-cells are conducted to describe the non-equilibrium behavior of the sensor device in light of mixed potential theory. Both electrode potentials provide a dependency on the NH3 concentration, whereby VWT, Au | YSZ shows a stronger effect which increases with increasing VWT coverage. The potential shifts in the anodic direction confirm the formation of mixed potentials at both electrodes resulting from electrochemical reactions of O2 and NH3 at the three-phase boundary. Polarization curves indicate Butler-Volmer-type kinetics. Modified polarization curves of the VWT covered electrode show an enhanced anodic reaction and an almost unaltered cathodic reaction. The NH3 dependency is dominated by the VWT coverage and it turns out that the catalytic properties of the VWT thick film are responsible for the electrode potential shift.

  1. Half-Cell Potential Analysis of an Ammonia Sensor with the Electrochemical Cell Au | YSZ | Au, V2O5-WO3-TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Schönauer-Kamin, Daniela; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Half-cell potentials of the electrochemical cell Au, VWT | YSZ | Au are analyzed in dependence on oxygen and ammonia concentration at 550 °C. One of the gold electrodes is covered with a porous SCR catalyst, vanadia-tungstenia-titania (VWT). The cell is utilized as a potentiometric ammonia gas sensor and provides a semi-logarithmic characteristic curve with a high NH3 sensitivity and selectivity. The analyses of the Au | YSZ and Au, VWT | YSZ half-cells are conducted to describe the non-equilibrium behavior of the sensor device in light of mixed potential theory. Both electrode potentials provide a dependency on the NH3 concentration, whereby VWT, Au | YSZ shows a stronger effect which increases with increasing VWT coverage. The potential shifts in the anodic direction confirm the formation of mixed potentials at both electrodes resulting from electrochemical reactions of O2 and NH3 at the three-phase boundary. Polarization curves indicate Butler-Volmer-type kinetics. Modified polarization curves of the VWT covered electrode show an enhanced anodic reaction and an almost unaltered cathodic reaction. The NH3 dependency is dominated by the VWT coverage and it turns out that the catalytic properties of the VWT thick film are responsible for the electrode potential shift. PMID:23575035

  2. Monitoring of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials During Spine Surgery: Intraoperative Changes and Postoperative Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the combination of muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) measured during spinal surgery can predict immediate and permanent postoperative motor deficits. Methods mMEP and SEP was monitored in patients undergoing spinal surgery between November 2012 and July 2014. mMEPs were elicited by a train of transcranial electrical stimulation over the motor cortex and recorded from the upper/lower limbs. SEPs were recorded by stimulating the tibial and median nerves. Results Combined mMEP/SEP recording was successfully achieved in 190 operations. In 117 of these, mMEPs and SEPs were stable and 73 showed significant changes. In 20 cases, motor deficits in the first 48 postoperative hours were observed and 6 patients manifested permanent neurological deficits. The two potentials were monitored in a number of spinal surgeries. For surgery on spinal deformities, the sensitivity and specificity of combined mMEP/SEP monitoring were 100% and 92.4%, respectively. In the case of spinal cord tumor surgeries, sensitivity was only 50% but SEP changes were observed preceding permanent motor deficits in some cases. Conclusion Intraoperative monitoring is a useful tool in spinal surgery. For spinal deformity surgery, combined mMEP/SEP monitoring showed high sensitivity and specificity; in spinal tumor surgery, only SEP changes predicted permanent motor deficits. Therefore, mMEP, SEP, and joint monitoring may all be appropriate and beneficial for the intraoperative monitoring of spinal surgery. PMID:27446784

  3. Visual evoked potentials monitoring in a case of transient post-operative visual loss.

    PubMed

    Capon, Marie; Boven, Michel Van; van Pesch, Vincent; Hantson, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Post-operative visual loss (POVL) is a rare, albeit potentially serious complication of general anaesthesia. This report describes the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed transient POVL after general anaesthesia following a left posterior parietal meningioma surgery in the prone position and discusses the usefulness of visual evoked potentials monitoring in such situations. PMID:27601743

  4. Visual evoked potentials monitoring in a case of transient post-operative visual loss

    PubMed Central

    Capon, Marie; Boven, Michel Van; van Pesch, Vincent; Hantson, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative visual loss (POVL) is a rare, albeit potentially serious complication of general anaesthesia. This report describes the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed transient POVL after general anaesthesia following a left posterior parietal meningioma surgery in the prone position and discusses the usefulness of visual evoked potentials monitoring in such situations. PMID:27601743

  5. Influence of droplet coverage on the electrochemical response of planar microelectrodes and potential solving strategies based on nesting concept.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biosensors have been widely used for the detection of bacteria, viruses and other toxins. Electrodes, as commonly used transducers, are a vital part of electrochemical biosensors. The coverage of the droplets can change significantly based on the hydrophobicity of the microelectrode surface materials. In the present research, screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SPIMs), as one type of planar microelectrode, were applied to investigate the influence of droplet coverage on electrochemical response. Furthermore, three dimensional (3D) printing technology was employed to print smart devices with different diameters based on the nesting concept. Theoretical explanations were proposed to elucidate the influence of the droplet coverage on the electrochemical response. 3D-printed ring devices were used to incubate the SPIMs and the analytical performances of the SPIMs were tested. According to the results obtained, our device successfully improved the stability of the signal responses and eliminated irregular signal changes to a large extent. Our proposed method based on the nesting concept provides a promising method for the fabrication of stable electrochemical biosensors. We also introduced two types of electrode bases to improve the signal stability.

  6. Influence of droplet coverage on the electrochemical response of planar microelectrodes and potential solving strategies based on nesting concept.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biosensors have been widely used for the detection of bacteria, viruses and other toxins. Electrodes, as commonly used transducers, are a vital part of electrochemical biosensors. The coverage of the droplets can change significantly based on the hydrophobicity of the microelectrode surface materials. In the present research, screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SPIMs), as one type of planar microelectrode, were applied to investigate the influence of droplet coverage on electrochemical response. Furthermore, three dimensional (3D) printing technology was employed to print smart devices with different diameters based on the nesting concept. Theoretical explanations were proposed to elucidate the influence of the droplet coverage on the electrochemical response. 3D-printed ring devices were used to incubate the SPIMs and the analytical performances of the SPIMs were tested. According to the results obtained, our device successfully improved the stability of the signal responses and eliminated irregular signal changes to a large extent. Our proposed method based on the nesting concept provides a promising method for the fabrication of stable electrochemical biosensors. We also introduced two types of electrode bases to improve the signal stability. PMID:27635356

  7. Influence of droplet coverage on the electrochemical response of planar microelectrodes and potential solving strategies based on nesting concept

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biosensors have been widely used for the detection of bacteria, viruses and other toxins. Electrodes, as commonly used transducers, are a vital part of electrochemical biosensors. The coverage of the droplets can change significantly based on the hydrophobicity of the microelectrode surface materials. In the present research, screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SPIMs), as one type of planar microelectrode, were applied to investigate the influence of droplet coverage on electrochemical response. Furthermore, three dimensional (3D) printing technology was employed to print smart devices with different diameters based on the nesting concept. Theoretical explanations were proposed to elucidate the influence of the droplet coverage on the electrochemical response. 3D-printed ring devices were used to incubate the SPIMs and the analytical performances of the SPIMs were tested. According to the results obtained, our device successfully improved the stability of the signal responses and eliminated irregular signal changes to a large extent. Our proposed method based on the nesting concept provides a promising method for the fabrication of stable electrochemical biosensors. We also introduced two types of electrode bases to improve the signal stability.

  8. Influence of droplet coverage on the electrochemical response of planar microelectrodes and potential solving strategies based on nesting concept

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biosensors have been widely used for the detection of bacteria, viruses and other toxins. Electrodes, as commonly used transducers, are a vital part of electrochemical biosensors. The coverage of the droplets can change significantly based on the hydrophobicity of the microelectrode surface materials. In the present research, screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SPIMs), as one type of planar microelectrode, were applied to investigate the influence of droplet coverage on electrochemical response. Furthermore, three dimensional (3D) printing technology was employed to print smart devices with different diameters based on the nesting concept. Theoretical explanations were proposed to elucidate the influence of the droplet coverage on the electrochemical response. 3D-printed ring devices were used to incubate the SPIMs and the analytical performances of the SPIMs were tested. According to the results obtained, our device successfully improved the stability of the signal responses and eliminated irregular signal changes to a large extent. Our proposed method based on the nesting concept provides a promising method for the fabrication of stable electrochemical biosensors. We also introduced two types of electrode bases to improve the signal stability. PMID:27635356

  9. Potential-dependent structures investigated at the perchloric acid solution/iodine modified Au(111) interface by electrochemical frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Toru; Tatsumi, Shoko; Yokota, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Ken-ichi

    2015-05-21

    Electrochemical frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (EC-FM-AFM) was adopted to analyze the electrified interface between an iodine modified Au(111) and a perchloric acid solution. Atomic resolution imaging of the electrode was strongly dependent on the electrode potential within the electrochemical window: each iodine atom was imaged in the cathodic range of the electrode potential, but not in the more anodic range where the tip is retracted by approximately 0.1 nm compared to the cathodic case for the same imaging parameters. The frequency shift versus tip-to-sample distance curves obtained in the electric double layer region on the iodine adlayer indicated that the water structuring became weaker at the anodic potential, where the atomic resolution images could not be obtained, and immediately recovered at the original cathodic potential. The reversible hydration structures were consistent with the reversible topographic images and the cyclic voltammetry results. These results indicate that perchlorate anions concentrated at the anodic potential affect the interface hydration without any irreversible changes to the interface under these conditions.

  10. The potential use of domestic safeguards interior monitors in International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1998-08-01

    An important future element of International Safeguards instrumentation is expected to be the merging of containment/surveillance and nondestructive assay equipment with domestic physical protection equipment into integrated systems, coupled with remote monitoring. Instrumentation would include interior monitoring and assessment and entry/exit monitoring. Of particular importance is the application of interior monitors in spaces of declared inactivity; for example, in nuclear material storage locations that are entered infrequently. The use of modern interior monitors in International Safeguards offers potential for improving effectiveness and efficiency. Within the context of increased cooperation, one can readily envision increased interaction between International Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards, including increased joint use of State System of Accounting and Control data.

  11. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xingbo

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  12. Dynamic in-plane potential gradients for actively controlling electrochemical reactions: Part I. Characterization of 1- and 2-component alkanethiol monolayer gradients on thin gold films. Part II. Applications of in-plane potential gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balss, Karin Maria

    The research contained in this thesis is focused on the formation and characterization of surface composition gradients on thin gold films that are formed by applications of in-plane potential gradients. Injecting milliamp currents into thin Au films yields significant in-plane voltage drops so that, rather than assuming a single value of potential, an in-plane potential gradient is imposed on the film which depends on the resistivity of the film, the cross sectional area and the magnitude of the potential drop. Furthermore, the in-plane electric potential gradient means that, relative to a solution reference couple, electrochemical reactions occurs at defined spatial positions corresponding to the local potential, V(x) ˜ E0. The spatial gradient in electrochemical potential can then produce spatially dependent electrochemistry. Surface-chemical potential gradients can be prepared by arranging the spread of potentials to span an electrochemical wave mediating redox-associated adsorption or desorption. Examples of reactions that can be spatially patterned include the electrosorption of alkanethiols and over-potential metal deposition. The unique advantage of this method for patterning spatial compositions is the control of surface coverage in both space and time. The thesis is organized into two parts. In Part I, formation and characterization of 1- and 2-component alkanethiol monolayer gradients is investigated. Numerous surface science tools are employed to examine the distribution in coverage obtained by application of in-plane potential gradients. Macroscopic characterization was obtained by sessile water drop contact angle measurements and surface plasmon resonance imaging. Gradients were also imaged on micron length scales with pulsed-force mode atomic force microscopy. Direct chemical evidence of surface compositions in aromatic thiol surface coverage was obtained by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. In Part II, the applications of in-plane potential

  13. Performance monitoring in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic literature review of event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Hüpen, Philippa; Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by impairments in social-emotional situations, executive functioning, and behavioral regulation. These symptoms may be related to deficits in performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to observe and evaluate one's own behavior and performance which is necessary for the regulation of future behavior. The present literature review investigated electroencephalic correlates of performance monitoring in ASD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) considered in this review included internal performance monitoring components (error-related negativity, error positivity), external performance monitoring components (feedback-related negativity, feedback-P3), and observational performance monitoring components (observer error-related negativity, observer feedback-related negativity). The majority of studies point to reduced internal performance monitoring in ASD. External performance monitoring in reward-processing paradigms, where rewards are independent of performance, seems to be intact in ASD. So far, no studies have investigated the observer error-related negativity in ASD. Available data on the observer feedback-related negativity are inconclusive, since only two studies with differential study results investigated this construct in ASD. In general, results suggest that individuals with ASD have problems with internal performance monitoring and with learning from external, abstract feedback. In contrast, the processing of external, concrete feedback seems to be largely intact in ASD.

  14. Novel electrochemical sensors with electrodes based on multilayers fabricated by layer-by-layer synthesis and their analytical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S. S.; Nikolaev, K. G.; Tolstoy, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    The results of studies on layer-by-layer synthesis of multilayers on the electrode surface in order to design electrochemical sensors for the determination of concentrations of inorganic, organic and bioorganic compounds are summarized and analyzed. The principle of the method is discoursed and the key advantages of the approach are highlighted, such as the possibility of single layer synthesis with specified thickness and composition under mild conditions with further fabrication of multilayers. Charge transfer conditions in the layers on the electrode surface between the analyte molecules and electrode redox centres and the operating conditions for the optimal electrode are considered. The role of electrocatalysts and intermediates of these processes is noted. Particular attention is devoted to the methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles with different diameters. Analytical characteristics for electrochemical sensors are presented and application prospects of the layer-by-layer synthesis to electrode fabrication are discussed. The bibliography includes 241 references.

  15. Assessing potential cathodes for resource recovery through wastewater treatment and salinity removal using non-buffered microbial electrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, G N; Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Venkata Mohan, S; Swamy, Y V

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluates relative functioning of microbial electrochemical systems (MES) for simultaneous wastewater treatment, desalination and resource recovery. Two MES were designed having abiotic cathode (MES-A) and algal biocathode (MES-B) which were investigated with synthetic feed and saline water as proxy of typical real-field wastewater. Comparative anodic and cathodic efficiencies revealed a distinct disparity in both the MES when operated in open circuit (OC) and closed circuit (CC). The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) read in MES-A and MES-B was about 700mV and 600mV, respectively. Salinity and organic carbon removal efficiencies were noticed high during CC operation as 72% and 55% in MES-A and 60% and 63% in MES-B. These discrete observations evidenced ascribe to the influence of microbial electrochemical induced ion-migration over cathodic reduction reactions (CRR).

  16. Assessing potential cathodes for resource recovery through wastewater treatment and salinity removal using non-buffered microbial electrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, G N; Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Venkata Mohan, S; Swamy, Y V

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluates relative functioning of microbial electrochemical systems (MES) for simultaneous wastewater treatment, desalination and resource recovery. Two MES were designed having abiotic cathode (MES-A) and algal biocathode (MES-B) which were investigated with synthetic feed and saline water as proxy of typical real-field wastewater. Comparative anodic and cathodic efficiencies revealed a distinct disparity in both the MES when operated in open circuit (OC) and closed circuit (CC). The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) read in MES-A and MES-B was about 700mV and 600mV, respectively. Salinity and organic carbon removal efficiencies were noticed high during CC operation as 72% and 55% in MES-A and 60% and 63% in MES-B. These discrete observations evidenced ascribe to the influence of microbial electrochemical induced ion-migration over cathodic reduction reactions (CRR). PMID:27177714

  17. Event-related potentials associated with performance monitoring in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jessica M; Everling, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    The abilities to monitor performance outcomes and, when appropriate, impose strategic adjustments in behavior, are core features of the intact human cognitive control system. Errors committed in choice reaction time tasks are typically followed by two scalp potentials, the error negativity (Ne) and error positivity (Pe). These components are considered physiological signatures of the performance monitoring system. Several theories have been proposed to account for these error-related potentials and their functional and behavioral significance. These ideas were inspired by empirical data in humans and other mammalian species, and supported by the results of experiments in which performance monitoring, in humans and computational models, was investigated. However, an appropriate animal model is required to rigorously test the predictions that arise from these theories. Here, using a variant of the anti-saccade task, we demonstrate that event-related signals recorded from macaque monkeys, following errors in choice, resemble the human Ne and Pe. These components were modulated by cognitive variables, namely the degree of cognitive control associated with the applied rule, which implies the existence of hierarchical error processing systems in monkeys, and the degree of response control associated with the saccade. Error-related potential amplitudes were also correlated with remedial action, in a rule-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that error-related potentials in macaque monkeys and human subjects show important similarities, thus supporting the use of the macaque monkey as an animal model for the neurophysiological study of performance monitoring, and potentially, post-error adjustments.

  18. Monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch by microdialysis sampling coupled on-line to anion exchange chromatography and integrated pulsed electrochemical detection using post-column switching

    SciTech Connect

    Torto, N.; Gorton, L.; Emneus, J.; Laurell, T.; Marko-Varga, G.; Akerberg, C.; Zacchi, G. |

    1997-12-05

    A quantitative evaluation of the hydrolysis of wheat starch using Termamyl, a thermostable {alpha}-amylase, is reported. Data from the monitoring of the hydrolysis of wheat starch indicated that, after 1 h, glucose and maltooligosaccharides up to DP 7 were the main hydrolysis products and thus enabled optimization of a liquefaction step during the production of L-lactic acid. The monitoring system used, both in the on- and off-line mode, was based on continuous flow microdialysis sampling (CFMS) coupled to anion exchange chromatography and integrated pulsed electrochemical detection (IPED). A microdialysis probe equipped with a 5-mm polysulfone (SPS 4005) membrane, with a molecular-weight cut-off of 5 kDa, was used to sample the hydrolysis products of native wheat starch at 90 C. Characteristic fingerpoint separations were achieved by anion exchange chromatography after enzymatic hydrolysis. Post-column switching improved the detection and, consequently, also quantification of the hydrolysates as fouling of the electrode could be reduced. Maltooligosaccharide standards were used for quantification and to verify the elution of the hydrolysates by spiking the off-line samples.

  19. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2014-01-31

    Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg(2+)), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg(2+) by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T(25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg(2+) ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg(2+) ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH4 and Ru(NH3)6(3+) for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg(2+) level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000nM Hg(2+). The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg(2+) against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg(2+) in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9-113.8%. PMID:24439499

  20. Electrochemistry of conductive polymers 37. Nanoscale monitoring of electrical properties during electrochemical growth of polypyrrole and its aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Joong; Park, Su-Moon

    2005-07-14

    Electrical and morphological properties of polypyrrole (PPy) films were studied during and after their electrochemical growth under various experimental conditions on a nanometer scale using a current-sensing atomic force microscope (CS-AFM). Of acetonitrile (ACN) solutions containing various amounts of water, one that contained 1.0% water produced the best quality films in their electrical and morphological properties in terms of homogeneities. The degree of doping, as well as time evolution of the film structure and its conductivity, of the PPy films was investigated during their growth in water and ACN with 1.0% water by obtaining the current images at a few designated growing stages, and the results were compared. Well-doped, conductive films were obtained from the very early stage during the electrodeposition of PPy in the ACN solution, while the films were poorly doped in water. As the film deposition progressed further in both aqueous and nonaqueous media, the doped areas spread over the whole surface leading to a more homogeneously conducting film. The current-voltage traces were obtained at each growing stage, which showed that the conductivity increases in both media as the PPy grows; the conductivity of the film grown in ACN is much higher than that of the film grown in water at all growing stages. The electrical properties of the PPy film deteriorated gradually upon exposure to air.

  1. [Intraoperative monitoring: visual evoked potentials in surgery of the sellar region].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, M; Renella, R R

    1989-01-01

    During 18 sellar and perisellar operations the optic tract was monitored by visual evoked potentials (VEP). Deteriorations of the cortical responses were recorded in 73%. In this patients there was no close correlation between the intraoperative findings and the postoperative visual function. Only in those patients who showed no remarkable intraoperative changes VEP seemed to be of reliable prognostic value.

  2. Developmental Changes in Error Monitoring: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of error monitoring. For this purpose, children (age 7-8), young adolescents (age 13-14) and adults (age 23-24) performed a Go/No-Go task and were compared on overt reaction time (RT) performance and on event-related potentials (ERPs), thought to reflect error detection…

  3. Operational Use of the Air Quality Monitor on ISS and Potential for Air Quality Monitoring Onboard Submarines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Jones, Jared; Wallace, William; Mudgett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The air quality monitor (AQM) began operations on the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2013 and was validated for operational use in January 2014. The AQM is a gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer that currently monitors 22 target compounds in the ISS atmosphere. Data are collected twice per week, although data collection can be more frequent in contingency situations. In its second year, the AQM has provided data to decision-makers on several ISS contaminant related issues in both air and water. AQM has been used in strictly air incidents, such as a potential ammonia leak, and to investigate air contaminants affecting the water processing (excess ethanol). In the latter case data from water monitors and AQM were compared to understand the issue with the water processor. Additionally, the AQM has been moved to different ISS modules to determine whether air is sufficiently mixed between modules so that a central LAB module location is representative of the entire ISS atmosphere. Historic data on the ISS atmosphere in different modules from archival samples (ground lab analysis) suggest that the atmosphere is usually homogenous. This presentation will briefly describe the technical aspects of the AQM operations and summarize the validation results. The main focus of the presentation will be to discuss the results from the AQM survey of the ISS modules and to show how the AQM data has contributed to an understanding of environmental issues that have arisen on ISS. Presentation of a potential ammonia leak (indicated by an alarm) in 2015 will illustrate the use and value of the AQM in such situations.

  4. [Electrochemical methods for biomedical investigations].

    PubMed

    Shumyantseva, V V; Bulko, T V; Suprun, E V; Kuzikov, A V; Agafonova, L E; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    In the review, authors discussed recently published experimental data concerning highly sensitive electrochemical methods and technologies for biomedical investigations in the postgenomic era. Developments in electrochemical biosensors systems for the analysis of various bio objects are also considered: cytochrome P450s, cardiac markers, bacterial cells, the analysis of proteins based on electro oxidized amino acids as a tool for analysis of conformational events. The electroanalysis of catalytic activity of cytochromes P450 allowed developing system for screening of potential substrates, inhibitors or modulators of catalytic functions of this class of hemoproteins. The highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been developed for analysis of bio affinity interactions of antibodies with troponin I in plasma. The QCM technique allowed real-time monitoring of the kinetic differences in specific interactions and nonspecific sorption, with out multiple labeling procedures and separation steps. The affinity binding process was characterized by the association (ka) and the dissociation (kd) kinetic constants and the equilibrium association (K) constant, calculated using experimental data. Based on the electroactivity of bacterial cells, the electrochemical system for determination of sensitivity of the microbial cells to antibiotics cefepime, ampicillin, amikacin, and erythromycin was proposed. It was shown that the minimally detectable cell number corresponds to 106 CFU per electrode. The electrochemical method allows estimating the degree of E.coli JM109 cells resistance to antibiotics within 2-5 h. Electrosynthesis of polymeric analogs of antibodies for myoglobin (molecularly imprinted polymer, MIP) on the surface of graphite screen-printed electrodes as sensor elements with o- phenylenediamine as the functional monomer was developed. Molecularly imprinted polymers demonstrate selective complementary binding of a template protein molecule

  5. Ion and gas chromatography mass spectrometry investigations of organophosphates in lithium ion battery electrolytes by electrochemical aging at elevated cathode potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Waldemar; Wagner, Ralf; Streipert, Benjamin; Kraft, Vadim; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical aging of commercial non-aqueous lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)/organic carbonate solvent based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of ionic and non-ionic alkylated phosphates. Subject was a solvent mixture of ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate EC:EMC (1:1, by wt.) with 1 M LiPF6 (LP50 Selectilyte™, BASF). The analysis was carried out by ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for ionic compounds and (headspace) gas chromatography mass spectrometry ((HS)-GC-MS) for non-ionic compounds. The electrochemical aging was performed by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and potentiostatic experiments with LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO) as cathode material at increased cut-off potentials (>4.5 V vs. Li/Li+). A strong dependence of the formation of organophosphates on the applied electrode potential was observed and investigated by quantitative analysis of the formed phosphates. In addition, new possible "fingerprint" compounds for describing the electrolyte status were investigated and compared to existing compounds.

  6. Potential for the Use of Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring of CO2 Leakage Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, R.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Han, Q.; Jayasumana, A.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of supercritical CO2 in deep saline geologic formation is under study as a means to mitigate potential global climate change from green house gas loading to the atmosphere. Leakage of CO2 from these formations poses risk to the storage permanence goal of 99% of injected CO2 remaining sequestered from the atmosphere,. Leaked CO2 that migrates into overlying groundwater aquifers may cause changes in groundwater quality that pose risks to environmental and human health. For these reasons, technologies for monitoring, measuring and accounting of injected CO2 are necessary for permitting of CO2 sequestration projects under EPA's class VI CO2 injection well regulations. While the probability of leakage related to CO2 injection is thought to be small at characterized and permitted sites, it is still very important to protect the groundwater resources and develop methods that can efficiently and accurately detect CO2 leakage. Methods that have been proposed for leakage detection include remote sensing, soil gas monitoring, geophysical techniques, pressure monitoring, vegetation stress and eddy covariance measurements. We have demonstrated the use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) for monitoring of subsurface contaminant plumes. The adaptability of this technology for leakage monitoring of CO2 through geochemical changes in the shallow subsurface is explored. For this technology to be viable, it is necessary to identify geochemical indicators such as pH or electrical conductivity that have high potential for significant change in groundwater in the event of CO2 leakage. This talk presents a conceptual approach to use WSNs for CO2 leakage monitoring. Based on our past work on the use of WSN for subsurface monitoring, some of the challenges that need to be over come for this technology to be viable for leakage detection will be discussed.

  7. Investigating the Potential Use of Environmental DNA (eDNA) for Genetic Monitoring of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sveegaard, Signe; Wahlberg, Magnus; Kielgast, Jos; Kyhn, Line A.; Salling, Andreas B.; Galatius, Anders; Orlando, Ludovic; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of non-invasive samples has been widely used in genetic monitoring of terrestrial species. In aquatic ecosystems, non-invasive samples such as feces, shed hair or skin, are less accessible. However, the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been shown to be an effective tool for genetic monitoring of species presence in freshwater ecosystems. Detecting species in the marine environment using eDNA potentially offers a greater challenge due to the greater dilution, amount of mixing and salinity compared with most freshwater ecosystems. To determine the potential use of eDNA for genetic monitoring we used specific primers that amplify short mitochondrial DNA sequences to detect the presence of a marine mammal, the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in a controlled environment and in natural marine locations. The reliability of the genetic detections was investigated by comparing with detections of harbor porpoise echolocation clicks by static acoustic monitoring devices. While we were able to consistently genetically detect the target species under controlled conditions, the results from natural locations were less consistent and detection by eDNA was less successful than acoustic detections. However, at one site we detected long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, a species rarely sighted in the Baltic. Therefore, with optimization aimed towards processing larger volumes of seawater this method has the potential to compliment current visual and acoustic methods of species detection of marine mammals. PMID:22952587

  8. Clinical Utility and Limitations of Intraoperative Monitoring of Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yeda; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver; Sarnthein, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives During surgeries that put the visual pathway at risk of injury, continuous monitoring of the visual function is desirable. However, the intraoperative monitoring of the visual evoked potential (VEP) is not yet widely used. We evaluate here the clinical utility of intraoperative VEP monitoring. Methods We analyzed retrospectively 46 consecutive surgeries in 2011-2013. High luminance stimulating devices delivered flash stimuli on the closed eyelid during intravenous anesthesia. We monitored VEP features N75 and P100 and took patients' preoperative and postoperative visual function from patient charts. Postoperative ophthalmologic workup was performed in 25 (54%) patients and preoperatively in 28 (61%) patients. Results VEP recordings were feasible in 62 of 85 eyes (73%) in 46 patients. All 23 eyes without VEP had impaired vision. During surgery, VEPs remained stable throughout surgery in 50 eyes. In 44 of these, visual function did not deteriorate and three patients (6 eyes) developed hemianopia. VEP decreased transiently in 10 eyes and visual function of all was preserved. VEPs were lost permanently in 2 eyes in two patients without new postoperative visual impairment. Conclusions Satisfactory intraoperative VEP monitoring was feasible in all patients except in those with severe visual impairment. Preservation of VEPs predicted preserved visual function. During resection of lesions in the visual cortex, VEP monitoring could not detect new major visual field defects due to injury in the posterior visual pathway. Intraoperative VEPs were sensitive enough to detect vascular damage during aneurysm clipping and mechanical manipulation of the anterior visual pathway in an early reversible stage. Intraoperative VEP monitoring influenced surgical decisions in selected patients and proved to be a useful supplement to the toolbox of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. PMID:25803287

  9. Interface potential sensing from adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on carbon nanotube (CNT) monitored by zero current potentiometry for HSA determination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yi; Song, Jun-Feng

    2015-10-15

    In this work, the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bare multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) was investigated by a new electrochemical method, termed as zero current potentiometry. For this, a MWNT strip was prepared by directly adhering MWNTs on the transparent adhesive tape surface. Moreover, when HSA adsorbed onto MWNT at the MWNT/solution interface, an interface potential Ψ yielded. The interface potential Ψ as the zero current potential Ezcp simply related to it was monitored by zero current potentiometry. The relationship between the zero current potential Ezcp, the HSA concentration and others was established in simple stoichiometric relation. Based on this, both the adsorption of HSA on MWNT and the HSA determination can be studied. For the HSA determination, the theoretic conclusion consisted with experimental results. The zero current potential Ezcp was proportional to the HSA concentration in the range of 2.8 × 10(-8) - 3.4 × 10(-7)M with the limit of detection 2 × 10(-8)M. The linear regression equation was Ezcp/V (vs, SCE) = (0.159 ± 0.01) + (0.358 ± 0.02) × 10(6)CHSA (µM). This determination was fast, high sensitive and good selective.

  10. ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATIONOF 2-CHLOROBIPHENYL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents electrochemical dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CI BP) in aqueous environment using palladium modified granular graphite electrodes. 2-CI BP, the PCB congener that requires the highest reduction potential, was effectively dechlorinated in electrochemical...

  11. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements. PMID:25939038

  12. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements.

  13. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jules L.; Formisano, Nello; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications–in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market. In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking. PMID:27365037

  14. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Jules L; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-06-30

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications-in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market.In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking.

  15. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Jules L; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-06-30

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications-in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market.In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking. PMID:27365037

  16. Ground-coupled airwaves at Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, and their potential for eruption monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cassandra M.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Thompson, Glenn

    2016-07-01

    An abnormally high number of explosion quakes were noted during the monitoring effort for the 2007 eruption of Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. In this study, we manually cataloged the explosion quakes from their characteristic ground-coupled airwaves. This study investigates how the ground-coupled airwaves might be used in a monitoring or analysis effort by estimating energy release and gas mass release. Over 3 × 104 quakes were recorded. The energy release from the explosions is approximated to be 3 × 1011 J, and the total gas mass (assuming 100 % water) released was 450 t. The tracking of explosion quakes has the potential to estimate relative eruption intensity as a function of time and is thus a useful component of a seismic monitoring program.

  17. Real-time monitoring of superoxide accumulation and antioxidant activity in a brain slice model using an electrochemical cytochrome c biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Erlichman, Joseph S; Andreescu, Silvana

    2012-12-15

    The overproduction of reactive oxygen species and the resulting damage are central to the pathology of many diseases. The study of the temporal and spatial accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been limited because of the lack of specific probes and techniques capable of continuous measurement. We demonstrate the use of a miniaturized electrochemical cytochrome c (Cyt c) biosensor for real-time measurements and quantitative assessment of superoxide production and inactivation by natural and engineered antioxidants in acutely prepared brain slices from mice. Under control conditions, superoxide radicals produced from the hippocampal region of the brain in 400-μm-thick sections were well within the range of detection of the electrode. Exposure of the slices to ischemic conditions increased the superoxide production twofold and measurements from the slices were stable over a 3- to 4-h period. The stilbene derivative and anion channel inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic stilbene markedly reduced the extracellular superoxide signal under control conditions, suggesting that a transmembrane flux of superoxide into the extracellular space may occur as part of normal redox signaling. The specificity of the electrode for superoxide released by cells in the hippocampus was verified by the exogenous addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which decreased the superoxide signal in a dose-dependent manner. Similar results were seen with the addition of the SOD mimetic cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), in that the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of nanoceria with an average diameter of 15 nm was equivalent to 527 U of SOD for each 1 μg/ml of nanoceria added. This study demonstrates the potential of electrochemical biosensors for studying real-time dynamics of reactive oxygen species in a biological model and the utility of these measurements in defining the relative contribution of superoxide to oxidative injury. PMID:23085519

  18. Real-time monitoring of superoxide accumulation and antioxidant activity in a brain slice model using an electrochemical cytochrome c biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The overproduction of reactive oxygen species and resulting damage are central to the pathology of many diseases. The study of the temporal and spatial accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been limited due to the lack of specific probes and techniques capable of continuous measurement. We demonstrate the use of a miniaturized electrochemical cytochrome C (Cyt C) biosensor for real-time measurements and quantitative assessment of superoxide production and inactivation by natural and engineered antioxidants in acutely prepared brain slices from mice. During control conditions, superoxide radicals produced from the hippocampal region of the brain in 400 μm thick sections were well within the range of detection of the electrode. Exposure of the slices to ischemic conditions increased the superoxide production two fold and measurements from the slices were stable over a 3–4 hour period. The stilbene derivative and anion channel inhibitor, 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-disulfonic stilbene (DIDS), markedly reduced the extracellular superoxide signal under control conditions suggesting that a transmembrane flux of superoxide into the extracellular space may occur as part of normal redox signaling. The specificity of the electrode for superoxide released by cells in the hippocampus was verified by the exogenous addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) which decreased the superoxide signal in a dose-dependent manner. Similar results were seen with the addition of the SOD-mimetic, cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) where the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of nanoceria with an average diameter of 15 nm was equivalent to 527 U of SOD for each 1 μg/ml of nanoceria added. This study demonstrates the potential of electrochemical biosensors for studying real-time dynamics of reactive oxygen species in a biological model and the utility of these measurements in defining the relative contribution of superoxide to oxidative injury. PMID:23085519

  19. Real-time monitoring of hydrogen peroxide consumption in an oxidation reaction in molecular solvent and ionic liquids by a hydrogen peroxide electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Sordi, Daniela; Arduini, Fabiana; Conte, Valeria; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2011-06-20

    An efficient electrochemical protocol to monitor hydrogen peroxide consumption during metal-catalyzed oxidation by using screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian blue is presented. In particular, cyclooctene oxidation to cyclooctene oxide, catalyzed by a vanadium(V)-salophen complex (H(2)salophen=N,N'-o-phenylenebis(salicylideneimine)), in molecular and ionic media was tested. Initially, a protocol for batch analysis was developed for a monophasic system in acetonitrile, and subsequently, an in situ protocol was developed for a biphasic system of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate/phosphate buffer. Calibration curves were performed in amperometric mode by applying -50 mV versus an Ag pseudo-reference. The calibration curve of hydrogen peroxide showed a linear correlation from 1 × 10(-6) up to 5 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) with satisfactory inter- and intra-electrode reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 5 and 13%, respectively, for the monophasic system and 11 and 13%, respectively, for the biphasic system). Kinetic studies to investigate the oxidation reaction for both the mono- and biphasic systems have been carried out in amperometric mode as well. Firstly, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was examined, which showed that, in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate(,) it completely decomposed in 300 min, whereas in acetonitrile, in the same time frame, 20% of the initial amount was still active. In the presence of 1% of the catalyst the decomposition rate increased in both solvents. Finally, the complete oxidation of cyclooctene was followed and the effective conversion was determined. The developed protocols showed high reproducibility, with the advantage that the environmentally friendly biphasic system could also be recycled. The good analytical performance obtained, coupled with a short analysis time, the possibility of in-line automation and the use of ionic liquids instead of molecular solvents, made this

  20. Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion

    PubMed Central

    Hoban, Sean; Arntzen, Jan A; Bruford, Michael W; Godoy, José A; Rus Hoelzel, A; Segelbacher, Gernot; Vilà, Carles; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of temporal samples) for monitoring genetic erosion following demographic decline. To do so, we utilized individual-based simulations featuring an array of different initial population sizes, types and severity of demographic decline, and DNA markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites] as well as decline followed by recovery. Number of alleles markedly outperformed other indicators across all situations. The type and severity of demographic decline strongly affected power, while the number and arrangement of temporal samples had small effect. Sampling 50 individuals at as few as two time points with 20 microsatellites performed well (good power), and could detect genetic erosion while 80–90% of diversity remained. This sampling and genotyping effort should often be affordable. Power increased substantially with more samples or markers, and we observe that power of 2500 SNPs was nearly equivalent to 250 microsatellites, a result of theoretical and practical interest. Our results suggest high potential for using historic collections in monitoring programs, and demonstrate the need to monitor genetic as well as other levels of biodiversity. PMID:25553062

  1. The potential of incorporation of binary salts and ionic liquid in P(VP-co-VAc) gel polymer electrolyte in electrochemical and photovoltaic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Ng Hon; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been assembled with poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (P(VP-co-VAc)) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which have been incorporated with binary salt and an ionic liquid. The potential of this combination was studied and reported. The binary salt system GPEs was having ionic conductivity and power conversion efficiency (PCE) that could reach up to 1.90 × 10‑3 S cm‑1 and 5.53%, respectively. Interestingly, upon the addition of the ionic liquid, MPII into the binary salt system the ionic conductivity and PCE had risen steadily up to 4.09 × 10‑3 S cm‑1 and 5.94%, respectively. In order to know more about this phenomenon, the electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) of the GPE samples have been done and reported. Fourier transform infrared studies (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) have also been studied to understand more on the structural and thermal properties of the GPEs. The Nyquist plot and Bodes plot studies have been done in order to understand the electrochemical properties of the GPE based DSSCs and Tafel polarization studies were done to determine the electrocatalytic activity of the GPE samples.

  2. The potential of incorporation of binary salts and ionic liquid in P(VP-co-VAc) gel polymer electrolyte in electrochemical and photovoltaic performances

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ng Hon; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been assembled with poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (P(VP-co-VAc)) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which have been incorporated with binary salt and an ionic liquid. The potential of this combination was studied and reported. The binary salt system GPEs was having ionic conductivity and power conversion efficiency (PCE) that could reach up to 1.90 × 10−3 S cm−1 and 5.53%, respectively. Interestingly, upon the addition of the ionic liquid, MPII into the binary salt system the ionic conductivity and PCE had risen steadily up to 4.09 × 10−3 S cm−1 and 5.94%, respectively. In order to know more about this phenomenon, the electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) of the GPE samples have been done and reported. Fourier transform infrared studies (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) have also been studied to understand more on the structural and thermal properties of the GPEs. The Nyquist plot and Bodes plot studies have been done in order to understand the electrochemical properties of the GPE based DSSCs and Tafel polarization studies were done to determine the electrocatalytic activity of the GPE samples. PMID:27273020

  3. The potential of incorporation of binary salts and ionic liquid in P(VP-co-VAc) gel polymer electrolyte in electrochemical and photovoltaic performances.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ng Hon; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been assembled with poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (P(VP-co-VAc)) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which have been incorporated with binary salt and an ionic liquid. The potential of this combination was studied and reported. The binary salt system GPEs was having ionic conductivity and power conversion efficiency (PCE) that could reach up to 1.90 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) and 5.53%, respectively. Interestingly, upon the addition of the ionic liquid, MPII into the binary salt system the ionic conductivity and PCE had risen steadily up to 4.09 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) and 5.94%, respectively. In order to know more about this phenomenon, the electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) of the GPE samples have been done and reported. Fourier transform infrared studies (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) have also been studied to understand more on the structural and thermal properties of the GPEs. The Nyquist plot and Bodes plot studies have been done in order to understand the electrochemical properties of the GPE based DSSCs and Tafel polarization studies were done to determine the electrocatalytic activity of the GPE samples. PMID:27273020

  4. Potential of APDM mobility lab for the monitoring of the progression of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2016-05-01

    APDM's Mobility Lab system provides portable, validated, reliable, objective measures of balance and gait that are sensitive to Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we describe the potential of objective measures collected with the Mobility Lab system for tracking longitudinal progression of PD. Balance and gait are among the most important motor impairments influencing quality of life for people with PD. Mobility Lab uses body-worn, Opal sensors on the legs, trunk and arms during prescribed tasks, such as the instrumented Get Up and Go test or quiet stance, to quickly quantify the quality of balance and gait in the clinical environment. The same Opal sensors can be sent home with patients to continuously monitor the quality of their daily activities. Objective measures have the potential to monitor progression of mobility impairments in PD throughout its course to improve patient care and accelerate clinical trials. PMID:26872510

  5. Potential of APDM mobility lab for the monitoring of the progression of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2016-05-01

    APDM's Mobility Lab system provides portable, validated, reliable, objective measures of balance and gait that are sensitive to Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we describe the potential of objective measures collected with the Mobility Lab system for tracking longitudinal progression of PD. Balance and gait are among the most important motor impairments influencing quality of life for people with PD. Mobility Lab uses body-worn, Opal sensors on the legs, trunk and arms during prescribed tasks, such as the instrumented Get Up and Go test or quiet stance, to quickly quantify the quality of balance and gait in the clinical environment. The same Opal sensors can be sent home with patients to continuously monitor the quality of their daily activities. Objective measures have the potential to monitor progression of mobility impairments in PD throughout its course to improve patient care and accelerate clinical trials.

  6. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  7. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard J; Cummings, K Michael; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N; Norton, Kaila J; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Shields, Peter G

    2009-12-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduced exposure products (PREP) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state, or national levels in the United States has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This article critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. With the absence of regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs.

  8. Estimation and Monitoring of Wind/Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Galanis, George; Emmanouil, George; Emmanouil, George; Hayes, Dan; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Georgiou, Georgios; Kalogeri, Christina; Kallos, George

    2013-04-01

    Τhe adaptation and use of innovative methodologies for the exploitation of renewable energy marine resources is one of the main issues today for the environmental science community. Within this framework, the exploitation of wind and wave energy potential for coastal and island states seems to be one of the promising solutions and highly interesting from research and technological point of view. In this work, the activities of two projects focusing on the study of wind/wave energy over the area of Eastern Mediterranean Sea are presented. The "Integrated High Resolution System for Monitoring and Quantifying the Wave Energy Potential in the EEZ of Cyprus" (Ewave project) focuses on the estimation, monitoring and forecasting of the wave energy potential over the Levantine Basin with special emphasis to the Exclusive Economical Zone of Cyprus, while the "Development and application of new mathematical and physical models for Monitoring the wind and Sea wave Energy Potential" (MOSEP project) is a platform for developing new mathematical algorithms for the estimation of the wave energy over the Aegean Sea. In both projects, high resolution digital atlases of sea wave/wind climatological characteristics and the distribution of the wind and wave energy potential are developed for the coastal and offshore areas of the East Mediterranean sea . Moreover, new models for the prediction and quantification of wave energy in short and long forecast horizons are proposed. Statistical results concerning the probability density functions of the wind speed, the significant wave height, as well as the energy potential will be presented for selected sea areas in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, while test case studies in certain regions favor to wind/wave renewable energy will be discussed.

  9. Data Acquisition System for In Situ Monitoring of Chemoelectrical Potential in Living Plant Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Ying Ying

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis process in plants generates numerous sources of bioenergy. However, only a small fraction is readily exploited for electrical energy. The impact of environmental factors is one of the significant physiological influences on the electrical potential of the plants. Hence, we developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system for instantaneous monitoring of electrical potential in plants and Aloe vera was used as a plant sample. The static response characterization, capability index (P/T), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation procedures were applied to assess the reliability of the obtained data. This developed system offers the capability of in situ monitoring and detecting gradual changes in the electrical potential of plants up to a correlational strength of greater than 0.7. Interpretation of the electrical signal mechanisms in the Aloe vera plant and the optimization of the electricity can be achieved through the application of this monitoring system. This system, therefore, can serve as a tool to measure and analyze the electrical signals in plants at different conditions. PMID:27660638

  10. Data Acquisition System for In Situ Monitoring of Chemoelectrical Potential in Living Plant Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Ying Ying

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis process in plants generates numerous sources of bioenergy. However, only a small fraction is readily exploited for electrical energy. The impact of environmental factors is one of the significant physiological influences on the electrical potential of the plants. Hence, we developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system for instantaneous monitoring of electrical potential in plants and Aloe vera was used as a plant sample. The static response characterization, capability index (P/T), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation procedures were applied to assess the reliability of the obtained data. This developed system offers the capability of in situ monitoring and detecting gradual changes in the electrical potential of plants up to a correlational strength of greater than 0.7. Interpretation of the electrical signal mechanisms in the Aloe vera plant and the optimization of the electricity can be achieved through the application of this monitoring system. This system, therefore, can serve as a tool to measure and analyze the electrical signals in plants at different conditions.

  11. Data Acquisition System for In Situ Monitoring of Chemoelectrical Potential in Living Plant Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Chee, Fuei Pien; Chen, Cheng Ann; Chang, Jackson Hian Wui; Choo, Ying Ying; Dayou, Jedol

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis process in plants generates numerous sources of bioenergy. However, only a small fraction is readily exploited for electrical energy. The impact of environmental factors is one of the significant physiological influences on the electrical potential of the plants. Hence, we developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system for instantaneous monitoring of electrical potential in plants and Aloe vera was used as a plant sample. The static response characterization, capability index (P/T), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation procedures were applied to assess the reliability of the obtained data. This developed system offers the capability of in situ monitoring and detecting gradual changes in the electrical potential of plants up to a correlational strength of greater than 0.7. Interpretation of the electrical signal mechanisms in the Aloe vera plant and the optimization of the electricity can be achieved through the application of this monitoring system. This system, therefore, can serve as a tool to measure and analyze the electrical signals in plants at different conditions. PMID:27660638

  12. Estimation and Monitoring of Wind-Wave energy potential over the Greek seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanouil, G.; Galanis, G.; Zodiatis, G.; Kalogeri, C.

    2013-12-01

    The exploitation of renewable energy resources is today on the top of the interest for the environmental and political community. In particular, wind and wave energy seems to be promising solutions with great potential from research and technological point of view. This kind of energy is mostly a matter of coastal and island countries, like Greece. In this work, the first results of a project whose main target is the development of an integrated, high resolution system for quantifying and monitoring the energy potential from wind and sea waves in the region of Eastern Mediterranean Sea, with special emphasis to the Greek area, are presented. More specifically, the models for the estimation of the energy potential, from wind and waves over sea areas, will be discussed. Moreover, atmospheric and sea wave numerical models used for the simulation of the environmental parameters that directly affect the wind-wave energy potential will be evaluated. Based on these tools, high resolution maps for the coastal and offshore areas of Greece will be produced, in which sea wave and wind climatological characteristics as well as the relevant distribution of the wave energy potential will be monitoring.

  13. Basic Principles and Recent Trends of Transcranial Motor Evoked Potentials in Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-15

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs), which are muscle action potentials elicited by transcranial brain stimulation, have been the most popular method for the last decade to monitor the functional integrity of the motor system during surgery. It was originally difficult to record reliable and reproducible potentials under general anesthesia, especially when inhalation-based anesthetic agents that suppressed the firing of anterior horn neurons were used. Advances in anesthesia, including the introduction of intravenous anesthetic agents, and progress in stimulation techniques, including the use of pulse trains, improved the reliability and reproducibility of TcMEP responses. However, TcMEPs are much smaller in amplitude compared with compound muscle action potentials evoked by maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, and vary from one trial to another in clinical practice, suggesting that only a limited number of spinal motor neurons innervating the target muscle are excited in anesthetized patients. Therefore, reliable interpretation of the critical changes in TcMEPs remains difficult and controversial. Additionally, false negative cases have been occasionally encountered. Recently, several facilitative techniques using central or peripheral stimuli, preceding transcranial electrical stimulation, have been employed to achieve sufficient depolarization of motor neurons and augment TcMEP responses. These techniques might have potentials to improve the reliability of intraoperative motor pathway monitoring using TcMEPs. PMID:26935781

  14. Prolonged applied potential to anode facilitate selective enrichment of bio-electrochemically active Proteobacteria for mediating electron transfer: microbial dynamics and bio-catalytic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kannaiah Goud, R; Mohan, S Venkata

    2013-06-01

    Prolonged application of poised potential to anode was evaluated to understand the influence of applied potentials [500 mV (E500); 1000 mV (E1000); 2000 mV (E2000)] on bio-electrogenic activity of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and the resulting dynamics in microbial community in comparison to control operation. E1000 system documented higher electrogenic activity (309 mW/m(2)) followed by E500 (143 mW/m(2)), E2000 (112 mW/m(2)) and control (65 mW/m(2)) operations. The improved power output at optimum applied potential (1000mV) might be attributed to the enrichment of electrochemically active bacteria majorly belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria with less extent of Firmicutes which helped in effective electron (mediated) transfer through release of exogenous shuttlers. Improved bio-electrogenic activity due to enrichment at 1000mV applied potential also correlated well with the observed cyctochrome-c peaks on the voltamatogram, lower ion ohmic losses and bio-electro kinetic analysis. Electric-shock at higher applied potential (E2000) resulted in the survival of less number of microbial species leading to lower electrogenesis.

  15. Fluid flow monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs using downhole measurements of streaming potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. D.; Saunders, J. H.; Vinogradov, J.; Jaafar, M. Z.; Pain, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    Downhole measurements of streaming potential, using permanently installed electrodes, are a promising new technology for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring, and may also be used to characterize fluid flow in aquifers and during CO2 sequestration. We have used a combination of laboratory experiments and numerical modeling to investigate the behavior of the streaming potential during hydrocarbon production in a range of reservoir environments. We demonstrate that streaming potential signals originate at water-oil and water-gas fronts, and at geological boundaries, where water saturation changes. As water encroaches on a production well, the streaming potential signal associated with the waterfront reaches the well whilst the front is up to 100m away, so the potential measured at the well starts to change relative to a reference electrode. The encroaching water can therefore be detected at some distance from the well, which contrasts with most other downhole monitoring techniques. Variations in the geometry of the encroaching waterfront may be characterized using an array of electrodes positioned along the well, but an understanding of the local reservoir geology is required to distinguish signals caused by the moving front, from those caused by saturation changes at geological boundaries. To interpret streaming potential measurements requires knowledge of the streaming potential coupling coefficient during multiphase flow of oil and/or gas, and brine which may be highly saline. We have measured the coupling coefficient in sandstone cores saturated with high salinity brine and find that it decreases with increasing brine salinity, but less rapidly than predicted by extrapolating historical data obtained in the low salinity range. The coupling coefficient is small, but still measurable, even when the brine salinity approaches the saturated concentration limit. We have used a simple bundle-of-capillary-tubes model to predict the variation in streaming potential coupling

  16. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Space: Status and Potential for Carbon Cycle Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanter, L.; Koehler, P.; Walther, S.; Zhang, Y.; Joiner, J.; Frankenberg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross primary production (GPP), or the amount of atmospheric CO2 fixed by vegetation through photosynthesis, represents the largest carbon flux between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Despite its importance, large-scale estimates of GPP remain highly uncertain for some terrestrial ecosystems. In this context, measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which is emitted in the 650-850nm spectral range by the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants, have the potential to provide a new view on vegetation photosynthesis. Global monitoring of SIF from space have been achieved in the last years by means of a number of atmospheric spectrometers, which have turned out to provide the necessary spectral and radiometric sensitivity for SIF retrieval. The first global measurements of SIF were achieved in 2011 from spectra acquired by the Japanese GOSAT mission. This breakthorugh was followed by retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instruments onboard MetOp-A and MetOp-B, which enable a continuous spatial sampling, and lately from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY. This observational scenario is completed by the first SIF data from the NASA-JPL OCO-2 mission (launched in July 2014) and the upcoming Copernicus' Sentinel 5-Precursor to be launched by early 2016. OCO-2 and TROPOMI offer the possibility of monitoring SIF globally with a 100-fold improvement in spatial and temporal resolution with respect to GOSAT, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY.In this contribution, we will provide an overview of global SIF monitoring and will illustrate the potential of SIF data to improve our knowledge of vegetation photosynthesis and GPP at the synoptic scale. We will show examples of ongoing research exploiting SIF data for an improved monitoring of photosynthetic activity at different ecosystems, highlighting the usefulness of SIF to constrain estimates of CO2 uptake by vegetation through photosynthesis.

  17. A very low potential electrochemical detection of L-cysteine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes/gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco de Assis dos Santos; da Silva, Monique Gabriella Angelo; Lima, Phabyanno Rodrigues; Meneghetti, Mario Roberto; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-12-15

    A nanohybrid platform built with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanorods, prepared via a cationic surfactant-containing seed-mediated sequential growth process, in aqueous solution, on a glassy carbon substrate has been successfully developed to be used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine (Cys). The nanohybrid was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Cyclic voltammetry results had shown that the modified electrode allows the oxidation of Cys at a very low anodic potential (0.00 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The kinetic constant kcat for the catalytic oxidation of Cys was evaluated by chronoamperometry and provided a value of 5.6×10(4) L mol(-1) s(-1). The sensor presents a linear response range from 5.0 up to 200.0 µmol L(-1), detection limit of 8.25 nmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 120 nA L µmol(-1).

  18. Sensitive electrochemical detection of NADH and ethanol at low potential based on pyrocatechol violet electrodeposited on single walled carbon nanotubes-modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Shan, Dan; Yuan, Pei-Xin; Zhang, Xue-Ji

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the electrodeposition of pyrocatechol violet (PCV) was initially investigated by the electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (ESPR) technique. Subsequently, PCV was used as redox-mediator and was electrodeposited on the surface of pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Owing to the remarkable synergistic effect of SWCNTs and PCV, PGE/SWCNTs/PCV exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation at low potential (0.2V vs. SCE) with fast amperometric response (<10s), broad linear range (1.3-280 μM), good sensitivity (146.2 μA mM(-1)cm(-2)) and low detection limit (1.3 μM) at signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Thus, this PGE/SWCNTs/PCV could be further used to fabricate a sensitive and economic ethanol biosensor using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) via a glutaraldehyde/BSA cross-linking procedure.

  19. Novel room temperature synthesis of ZnO nanosheets, characterization and potentials in light harvesting applications and electrochemical devices.

    PubMed

    Mansournia, Mohammadreza; Rafizadeh, Somayeh; Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S Mostafa; Motaghedifard, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanosheets (ZnONSs) were successfully synthesized using Zn(NO3)2·4H2O as the starting reagent in ammonia atmosphere at room temperature by a novel gas-solution precipitation method. XRD and EDS patterns indicated that pure ZnONSs were produced only in 15min reaction time. Besides, investigating the optical properties of the as-prepared ZnO nanosheets using UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) exhibited their semiconducting property by revealing one optical band gap in 3.3eV. Moreover, rhodamine B and methylene blue degradation were used as a probe reaction to test the as-synthesized ZnONSs photoactivity. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism for ZnONSs formation was discussed. On the other hand, operation of ZnONSs in Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was investigated by current density-voltage (Jsc-Voc) curve. Finally, a pencil graphite electrode was decorated using ZnONSs and pure MWCNT to provide an electrochemical device for Pb(+2) ions sensing. This modified electrode showed agreeable responses to trace amounts of Pb(+2) in NaOAC/HOAC buffer solutions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.112nmolL(-1) for Pb(+2). PMID:27157756

  20. Novel room temperature synthesis of ZnO nanosheets, characterization and potentials in light harvesting applications and electrochemical devices.

    PubMed

    Mansournia, Mohammadreza; Rafizadeh, Somayeh; Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S Mostafa; Motaghedifard, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanosheets (ZnONSs) were successfully synthesized using Zn(NO3)2·4H2O as the starting reagent in ammonia atmosphere at room temperature by a novel gas-solution precipitation method. XRD and EDS patterns indicated that pure ZnONSs were produced only in 15min reaction time. Besides, investigating the optical properties of the as-prepared ZnO nanosheets using UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) exhibited their semiconducting property by revealing one optical band gap in 3.3eV. Moreover, rhodamine B and methylene blue degradation were used as a probe reaction to test the as-synthesized ZnONSs photoactivity. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism for ZnONSs formation was discussed. On the other hand, operation of ZnONSs in Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was investigated by current density-voltage (Jsc-Voc) curve. Finally, a pencil graphite electrode was decorated using ZnONSs and pure MWCNT to provide an electrochemical device for Pb(+2) ions sensing. This modified electrode showed agreeable responses to trace amounts of Pb(+2) in NaOAC/HOAC buffer solutions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.112nmolL(-1) for Pb(+2).

  1. Spatial distribution and dynamics of proton conductivity in fuel cell membranes: potential and limitations of electrochemical atomic force microscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, E; Hink, S; Hiesgen, R; Roduner, E

    2011-06-15

    The proton conductivity of a Nafion 112 membrane is measured with a high spatial resolution using electrochemical atomic force microscopy. Image analysis reveals an inhomogeneous conductivity distribution which is attributed to the limited connectivity of hydrophilic domains. This information relates to the micro-morphology which is due to phase separation of the hydrophobic polymer backbone and the hydrophilic pendant groups. The direct images relate to a different length scale and are complementary to the x-ray diffraction investigations which provide only average information. Furthermore, the measured current values reveal an interesting correlation with the size of the conductive areas. A bimodal conductivity distribution suggests that there are different mechanisms which contribute to the proton current in Nafion. Additionally, time dependence in local conductivity is found and interpreted in terms of redistribution of water in the membrane. A statistical analysis of the current distribution is performed and compared with theoretical simulations. Evidence is found for the existence of a critical current density. On a timescale of seconds the response of the conductive network is probed by applying voltage steps to the atomic force microscope tip.

  2. Are new TiNbZr alloys potential substitutes of the Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications? An electrochemical corrosion study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Roselino; Hammer, Peter; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Rocha, Luís Augusto

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the electrochemical behavior of new Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti35Nb10Zr alloys in artificial saliva at 37 °C to verify if they are indicated to be used as biomaterials in dentistry as alternatives to Ti6Al4V alloys in terms of corrosion protection efficiency of the material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were carried out for different periods of time (0.5-216 h) in a three-electrode cell, where the working electrode (Ti alloys) was exposed to artificial saliva at 37 °C. The near-surface region of the alloys was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All alloys exhibited an increase in corrosion potential with the immersion time, indicating the growth and stabilization of the passive film. Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti6Al4V alloys had their EIS results interpreted by a double-layer circuit, while the Ti35Nb10Zr alloy was modeled by a one-layer circuit. In general, the new TiNbZr alloys showed similar behavior to that observed for the Ti6Al4V. XPS results suggest, in the case of the TiNbZr alloys, the presence of a thicker passive layer containing a lower fraction of TiO2 phase than that of Ti6Al4V. After long-term immersion, all alloys develop a calcium phosphate phase on the surface. The new TiNbZr alloys appear as potential candidates to be used as a substitute to Ti6Al4V in the manufacturing of dental implant-abutment sets.

  3. Evaluating the Potential Use of Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture Data for Agricultural Drought Risk Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Moradkhani, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest US has received historically low rainfall and snowpack during winter 2015, with drought emergence declared for both states in spring 2015. To mitigate the impacts of drought vulnerability, an operational near-real-time (NRT) drought monitoring with remote sensing technique is investigated. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential of remotely sensed surface soil moisture data in monitoring agricultural drought over the Columbia River Basin (CRB), Pacific Northwest. Two satellite soil moisture datasets were evaluated, the LPRM-AMSR-E (unscaled, 2002-2011) and ESA-CCI (scaled, 1979-2013). The satellite drought monitoring skill is examined with two indices: drought area coverage (the ability of drought detection) and drought severity (according to USDM categories). The effects of satellite sensors (active, passive), multi-satellite combined, and length of climatology are also examined in this study. In order to improve the remote sensing drought monitoring skill, statistical methods including regionalization, with the concept of "trading space for time"; and also bootstrapping are introduced.

  4. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as “out of body” and “near death experiences,” including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  5. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as "out of body" and "near death experiences," including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  6. Monitoring Genetic and Metabolic Potential for In-Site Bioremediation: Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, M.V.

    2000-07-20

    A number of DOE sites are contaminated with mixtures of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. At many of these sites, in situ microbial bioremediation is an attractive strategy for cleanup, since it has the potential to degrade DNAPLs in situ without the need for pump-and-treat or soil removal procedures, and without producing toxic byproducts. A rapid screening method to determine broad range metabolic and genetic potential for contaminant degradation would greatly reduce the cost and time involved in assessment for in situ bioremediation, as well as for monitoring ongoing bioremediation treatment. The objective of this project was the development of mass-spectrometry-based methods to screen for genetic potential for both assessment and monitoring of in situ bioremediation of DNAPLs. These methods were designed to provide more robust and routine methods for DNA-based characterization of the genetic potential of subsurface microbes for degrading pollutants. Specifically, we sought to (1) Develop gene probes that yield information equivalent to conventional probes, but in a smaller size that is more amenable to mass spectrometric detection, (2) Pursue improvements to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) methodology in order to allow its more general application to gene probe detection, and (3) Increase the throughput of microbial characterization by integrating gene probe preparation, purification, and MALDI-MS analysis.

  7. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  8. On the potential application of land surface models for drought monitoring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Huqiang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Yaohui; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    The potential of using land surface models (LSMs) to monitor near-real-time drought has not been fully assessed in China yet. In this study, we analyze the performance of such a system with a land surface model (LSM) named the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange model (CABLE). The meteorological forcing datasets based on reanalysis products and corrected by observational data have been extended to near-real time for semi-operational trial. CABLE-simulated soil moisture (SM) anomalies are used to characterize drought spatial and temporal evolutions. One outstanding feature in our analysis is that with the same meteorological data, we have calculated a range of drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). We have assessed the similarity among these indices against observed SM over a number of regions in China. While precipitation is the dominant factor in the drought development, relationships between precipitation, evaporation, and soil moisture anomalies vary significantly under different climate regimes, resulting in different characteristics of droughts in China. The LSM-based trial system is further evaluated for the 1997/1998 drought in northern China and 2009/2010 drought in southwestern China. The system can capture the severities and temporal and spatial evolutions of these drought events well. The advantage of using a LSM-based drought monitoring system is further demonstrated by its potential to monitor other consequences of drought impacts in a more physically consistent manner.

  9. Identification and description of potential ground-water quality monitoring wells in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Thagard, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey of existing wells in Florida that meet the following criteria are presented: (1) well location is known , (2) principal aquifer is known, (3) depth of well is known, (4) well casing depth is known, (5) well water had been analyzed between 1970 and 1982, and (6) well data are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) computer files. Information for more than 20,000 wells in Florida were stored in the USGS Master Water Data Index of the National Water Data Exchange and in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System 's Groundwater Site Inventory computerized files in 1982. Wells in these computer files that had been sampled for groundwater quality before November 1982 in Florida number 13,739; 1,846 of these wells met the above criteria and are the potential (or candidate) groundwater quality monitoring wells included in this report. The distribution by principal aquifer of the 1,846 wells identified as potential groundwater quality monitoring wells is as follows: 1,022 tap the Floridan aquifer system, 114 tap the intermediate aquifers, 232 tap the surficial aquifers, 246 tap the Biscayne aquifer, and 232 tap the sand-and-gravel aquifer. These wells are located in 59 of Florida 's 67 counties. This report presents the station descriptions, which include location , site characteristics, period of record, and the type and frequency of chemical water quality data collected for each well. The 1,846 well locations are plotted on 14 USGS 1:250,000 scale, 1 degree by 2 degree, quadrangle maps. This relatively large number of potential (or candidate) monitoring wells, geographically and geohydrologically dispersed, provides a basis for a future groundwater quality monitoring network and computerized data base for Florida. There is a large variety of water quality determinations available from these wells, both areally and temporally. Future sampling of these wells would permit analyses of time and areal trends for selected water quality

  10. Direct Carbon Conversion: Review of Production and Electrochemical Conversion of Reactive Carbons, Economics and Potential Impact on the Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Upadhye, R; Pasternak, A; Steinberg, M

    2000-12-12

    coal, petroleum or natural gas. For coal and lignite, such hydrocarbons may be produced by cyclic hydrogenation (hydropyrolysis), with the recycle of the hydrogen intermediate following pyrolysis. Starting with common CH{sub x} feedstock for carbon black manufacture, the ash entrained into the carbon (<0.03%) does not jeopardize cell life or enter into the economic estimates for power generation. The value of carbon (relative to hydrogen) as an electrochemical fuel derives from thermodynamic aspects of the C/O{sub 2} reaction. First, the entropy change of the C/O{sub 2} reaction is nearly zero, allowing theoretical efficiencies ({Delta}G(T)/{Delta}H{sub i298}) of 100% (cf. H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} theoretical efficiency of 70%). Second, the thermodynamic activity of the carbon fuel and the CO{sub 2} product are spatially and temporally invariant. This allows 100% utilization of the carbon fuel in single pass (cf. hydrogen utilizations of 75-85%). The carbodmelt slurry is non-explosive at operating temperatures. The total energy efficiency for the C/O{sub 2} is roughly 80% for cell operation at practical rates. In summary, what gives this route its fundamental advantage in energy conversion is that it derives the greatest possible fraction of energy of the fossil resource from an electrochemical reaction (C+O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) that is comparatively simple to operate at efficiencies of 80%, in a single-pass cell configuration without bottoming turbine cycles.

  11. Pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes and therapeutic drug monitoring as potential tools for individualizing taxane therapy.

    PubMed

    Krens, Stefanie D; McLeod, Howard L; Hertz, Daniel L

    2013-04-01

    The taxanes are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Although taxanes are highly effective in cancer treatment, their use is associated with serious complications attributable to large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window. Unpredictable toxicity occurrence necessitates close patient monitoring while on therapy and adverse effects frequently require decreasing, delaying or even discontinuing taxane treatment. Currently, taxane dosing is based primarily on body surface area, ignoring other factors that are known to dictate variability in pharmacokinetics or outcome. This article discusses three potential strategies for individualizing taxane treatment based on patient information that can be collected before or during care. The clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes or therapeutic drug monitoring could enable clinicians to personalize taxane treatment to enhance efficacy and/or limit toxicity.

  12. Value of visual evoked potential monitoring during trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Chacko, A G; Babu, K S; Chandy, M J

    1996-06-01

    The visual outcome of 22 patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal excision of pituitary macroadenomas with intraoperative flash visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring (Group A), was compared with a non-randomized group of 14 patients who had undergone similar operations without VEP monitoring (Group B). Tumour size, preoperative visual acuity, peripheral fields, and latencies and amplitudes of P1 and P2 were analysed to ascertain the best predictor of postoperative visual function. It was found that patients in Group A had a significantly greater improvement in field defects than those in Group B. There was no difference in postoperative improvement in visual acuity between the two groups. None of the variables analysed were good predictors of visual outcome.

  13. Beyond measures and monitoring: Realizing the potential of feedback-informed treatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott D; Hubble, Mark A; Chow, Daryl; Seidel, Jason

    2015-12-01

    More than a dozen randomized controlled trials and several meta-analyses have provided strong empirical support for routine outcome monitoring (ROM) in clinical practice. Despite current enthusiasm, advances in implementation, and the growing belief among some proponents and policymakers that ROM represents a major revolution in the practice of psychotherapy, other research has suggested that the focus on measurement and monitoring is in danger of missing the point. Any clinical tool or technology is only as good as the therapist who uses it. Failing to attend to the therapist's contribution, the long neglected variable in psychotherapy outcome, ensures that efforts to create, research, and refine new outcome measurement systems will inevitably fall short. Research from the field of expertise and expert performance provides guidance for realizing the full potential of ROM.

  14. Beyond measures and monitoring: Realizing the potential of feedback-informed treatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott D; Hubble, Mark A; Chow, Daryl; Seidel, Jason

    2015-12-01

    More than a dozen randomized controlled trials and several meta-analyses have provided strong empirical support for routine outcome monitoring (ROM) in clinical practice. Despite current enthusiasm, advances in implementation, and the growing belief among some proponents and policymakers that ROM represents a major revolution in the practice of psychotherapy, other research has suggested that the focus on measurement and monitoring is in danger of missing the point. Any clinical tool or technology is only as good as the therapist who uses it. Failing to attend to the therapist's contribution, the long neglected variable in psychotherapy outcome, ensures that efforts to create, research, and refine new outcome measurement systems will inevitably fall short. Research from the field of expertise and expert performance provides guidance for realizing the full potential of ROM. PMID:26641375

  15. A Hydrologic monitoring program to detect potential impacts of geothermal development in Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Long Valley caldera is a tectonically active area in east-central California that contains a high-temperature geothermal system currently being explored and developed for electric power production. Concerns expressed by public agencies and private citizens over the potential impacts of geothermal development on thermal springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek gorge have resulted in the establishment of a Hydrologic Advisory Committee. The committee includes representatives from development projects and regulatory agencies. Its role is to formulate and oversee a hydrologic monitoring program capable of detecting such impacts before they become significant. The advisory committee and the monitoring program provide effective mechanisms with which to proceed with geothermal development in areas such as Long Valley, where the level of environmental risk cannot be determined a-priori because the relevant geo-hydrologic parameters are not adequately delineated.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  17. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  18. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  19. A simple electrochemical biosensor based on AuNPs/MPS/Au electrode sensing layer for monitoring carbamate pesticides in real samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonghai; Chen, Jingyi; Sun, Min; Gong, Coucong; Shen, Yuan; Song, Yonggui; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    A simple electrochemical biosensor for quantitative determination of carbamate pesticide was developed based on a sensing interface of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/(3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPS)/gold electrode (Au). The biosensor was fabricated by firstly assembling three-dimensional (3D) MPS networks on Au electrode and subsequently assembling citrate-capped AuNPs on 3D MPS network via AuS bond. The interface of AuNPs/MPS/Au was negatively charged originating from the citrate coated on AuNPs that would repulse the negatively charged ferricyanide ([Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) to produce a negative response. In the presence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylthiocholine (ATCl), the AChE catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATCl into positively charged thiocholine which would replace the citrate on AuNPs through the strong AuS bond and convert the negative charged surface to be positively charged. The resulted positively charged AuNPs/MPS/Au then attracted the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) to produce a positive response. Based on the inhibition of carbamate pesticides on the activity of AChE, the pesticide could be quantitatively determined at a very low potential. The linear range was from 0.003 to 2.00 μM. The sensing platform was also proved to be suitable for carbamate pesticides detection in practical sample.

  20. Electrochemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an electrochemical engineering course that combines transport phenomena and basic physical chemistry. Lecture notes and homework problems are used instead of a textbook; an outline of lecture topics is presented. (MLH)

  1. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  2. Monitoring of microbially mediated corrosion and scaling processes using redox potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Opel, Oliver; Eggerichs, Tanja; Otte, Tobias; Ruck, Wolfgang K L

    2014-06-01

    The use of redox potential measurements for corrosion and scaling monitoring, including microbially mediated processes, is demonstrated. As a case study, monitoring data from 10years of operation of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) site located in Berlin, Germany, were examined. (Fe(2+))-activities as well as [Fe(3+)]-build up rates were calculated from redox potential, pH, conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements. Calculations are based on assuming (Fe(3+))-activity being controlled by Fe(OH)3-solubility, the primary iron(III)-precipitate. This approach was tested using a simple log-linear model including dissolved oxygen besides major Fe(2+)-ligands. Measured redox potential values in groundwater used for thermal storage are met within ±8mV. In other systems comprising natural groundwater and in heating and cooling systems in buildings, quantitatively interpretable values are obtained also. It was possible to calculate particulate [Fe(3+)]-loads in the storage fluids in the order of 2μM and correlate a decrease in filter lifetimes to [Fe(3+)]-build up rates, although observations show clear signs of microbially mediated scaling processes involving iron and sulphur cycling.

  3. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris; Larson, David

    1997-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  4. Perspectives on physiological monitoring: junctional-type potentials in the food ventricle.

    PubMed

    Hoff, H E; Coles, S K

    1977-01-01

    1. Many toads monitored throughout survival with no support other than protection against drying, pass terminally through a remarkable evolution which is described here in the full details of a single experiment lasting some 40 hours. 2. The essential features of this particular sequence is block of the Luciani-Wenckebach type affecting SA, AV, and intraventricular conduction. SA block was apparently the major cause of periods of arrest and of cycles of heart beats. Periodically PR delay based on progressive AV block was observed but it was not an outstanding feature. 3. Progressive, rate-determined intraventricular block during the cycles of ventricular beats was the first new feature of these observations. 4. As intraventricular block progressed, an initial ventricular deflection separated itself from the rest of QRS. 5. This initial deflection diminished in amplitude throughout each cycle of ventricular beats, its rate of rise diminished, and the interval separating it from the rest of the ventricular complex increased until the whole initial deflection was revealed. 6. Thereafter, with a small decrease in amplitude of the initial deflection, the remainder of the ventricular electrogram failed to follow and the complex stood alone. 7. Its polarity indicated its origin at the base of the ventricle, the interval separating it from the origin of P indicated that it was downstream from the AV conduction mechanism. 8. This deflection, now a local ventricular potential (LVP) then progressively declined in amplitude and disappeared. 9. The possibility has been discussed that the potential represents (a) a true action potential localized by block or (b) a local, nonpropagated potential akin to junctional potentials like: (1) end-plate potentials, (2) generator potentials, (3) excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), or (c) a pacemaker potential. The experiments that have revealed the phenomenon have not provided other than suggestive but inconclusive information

  5. Self-potential monitoring of seawater intrusion in a fractured coastal aquifer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijioma, A.; MacAllister, D. J.; Jackson, M.; Butler, A. P.; Vinogradov, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate whether borehole measurements of self-potential (SP) can be used to monitor seawater intrusion into the UK chalk aquifer. The SP, a naturally occurring voltage, arises in water saturated porous and fractured media due to gradients in pressure (streaming potential) and concentration (exclusion-diffusion potential), both of which occur during seawater intrusion. We use an electrode array installed in an observation well c. 1.7km from the coast and 1.3km from an active abstraction well. Head fluctuations in the observation well are primarily controlled by tidal processes and seasonal changes in groundwater recharge. SP monitoring over a period of 1.5 years has revealed semi-diurnal fluctuations in voltage with larger amplitude (c.200μV) than those observed at a comparable inland site in the same chalk aquifer (c.0.2μV from spectral analysis). Numerical simulation of the coupled hydrodynamic and electrical processes in the coastal aquifer suggests that the streaming potential generated by tidal processes is one order of magnitude too small to be responsible for the semi-diurnal fluctuations in voltage. Instead, the signal is caused by the exclusion-diffusion potential across the saline front, the location of which moves in response to the tidal cycle. Thus the SP signal recorded at the well arises from the saline front which is some distance away. In August 2013 and 2014, tidal processes coupled with a decline in inland head caused saline water to enter the observation well. Electrical conductivity logging over a tidal cycle showed that entry was via a fracture near the base of the well. Prior to each occurrence of saline breakthrough, an increase in the SP of c.300μV was observed, commencing c.5 days before saline water was detected in the well. Numerical simulation suggests that the SP precursor is dominated by the exclusion-diffusion potential across the saline front as it advances through the fracture. Although we focus here on an observation well

  6. Development and Use of a Cyclic Voltammetry Simulator to Introduce Undergraduate Students to Electrochemical Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jay H.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a popular technique for the study of electrochemical mechanisms because the method can provide useful information on the redox couple. The technique involves the application of a potential ramp on an unstirred solution while the current is monitored, and then the ramp is reversed for a return sweep. CV is sometimes…

  7. Plasma damage monitoring for PECVD deposition: a contact potential difference study and device yield analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Bencher, Christopher; Le, Maggie; Ngai, Chris

    1998-08-01

    A study was conducted to monitor plasma induced charging during a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. A contact potential difference (CPD) technique was used for the charge measurement on non-device blank wafers. In two TEOS based PECVD SiO2 deposition processes, one phosphorous doped and one undoped (USG), the plasma induced charging behavior was monitored while deposition conditions were varied. It was found that the process deposition pressure had a large effect on the plasma induced charging behavior. For both the PSG and the USG deposition processes, higher pressure process regimes offered significantly improved plasma charging performance than the conventional low pressure regimes. The CPD was reduced from -13.5V to 1.5V for the PSG process, and the CPD uniformity was reduced from 8.17V to 2.39V for the USG process. The improved deposition process conditions were tested on thin gate antenna test structures and correlated to significant improved device yield. Additionally, a plasma assisted de- chucking process was analyzed using the CPD technique and found to be an important source of plasma induced charging. When test were performed on thin gate antenna test structures the CPD again correlated well yield trends. In summary, the study demonstrated that CPD is a powerful, inexpensive, and rapid technique suitable for developing processes with improved gate oxide yield and for in-line monitoring of chamber performance.

  8. Cytogenetic monitoring of industrial populations potentially exposed to genotoxic chemicals and of control populations.

    PubMed

    de Jong, G; van Sittert, N J; Natarajan, A T

    1988-03-01

    Currently the most applied technique for monitoring biological effects of exposure to genotoxic chemicals in industrial workers is the measurement of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the Shell petrochemical complex in The Netherlands cytogenetic monitoring studies have been carried out from 1976 till 1981 inclusive, in workers potentially exposed to a variety of genotoxic chemicals, i.e. vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, benzene, epichlorohydrin, epoxy resins. Average exposure levels to these chemicals were well below the occupational exposure limits. Results of these studies indicate that no biologically significant increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the exposed populations occurred compared with control populations. Our experience with this methodology has shown that the results of chromosome analyses are difficult to interpret, due to the variable and high background levels of chromosome aberrations in control populations and in individuals. It is concluded that the method is not sufficiently sensitive for routine monitoring of cytogenetic effects in workers exposed to the low levels of genotoxic compounds.

  9. Visual evoked potentials for intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring using total intravenous anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wiedemayer, Helmut; Fauser, Barbara; Armbruster, W; Gasser, Thomas; Stolke, Dietmar

    2003-01-01

    Conflicting reports on the usefulness of intraoperative monitoring of visual function by means of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) initiated this study. In 32 patients without visual problems, VEPs were recorded to evaluate the reliability for intraoperative monitoring with total intravenous anesthesia. All patients underwent noncranial surgery. Using a standard technique, VEPs were recorded preoperatively in the awake patients and after induction of anesthesia during surgery. A total of 1436 intraoperative traces were recorded and analyzed. A minor prolongation of the P100 latency of 8% and a more pronounced attenuation of the P100-N145 amplitude of 60% were observed in the anesthetized patients. In most of the anesthetized patients, a stable recording of VEPs was not obtainable. In 4 patients (12.5%), clearly identifiable VEP peaks were detected in more than 90% of the traces recorded intraoperatively. In 88% of the patients, reproducible VEPs were obtained in less than 75% of the intraoperative traces only. We concluded that with standard recording techniques and total intravenous anesthesia, intraoperative VEP monitoring in surgically anesthetized patients is not reliable.

  10. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring — Instrumentation and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyun; Deen, M. Jamal; Kumar, Shiva; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring. PMID:25230309

  11. Non-intrusive load monitoring systems: Considerations for use and potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, T.R.

    1994-12-31

    The value of measured energy performance data and the desire to acquire them without the cost, complexity, and intrusiveness of standard submetering techniques have led to recent research on non-intrusive load monitoring systems. These systems offer installation simplicity and the ability to discriminate important load changes through high-resolution, higher-speed sampling at a central monitoring point such as a building`s electrical service entrance. Important hardware and installation considerations learned from Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) experience with these systems are reviewed. In addition, the ability to discern important load changes in residential and commercial buildings using these systems is discussed based on recent ORNL experiments in two buildings. Potential applications, with examples, are also discussed. Using a non-intrusive load monitoring system, an experienced user can collect valuable building power profiles that provide insight into building operations, energy use, demand, and building systems problems easily and at low cost. These systems, when available, could be valuable to DSM and energy management professionals, utilities, researchers, building management firms, energy service companies, and others.

  12. The potential of cellular network infrastructures for sudden rainfall monitoring in dry climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring of precipitation and in particular sudden rain, in rural dry climate regions, is a subject of great significance in several weather related processes such as soil erosion, flash flooding, triggering epidemics and more. The rainfall monitoring facilities in these regions and as a result precipitation data are, however, commonly, severely lacking. As was recently shown, cellular networks infrastructures supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in dry areas, covering large parts of these climatic zones. The potential found in these systems to provide early monitoring and essential precipitation information, directly from arid regions, based on standard measurements of commercial microwave links, is exemplified here over the Negev and the Southern Judean desert, South Israel. We present the results of two different rainfall events occurred in these regions. It is shown that the microwave system measured precipitation between at least 50 min (in case 1) and at least 1 h and 40 min (in case 2) before each of the sparse rain gauges. During each case, the radar system, located relatively far from the arid sites, provided measurements from heights of at least 1500 m and 2000 m above surface, respectively. A third case study demonstrates a relative advantage of microwave links to measure precipitation intensity with respect to the radar system, over an area of complex topography located in northeastern Israel, which is relatively far (~ 150 km) from the radar.

  13. Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil contaminated site (Trecate, Italy): first results of the modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampaolo, V.; Rizzo, E.; Titov, K.; Maineult, A.; Lapenna, V.

    2012-04-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time. The existing methods used for the remediation of these contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). A particular attention is given to the self-potential (SP) method because SP is sensitive to the contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005; Revil et al., 2010). Here we show the results of SP investigations carried out at Trecate site (Italy). This site was affected by a crude oil contamination from a well blowout in 1994. Four SP surveys (October 2009, March 2010, October 2010, and March 2011) were conducted at the site, both in the contaminated and uncontaminated regions. Significant changes are observed between SP data collected at different times. In particular, we found mostly negative electrical potential in October surveys and positive electrical potential in March surveys. The SP distributions can be interpreted as the superposition of many components, including a horizontal water-flow in the saturated shallow aquifer toward South-East, the infiltration movement of water in the unsaturated zone and, possibly, the oxidation-reduction phenomena due to bacterial activity. As the groundwater flow usually produces SP linear trends, the data were detrended by linear regression, taking into account the measured piezometric heads in the aquifer. The detrended SP data show that the SP distribution within the contaminated zone is generally bipolar in October: the southern part of the contaminated area is characterized by negative values

  14. Electrochemical micro sensor

    DOEpatents

    Setter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-09-12

    A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

  15. Can monitoring in language comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorder be modulated? Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined language comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in light of monitoring. It was studied whether individuals with ASD monitor their language perception, and whether monitoring during language perception could be modulated with instructions. We presented higher-level (semantic) linguistic violations and lower-level (orthographic) linguistic violations in a free reading condition and in an instructed condition, recording event-related potentials. For control participants, a monitoring response as tapped by the P600 effect was found to semantically and orthographically incorrect input in both conditions. For participants with ASD, however, a monitoring response to semantically implausible input, tapped by the P600, was found only in the instructed condition. For orthographic errors monitoring was observed both in the free reading and in the instructed condition. This suggests that people with ASD are less inclined than typical individuals to monitor their perception of higher-level linguistic input, but that this can be enhanced with instructions.

  16. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  17. Electromagnetic interference in intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials and a wireless solution.

    PubMed

    Farajidavar, Aydin; Seifert, Jennifer L; Delgado, Mauricio R; Sparagana, Steven; Romero-Ortega, Mario I; Chiao, J-C

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is utilized to minimize neurological morbidity during spine surgery. Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are principal IONM signals in which the motor cortex of the subject is stimulated with electrical pulses and the evoked potentials are recorded from the muscles of interest. Currently available monitoring systems require the connection of 40-60 lengthy lead wires to the patient. These wires contribute to a crowded and cluttered surgical environment, and limit the maneuverability of the surgical team. In this work, it was demonstrated that the cumbersome wired system is vulnerable to electromagnetic interference (EMI) produced by operating room (OR) equipment. It was hypothesized that eliminating the lengthy recording wires can remove the EMI induced in the IONM signals. Hence, a wireless system to acquire TcMEPs was developed and validated through bench-top and animal experiments. Side-by-side TcMEPs acquisition from the wired and wireless systems in animal experiments under controlled conditions (absence of EMI from OR equipment) showed comparable magnitudes and waveforms, thus demonstrating the fidelity in the signal acquisition of the wireless solution. The robustness of the wireless system to minimize EMI was compared with a wired-system under identical conditions. Unlike the wired-system, the wireless system was not influenced by the electromagnetic waves from the C-Arm X-ray machine and temperature management system in the OR.

  18. Geometrical gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode electric potential drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.

  19. Geometrical Gauge Factor of Directional Electric Potential Drop Sensors for Creep Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-01

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode electric potential drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.

  20. Lysimeter monitoring as assessment of the potential for revegetation to manage former iron industry settling ponds.

    PubMed

    Huot, Hermine; Séré, Geoffroy; Charbonnier, Patrick; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of metal-rich brownfields on groundwater quality, the fluxes in a Technosol developed on a former iron industry settling pond were studied. Intact soil monoliths (1 m(2) × 2 m) were extracted and placed in lysimeters. Dynamics of fluxes of metals and solutes under varying vegetation cover were monitored over the course of four years. Soil hydraulic properties were also determined. Results showed that the Technosol has a high retention capacity for water and metals, in relation to its mineral components and resulting chemical and physical properties. As a consequence, metal fluxes were limited. However, soluble compounds, such as SO4(2-), were found at significant concentrations in the leachates. The presence of a dense and deeply-rooted vegetation cover limited water- and solute-fluxes by increasing evapotranspiration and water uptake, thereby reducing the risks of transfer of potentially toxic compounds to local groundwater sources. However, vegetation development may induce changes in soil chemical (e.g. pH, redox potential) and physical properties (e.g. structure), favoring metal mobilization and transport. Revegetation is a valuable management solution for former iron industry settling ponds, provided vegetation does not change soil physico-chemical conditions in the long term. Monitored natural attenuation is required.

  1. Lysimeter monitoring as assessment of the potential for revegetation to manage former iron industry settling ponds.

    PubMed

    Huot, Hermine; Séré, Geoffroy; Charbonnier, Patrick; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of metal-rich brownfields on groundwater quality, the fluxes in a Technosol developed on a former iron industry settling pond were studied. Intact soil monoliths (1 m(2) × 2 m) were extracted and placed in lysimeters. Dynamics of fluxes of metals and solutes under varying vegetation cover were monitored over the course of four years. Soil hydraulic properties were also determined. Results showed that the Technosol has a high retention capacity for water and metals, in relation to its mineral components and resulting chemical and physical properties. As a consequence, metal fluxes were limited. However, soluble compounds, such as SO4(2-), were found at significant concentrations in the leachates. The presence of a dense and deeply-rooted vegetation cover limited water- and solute-fluxes by increasing evapotranspiration and water uptake, thereby reducing the risks of transfer of potentially toxic compounds to local groundwater sources. However, vegetation development may induce changes in soil chemical (e.g. pH, redox potential) and physical properties (e.g. structure), favoring metal mobilization and transport. Revegetation is a valuable management solution for former iron industry settling ponds, provided vegetation does not change soil physico-chemical conditions in the long term. Monitored natural attenuation is required. PMID:25918890

  2. Regioselective electrochemical reduction of 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl - Distinct standard reduction potentials for carbon-chlorine bonds using convolution potential sweep voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishnan, A.; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.; Boyarskiy, V. P.; Boyarskaya, I. A.

    2010-04-01

    The reductive cleavage of carbon-chlorine bonds in 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-7) is investigated using the convolution potential sweep voltammetry and quantum chemical calculations. The potential dependence of the logarithmic rate constant is non-linear which indicates the validity of Marcus-Hush theory of quadratic activation-driving force relationship. The ortho-chlorine of the 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl gets reduced first as inferred from the quantum chemical calculations and bulk electrolysis. The standard reduction potentials pertaining to the ortho-chlorine of 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl and that corresponding to para chlorine of the 4-chlorobiphenyl have been estimated.

  3. A multiplexed three-dimensional paper-based electrochemical impedance device for simultaneous label-free affinity sensing of total and glycated haemoglobin: The potential of using a specific single-frequency value for analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-09-14

    A novel three-dimensional paper-based electrochemical impedance device (3D-PEID) is first introduced for measuring multiple diabetes markers. Herein, a simple 3D-PEID composed of a dual screen-printed electrode on wax-patterned paper coupled with a multilayer of magnetic paper was fabricated for label-free electrochemical detection. The results clearly demonstrated in a step-wise manner that the haptoglobin (Hp)-modified and 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-modified eggshell membranes (ESMs) were highly responsive to a clinically relevant range of total (0.5-20 g dL(-1); r(2) = 0.989) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (2.3%-14%; r(2) = 0.997) levels with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.08 g dL(-1) and 0.21%, respectively. The optimal binding frequencies of total haemoglobin and HbA1c to their specific recognition elements were 5.18 Hz and 9.99 Hz, respectively. The within-run coefficients of variation (CV) were 1.84%, 2.18%, 1.72%, and 2.01%, whereas the run-to-run CVs were 2.11%, 2.41%, 2.08%, and 2.21%, when assaying two levels of haemoglobin and HbA1c, respectively. The CVs for the haemoglobin and HbA1c levels measured on ten independently fabricated paper-based sheets were 1.96% and 2.10%, respectively. These results demonstrated that our proposed system achieved excellent precision for the simultaneous detection of total haemoglobin and HbA1c, with an acceptable reproducibility of fabrication. The long-term stability of the Hp-modified eggshell membrane (ESM) was 98.84% over a shelf-life of 4 weeks, enabling the possibility of storage or long-distance transport to remote regions, particularly in resource-limited settings; however, for the APBA-modified ESM, the stability was 92.35% over a one-week period. Compared with the commercial automated method, the results demonstrated excellent agreement between the techniques (p-value < 0.05), thus permitting the potential application of 3D-PEID for the monitoring of the glycaemic status in diabetic

  4. A multiplexed three-dimensional paper-based electrochemical impedance device for simultaneous label-free affinity sensing of total and glycated haemoglobin: The potential of using a specific single-frequency value for analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-09-14

    A novel three-dimensional paper-based electrochemical impedance device (3D-PEID) is first introduced for measuring multiple diabetes markers. Herein, a simple 3D-PEID composed of a dual screen-printed electrode on wax-patterned paper coupled with a multilayer of magnetic paper was fabricated for label-free electrochemical detection. The results clearly demonstrated in a step-wise manner that the haptoglobin (Hp)-modified and 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-modified eggshell membranes (ESMs) were highly responsive to a clinically relevant range of total (0.5-20 g dL(-1); r(2) = 0.989) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (2.3%-14%; r(2) = 0.997) levels with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.08 g dL(-1) and 0.21%, respectively. The optimal binding frequencies of total haemoglobin and HbA1c to their specific recognition elements were 5.18 Hz and 9.99 Hz, respectively. The within-run coefficients of variation (CV) were 1.84%, 2.18%, 1.72%, and 2.01%, whereas the run-to-run CVs were 2.11%, 2.41%, 2.08%, and 2.21%, when assaying two levels of haemoglobin and HbA1c, respectively. The CVs for the haemoglobin and HbA1c levels measured on ten independently fabricated paper-based sheets were 1.96% and 2.10%, respectively. These results demonstrated that our proposed system achieved excellent precision for the simultaneous detection of total haemoglobin and HbA1c, with an acceptable reproducibility of fabrication. The long-term stability of the Hp-modified eggshell membrane (ESM) was 98.84% over a shelf-life of 4 weeks, enabling the possibility of storage or long-distance transport to remote regions, particularly in resource-limited settings; however, for the APBA-modified ESM, the stability was 92.35% over a one-week period. Compared with the commercial automated method, the results demonstrated excellent agreement between the techniques (p-value < 0.05), thus permitting the potential application of 3D-PEID for the monitoring of the glycaemic status in diabetic

  5. High-Speed Electrochemical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momotenko, Dmitry; Byers, Joshua C; McKelvey, Kim; Kang, Minkyung; Unwin, Patrick R

    2015-09-22

    The design, development, and application of high-speed scanning electrochemical probe microscopy is reported. The approach allows the acquisition of a series of high-resolution images (typically 1000 pixels μm(-2)) at rates approaching 4 seconds per frame, while collecting up to 8000 image pixels per second, about 1000 times faster than typical imaging speeds used up to now. The focus is on scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), but the principles and practicalities are applicable to many electrochemical imaging methods. The versatility of the high-speed scan concept is demonstrated at a variety of substrates, including imaging the electroactivity of a patterned self-assembled monolayer on gold, visualization of chemical reactions occurring at single wall carbon nanotubes, and probing nanoscale electrocatalysts for water splitting. These studies provide movies of spatial variations of electrochemical fluxes as a function of potential and a platform for the further development of high speed scanning with other electrochemical imaging techniques.

  6. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  8. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  9. Microbial Monitoring of Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-Time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a closed environment wih rotations of crew and equipment each introducing their own microbial flora making it necessary to monitor the air, surfaces, and water for microbial contamination. Current microbial monitoring includes labor and time intensive methods to enumerate total bacterial and fungal cells with limited characterization during in-flight testing. Although this culture-based method has been sufficient for monitoring the ISS, future long duration missions will need to perform more comprehensive characterization in-flight, since sample return and ground characterization may not be available. A workshop was held in 2011 at the Johnson Space Center to discuss alternative methodologies and technologies suitable for microbial monitoring for these longterm exploration missions where molecular-based methodologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were recommended. In response, a multi-center (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Kennedy Space Center) collaborative research effort was initiated to explore novel commercial-off-the-shelf hardware options for spaceflight environmental monitoring. The goal was to evaluate quantitative/semi-quantitative PCR approaches to space applications for low cost in-flight rapid identification of microorganisms affecting crew safety. The initial phase of this project identified commercially available platforms that could be minimally modified to perform nominally in microgravity followed by proof-of-concept testing on the highest qualifying candidates with a universally available test organism, Salmonella enterica. The platforms evaluated during proof-of-concept testing included the iCubate 2.0(TradeMark) (iCubate, Huntsville, AL), RAZOR EX (BioFire Diagnostics; Salt Lake City, Utah) and SmartCycler(TradeMark) (Cepheid; Sunnyvale, CA). The analysis identified two potential technologies (iCubate 2.0 and RAZOR EX) that were able to

  10. Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common Constituents of Natural Waters on Corrosion Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, J. T.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    Using a powder disk electrode (PDE) made with micron-sized, high purity iron metal we investigated how the corrosion of this material is affected by solution conditions that are relevant to the degradation of containments in environmental remediation applications. Changes in corrosion potential (Ecoor) with time showed that low pH, high concentrations, of chloride, ad natural organic matter led to breakdwon of the passive film. Bicarbonate caused Ecoor to decline into the active potential region rapidly, but the Ecoor rose back into the passive region over 10's of hours. The short term decline in Ecoor was greatest at higher pH's, suggesting a specific effect of HCO3 rather than a general effeoc of pH.

  11. Nrf2 and HSF-1 Pathway Activation via Hydroquinone-Based Proelectrophilic Small Molecules Is Regulated by Electrochemical Oxidation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Romain; McKercher, Scott R.; Williamson, Robert E.; Roth, Gregory P.; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and heat-shock protein 90/heat-shock factor-1 signal-transduction pathways plays a central role in combatting cellular oxidative damage and related endoplasmic reticulum stress. Electrophilic compounds have been shown to be activators of these transcription-mediated responses through S-alkylation of specific regulatory proteins. Previously, we reported that a prototype compound (D1, a small molecule representing a proelectrophilic, para-hydroquinone species) exhibited neuroprotective action by activating both of these pathways. We hypothesized that the para-hydroquinone moiety was critical for this activation because it enhanced transcription of these neuroprotective pathways to a greater degree than that of the corresponding ortho-hydroquinone isomer. This notion was based on the differential oxidation potentials of the isomers for the transformation of the hydroquinone to the active, electrophilic quinone species. Here, to further test this hypothesis, we synthesized a pair of para- and ortho-hydroquinone-based proelectrophilic compounds and measured their redox potentials using analytical cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential was then compared with functional biological activity, and the para-hydroquinones demonstrated a superior neuroprotective profile. PMID:26243592

  12. Electrochemical storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    The source of the problem within the individual single cell which is related to the stochastic properties of cell populations and to the actual electrochemistry and chemistry taking place is described. The complications which arise in multicell batteries to show how different electrochemistries might alleviate or accentuate these problems is described. The concept of the electrochemical system is introduced to show how certain shortcomings of the single cell/battery string concept can be circumvented. Some of these electrochemical systems permit performance characteristics that are impossible by using conventional battery design philosophies. Projections for energy density and performance characteristics of the concepts are addressed.

  13. Electrochemical micromachining

    PubMed

    Schuster; Kirchner; Allongue; Ertl

    2000-07-01

    The application of ultrashort voltage pulses between a tool electrode and a workpiece in an electrochemical environment allows the three-dimensional machining of conducting materials with submicrometer precision. The principle is based on the finite time constant for double-layer charging, which varies linearly with the local separation between the electrodes. During nanosecond pulses, the electrochemical reactions are confined to electrode regions in close proximity. This technique was used for local etching of copper and silicon as well as for local copper deposition. PMID:10884233

  14. The effect of clozapine on premature mortality: an assessment of clinical monitoring and other potential confounders.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Richard D; Downs, Johnny; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Jackson, Richard G; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Clozapine can cause severe adverse effects yet it is associated with reduced mortality risk. We test the hypothesis this association is due to increased clinical monitoring and investigate risk of premature mortality from natural causes. We identified 14 754 individuals (879 deaths) with serious mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders aged ≥ 15 years in a large specialist mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. In this cohort study we modeled the effect of clozapine on mortality over a 5-year period (2007-2011) using Cox regression. Individuals prescribed clozapine had more severe psychopathology and poorer functional status. Many of the exposures associated with clozapine use were themselves risk factors for increased mortality. However, we identified a strong association between being prescribed clozapine and lower mortality which persisted after controlling for a broad range of potential confounders including clinical monitoring and markers of disease severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.7; p = .001). This association remained after restricting the sample to those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or those taking antipsychotics and after using propensity scores to reduce the impact of confounding by indication. Among individuals with SMI, those prescribed clozapine had a reduced risk of mortality due to both natural and unnatural causes. We found no evidence to indicate that lower mortality associated with clozapine in SMI was due to increased clinical monitoring or confounding factors. This is the first study to report an association between clozapine and reduced risk of mortality from natural causes. PMID:25154620

  15. Usefulness of intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials in transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Yoshinobu; Sakai, Naoto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Goro; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Sugiyama, Kenji; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative visual outcome is a major concern in transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Intraoperative visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring has been reported to have little usefulness in predicting postoperative visual outcome. To re-evaluate its usefulness, we adapted a high-power light-stimulating device with electroretinography (ERG) to ascertain retinal light stimulation. Intraoperative VEP monitoring was conducted in TSSs in 33 consecutive patients with sellar and parasellar tumors under total venous anesthesia. The detectability rates of N75, P100, and N135 were 94.0%, 85.0%, and 79.0%, respectively. The mean latencies and amplitudes of N75, P100, and N135 were 76.8 ± 6.4 msec and 4.6 ± 1.8 μV, 98.0 ± 8.6 msec and 5.0 ± 3.4 μV, and 122.1 ± 16.3 msec and 5.7 ± 2.8 μV, respectively. The amplitude was defined as the voltage difference from N75 to P100 or P100 to N135. The criterion for amplitude changes was defined as a > 50% increase or 50% decrease in amplitude compared to the control level. The surgeon was immediately alerted when the VEP changed beyond these thresholds, and the surgical manipulations were stopped until the VEP recovered. Among the 28 cases with evaluable VEP recordings, the VEP amplitudes were stable in 23 cases and transiently decreased in 4 cases. In these 4 cases, no postoperative vision deterioration was observed. One patient, whose VEP amplitude decreased without subsequent recovery, developed vision deterioration. Intraoperative VEP monitoring with ERG to ascertain retinal light stimulation by the new stimulus device was reliable and feasible in preserving visual function in patients undergoing TSS.

  16. Usefulness of Intraoperative Monitoring of Visual Evok ed Potentials in Transsphenoidal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    KAMIO, Yoshinobu; SAKAI, Naoto; SAMESHIMA, Tetsuro; TAKAHASHI, Goro; KOIZUMI, Shinichiro; SUGIYAMA, Kenji; NAMBA, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative visual outcome is a major concern in transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Intraoperative visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring has been reported to have little usefulness in predicting postoperative visual outcome. To re-evaluate its usefulness, we adapted a high-power light-stimulating device with electroretinography (ERG) to ascertain retinal light stimulation. Intraoperative VEP monitoring was conducted in TSSs in 33 consecutive patients with sellar and parasellar tumors under total venous anesthesia. The detectability rates of N75, P100, and N135 were 94.0%, 85.0%, and 79.0%, respectively. The mean latencies and amplitudes of N75, P100, and N135 were 76.8 ± 6.4 msec and 4.6 ± 1.8 μV, 98.0 ± 8.6 msec and 5.0 ± 3.4 μV, and 122.1 ± 16.3 msec and 5.7 ± 2.8 μV, respectively. The amplitude was defined as the voltage difference from N75 to P100 or P100 to N135. The criterion for amplitude changes was defined as a > 50% increase or 50% decrease in amplitude compared to the control level. The surgeon was immediately alerted when the VEP changed beyond these thresholds, and the surgical manipulations were stopped until the VEP recovered. Among the 28 cases with evaluable VEP recordings, the VEP amplitudes were stable in 23 cases and transiently decreased in 4 cases. In these 4 cases, no postoperative vision deterioration was observed. One patient, whose VEP amplitude decreased without subsequent recovery, developed vision deterioration. Intraoperative VEP monitoring with ERG to ascertain retinal light stimulation by the new stimulus device was reliable and feasible in preserving visual function in patients undergoing TSS.

  17. Usefulness of intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials in transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Yoshinobu; Sakai, Naoto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Goro; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Sugiyama, Kenji; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative visual outcome is a major concern in transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Intraoperative visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring has been reported to have little usefulness in predicting postoperative visual outcome. To re-evaluate its usefulness, we adapted a high-power light-stimulating device with electroretinography (ERG) to ascertain retinal light stimulation. Intraoperative VEP monitoring was conducted in TSSs in 33 consecutive patients with sellar and parasellar tumors under total venous anesthesia. The detectability rates of N75, P100, and N135 were 94.0%, 85.0%, and 79.0%, respectively. The mean latencies and amplitudes of N75, P100, and N135 were 76.8±6.4 msec and 4.6±1.8 μV, 98.0±8.6 msec and 5.0±3.4 μV, and 122.1±16.3 msec and 5.7±2.8 μV, respectively. The amplitude was defined as the voltage difference from N75 to P100 or P100 to N135. The criterion for amplitude changes was defined as a >50% increase or 50% decrease in amplitude compared to the control level. The surgeon was immediately alerted when the VEP changed beyond these thresholds, and the surgical manipulations were stopped until the VEP recovered. Among the 28 cases with evaluable VEP recordings, the VEP amplitudes were stable in 23 cases and transiently decreased in 4 cases. In these 4 cases, no postoperative vision deterioration was observed. One patient, whose VEP amplitude decreased without subsequent recovery, developed vision deterioration. Intraoperative VEP monitoring with ERG to ascertain retinal light stimulation by the new stimulus device was reliable and feasible in preserving visual function in patients undergoing TSS.

  18. The Effect of Clozapine on Premature Mortality: An Assessment of Clinical Monitoring and Other Potential Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Richard D.; Downs, Johnny; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Jackson, Richard G.; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine can cause severe adverse effects yet it is associated with reduced mortality risk. We test the hypothesis this association is due to increased clinical monitoring and investigate risk of premature mortality from natural causes. We identified 14 754 individuals (879 deaths) with serious mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders aged ≥ 15 years in a large specialist mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. In this cohort study we modeled the effect of clozapine on mortality over a 5-year period (2007–2011) using Cox regression. Individuals prescribed clozapine had more severe psychopathology and poorer functional status. Many of the exposures associated with clozapine use were themselves risk factors for increased mortality. However, we identified a strong association between being prescribed clozapine and lower mortality which persisted after controlling for a broad range of potential confounders including clinical monitoring and markers of disease severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.7; p = .001). This association remained after restricting the sample to those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or those taking antipsychotics and after using propensity scores to reduce the impact of confounding by indication. Among individuals with SMI, those prescribed clozapine had a reduced risk of mortality due to both natural and unnatural causes. We found no evidence to indicate that lower mortality associated with clozapine in SMI was due to increased clinical monitoring or confounding factors. This is the first study to report an association between clozapine and reduced risk of mortality from natural causes. PMID:25154620

  19. Identifying the Potential Loss of Monitoring Wells Using an Uncertainty Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Cole, Charles R.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.

    2005-11-01

    From the mid-1940s through the 1980s, large volumes of wastewater were discharged at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, causing a large-scale rise (in excess of 20 m) in the water table. When wastewater discharges ceased in 1988, groundwater mounds began to dissipate. This caused a large number of wells to go dry and has made it difficult to monitor contaminant plume migration. To identify the wells that could potentially go dry, a first order uncertainty analysis was performed using a three-dimensional, finite element code (CFEST) coupled with UCODE, a nonlinear parameter estimation code. The analysis was conducted in four steps. First, key parameter values were identified by calibrating to historical hydraulic head data. Second, the model was tested for linearity, a strict requirement for representing output uncertainty. Third, results from the calibration period were used to verify model predictions by comparing monitoring wells? wet/dry status with field data. In the final step, predictions on the number and locations of dry wells were made through the year 2048. A non-physically based model that extrapolated trends at each individual well was also tested as a predictor of a well?s wet/dry status. Results demonstrated that when uncertainty in both parameter estimates and measurement error was considered, the CFEST-based model successfully predicted the majority of dry wells, outperforming the trend model. Predictions made through the year 2048 identified approximately 50% of the wells in the monitoring well network are likely to go dry, which can aid in decisions for their replacement.

  20. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-06-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  1. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants. PMID:25019067

  2. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Personna, Yves Robert; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Slater, Lee; Yee, Nathan; O'Brien, Michael; Hubbard, Susan

    2008-06-01

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS-) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (˜-630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between anaerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed ˜10 mrad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  3. Performance Monitoring Local Field Potentials in the Medial Frontal Cortex of Primates: Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Emeric, Erik E.; Brown, Joshua W.; Leslie, Melanie; Pouget, Pierre; Stuphorn, Veit; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe intracranial local field potentials (LFP) recorded in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of macaque monkeys performing a saccade countermanding task. The most prominent feature at ∼70% of sites was greater negative polarity after errors than after rewarded correct trials. This negative polarity was also evoked in unrewarded correct trials. The LFP evoked by the visual target was much less polarized, and the weak presaccadic modulation was insufficient to control the initiation of saccades. When saccades were cancelled, LFP modulation decreased slightly with the magnitude of response conflict that corresponds to the coactivation of gaze-shifting and -holding neurons estimated from the probability of canceling. However, response time adjustments on subsequent trials were not correlated with LFP polarity on individual trials. The results provide clear evidence that error- and feedback-related, but not conflict-related, signals are carried by the LFP in the macaque ACC. Finding performance monitoring field potentials in the ACC of macaque monkeys establishes a bridge between event-related potential and functional brain-imaging studies in humans and neurophysiology studies in non-human primates. PMID:18077665

  4. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  5. Clinical expert panel on monitoring potential lung toxicity of inhaled oligonucleotides: consensus points and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Alton, Eric W; Boushey, Homer A; Garn, Holger; Green, Francis H; Hodges, Michael; Martin, Richard J; Murdoch, Robert D; Renz, Harald; Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Seguin, Rosanne; Johnson, Graham; Parry, Joel D; Tepper, Jeff; Renzi, Paolo; Cavagnaro, Joy; Ferrari, Nicolay

    2012-08-01

    Oligonucleotides (ONs) are an emerging class of drugs being developed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including the treatment of respiratory diseases by the inhalation route. As a class, their toxicity on human lungs has not been fully characterized, and predictive toxicity biomarkers have not been identified. To that end, identification of sensitive methods and biomarkers that can detect toxicity in humans before any long term and/or irreversible side effects occur would be helpful. In light of the public's greater interests, the Inhalation Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group (OSWG) held expert panel discussions focusing on the potential toxicity of inhaled ONs and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of different monitoring techniques for use during the clinical evaluation of inhaled ON candidates. This white paper summarizes the key discussions and captures the panelists' perspectives and recommendations which, we propose, could be used as a framework to guide both industry and regulatory scientists in future clinical research to characterize and monitor the short and long term lung response to inhaled ONs.

  6. Material gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This method can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical (size and shape) and indirect material (resistivity) effects of creep. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as the sum of geometrical and material parts. Initially, subtle material changes produce weak electric anisotropy via reversible and irreversible piezoresistivity due to elastic and plastic strains, respectively. At high temperature, much stronger irreversible resistivity changes also occur due to preferentially aligned clusters of cavities developing along grain boundaries approximately perpendicular to the applied stress and subsequent cracks forming between these cavities. The ensuing electric anisotropy is detected by the directional sensor. Although the material effects remain smaller than the geometrical ones up to the initiation of preferentially oriented cracks, later the material gauge factor sharply increases and close to rupture can reach a value of more than 10.

  7. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  8. An extended range, maintenance free sensor for in situ monitoring of water potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, Doug; Campbell, Colin; Teare, Brody

    2015-04-01

    Since well before the initial development of the field tensiometer by L.A. Richards in the early 1920s, engineers, hydrologists, and soil and plant scientists have desired a maintenance-free sensor for continuous in situ monitoring of water potential. Subsequent sensor development efforts by university and private sector researchers have produced several generations of new sensors, but each still has limitations in range of measurement, field robustness, and/or measurement accuracy. After more than a dozen years of continuous development effort, and three separate generations of porous matrix sensors, we now have a sensor that more closely approaches the ideal than previously possible. This paper will discuss a new, automated calibration procedure allowing individual calibration of large batches of sensors simultaneously. The accuracy resulting from the new calibration procedure will be discussed, as will other in situ measurement considerations including robustness, maintenance requirements, range of measurement, soil type dependence, and hysteresis, among others.

  9. Relation Between Open Circuit Potential and Polarization Resistance with Rust and Corrosion Monitoring of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Garg, A.; Mondal, K.

    2016-07-01

    The present work discusses continuous corrosion assessment from a unique correlation of open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance with rust formation on mild steel after prolong exposure in 3.5% NaCl salt fog environment. The OCP measurement and linear polarization tests were carried out of the rusted samples only without the removal of rust. It also discusses the strong influence of the composition, fraction, and morphology of the rust layers with OCP and linear polarization resistance. The rust characterization was done after the measurement of OCP and linear polarization resistance of the rusted steel samples. Therefore, monitoring of both the OCP and linear polarization resistance of the rusted mild steels coupled with rust characterization could be used for easy and dynamic assessment of the nature of corrosion.

  10. Determination of unconjugated aromatic acids in urine by capillary electrophoresis with dual electrochemical detection--potential application in fast diagnosis of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-li; Li, Wen-li; Zhang, Jun-bo; Tang, Wan-rong; Chen, Xiao-fei; Cao, Kai-wen; Chu, Qing-cui; Ye, Jian-nong

    2010-09-01

    A novel method of CE coupled with dual electrochemical detection has been developed for the determination of pathological metabolites of phenylalanine in urine samples. Factors influencing the separation and detection were examined and optimized. Five aromatic acid metabolites and a major coexisting interfering compound uric acid could be well separated within 23 min at a separation voltage of 16 kV using a 35 mmol/L SDS/60 mmol/L H(3)BO(3)-Na(2)B(4)O(7) running buffer (pH 8.2). Highly linear response was obtained for these five biomarker compounds over three orders of magnitude with detection limits ranging from 6.6 to 0.064 μg/mL (S/N=3). The average recovery and RSD were within the range of 92.6-121.0 and 1.0-12.0%, respectively. The proposed method has been used to detect the unconjugated aromatic acids simultaneously in urine samples with the advantages of obtaining more information about target analytes and avoiding redundant measurements and high assay cost, thus could find potential applications involving assays of biomarker compounds for the purpose of fast diagnose of some metabolic diseases including phenylketonuria.

  11. Monitoring of herbal mixtures potentially containing synthetic cannabinoids as psychoactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Dresen, Sebastian; Ferreirós, Nerea; Pütz, Michael; Westphal, Folker; Zimmermann, Ralf; Auwärter, Volker

    2010-10-01

    Herbal mixtures like 'Spice' with potentially bioactive ingredients were available in many European countries since 2004 and are still widely used as a substitute for cannabis, although merchandized as 'herbal incense'. After gaining a high degree of popularity in 2008, big quantities of these drugs were sold. In December 2008, synthetic cannabinoids were identified in the mixtures which were not declared as ingredients: the C(8) homolog of the non-classical cannabinoid CP-47,497 (CP-47,497-C8) and a cannabimimetic aminoalkylindole called JWH-018. In February 2009, a few weeks after the German legislation put these compounds and further pharmacologically active homologs of CP-47,497 under control, another cannabinoid appeared in 'incense' products: the aminoalkylindole JWH-073. In this paper, the results of monitoring of commercially available 'incense' products from June 2008 to September 2009 are presented. In this period of time, more than 140 samples of herbal mixtures were analyzed for bioactive ingredients and synthetic cannabimimetic substances in particular. The results show that the composition of many products changed repeatedly over time as a reaction to prohibition and prosecution of resellers. Therefore neither the reseller nor the consumer of these mixtures can predict the actual content of the 'incense' products. As long as there is no possibility of generic definitions in the controlled substances legislation, further designer cannabinoids will appear on the market as soon as the next legal step has been taken. This is affirmed by the recent identification of the aminoalkylindoles JWH-250 and JWH-398. As further cannabinoids can be expected to occur in the near future, a continuous monitoring of these herbal mixtures is required. The identification of the synthetic opioid O-desmethyltramadol in a herbal mixture declared to contain 'kratom' proves that the concept of selling apparently natural products spiked with potentially dangerous synthetic

  12. Electrochemical capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Liu, Kuo -Chuan; Mohr, Charles M.

    1999-10-05

    An inexpensive porous metal oxide material having high surface area, good conductivity and high specific capacitance is advantageously used in an electrochemical capacitor. The materials are formed in a sol-gel process which affords control over the properties of the resultant metal oxide materials.

  13. Electrochemical construction

    DOEpatents

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  14. Electrochemical device

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  15. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and

  16. Engineering the bioelectrochemical interface using functional nanomaterials and microchip technique toward sensitive and portable electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofang; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2016-02-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have played active roles at the forefront of bioanalysis because they have the potential to achieve sensitive, specific and low-cost detection of biomolecules and many others. Engineering the electrochemical sensing interface with functional nanomaterials leads to novel electrochemical biosensors with improved performances in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, stability and simplicity. Functional nanomaterials possess good conductivity, catalytic activity, biocompatibility and high surface area. Coupled with bio-recognition elements, these features can amplify signal transduction and biorecognition events, resulting in highly sensitive biosensing. Additionally, microfluidic electrochemical biosensors have attracted considerable attention on account of their miniature, portable and low-cost systems as well as high fabrication throughput and ease of scaleup. For example, electrochemical enzymetic biosensors and aptamer biosensors (aptasensors) based on the integrated microchip can be used for portable point-of-care diagnostics and environmental monitoring. This review is a summary of our recent progress in the field of electrochemical biosensors, including aptasensors, cytosensors, enzymatic biosensors and self-powered biosensors based on biofuel cells. We presented the advantages that functional nanomaterials and microfluidic chip technology bring to the electrochemical biosensors, together with future prospects and possible challenges.

  17. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    DOEpatents

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells , and a device , external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  18. Fluid flow monitoring in oilfields using downhole measurements of electrokinetic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. D.; Saunders, J. H.; Pain, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Permanently installed downhole sensors are increasingly being deployed to provide `real-time' reservoir data during hydrocarbon production, which helps to reduce uncertainty in the reservoir description and contributes to reservoir management decisions. Where wells are equipped with inflow control valves (so called `intelligent' wells), it is possible to develop a feedback loop between measurement and control to optimize production. We suggest that measurements of electrokinetic potential during production, using permanently installed downhole electrodes, could be used to detect water encroachment towards an intelligent oil well. Downhole electrodes mounted at the production well on the outside of insulated casing, have been successfully applied in subsurface resistivity surveys during oil production. Similar technology could be used to measure electrokinetic potential. Moreover, recent and ongoing work has changed our understanding of electrokinetic coupling under two-phase conditions. We present the results of numerical simulations of fluid movement during hydrocarbon production, using a new formulation which captures both the changing fluid distributions and the resulting electrical potentials. We suggest that encroaching water causes changes in electrokinetic potential at the production well which could be resolved above background electrical noise; indeed, changes in water saturation could be detected several 10's to 100's of metres away from the well. This contrasts with most other downhole monitoring techniques, which sample only the region immediately adjacent to the wellbore. Signal resolution is improved if the water has a relatively low salinity, and the pressure gradient into the well is large. However, significant uncertainties remain concerning the nature of electrokinetic coupling during the flow of oil and water, particularly in mixed and oil-wet reservoirs.

  19. Biorealistic cardiac cell culture platforms with integrated monitoring of extracellular action potentials.

    PubMed

    Trantidou, Tatiana; Terracciano, Cesare M; Kontziampasis, Dimitrios; Humphrey, Eleanor J; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2015-01-01

    Current platforms for in vitro drug development utilize confluent, unorganized monolayers of heart cells to study the effect on action potential propagation. However, standard cell cultures are of limited use in cardiac research, as they do not preserve important structural and functional properties of the myocardium. Here we present a method to integrate a scaffolding technology with multi-electrode arrays and deliver a compact, off-the-shelf monitoring platform for growing biomimetic cardiac tissue. Our approach produces anisotropic cultures with conduction velocity (CV) profiles that closer resemble native heart tissue; the fastest impulse propagation is along the long axis of the aligned cardiomyocytes (CVL) and the slowest propagation is perpendicular (CVT), in contrast to standard cultures where action potential propagates isotropically (CVL ≈ CVT). The corresponding anisotropy velocity ratios (CVL/CVT = 1.38 - 2.22) are comparable with values for healthy adult rat ventricles (1.98 - 3.63). The main advantages of this approach are that (i) it provides ultimate pattern control, (ii) it is compatible with automated manufacturing steps and (iii) it is utilized through standard cell culturing protocols. Our platform is compatible with existing read-out equipment and comprises a prompt method for more reliable CV studies.

  20. Biorealistic cardiac cell culture platforms with integrated monitoring of extracellular action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Trantidou, Tatiana; Terracciano, Cesare M.; Kontziampasis, Dimitrios; Humphrey, Eleanor J.; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2015-01-01

    Current platforms for in vitro drug development utilize confluent, unorganized monolayers of heart cells to study the effect on action potential propagation. However, standard cell cultures are of limited use in cardiac research, as they do not preserve important structural and functional properties of the myocardium. Here we present a method to integrate a scaffolding technology with multi-electrode arrays and deliver a compact, off-the-shelf monitoring platform for growing biomimetic cardiac tissue. Our approach produces anisotropic cultures with conduction velocity (CV) profiles that closer resemble native heart tissue; the fastest impulse propagation is along the long axis of the aligned cardiomyocytes (CVL) and the slowest propagation is perpendicular (CVT), in contrast to standard cultures where action potential propagates isotropically (CVL ≈ CVT). The corresponding anisotropy velocity ratios (CVL/CVT = 1.38 – 2.22) are comparable with values for healthy adult rat ventricles (1.98 – 3.63). The main advantages of this approach are that (i) it provides ultimate pattern control, (ii) it is compatible with automated manufacturing steps and (iii) it is utilized through standard cell culturing protocols. Our platform is compatible with existing read-out equipment and comprises a prompt method for more reliable CV studies. PMID:26053434

  1. Electrochemical biofilm control: a review.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Sujala T; Babauta, Jerome T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods of controlling biofilms that has widely been discussed in the literature is to apply a potential or electrical current to a metal surface on which the biofilm is growing. Although electrochemical biofilm control has been studied for decades, the literature is often conflicting, as is detailed in this review. The goals of this review are: (1) to present the current status of knowledge regarding electrochemical biofilm control; (2) to establish a basis for a fundamental definition of electrochemical biofilm control and requirements for studying it; (3) to discuss current proposed mechanisms; and (4) to introduce future directions in the field. It is expected that the review will provide researchers with guidelines on comparing datasets across the literature and generating comparable datasets. The authors believe that, with the correct design, electrochemical biofilm control has great potential for industrial use.

  2. Electrochemical biofilm control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Sujala T; Babauta, Jerome T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods of controlling biofilms that has widely been discussed in the literature is to apply a potential or electrical current to a metal surface on which the biofilm is growing. Although electrochemical biofilm control has been studied for decades, the literature is often conflicting, as is detailed in this review. The goals of this review are to (1) present the current status of knowledge regarding electrochemical biofilm control, (2) establish a basis for a fundamental definition of electrochemical biofilm control and requirements for studying it, (3) discuss current proposed mechanisms, and (4) introduce future directions in the field. It is expected that the review will provide researchers with guidelines on comparing data sets across the literature and generating comparable data sets. The authors believe that, with the correct design, electrochemical biofilm control has great potential for industrial use. PMID:26592420

  3. Flash visual evoked potential monitoring of optic tract function during macroelectrode-based pallidotomy.

    PubMed

    Bonaroti, E A; Rose, R D; Kondziolka, D; Baser, S; Lunsford, L D

    1997-03-15

    Posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) has received renewed interest as an ablative procedure for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In previous reports, the proximity of the optic tract to the lesion target in the globus pallidus internus has resulted in the occurrence of visual field deficits in as much as 14% of patients. The authors have used intraoperative visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during PVP to reduce this risk. All procedures were performed in awake patients. Flash stimuli were delivered to each eye via fiberoptic sources. Baseline flash VEPs were recorded at O1/Cz (left visual cortex to vertex), Oz/Cz (midline visual cortex to vertex), and O2/Cz (right visual cortex to vertex) for OS, OU, and OD stimulation. Epochs were acquired before and after localization, after macroelectrode stimulation, after temporary thermal lesioning, and after permanent thermal lesioning. Forty-seven patients underwent a total of 59 procedures. Visual evoked potentials were recorded reproducibly in all patients. In 11 procedures, VEP changes were reported, including six amplitude changes (10-80%), six latency shifts (3-10 msec), and one report of "variability." In four procedures, VEP changes prompted a change in target coordinates. One false-positive and one false-negative VEP change were encountered. The only confirmed visual deficit was a superior quadrantanopsia, present on formal fields, but clinically asymptomatic. The authors conclude that VEPs may be useful for procedures performed in the awake patient because of the lack of anesthetic-induced variability. The 1.7% visual morbidity reported here (one in 59 patients) compares favorably with other series using microelectrodes. Visual evoked potentials may be a useful monitoring technique to reduce the incidence of clinically significant visual morbidity during pallidotomy, especially during formal lesioning of the ventral pallidum adjacent to the optic tract.

  4. Human enteric viruses--potential indicators for enhanced monitoring of recreational water quality.

    PubMed

    Updyke, Erin Allmann; Wang, Zi; Sun, Si; Connell, Christina; Kirs, Marek; Wong, Mayee; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-10-01

    Recreational waters contaminated with human fecal pollution are a public health concern, and ensuring the safety of recreational waters for public use is a priority of both the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Current recreational water standards rely on fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) levels as indicators of human disease risk. However present evidence indicates that levels of FIB do not always correspond to the presence of other potentially harmful organisms, such as viruses. Thus, enteric viruses are currently tested as water quality indicators, but have yet to be successfully implemented in routine monitoring of water quality. This study utilized enteric viruses as possible alternative indicators of water quality to examine 18 different fresh and offshore recreational waters on O'ahu, Hawai'i, by using newly established laboratory techniques including highly optimized PCR, real time PCR, and viral infectivity assays. All sample sites were detected positive for human enteric viruses by PCR including enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male specific FRNA coliphage. A six time-point seasonal study of enteric virus presence indicated significant variation in virus detection between the rainy and dry seasons. Quantitative PCR detected the presence of norovirus genogroup II at levels at which disease risk may occur, and there was no correlation found between enteric virus presence and FIB counts. Under the present laboratory conditions, no infectious viruses were detected from the samples PCR-positive for enteric viruses. These data emphasize both the need for additional indicators for improved monitoring of water quality, and the feasibility of using enteric viruses as these indicators. PMID:26494480

  5. A Study on the Potential Applications of Satellite Data in Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explore the potential applications of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) -like satellite sensors in air quality research for some Asian regions. The MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT), NCEP global reanalysis meteorological data, and daily surface PM(sub 10) concentrations over China and Thailand from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed using simple and multiple regression models. The AOT-PM(sub 10) correlation demonstrates substantial seasonal and regional difference, likely reflecting variations in aerosol composition and atmospheric conditions, Meteorological factors, particularly relative humidity, were found to influence the AOT-PM(sub 10) relationship. Their inclusion in regression models leads to more accurate assessment of PM(sub 10) from space borne observations. We further introduced a simple method for employing the satellite data to empirically forecast surface particulate pollution, In general, AOT from the previous day (day 0) is used as a predicator variable, along with the forecasted meteorology for the following day (day 1), to predict the PM(sub 10) level for day 1. The contribution of regional transport is represented by backward trajectories combined with AOT. This method was evaluated through PM(sub 10) hindcasts for 2008-2009, using ohservations from 2005 to 2007 as a training data set to obtain model coefficients. For five big Chinese cities, over 50% of the hindcasts have percentage error less than or equal to 30%. Similar performance was achieved for cities in northern Thailand. The MODIS AOT data are responsible for at least part of the demonstrated forecasting skill. This method can be easily adapted for other regions, but is probably most useful for those having sparse ground monitoring networks or no access to sophisticated deterministic models. We also highlight several existing issues, including some inherent to a regression-based approach as exemplified by a case study for Beijing, Further studies will be

  6. Potential of Multitemporal Tandem-X Derived Crop Surface Models for Maize Growth Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütt, C.; Tilly, N.; Schiedung, H.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, first results of retrieving plant heights of maize fields from multitemporal TanDEM-X images are shown. Three TanDEM-X dual polarization spotlight acquisitions were taken over a rural area in Germany in the growing season 2014. By interferometric processing, digital terrain models (DTM) were derived for each date with 5m resolution. From the data of the first acquisition (June 1st) taken before planting, a DTM of the bare ground is generated. The data of the following acquisition dates (July 15th, July 26th) are used to establish crop surface models (CSM). A CSM represents the crop surface of a whole field in a high resolution. By subtracting the DTM of the ground from each CSM, the actual plant height is calculated. Within these data sets 30 maize fields in the area of interest could be detected and verified by external land use data. Besides the spaceborne measurements, one of the maize fields was intensively investigated using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), which was carried out at the same dates as the predicted TanDEM-X acquisitions. Visual inspection of the derived plant heights, and accordance of the individually processed polarisations over the maize fields, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Unfortunately, the infield variability of the intensively monitored field could not be successfully captured in the TanDEM-X derived plant heights and merely the general trend is visible. Nevertheless, the study shows the potential of the TanDEM-X constellation for maize height monitoring on field level.

  7. Strategic retrieval and retrieval orientation in reality monitoring studied by event-related potentials (ERPs).

    PubMed

    Rosburg, Timm; Johansson, Mikael; Mecklinger, Axel

    2013-02-01

    Reality monitoring requires the differentiation between perceived and imagined events or between our own actions and the actions of others. The role of control processes in reality monitoring is yet not fully understood. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated such control processes in the form of retrieval orientation and strategic retrieval of nontarget information. At study, complete or incomplete object words were presented in sentences. Participants had to identify the words as the subject of the sentence (perceive condition) or had to complete them upon presentation of a word fragment (self-generate condition). The participants' memory accuracy was better for generated items than for perceived items, as tested in a subsequent memory exclusion task. Comparison of ERPs to new items between the two test conditions (i.e. assessing retrieval orientation) showed more positive ERPs when generated object names were targeted. Retrieval orientation also modulated the early midfrontal old/new effect: Items of the self-generate condition elicited this effect irrespective of their target/nontarget status, while in response to the less well remembered items of the perceive condition it was only found when these items were defined as targets. Target retrieval (as reflected in the left-parietal old/new effect) occurred in both test conditions, but nontarget retrieval was observed only for generated items (when perceived items were targeted). Current findings indicate that retrieval orientation can modulate familiarity-related processes. The selective occurrence of nontarget retrieval for generated items corroborates the concept that the ease with which nontarget information can be accessed promotes nontarget retrieval.

  8. The Potential of Time Series Based Earth Observation for the Monitoring of Large River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, C.; Leinenkugel, P.; Huth, J.; Ottinger, M.; Renaud, F.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Vo Khac, T.; Trinh Thi, L.; Dech, S.; Koch, P.; Le Tissier, M.

    2015-12-01

    Although river deltas only contribute 5% to the overall land surface, nearly six hundred million people live in these complex social-ecological environments, which combine a variety of appealing locational advantages. In many countries deltas provide the major national contribution to agricultural and industrial production. At the same time these already very dynamic environments are exposed to a variety of threats, including the disturbance and replacement of valuable ecosystems, increasing water, soil, and air pollution, human induced land subsidence, sea level rise, as well upstream developments impacting water and sediment supplies. A constant monitoring of delta systems is thus of utmost relevance for understanding past and current land surface change and anticipating possible future developments. We present the potential of Earth Observation based analyses and derived novel information products that can play a key role in this context. Along with the current trend of opening up numerous satellite data archives go increasing capabilities to explore big data. Whereas in past decades remote sensing data were analysed based on the spectral-reflectance-defined 'finger print' of individual surfaces, we mainly exploit the 'temporal fingerprints' of our land surface in novel pathways of data analyses at differing spatial-, and temporally-dense scales. Following our results on an Earth Observation based characterization of large deltas globally, we present in depth results from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, the Yellow River Delta in China, the Niger Delta in Nigeria, as well as additional deltas, focussing on the assessment of river delta flood and inundation dynamics, river delta coastline dynamics, delta morphology dynamics including the quantification of erosion and accretion processes, river delta land use change and trends, as well as the monitoring of compliance to environmental regulations.

  9. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  10. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  11. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES

    PubMed Central

    CORREIA, RION BRATTIG; LI, LANG; ROCHA, LUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this “Bibliome”, the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products—including cannabis—which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015. We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that

  12. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  13. Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory-evoked potential in the spinal cord rectification operation by means of wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Du, M. H.; Chan, Francis H. Y.; Lam, F. K.; Luk, D. K.; Hu, Y.; Fung, Kan S. M.; Qiu, W.

    1998-09-01

    Recently there has been a considerable interest in the use of a somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) for monitoring the functional integrity of the spinal cord during surgery such as spinal scoliosis. This paper describes a monitoring system and signal processing algorithms, which consists of 50 Hz mains filtering and a wavelet signal analyzer. Our system allows fast detection of changes in SEP peak latency, amplitude and signal waveform, which are the main parameters of interest during intra-operative procedures.

  14. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  16. Potential Application of Novel Hyperspectral LIDAR for Monitoring Crops Nitrogen Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Precision agriculture has always been the research hotspot around the world. And the optimization of nitrogen fertilization for crops is the core concerns. It is not only to improve the productivity of crops but also to avoid the environmental risks caused by over-fertilization. Therefore, accurate estimation of nitrogen status is crucial for determining an nitrogen recommendation. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to monitor crops for years, and they could offer estimations for stress status diagnosis through obtaining vertical structure parameters and spectral reflectance properties of crops. As an active remote sensing technology, lidar is particularly attractive for 3-dimensional information at a high point density. It has unique edges in obtaining vertical structure parameters of crops. However, capability of spectral reflectance properties is what the current lidar technology lacks because of single wavelength detection. To solve this problem, the concept of novel hyperspectral lidar (HSL), which combines the advantages of hyperspectal reflectance with high 3-dimensional capability of lidar, was proposed in our study. The design of instrument was described in detail. A broadband laser pulse was emitted and reflectance spectrum with 32 channels could be detected. Furthermore, the experiment was carried out by the novel HSL system to testify the potential application for monitoring nitrogen stress. Rice under different levels of nitrogen fertilization in central China were selected as the object of study, and four levels of nitrogen fertilization (N1-N4) were divided. With the detection of novel lidar system, high precision structure parameters of crops could be provided. Meanwhile, spectral reflectance properties in 32 wavebands were also obtained. The high precision structure parameters could be used to evaluate the stress status of crops. And abundant spectral information in 32 wavebands could improve the capacity of lidar system significantly

  17. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, C.A.

    1991-04-23

    This invention is comprised of an electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 900 in either direction while maintaining the working-and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  18. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  19. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  20. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  1. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  2. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  3. Electro-triggering and electrochemical monitoring of dopamine exocytosis from a single cell by using ultrathin electrodes based on Au nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mijeong; Yoo, Seung Min; Gwak, Raekeun; Eom, Gayoung; Kim, Jihwan; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-12-01

    A sophisticated set of an Au nanowire (NW) stimulator-Au NW detector system is developed for electrical cell stimulation and electrochemical analysis of subsequent exocytosis with very high spatial resolution. Dopamine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell is more stimulated by a more negative voltage pulse. This system could help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of electrotherapies by providing valuable information on their healing mechanism.A sophisticated set of an Au nanowire (NW) stimulator-Au NW detector system is developed for electrical cell stimulation and electrochemical analysis of subsequent exocytosis with very high spatial resolution. Dopamine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell is more stimulated by a more negative voltage pulse. This system could help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of electrotherapies by providing valuable information on their healing mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06021d

  4. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Naim, Norshafadzila; Abdullah, H; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing. PMID:26078996

  5. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Angels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  6. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Gromaire, M-C; Chebbo, G

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification and common parameters, such as the antecedent dry weather period, total event volume per impervious hectare and both the mean and maximum hydraulic flow for each event, was also studied. Moreover, the dynamics of flow and turbidity signals were compared at the event scale. No simple relation between turbidity responses, hydraulic flow dynamics and the chosen parameters was derived from this effort. Knowledge of turbidity dynamics could therefore potentially improve wet weather management, especially when using pollution-based real-time control (P-RTC) since turbidity contains information not included in hydraulic flow dynamics and not readily predictable from such dynamics.

  7. "Evolution Canyon," a potential microscale monitor of global warming across life.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-02-21

    Climatic change and stress is a major driving force of evolution. The effects of climate change on living organisms have been shown primarily on regional and global scales. Here I propose the "Evolution Canyon" (EC) microscale model as a potential life monitor of global warming in Israel and the rest of the world. The EC model reveals evolution in action at a microscale involving biodiversity divergence, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation across life from viruses and bacteria through fungi, plants, and animals. The EC consists of two abutting slopes separated, on average, by 200 m. The tropical, xeric, savannoid, "African" south-facing slope (AS = SFS) abuts the forested "European" north-facing slope (ES = NFS). The AS receives 200-800% higher solar radiation than the ES. The ES represents the south European forested maquis. The AS and ES exhibit drought and shade stress, respectively. Major adaptations on the AS are because of solar radiation, heat, and drought, whereas those on the ES relate to light stress and photosynthesis. Preliminary evidence suggests the extinction of some European species on the ES and AS. In Drosophila, a 10-fold higher migration was recorded in 2003 from the AS to ES. I advance some predictions that could be followed in diverse species in EC. The EC microclimatic model is optimal to track global warming at a microscale across life from viruses and bacteria to mammals in Israel, and in additional ECs across the planet.

  8. Continental Tele-connections of ET and Precipitation: Tractable Models, Viable Management, and Potential Monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selker, J. S.; Higgins, C. W.; Tai, L. C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The linkage between large-scale manipulation of land cover and resulting patterns of precipitation has been a long-standing problem. For example, what is the impact of the Columbia River project's 2,700 km^2 irrigated area (applying approximately 300 m^3/s) on the down-wind continental rainfall in North America? Similarly, can we identify places on earth where planting large-scale runoff-reducing forests might increase down-wind precipitation, thus leading to magnified carbon capture? In this talk we present an analytical Lagrangian framework for the prediction of incremental increases in down-wind precipitation due to land surface evaporation and transpiration. We compare these predictions to recently published rainfall recycling values from the literature. Focus is on the Columbia basin (Pacific Northwest of hte USA), with extensions to East Africa. We further explore the monitoring requirements for verification of any such impact, and see if the planned TAHMO African Observatory (TAHMO.org) has the potential to document any such processes over the 25-year and 1,000 km scales.

  9. A vectorial capacity product to monitor changing malaria transmission potential in epidemic regions of Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ceccato, Pietro; Vancutsem, Christelle; Klaver, Robert; Rowland, James; Connor, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are two of the major factors triggering malaria epidemics in warm semi-arid (desert-fringe) and high altitude (highland-fringe) epidemic risk areas. The ability of the mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium spp. is dependent upon a series of biological features generally referred to as vectorial capacity. In this study, the vectorial capacity model (VCAP) was expanded to include the influence of rainfall and temperature variables on malaria transmission potential. Data from two remote sensing products were used to monitor rainfall and temperature and were integrated into the VCAP model. The expanded model was tested in Eritrea and Madagascar to check the viability of the approach. The analysis of VCAP in relation to rainfall, temperature and malaria incidence data in these regions shows that the expanded VCAP correctly tracks the risk of malaria both in regions where rainfall is the limiting factor and in regions where temperature is the limiting factor. The VCAP maps are currently offered as an experimental resource for testing within Malaria Early Warning applications in epidemic prone regions of sub-Saharan Africa. User feedback is currently being collected in preparation for further evaluation and refinement of the VCAP model.

  10. Monitored natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents: assessment of potential and limitations.

    PubMed

    Grandel, Sibylle; Dahmke, Andreas

    2004-12-01

    Chlorinated solvent contaminations in groundwater and soil are a widespread problem. Their remediation either by active and/or passive measures is complicated though, due to their characteristic features of long plumes and DNAPL. In this study Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is evaluated regarding its applicability to remediate chlorinated solvent sites. At first a short overview of legal requirements is given, by whose means the efficiency of MNA is supposed to be demonstrated and assessed. Thereby the focus is set on the circumstances in the United States and Germany, as in the first MNA is applied as remediation option, whereas in the latter implementation and definition of MNA is under discussion. Based on criteria given by several German guidelines investigation methods and suitable parameters are discussed with the objective to evaluate their potential and limitations to demonstrate MNA at a chlorinated solvent site. Regarding the description of source location/inventory and source emission the legal requirements cannot be accomplished mainly because of missing methods. With regard to the characterization of plume migration, and evaluation of the efficiency of NA processes the combination of hydrogeochemical data and model approaches can accomplish most of the legal requirements. Applicability of microbiological and isotope methods is limited which is also reflected by evaluation of field studies, where these methods have been used at less than 10% of the sites. With regard to chlorinated solvents current German guidelines should be modified to enable the feasible application of MNA as an alternative or additional remediation option.

  11. ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF 2-CHLOROBIPHENYL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents electrochemical dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-Cl BP) in aqueous environment using palladium modified granular graphite electrodes. 2-Cl BP, the PCB congener that requires the highest reduction potential, was effectively dechlorinated in electrochemical...

  12. Relationship between electrochemical potentials and substitution reaction rates of ferrocene-containing β-diketonato rhodium(I) complexes; cytotoxicity of [Rh(FcCOCHCOPh)(cod)].

    PubMed

    Conradie, Jeanet; Swarts, Jannie C

    2011-06-14

    A series of ferrocene-containing rhodium complexes of the type [Rh(FcCOCHCOR)(cod)] (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) with R = CF(3), 1, (E(pa)(Rh) = 269; E(o)'(Fc) = 329 mV vs. Fc/Fc(+)), CCl(3), 2, (E(pa) = 256; E(o)' = 312 mV), CH(3), 3, (E(pa) = 177; E(o)' = 232 mV), Ph = C(6)H(5), 4, (E(pa) = 184; E(o)' = 237 mV), and Fc = ferrocenyl = (C(5)H(5))Fe(C(5)H(4)), 5, (E(pa) = 135; E(o)'(Fc1) = 203; E(o)'(Fc2) = 312 mV), have been studied electrochemically in CH(3)CN. Results indicated that the rhodium(I) centre is irreversibly oxidised to Rh(III) in a two-electron transfer process before the ferrocenyl fragment is reversibly oxidized in a one-electron transfer process. The peak anodic (oxidation) potential, E(pa), (in V vs. Fc/Fc(+)) of the rhodium core in 1-5 relates to k(2), the second-order rate constant for the substitution of (FcCOCHCOR)(-) with 1,10-phenanthroline in [Rh(FcCOCHCOR)(cod)] to form [Rh(phen)(cod)](+) in methanol at 25 °C with the equation lnk(2) = 39.5 E(pa)(Rh) - 3.69, while the formal oxidation potential of the ferrocenyl groups in 1-5 relates to k(2) by lnk(2) = 40.8 E(o)'(Fc)-6.34. Complex 4 (IC(50) = 28.2 μmol dm(-3)) was twice as cytotoxic as the free FcCOCH(2)COPh ligand having IC(50) = 54.2 μmol dm(-3), but approximately one order of magnitude less toxic to human HeLa neoplastic cells than cisplatin (IC(50) = 2.3 μmol dm(-3)). PMID:21423964

  13. Application of electrochemical surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy for characterization of electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Salamifar, S Ehsan; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-10-01

    We report the use of electrochemical surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (EC-SPR) in the characterization of electrochemical DNA sensors. Three DNA probes, including a stem-loop probe and two linear probes (LP), were used in this study. Among the three sensors, the 3xLP sensor, a new sensor design with three consecutive target recognition sites, showed the largest change in SPR signal upon hybridization to T-25, a 25-base target with overhang regions that do not bind to the 3xLP probe. A detection limit of 20nM was determined for T-25 using this sensor. Overall, this work has demonstrated the main advantage of EC-SPR, which is the ability to monitor both optical and electrochemical signals simultaneously, from sensor fabrication to target interrogation and sensor regeneration. It also alludes to the potential use of this hybrid technique to differentiate between non-specific binding and non-specific adsorption of non-complement targets onto the sensor surface.

  14. Exploring the potential utility of high-throughput bioassays associated with US EPA Toxcast Program for effects-based monitoring and surveillance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance strategies are essential for identifying potential hazards of contaminant exposure to aquatic organisms. Chemical monitoring is effective for chemicals with well characterized hazards and for which sensitive analytical methods are availa...

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  16. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  17. 75 FR 69036 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Potential Changes to Required Ozone Monitoring Seasons for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... to Network Design Requirements? On July 16, 2009, EPA published a proposed rule (74 FR 34525) to... record to the Proposed Rule--Ambient Ozone Monitoring Regulations: Revisions to Network Design... Monitoring Regulations: Revisions to Network Design Requirements (Docket ID No....

  18. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-09-01

    the study because the aerial survey indicates that a channel mapped on the United States Geological Survey topographic map of the area traverses the south end of the area of surface contamination; this channel lies south of the point marked number 3 in Figure 1, and anecdotal information indicates that sediment has been deposited on the road bordering the southeast boundary of the CAU from an adjacent channel (Traynor, J, personal communication, 2011). Because contamination is particularly close to the boundary of CAU 550, Smoky CA, it is important to know if contaminants are moving, what meteorological conditions result in movement of contaminated soils, and what particle size fractions associated with contamination are involved. Closure plans are being developed for the CAUs on the NNSS. The closure plans may include post-closure monitoring for possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of contaminated soils under ambient climatic conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  19. Stimulus-evoked potentials contribute to map the epileptogenic zone during stereo-EEG presurgical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Boido, Davide; Kapetis, Dimos; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Pastori, Chiara; Galbardi, Barbara; Sartori, Ivana; Tassi, Laura; Cardinale, Francesco; Francione, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Presurgical monitoring with intracerebral electrodes in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy represents a standard invasive procedure to localize the sites of seizures origin, defined as the epileptogenic zone (EZ). During presurgical evaluation, intracerebral single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) is performed to define the boundaries of eloquent areas and to evoke seizure-associated symptoms. Extensive intracranial exploration and stimulation generate a large dataset on brain connectivity that can be used to improve EZ detection and to understand the organization of the human epileptic brain. We developed a protocol to analyse field responses evoked by intracranial stimulation. Intracerebral recordings were performed with 105-162 recording sites positioned in fronto-temporal regions in 12 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Recording sites were used for bipolar SPES at 1 Hz. Reproducible early and late phases (<60 ms and 60-500 ms from stimulus artefact, respectively) were identified on averaged evoked responses. Phase 1 and 2 responses recorded at all and each recording sites were plotted on a 3D brain reconstructions. Based on connectivity properties, electrode contacts were primarily identified as receivers, mainly activators or bidirectional. We used connectivity patterns to construct networks and applied cluster partitioning to study the proprieties between potentials evoked/stimulated in different regions. We demonstrate that bidirectional connectivity during phase 1 is a prevalent feature that characterize contacts included in the EZ. This study shows that the application of an analytical protocol on intracerebral stimulus-evoked recordings provides useful information that may contribute to EZ detection and to the management of surgical-remediable epilepsies. PMID:24706574

  20. Potential of front-face fluorescence to monitor OM reduction in drinking water during potabilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacotte, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    OM-related quality parameters of water. Finally, study of relationships between the different OM forms, climate parameters (temperature, raw water flow, rainfall) and coagulant amounts showeds that each OM form was specifically linked to these parameters. In particular, we were able to pinpoint one of the five forms that was most associated with the water flow, and also the most flocculated by the coagulant. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that our fluorescence analyzer helps to get improved knowledge of OM behavior during potabilization process. Five different OM forms were identified and their respective evolution was characterized. Furthermore, we evidenced a potential use of a compact and small-size analyzer to monitor water purification steps through simultaneous prediction of quality parameters related to OM content.

  1. Discriminating DNA mismatches by electrochemical and gravimetric techniques.

    PubMed

    Mazouz, Zouhour; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Ommezine, Asma; Rebhi, Lamia; Yaakoubi, Nourdin; Kalfat, Rafik; Othmane, Ali

    2013-10-15

    A silicon nitride functionalized electrode and a 104 MHz lithium tantalate (LiTaO₃) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor have been used to investigate target-probe recognition processes. Electrochemical and gravimetric measurements have been considered to monitor hybridization of single base mismatch (SBM) in synthetic oligonucleotides and single-nucleotide polymorphisms ApoE in real clinical genotypes. Obvious discrimination of SBM in nucleotides has been shown by both gravimetric and electrochemical techniques, without labeling nor amplification. Investigations on mismatches nature and position have also been considered. For guanine-adenine (GA), guanine-thymine (GT) and guanine-guanine (GG) mismatches, the sensors responses present a dependence upon positions. Considering the capacitance variations and hybridization rates, results showed that gravimetric transduction is more sensitive than electrochemical one. Moreover, the highest value of GT hybridization rate (in the middle position) was found in accordance with the nearest-neighbor model, where the considered configuration appears as the most thermodynamically stable. For the real samples, where the electrochemical transduction, by combining capacitance and flat-band potential measurements, were found more sensitive, the results show that the realized sensor permits an unambiguous discrimination of recognition between fully complementary, non-complementary and single base mismatched targets, and even between the combination of differently matched strands.

  2. Monitoring of Bashkara glacial lakes (the Central Caucasus) and modelling of their potential outburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylenko, I.; Norin, S.; Petrakov, D.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.

    2009-04-01

    In recent decades due to glacier retreat the glacial lakes in the Central Caucasus, as well as in other high-mountainous areas of the world, have expanded intensively. As result the risk of lake outbursts and destructive floods is raising. In this paper we present one of the most potentially hazardous lakes of this region - a group of glacial lakes near the Bashkara glacier in the upper Adylsu river valley, to the southeast of Mt. Elbrus. Total area of these lakes is about 100,000m2, and a total volume exceeds 1,000,000 m3. The biggest of them - the Bashkara lake has formed in late 1930s - early 1940s and the small Lapa lake has appeared in the end of 1980s. The Bashkara lake outburst occurred twice in the end of 1950s and produced devastating debris flows of ca. 2 million m3. We have monitored these lakes since 1999. Our work includes detailed field research: constant measurements of water level during warm period, annually repeated bathymetric surveys, geodetic surveys, observations on dam condition and some special measurements (i.e. water temperature distribution, current velocity). Also we use aerial and satellite images to obtain data about dynamic of areas for the lakes. From 2001 to 2006 years volume of the Lapa lake has increased 5 times (from 30,000 m3 to 140,000 m3), the Bashkara lake in this period was quasi-stable. In 2006-2008 volume of the Lapa lake has decreased due to sedimentation, however, rapid growth of water level in Bashkara lake (more than 20 sm. per day) has suddenly begun. As a result, volume of the Bashkara lake exceeded 1,000000 m3 in July 2008 whereas in 2001 -2007 year it was about 800,000 m3. Previous maximum of water level was exceeded on 3,5 m, moraine dam with ice core was overtopped and overflow has started. Thus, Bashkara glacier lakes are unstable and risk of outburst is increasing. To assess parameters and zones of potential outburst flood in the Adylsu River valley we have carried out hydrodynamic simulation. Two computer

  3. Potential Application of Electrical Signature Analysis Methods for Monitoring Small Modular Reactor Components

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, Brian; Tucker Jr, Raymond W; Haynes, Howard D

    2010-01-01

    This paper will describe the technical basis behind ESA and why we consider it a viable SMR condition monitoring technology. Concepts are presented of how ESA could be applied to monitor two candidate small modular reactor components: the main coolant pumps and the control rod drives. We believe the general health of these two components can be monitored and trended over time, using ESA methods. Our optimism is based on over two decades of ESA development and testing on a wide variety of components and systems, many of which have similar operational features to the main coolant pumps and control rod drives.

  4. Characterization of Electrochemically Generated Silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Martinez, James; Carrier, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Silver biocide offers a potential advantage over iodine, the current state of the art in US spacecraft disinfection technology, in that silver can be safely consumed by the crew. Low concentrations of silver (<500 ppb) have been shown to kill bacteria in water systems and keep it safe for potability. Silver does not require hardware to remove it from a water system, and therefore can provide a simpler means for disinfecting water. The Russian segment of the International Space Station has utilized an electrochemically generated silver solution, which is colloidal in nature. To be able to reliably provide a silver biocide to drinking water by electrochemical means would reduce mass required for removing another biocide such as iodine from the water. This would also aid in crew time required to replace iodine removal cartridges. Future long term missions would benefit from electrochemically produced silver as the biocide could be produced on demand and requires only a small concentration to be effective. Since it can also be consumed safely, there is less mass in removal hardware and little consumables required for production. The goal of this project initially is to understand the nature of the electrochemically produced silver, the particle sizes produced by the electrochemical cell and the effect that voltage adjustment has on the particle size. In literature, it has been documented that dissolved oxygen and pH have an effect on the ionization of the electrochemical silver so those parameters would be measured and possibly adjusted to understand their effect on the silver.

  5. An Error-Related Negativity Potential Investigation of Response Monitoring Function in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Li, Cui; Zhu, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is an impulse disorder or at least related to impulse control disorder. Deficits in executive functioning, including response monitoring, have been proposed as a hallmark feature of impulse control disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN) reflects individual’s ability to monitor behavior. Since IAD belongs to a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder, theoretically, it should present response monitoring functional deficit characteristics of some disorders, such as substance dependence, ADHD, or alcohol abuse, testing with an Erikson flanker task. Up to now, no studies on response monitoring functional deficit in IAD were reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics in a modified Erikson flanker task. Twenty-three subjects were recruited as IAD group. Twenty-three matched age, gender, and education healthy persons were recruited as control group. All participants completed the modified Erikson flanker task while measured with event-related potentials. IAD group made more total error rates than did controls (p < 0.01); Reactive times for total error responses in IAD group were shorter than did controls (p < 0.01). The mean ERN amplitudes of total error response conditions at frontal electrode sites and at central electrode sites of IAD group were reduced compared with control group (all p < 0.01). These results revealed that IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics and shares ERN characteristics of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder. PMID:24093009

  6. In situ spatial and time-resolved studies of electrochemical reactions by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guay, Daniel; Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Zhang, Xuerong; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2005-06-01

    The first in situ measurements with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) of an active electrochemical cell are reported. An electrochemical wet cell, consisting of an electrodeposited polyaniline thin film on a thin Au film covered by an overlayer of 1 M HCl solution sitting between two X-ray transparent silicon nitride windows, was assembled. X-ray absorption images and spatial and time-resolved spectra of this system under potential control were examined using the beamline 5.3.2 STXM at the Advanced Light Source. The chemical state of the polyaniline film was reversibly converted between reduced (leucoemeraldine) and oxidized (emeraldine chloride) states by changing the applied potential. The electrochemical changes were monitored by spatially resolved C 1s and N 1s X-ray absorption spectroscopy and chemical-state selective imaging. Comparison of differences between images at two energies at different potentials provided electrochemical contrast with a resolution better than 50 nm, thereby monitoring that component of the polyaniline film that was electrochemically active. Kinematic studies in the subsecond regime are demonstrated.

  7. Automated ground-water monitoring with robowell-Case studies and potential applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Robowell is an automated system and method for monitoring ground-water quality. Robowell meets accepted manual-sampling protocols without high labor and laboratory costs. Robowell periodically monitors and records water-quality properties and constituents in ground water by pumping a well or multilevel sampler until one or more purge criteria have been met. A record of frequent water-quality measurements from a monitoring site can indicate changes in ground-water quality and can provide a context for the interpretation of laboratory data from discrete samples. Robowell also can communicate data and system performance through a remote communication link. Remote access to ground-water data enables the user to monitor conditions and optimize manual sampling efforts. Six Robowell prototypes have successfully monitored ground-water quality during all four seasons of the year under different hydrogeologic conditions, well designs, and geochemical environments. The U.S. Geological Survey is seeking partners for research with robust and economical water-quality monitoring instruments designed to measure contaminants of concern in conjunction with the application and commercialization of the Robowell technology. Project publications and information about technology transfer opportunities are available on the Internet at URL http://ma.water.usgs.gov/automon/.

  8. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-14

    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis on single cells as templates.

    PubMed

    Tam, Jasper; Salgado, Shehan; Miltenburg, Mark; Maheshwari, Vivek

    2013-10-01

    The cell surface is made electrochemically active by interfacing with graphene sheets. The electrical and thermal properties of graphene allow the control of cell surface potential for electrochemical synthesis. Using this approach radially projecting ZnO nanorods are templated on the surface of single cells. This reported single cell photosensor has superior performance than similar devices made on planar surfaces.

  10. Electrochemical nanomoulding through proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Daniel B.

    The continued improvements in performance of modern electronic devices are directly related to the manufacturing of smaller, denser features on surfaces. Electrochemical fabrication has played a large role in continuing this trend due to its low cost and ease of scaleability toward ever smaller dimensions. This work introduces the concept of using proteins, essentially monodisperse complex polymers whose three-dimensional structures are fixed by their encoded amino acid sequences, as "moulds" around which nanostructures can be built by electrochemical fabrication. Bacterial cell-surface layer proteins, or "S-layer" proteins, from two organisms---Deinococcus radiodurans and Sporosarcina ureae---were used as the "moulds" for electrochemical fabrication. The proteins are easily purified as micron-sized sheets of periodic molecular complexes with 18-nm hexagonal and 13-nm square unit cell lattices, respectively. Direct imaging by transmission electron microscopy on ultrathin noble metal films without sample preparation eliminates potential artifacts to the high surface energy substrates necessary for high nucleation densities. Characterization involved imaging, electron diffraction, spectroscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. The S-layer protein of D. radiodurans was further subjected to an atomic force microscope based assay to determine the integrity of its structure and long-range order and was found to be useful for fabrication from around pH 3 to 12.

  11. Potential use of dissolved cyanobacterial DNA for monitoring toxic Microcystis cyanobacteria in filtered water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbukwa, Elbert A.; Boussiba, Sammy; Wepener, Victor; Leu, Stefan; Yuval, Kaye; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Toxic and non-toxic Microcystis sp. are morphologically indistinguishable cyanobacteria that are increasingly posing health problems in fresh water systems by producing odours and/or toxins. Toxic Microcystis sp. produces toxicologically stable water soluble toxic compounds called microcystins (MCs) that have been associated with cases of aquatic life and wildlife poisoning and kills including some cases of human illnesses/deaths around the world. Thus, the need for rapid detection of toxic Microcystis sp. in surface water is imperatively a necessity for early mitigation purposes. Genomic DNA from potentially toxic Microcystis sp. comprises of ten microcystin synthetase (mcy) genes of which six major ones are directly involved in MCs biosynthesis. In Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methodsmcy genes can be amplified from intracellular/extracellular genomic DNA using PCR primers. However, little is known about the limitations of sourcing genomic DNA templates from extracellular DNA dissolved in water. In this work, filtered water (0.45 μM) from a Microcystis infested Dam (South Africa) was re-filtered on 0.22 μM syringe filters followed by genomic DNA isolation and purification from micro-filtrates (9 mL). Six major mcy genes (mcyABCDEG) from the isolated DNA were amplified using newly designed as well as existing primers identified from literature. PCR products were separated by gel electrophoresis and visualized after staining with ethidium bromide. The limitation of using dissolved DNA for amplification of mcy genes was qualitatively studied by establishing the relationship between input DNA concentrations (10.0-0.001 ng/μL) and the formation of respective PCR products. The amplification of mcyA gene using new primers with as little as 0.001 ng/μL of DNA was possible. Other mcy gene sensitivities reached 0.1 ng/μL DNA dilution limits. These results demonstrated that with appropriately optimized PCR conditions the method can provide accurate cost

  12. Electrochemical supercapacitors

    DOEpatents

    Rudge, Andrew J.; Ferraris, John P.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1996-01-01

    A new class of electrochemical capacitors provides in its charged state a positive electrode including an active material of a p-doped material and a negative electrode including an active material of an n-doped conducting polymer, where the p-doped and n-doped materials are separated by an electrolyte. In a preferred embodiment, the positive and negative electrode active materials are selected from conducting polymers consisting of polythiophene, polymers having an aryl group attached in the 3-position, polymers having aryl and alkyl groups independently attached in the 3- and 4-positions, and polymers synthesized from bridged dimers having polythiophene as the backbone. A preferred electrolyte is a tetraalykyl ammonium salt, such as tetramethylammonium trifluoromethane sulphonate (TMATFMS), that provides small ions that are mobile through the active material, is soluble in acetonitrile, and can be used in a variety of capacitor configurations.

  13. An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on gold nanorods decorated graphene oxide sheets for sensing platform.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaowei; Fang, Xian; Shi, Anqi; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2013-12-15

    A simple electrochemical sensor for sensitive and selective DNA detection was constructed based on gold nanorods (Au NRs) decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The high-quality Au NRs-GO nanocomposite was synthesized via the electrostatic self-assembly technique, which is considered a potential sensing platform. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to monitor the DNA hybridization event using methylene blue as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of methylene blue were linear with the logarithm of the concentrations of complementary DNA from 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-14)M with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-15)M (signal/noise=3). Moreover, the prepared electrochemical sensor can effectively distinguish complementary DNA sequences in the presence of a large amount of single-base mismatched DNA (1000:1), indicating that the biosensor has high selectivity.

  14. The use of potential years of life lost for monitoring premature mortality from chronic diseases: Canadian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Katerina; Rozen, Shahriar; Springett, Jane; Stachenko, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Given that chronic diseases account for 88% of all deaths in Canada, robust surveillance and monitoring systems are essential for supporting implementation of health promotion and chronic disease prevention policies. Canada has a long tradition of monitoring premature mortality expressed as potential years of life lost (PYLL), dating back to the seminal work by Romeder and McWhinnie in the late 1970s, who pioneered the use of PYLL as a tool in health planning and decision-making. The utility of PYLL for monitoring progress was expanded in the 1990s through the national comparable Health Indicators Initiative, following which PYLL has been monitored for several decades nationally, provincially, regionally and locally as part of health systems' performance measurement. Yet the potential for using PYLL in health promotion and chronic disease prevention has not been maximized. Linking PYLL with public health programs and initiatives aimed at health promotion and chronic disease prevention, introduced starting in the 1990s, would inform whether these efforts are making progress in addressing the burden of premature mortality from chronic diseases. Promoting the use of PYLL due to chronic diseases would contribute toward providing a more complete picture of chronic diseases in Canada. PMID:27526219

  15. The combined monitoring of brain stem auditory evoked potentials and intracranial pressure in coma. A study of 57 patients.

    PubMed Central

    García-Larrea, L; Artru, F; Bertrand, O; Pernier, J; Mauguière, F

    1992-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) was carried out in 57 comatose patients for periods ranging from 5 hours to 13 days. In 53 cases intracranial pressure (ICP) was also simultaneously monitored. The study of relative changes of evoked potentials over time proved more relevant to prognosis than the mere consideration of "statistical normality" of waveforms; thus progressive degradation of the BAEPs was associated with a bad outcome even if the responses remained within normal limits. Contrary to previous reports, a normal BAEP obtained during the second week of coma did not necessarily indicate a good vital outcome; it could, however, do so in cases with a low probability of secondary insults. The simultaneous study of BAEPs and ICP showed that apparently significant (greater than 40 mm Hg) acute rises in ICP were not always followed by BAEP changes. The stability of BAEP's despite "significant" ICP rises was associated in our patients with a high probability of survival, while prolongation of central latency of BAEPs in response to ICP modifications was almost invariably followed by brain death. Continuous monitoring of brainstem responses provided a useful physiological counterpart to physical parameters such as ICP. Serial recording of cortical EPs should be added to BAEP monitoring to permit the early detection of rostrocaudal deterioration. Images PMID:1402970

  16. Evaluating the Potential Use of Remotely-Sensed and Model-Simulated Soil Moisture for Agricultural Drought Risk Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongxiang; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Current two datasets provide spatial and temporal resolution of soil moisture at large-scale: the remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals and the model-simulated soil moisture products. Drought monitoring using remotely-sensed soil moisture is emerging, and the soil moisture simulated using land surface models (LSMs) have been used operationally to monitor agriculture drought in United States. Although these two datasets yield important drought information, their drought monitoring skill still needs further quantification. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential of remotely-sensed and model-simulated soil moisture data in monitoring agricultural drought over the Columbia River Basin (CRB), Pacific Northwest. Two satellite soil moisture datasets were evaluated, the LPRM-AMSR-E (unscaled, 2002-2011) and ESA-CCI (scaled, 1979-2013). The USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used to simulate the soil moisture from 1979-2011. The drought monitoring skill is quantified with two indices: drought area coverage (the ability of drought detection) and drought severity (according to USDM categories). The effects of satellite sensors (active, passive), multi-satellite combined, length of climatology, climate change effect, and statistical methods are also examined in this study.

  17. Electrochemical Process Makes Fine Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical process makes fine tungsten needles for use as microscopic probes or field-emission cathodes. Etching vessel filled with dense, inert lower liquid covered by less-dense, caustic etching solution. Newly formed needle breaks off upper part of wire in etchant and falls into can in inert liquid below. Improved process does not require close monitoring and left unattended for an indefinite time.

  18. Brain Mechanisms Associated with Background Monitoring of the Environment for Potentially Significant Sensory Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Oliver; Melcher, Tobias; Diekhof, Esther K.; Karch, Susanne; Falkai, Peter; Goschke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background monitoring is a necessary prerequisite to detect unexpected changes in the environment, while being involved in a primary task. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie adaptive goal-directed behavior in a cued task switching paradigm during real response conflict or, more generally, when expectations on the…

  19. Performance Monitoring Is Altered in Adult ADHD: A Familial Event-Related Potential Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert; Brandeis, Daniel; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Electrophysiological studies in children with ADHD provide evidence for abnormal performance monitoring processes and familial association of these processes with ADHD. It is not yet known…

  20. The Combined Effect of Instruction and Monitor in Improving Pronunciation of Potential English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian; Fu, Zunwei

    2011-01-01

    The role that instruction and monitor can play in improvement of pronunciation has long been a focus of argument among linguists and researchers. It is assumed that their combination will result in positive effect. An empirical study is carried out and it is confirmed that their combination contributes greatly to the improvement of pronunciation…

  1. The potential for synthesizing multi-sensor remote sensing data for global volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtney, M.; Pritchard, M. E.; Carn, S. A.; McCormick, B.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Jay, J.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanoes exhibit variable eruption frequencies and styles, from near-continuous eruptions of effusive lavas to more intermittent, explosive eruptions. The monitoring frequency necessary to capture precursory signals at any volcano remains uncertain, as some warnings allot hours for evacuation. Likewise, no precursory signal appears deterministic for each volcano. Volcanic activity manifests in a variety of ways (i.e. tremor, deformation), thus requiring multiple monitoring mechanisms (i.e. geodetic, geochemical, geothermal). We are developing databases to compare relationships among remotely sensed volcanic unrest signals and eruptions. Satellite remote sensing utilizes frequent temporal measurements (daily to bi-weekly), an essential component of worldwide volcano monitoring. Remote sensing methods are also capable of detecting diverse precursory signals such as ground deformation from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar—InSAR— (multiple space agencies), degassing from satellite spectroscopy (i.e. OMI SO2 from NASA), and hot spots from thermal infrared (i.e. MODIS from NASA). We present preliminary results from seven SAR satellites and two thermal infrared satellites for 24 volcanoes with prominent SO2 emissions. We find near-continuous emissions at Ibu (Indonesia) since 2008 corresponded with hotspots and 10 cm of subsidence, with degassing and comparable subsidence observed at Pagan (Marianas). A newcomer to volcano monitoring, remote sensing data are only beginning to be utilized on a global scale, let alone as a synthesized dataset for monitoring developing eruptions. We foresee a searchable tool for rapidly accessing basic volcanic unrest characteristics for different types of volcanoes and whether or not they resulted in eruption. By including data from multiple satellite sensors in our database we hope to develop quantitative assessments for calculating the likelihood of eruption from individual events.

  2. SCUBA divers as oceanographic samplers: The potential of dive computers to augment aquatic temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wright, Serena; Hull, Tom; Sivyer, David B; Pearce, David; Pinnegar, John K; Sayer, Martin D J; Mogg, Andrew O M; Azzopardi, Elaine; Gontarek, Steve; Hyder, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring temperature of aquatic waters is of great importance, with modelled, satellite and in-situ data providing invaluable insights into long-term environmental change. However, there is often a lack of depth-resolved temperature measurements. Recreational dive computers routinely record temperature and depth, so could provide an alternate and highly novel source of oceanographic information to fill this data gap. In this study, a citizen science approach was used to obtain over 7,000 scuba diver temperature profiles. The accuracy, offset and lag of temperature records was assessed by comparing dive computers with scientific conductivity-temperature-depth instruments and existing surface temperature data. Our results show that, with processing, dive computers can provide a useful and novel tool with which to augment existing monitoring systems all over the globe, but especially in under-sampled or highly changeable coastal environments. PMID:27445104

  3. SCUBA divers as oceanographic samplers: The potential of dive computers to augment aquatic temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wright, Serena; Hull, Tom; Sivyer, David B; Pearce, David; Pinnegar, John K; Sayer, Martin D J; Mogg, Andrew O M; Azzopardi, Elaine; Gontarek, Steve; Hyder, Kieran

    2016-07-22

    Monitoring temperature of aquatic waters is of great importance, with modelled, satellite and in-situ data providing invaluable insights into long-term environmental change. However, there is often a lack of depth-resolved temperature measurements. Recreational dive computers routinely record temperature and depth, so could provide an alternate and highly novel source of oceanographic information to fill this data gap. In this study, a citizen science approach was used to obtain over 7,000 scuba diver temperature profiles. The accuracy, offset and lag of temperature records was assessed by comparing dive computers with scientific conductivity-temperature-depth instruments and existing surface temperature data. Our results show that, with processing, dive computers can provide a useful and novel tool with which to augment existing monitoring systems all over the globe, but especially in under-sampled or highly changeable coastal environments.

  4. SCUBA divers as oceanographic samplers: The potential of dive computers to augment aquatic temperature monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Serena; Hull, Tom; Sivyer, David B.; Pearce, David; Pinnegar, John K.; Sayer, Martin D. J.; Mogg, Andrew O. M.; Azzopardi, Elaine; Gontarek, Steve; Hyder, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring temperature of aquatic waters is of great importance, with modelled, satellite and in-situ data providing invaluable insights into long-term environmental change. However, there is often a lack of depth-resolved temperature measurements. Recreational dive computers routinely record temperature and depth, so could provide an alternate and highly novel source of oceanographic information to fill this data gap. In this study, a citizen science approach was used to obtain over 7,000 scuba diver temperature profiles. The accuracy, offset and lag of temperature records was assessed by comparing dive computers with scientific conductivity-temperature-depth instruments and existing surface temperature data. Our results show that, with processing, dive computers can provide a useful and novel tool with which to augment existing monitoring systems all over the globe, but especially in under-sampled or highly changeable coastal environments. PMID:27445104

  5. Motion artifact reduction in electrocardiogram using adaptive filtering based on half cell potential monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byung-hoon; Lee, Takhyung; Choi, Changmok; Kim, Youn-ho; Park, Gunguk; Kang, KyoungHo; Bae, Sang Kon; Shin, Kunsoo

    2012-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the main measurement parameter for effectively diagnosing chronic disease and guiding cardio-fitness therapy. ECGs contaminated by noise or artifacts disrupt the normal functioning of the automatic analysis algorithm. The objective of this study is to evaluate a method of measuring the HCP variation in motion artifacts through direct monitoring. The proposed wearable sensing device has two channels. One channel is used to measure the ECG through a differential amplifier. The other is for monitoring motion artifacts using the modified electrode and the same differential amplifier. Noise reduction was performed using adaptive filtering, based on a reference signal highly correlated with it. Direct measurement of HCP variations can eliminate the need for additional sensors. PMID:23366209

  6. Potential of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Aleksandra; Fornasaro, Stefano; Sergo, Valter; Bonifacio, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a label-free technique that enables quick monitoring of substances at low concentrations in biological matrices. These advantages make it an attractive tool for the development of point-of-care tests suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of drugs with a narrow therapeutic window, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, immunosuppressants, and various anticonvulsants. In this article, the current applications of SERS in the field of TDM for cancer therapy are discussed in detail and illustrated according to the different strategies and substrates. In particular, future perspectives are provided and special concerns regarding the standardization of self-assembly methods and nanofabrication procedures, quality assurance, and technology readiness are critically evaluated. PMID:27657146

  7. Electrochemical Measurement of the β-Galactosidase Reporter from Live Cells: A Comparison to the Miller Assay.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Zhou, Xinyi Y; Ueda, Hana; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Kim, Eunkyoung; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2016-01-15

    In order to match our ability to conceive of and construct cells with enhanced function, we must concomitantly develop facile, real-time methods for elucidating performance. With these, new designs can be tested in silico and steps in construction incrementally validated. Electrochemical monitoring offers the above advantages largely because signal transduction stems from direct electron transfer, allowing for potentially quicker and more integrated measurements. One of the most common genetic reporters, β-galactosidase, can be measured both spectrophotometrically (Miller assay) and electrochemically. However, since the relationship between the two is not well understood, the electrochemical methods have not yet garnered the attention of biologists. With the aim of demonstrating the utility of an electrochemical measurement to the synthetic biology community, we created a genetic construct that interprets and reports (with β-galactosidase) on the concentration of the bacterial quorum sensing molecule autoinducer-2. In this work, we provide a correlation between electrochemical measurements and Miller Units. We show that the electrochemical assay works with both lysed and whole cells, allowing for the prediction of one from the other, and for continuous monitoring of cell response. We further present a conceptually simple and generalized mathematical model for cell-based β-galactosidase reporter systems that could aid in building and predicting a variety of synthetic biology constructs. This first-ever in-depth comparison and analysis aims to facilitate the use of electrochemical real-time monitoring in the field of synthetic biology as well as to facilitate the creation of constructs that can more easily communicate information to electronic systems.

  8. Exploring the Potential of TanDEM-X Data in Rice Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, E.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, phenological parameters such as growth stage, calendar estimation, crop density and yield estimation for rice fields are estimated employing TanDEM-X data. Currently, crop monitoring is country-dependent. Most countries have databases based on cadastral information and annual farmer inputs. Inaccuracies are coming from wrong or missing farmer declarations and/or coarsely updated cadastral boundary definitions. This leads to inefficient regulation of the market, frauds as well as to ecological risks. An accurate crop calendar is also missing, since farmers provide estimations in advance and there is no efficient way to know the growth status over large plantations. SAR data is of particular interest for these purposes. The proposed method includes two step approach including field detection and phenological state estimation. In the context of precise farming it is substantial to define field borders which are usually changing every cultivation period. Linking the SAR inherit properties to transplanting practice such as irrigation, the spatial database of rice-planted agricultural crops can be updated. Boundaries of agricultural fields will be defined in the database, and assignments of crops and sowing dates will be continuously updated by our monitoring system considering that sowing practice variously changes depending on the field owner decision. To define and segment rice crops, the system will make use of the fact that rice fields are characterized as flooded parcels separated by path networks composed by soil or rare grass. This natural segmentation is well detectable by inspecting low amplitude and coherence values of bistatic acquisitions. Once the field borders are defined, the phenology estimation of crops monitored at any time is the key point of monitoring. In this aspect the wavelength and the polarization option of TanDEM-X are enough to characterize the small phenological changes. The combination of bistatic interferometry and Radiative

  9. A review of potential methods of determining critical effect size for designing environmental monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Munkittrick, Kelly R; Arens, Collin J; Lowell, Richard B; Kaminski, Greg P

    2009-07-01

    The effective design of field studies requires that sample size requirements be estimated for important endpoints before conducting assessments. This a priori calculation of sample size requires initial estimates for the variability of the endpoints of interest, decisions regarding significance levels and the power desired, and identification of an effect size to be detected. Although many programs have called for use of critical effect sizes (CES) in the design of monitoring programs, few attempts have been made to define them. This paper reviews approaches that have been or could be used to set specific CES. The ideal method for setting CES would be to define the level of protection that prevents ecologically relevant impacts and to set a warning level of change that would be more sensitive than that CES level to provide a margin of safety; however, few examples of this approach being applied exist. Program-specific CES could be developed through the use of numbers based on regulatory or detection limits, a number defined through stakeholder negotiation, estimates of the ranges of reference data, or calculation from the distribution of data using frequency plots or multivariate techniques. The CES that have been defined often are consistent with a CES of approximately 25%, or two standard deviations, for many biological or ecological monitoring endpoints, and this value appears to be reasonable for use in a wide variety of monitoring programs and with a wide variety of endpoints.

  10. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mitrovski, Svetlana M.

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  11. Challenges in Ecohydrological Monitoring at Soil-Vegetation Interfaces: Exploiting the Potential for Fibre Optic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalari, A.; Ciocca, F.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Blaen, P.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forestry Research (BIFoR) is using Free-Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) experiments to quantify the long-term impact and resilience of forests into rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The FACE campaign critically relies on a successful monitoring and understanding of the large variety of ecohydrological processes occurring across many interfaces, from deep soil to above the tree canopy. At the land-atmosphere interface, soil moisture and temperature are key variables to determine the heat and water exchanges, crucial to the vegetation dynamics as well as to groundwater recharge. Traditional solutions for monitoring soil moisture and temperature such as remote techniques and point sensors show limitations in fast acquisition rates and spatial coverage, respectively. Hence, spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of heat and water fluxes at this interface can only be monitored to a certain degree, limiting deeper knowledge in dynamically evolving systems (e.g. in impact of growing vegetation). Fibre optics Distributed Temperature Sensors (DTS) can measure soil temperatures at high spatiotemporal resolutions and accuracy, along kilometers of optical cable buried in the soil. Heat pulse methods applied to electrical elements embedded in the optical cable can be used to obtain the soil moisture. In July 2015 a monitoring system based on DTS has been installed in a recently forested hillslope at BIFoR in order to quantify high-resolution spatial patterns and high-frequency temporal dynamics of soil heat fluxes and soil moisture conditions. Therefore, 1500m of optical cables have been carefully deployed in three overlapped loops at 0.05m, 0.25m and 0.4m from the soil surface and an electrical system to send heat pulses along the optical cable has been developed. This paper discussed both, installation and design details along with first results of the soil moisture and temperature monitoring carried out since July 2015. Moreover, interpretations

  12. Electrochemical characterization of exfoliated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasala, Milinda

    In this research we have investigated electrochemical and impedance characteristics of liquid phase exfoliated graphene electrodes. The exfoliated graphene electrodes were characterized in Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) geometry. Liquid phase exfoliation was performed on bulk graphite powder in order to produces few layer graphene flakes in large quantities. The exfoliation processes produced few layer graphene based materials with increased specific surface area and were found to have suitable electrochemical charge storage capacities. Electrochemical evaluation and performance of exfoliated graphene electrodes were tested with Cyclic Voltammetry, constant current charging discharging and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) at ambient conditions. We have used several electrolytes in order to evaluate the effect of electrolyte in charge storage capacities. Specific capacitance value of ~ 47F/g and ~ 262F/g was measured for aqueous and ionic electrolytes respectively. These values are at least an order of magnitude higher than those obtained by using EDLC's electrodes fabricated with the bulk graphite powder. In addition these EDLC electrodes give consistently good performance over a wide range of scan rates and voltage windows. These encouraging results illustrate the exciting potential for high performance electrical energy storage devices based on liquid phase exfoliated graphene electrodes.

  13. Elimination of the interfering effects of ascorbic acid in the electrochemical monitoring of bio-active constituents in body fluid samples by using the powder microelectrode technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Chuan-sin; Chen, Jianyong

    2001-09-01

    Interference caused by ascorbic acid has been one of the most frequently encountered problems in the design of amperometric biosensors. The accuracy of the nowadays well- commercialized amperometric blood glucose monitor is still more or less affected by the fluctuation of ascorbic acid level in blood. The interference of ascorbic acid is serious and widespread.

  14. Dissociating action inhibition, conflict monitoring and sensory mismatch into independent components of event related potentials in GO/NOGO task.

    PubMed

    Kropotov, Juri D; Ponomarev, Valery A; Hollup, Stig; Mueller, Andreas

    2011-07-15

    The anterior N2 and P3 waves of event related potentials (ERPs) in the GO/NOGO paradigm in trials related to preparatory set violations in previous studies were inconsistently associated either with action inhibition or conflict monitoring operations. In the present study a paired stimulus GO/NOGO design was used in order to experimentally control the preparatory sets. Three variants of the same stimulus task manipulated sensory mismatch, action inhibition and conflict monitoring operations by varying stimulus-response associations. The anterior N2 and P3 waves were decomposed into components by means of independent component analysis (ICA). The ICA was performed on collection of 114 individual ERPs in the three experimental conditions. Three of the independent components were selectively affected by the task manipulations indicating association of these components with sensory mismatch, action inhibition and conflict monitoring operations. According to sLORETA the sensory mismatch component was generated in the left and right temporal areas, the action suppression component was generated in the supplementary motor cortex, and the conflict monitoring component was generated in the anterior cingulate cortex.

  15. Measurement and monitoring needs, capabilities and potential for addressing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation under REDD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Hansen, Matthew; Houghton, Richard A.; Walker, Wayne; Laporte, Nadine; Busch, Jonah

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of measurement and monitoring capabilities for forests in the context of REDD+ needs, with a focus on what is currently possible, where improvements are needed, and what capabilities will be advanced in the near-term with new technologies already under development. We summarize the role of remote sensing (both satellite and aircraft) for observational monitoring of forests, including measuring changes in their current and past extent for setting baselines, their carbon stock density for estimating emissions in areas that are deforested or degraded, and their regrowth dynamics following disturbance. We emphasize the synergistic role of integrating field inventory measurements with remote sensing for best practices in monitoring, reporting and verification. We also address the potential of remote sensing for enforcing safeguards on conservation of natural forests and biodiversity. We argue that capabilities exist now to meet operational needs for REDD+ measurement, reporting, and verification and reference levels. For some other areas of importance for REDD+, such as safeguards for natural forests and biodiversity, monitoring capabilities are approaching operational in the near term. For all REDD+ needs, measurement capabilities will rapidly advance in the next few years as a result of new technology as well as advances in capacity building both within and outside of the tropical forest nations on which REDD+ is primarily focused.

  16. An Analysis of Potential Stream Fish and Fish Habitat Monitoring Procedures for the Inland Northwest: Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, James T.; Wollrab, Sherry P.

    1999-09-01

    Recent concerns over the rapid declines of native stream-fish populations in the inland Northwest have prompted the USDA Forest Service to institute interim land management practices intended to stop further declines in fish habitat quality and protect existing high quality habitat. Natural resource managers in the Inland Northwest need tools for assessing the success or failure of conservation policies and the impacts of management actions on fish and fish habitats. Effectiveness monitoring is one such potential tool, but there are currently no established monitoring protocols. Since 1991, US Forest Service biologists have used the standardized R1/R4 inventory procedures to measure fish and fish habitats on agency lands throughout the Intermountain West. The widespread use and acceptance of these standardized procedures and the large amount of data collected suggest that the R1/R4 procedures might provide the basis for an effectiveness monitoring protocol. Using fish and fish habitat data collected by Forest Service biologists, the authors assessed the efficiency of the R1/R4 procedures for monitoring stream fish and fish habitats.

  17. Giant pseudoaneurysm originated from distal middle cerebral artery dissection treated by trapping under sensitive evoked potential and motor evoked potential monitoring: Case report and discussion

    PubMed Central

    Gripp, Daniel Andrade; Nakasone, Fábio Jundy; Maldaun, Marcos Vinícius Calfat; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires; Mathias, Luis Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dissecting giant pseudoaneurysm of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a rare lesion often presenting challenges to neurosurgical teams dealing with this specific pathology. Giant pseudoaneurysm originating from a dissecting distal segment of the MCA treated with aneurysm trapping under motor and sensitive evoked potential monitoring with a successful outcome is presented in the article followed by a brief discussion on the subject. Case Description: A case of a previously healthy young female patient admitted at the emergency room of Santa Paula Hospital with a history of a sudden headache and syncope, dysphasia, and Grade 4 right hemiparesis due to a large brain hemorrhage secondary to a 25 mm ruptured pseudoaneurysm originated from a distal left MCA dissecting segment is described. Because the patient risked neurological worsening, aneurysm was treated with parent and efferent vessel trapping technique and no changes on the sensitive and motor evoked potential (MEP) from baseline informed on this decision. Hemorrhage was completely drained after aneurysm was secured. Conclusion: Neurophysiological sensitive and MEP monitoring, on this specific case was a valuable tool and informed on the decision of trapping of this large vascular lesion. PMID:27127710

  18. Preparation of highly conjugated water-dispersible graphene-butyric acid for the enhancement of electron transfer within polyamic acid-benzoxazole: potential applications in electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Chen, Shi-Liang; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-15

    To break through the long time and complex procedures for the preparation of highly conjugated reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) in developing electrochemical sensor, a time-saving and simple method is investigated in this study. One novel step of the exfoliated accompanying carboxylated graphene sheet from pristine is achieved via Friedel-Crafts acylation. By electrophilic aromatic substitution, the succinic anhydride ring is opened and attaches covalently to the graphene sheet (Gs) to form exfoliated graphene with grafted 1-one-butyric acid (Gs-BA). The grafting chain converts anions in aqueous solution to maintain Gs-BA in a stable dispersion and noticeably decreases the π-π stacking of the exfoliated Gs during the drying process. The analytical results of the absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the conjugation of Gs-BA is not significantly destroyed by this chemical modification; Gs-BA retains the Gs electrical properties favorable for developing electrochemical sensors. When polyamic acid-benzoxazole (PAA-BO), a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-sensitive probe, hybridizes with Gs-BA to form Gs-BA-PAA-BO, the electron transfer rate relating to the response time improves markedly from 1.09 s(-1) to 38.8 s(-1). Additionally, it offers a high performance for H₂O₂ sensing in terms of sensitivity and response time, making this method applicable for developing glucose and choline biosensors.

  19. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  20. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-10-23

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5-10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants.

  1. Comparison of genetically encoded calcium indicators for monitoring action potentials in mammalian brain by two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Podor, Borbala; Hu, Yi-ling; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Croll, Roger; Fine, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Imaging calcium transients associated with neuronal activity has yielded important insights into neural physiology. Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) offer conspicuous potential advantages for this purpose, including exquisite targeting. While the catalogue of available GECIs is steadily growing, many newly developed sensors that appear promising in vitro or in model cells appear to be less useful when expressed in mammalian neurons. We have, therefore, evaluated the performance of GECIs from two of the most promising families of sensors, G-CaMPs [Nat. Biotechnol. 19(2), 137–141 (2001)11175727] and GECOs [Science 333(6051), 1888–1891 (2011)21903779], for monitoring action potentials in rat brain. Specifically, we used two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy to compare calcium transients detected by G-CaMP3; GCaMP6f; G-CaMP7; Green-GECO1.0, 1.1 and 1.2; Blue-GECO; Red-GECO; Rex-GECO0.9; Rex-GECO1; Carmine-GECO; Orange-GECO; and Yellow-GECO1s. After optimizing excitation wavelengths, we monitored fluorescence signals associated with increasing numbers of action potentials evoked by current injection in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat organotypic hippocampal slices. Some GECIs, particularly Green-GECO1.2, GCaMP6f, and G-CaMP7, were able to detect single action potentials with high reliability. By virtue of greatest sensitivity and fast kinetics, G-CaMP7 may be the best currently available GECI for monitoring calcium transients in mammalian neurons. PMID:26158004

  2. Engineering Task Plan for the 241-AN-105 Multi-Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    1999-08-25

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the activities associated with the installation of the corrosion probe assembly into riser WST-RISER-016 (formerly 15B) of tank 241-AN-105. The corrosion monitoring system utilizes the technique of electrochemical noise (EN) for monitoring waste tank corrosion. Typically, EN consists of low frequency (4 Hz) and small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A typical EN based corrosion-monitoring system measures instantaneous fluctuations in corrosion current and potential between three nominally identical electrodes of the material of interest immersed in the environment of interest. Time-dependent fluctuations in corrosion current are described by electrochemical current noise, and time-dependent fluctuations of corrosion potential are described by electrochemical noise. The corrosion monitoring system is designed to detect the onset of localized corrosion phenomena if tank conditions should change to allow these phenomena to occur. In addition to the EN technique, the system also facilitates the use of the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) technique to collect uniform corrosion rate information. LPR measures the linearity at the origin of the polarization curve for overvoltages up to a few millivolts away from the rest potential or natural corrosion potential. The slope of the current vs. voltage plot gives information on uniform corrosion rates.

  3. Exploitation of the full potential of PSI data for subsidence monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, M.; Devanthéry, N.; Cuevas-González, M.; Monserrat, O.; Crippa, B.

    2015-11-01

    Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a remote sensing technique used to measure and monitor land deformation from a stack of interferometric SAR images. The main products that can be derived using the PSI technique are the deformation maps and the time series of deformation. In this paper, an approach to apply the PSI technique to a stack of Sentinel-1 images is described. Moreover, the problems encountered during the processing are detailed and an explanation of how they were dealt with is provided. Finally, Sentinel-1 deformation maps and time series obtained over the metropolitan area of Mexico DF are shown.

  4. Simultaneous Radio to (Sub-) Mm-Monitoring of Variability and Spectral Shape Evolution of Potential GLAST Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J.A.; Krichbaum, T.P.; Angelakis, E.; Readhead, A.C.S.; /Caltech

    2011-11-29

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument onboard GLAST offers a tremendous opportunity for future blazar studies. In order to fully benefit from its capabilities and to maximize the scientific return from the LAT, it is of great importance to conduct dedicated multi-frequency monitoring campaigns that will result comprehensive observations. Consequently, we initiated an effort to conduct a GLAST-dedicated, quasi-simultaneous, broad-band flux-density (and polarization) monitoring of potential GLAST blazars with the Effelsberg and OVRO radio telescopes (11 cm to 7mm wavelength). Here, we present a short overview of these activities which will complement the multi-wavelengths activities of the GLAST/LAT collaboration towards the 'low-energy' radio bands. Further we will give a brief outlook including the extension of this coordinated campaign towards higher frequencies and future scientific aims.

  5. Real-time Monitoring of Discrete Synaptic Release Events and Excitatory Potentials within Self-reconstructed Neuromuscular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Oleinick, Alexander I; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Chemical synaptic transmission is central to the brain functions. In this regard, real-time monitoring of chemical synaptic transmission during neuronal communication remains a great challenge. In this work, in vivo-like oriented neural networks between superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and their effector smooth muscle cells (SMC) were assembled in a microfluidic device. This allowed amperometric detection of individual neurotransmitter release events inside functional SCG-SMC synapse with carbon fiber nanoelectrodes as well as recording of postsynaptic potential using glass nanopipette electrodes. The high vesicular release activities essentially involved complex events arising from flickering fusion pores as quantitatively established based on simulations. This work allowed for the first time monitoring in situ chemical synaptic transmission under conditions close to those found in vivo, which may yield important and new insights into the nature of neuronal communications. PMID:26079517

  6. Usefulness of Motor-Evoked Potentials Monitoring for Neurosurgical Treatment of an Unusual Distal Anterior Choroidal Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jecko, Vincent; Eimer, Sandrine; Penchet, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    A 35 years old woman presented with an acute meningeal syndrome following an intra ventricular haemorrhage without subarachnoid haemorrhage. The angiography demonstrated a 6 mm partially thrombosed saccular aneurysm at the plexal point of the right anterior choroidal artery (AChoA). It was surgically approached inside the ventricle through a trans-temporal corticotomy. The aneurysm was excised after distal exclusion of the feeding artery under motor-evoked potentials monitoring. Of the 19 cases of distal AChoA aneurysm neurosurgical treatment, this is the only one performed under electrophysiology monitoring, a simple and safe method to detect and prevent motor tract ischemia. We discuss this rare case, along with a comprehensible review of the literature of the previous surgical cases of distal AChoA aneurysms. PMID:27446526

  7. Electrochemical post-functionalization of conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Inagi, Shinsuke; Fuchigami, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    This article summarizes recent progress in the post-functionalization of conjugated polymers by electrochemical methods. These electrochemical polymer reactions typically proceed via electrochemical doping of a conjugated polymer film, followed by chemical transformation. Examples include the quantitative oxidative fluorination of polyfluorenes and oxidative halogenation of polythiophenes, as well as the reductive hydrogenation of polyfluorenones. The degree of functionalization, otherwise known as the reaction ratio, can be controlled by varying the charge passed through the polymer, allowing the optoelectronic properties of the conjugated polymers to be tailored. Wireless bipolar electrodes with an in-plane potential distribution are also useful with regard to the electrochemical doping and reaction of conjugated polymers and allow the synthesis of films exhibiting composition gradients. Such bipolar electrochemistry can induce multiple reaction sites during electrochemical polymer reactions.

  8. C/X-band SAR interferometry applied to ground monitoring: examples and new potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Wasowski, Janusz; Chiaradia, Maria T.

    2013-10-01

    Classical applications of the MTInSAR techniques have been carried out in the past on medium resolution data acquired by the ERS, Envisat (ENV) and Radarsat sensors. The new generation of high-resolution X-Band SAR sensors, such as TerraSAR-X (TSX) and the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation allows acquiring data with spatial resolution reaching metric/submetric values. Thanks to the finer spatial resolution with respect to C-band data, X-band InSAR applications result very promising for monitoring single man-made structures (buildings, bridges, railways and highways), as well as landslides. This is particularly relevant where C-band data show low density of coherent scatterers. Moreover, thanks again to the higher resolution, it is possible to infer reliable estimates of the displacement rates with a number of SAR scenes significantly lower than in C-band within the same time span or by using more images acquired in a narrower time span. We present examples of the application of a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique, namely the SPINUA algorithm, to data acquired by ENV, TSX and CSK on selected number of sites. Different cases are considered concerning monitoring of both instable slopes and infrastructure. Results are compared and commented with particular attention paid to the advantages provided by the new generation of X-band high resolution space-borne SAR sensors.

  9. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  10. Testing the potential of Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometry for the detection and monitoring of landslides at local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiaschi, Simone; Mantovani, Matteo; Frigerio, Simone; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro; Floris, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The recent Sentinel-1 mission, started by ESA in April 2014, provides to the scientific community new capabilities for the continuous monitoring of the Earth. In particular, the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) imaging technique used in the Interferometric Wide swath (IW) acquisition mode, allow us to acquire data over very wide areas (250 km swath) at 20m spatial resolution, with 12 days revisit time, making it suitable for ground displacement monitoring applications. With more than one year of SAR images available, it is now possible to carry out monitoring activities of slow moving phenomena such as landslides at both regional and local scales. In this work, we test the potential of Sentinel-1 InSAR for the monitoring of shallow landslides occurring in a densely vegetated area in the North-Eastern Italian Pre-Alps. The test area of about 25km2, is located in the Province of Vicenza (Veneto Region, NE Italy) and is characterized by elevations up to 700m a.s.l., low slope angles, and the outcropping of volcanic deposits (lavas, pyroclastites and ignimbrites) overlaid by eluvial and colluvial deposits. The entire area is affected by a large number of different instabilities, such as shallow soil slips, flows and rotational/translational slides that mainly occur after heavy rain. The landslides are damaging the buildings and the infrastructure, in particular the road network, causing high economic loss for the Municipality. The landslides monitoring activity is performed exploiting the available Sentinel-1 SAR images using both Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Persistent Scatterer (PS) techniques. Furthermore, we use the same techniques to process another SAR dataset made of 22 COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) X-band images acquired over the study area in the period March 2011 - September 2012. A first comparison of the results is performed in order to assess the landslides detection capabilities of the Sentinel-1 C-band in respect to the CSK X-band. Finally, the

  11. Silicon nanowire based biosensing platform for electrochemical sensing of Mebendazole drug activity on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shashaani, Hani; Faramarzpour, Mahsa; Hassanpour, Morteza; Namdar, Nasser; Alikhani, Alireza; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-11-15

    Electrochemical approaches have played crucial roles in bio sensing because of their Potential in achieving sensitive, specific and low-cost detection of biomolecules and other bio evidences. Engineering the electrochemical sensing interface with nanomaterials tends to new generations of label-free biosensors with improved performances in terms of sensitive area and response signals. Here we applied Silicon Nanowire (SiNW) array electrodes (in an integrated architecture of working, counter and reference electrodes) grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system with VLS procedure to electrochemically diagnose the presence of breast cancer cells as well as their response to anticancer drugs. Mebendazole (MBZ), has been used as antitubulin drug. It perturbs the anodic/cathodic response of the cell covered biosensor by releasing Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of cytochrome C would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by SiNW biosensor. By applying well direct bioelectrical contacts with cancer cells, SiNWs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Our device detected the trace of MBZ drugs (with the concentration of 2nM) on electrochemical activity MCF-7 cells. Also, experimented biological analysis such as confocal and Flowcytometry assays confirmed the electrochemical results.

  12. Continuous Monitoring of Turning in Parkinson’s disease: Rehabilitation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Martina; El-Gohary, Mahmoud; Pearson, Sean; McNames, James; Schlueter, Heather; Nutt, John G.; King, Laurie A.; Horak, Fay B

    2016-01-01

    Background Difficulty turning during gait is a major contributor to mobility disability, falls and reduced quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Unfortunately, the assessment of mobility in the clinic may not adequately reflect typical mobility function or its variability during daily life. We hypothesized that quality of turning mobility, rather than overall quantity of activity, would be impaired in people with PD over 7 days of continuous recording. Methods 13 subjects with PD and 8 healthy control subjects of similar age wore 3 Opal inertial sensors (on their belt and on each foot) throughout 7 consecutive days during normal daily activities. Turning metrics included average and coefficient of variation (CV) of: 1) number of turns per hour, 2) turn angle amplitude, 3) turn duration, 4) turn mean velocity, and 5) number of steps per turn. Turning characteristics during continuous monitoring were compared with turning 90 and 180 degrees in a observed gait task. Results No differences were found between PD and control groups for observed turns. In contrast, subjects with PD showed impaired quality of turning compared to healthy control subjects (Turn Mean Velocity: 43.3±4.8°/s versus 38±5.7°/s, mean number of steps 1.7±1.1 versus 3.2±0.8). In addition, PD patients showed higher variability within the day and across days compared to controls. However, no differences were seen between PD and control subjects in the overall activity (number of steps per day or percent of the day walking) during the 7 days. Conclusions We show that continuous monitoring of natural turning during daily activities inside or outside the home is feasible for patients with PD and the elderly. This is the first study showing that continuous monitoring of turning was more sensitive to PD than observed turns. In addition, the quality of turning characteristics was more sensitive to PD than quantity of turns. Characterizing functional turning during daily

  13. Energy Storage in Strained Organic Molecules: (Spectro)Electrochemical Characterization of Norbornadiene and Quadricyclane.

    PubMed

    Brummel, Olaf; Besold, Daniel; Döpper, Tibor; Wu, Yanlin; Bochmann, Sebastian; Lazzari, Federica; Waidhas, Fabian; Bauer, Udo; Bachmann, Philipp; Papp, Christian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Görling, Andreas; Libuda, Jörg; Bachmann, Julien

    2016-06-22

    We have investigated the electrochemically triggered cycloreversion of quadricyclane (QC) to norbornadiene (NBD), a system that holds the potential to combine both energy storage and conversion in a single molecule. Unambiguous voltammetric traces are obtained for pure NBD and pure QC, the latter a strained polycyclic isomer of the former. The difference in redox potentials is smaller than the energy difference between the neutral molecules. This is owing to a significant energy difference between the corresponding radical cations, as demonstrated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The vibrational modes of each pure compound are characterized experimentally in the fingerprint region and identified by DFT methods. Thermal and electrochemical transformations of NBD and QC are monitored in situ by IR spectroelectrochemical methods. The kinetics of the cycloreversion of QC to NBD, which is catalyzed by oxidizing equivalents, can be controlled by an applied electrode potential, which implies the ability to adjust in real time the release of thermal power stored in QC.

  14. Factors that limit the use of flash visual evoked potentials for surgical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cedzich, C; Schramm, J; Mengedoht, C F; Fahlbusch, R

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted comparing the incidence with which the N2/P2/N3 was obtained after flash VEP in 3 groups: anterior visual pathway lesions, non-tumor craniotomies and non-cranial surgery. These groups allowed evaluation of the effects of anesthesia, visual pathway lesions and craniotomy on the stability of the flash VEP. It was found that the latency was not significantly affected in the 3 groups, whereas the incidence of obtainable peaks and the amplitudes were adversely affected by anesthesia, cranial surgical manipulation and especially by the presence of a visual pathway lesion. These adverse effects were so marked that the application of flash VEP for intraoperative monitoring seems of little use.

  15. Adaptive filters for monitoring localized brain activity from surface potential time series

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, M.E. . Signal and Image Processing Inst. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA ); Leahy, R.M. . Signal and Image Processing Inst.); Mosher, J.C. . Signal and Image Processing Inst. Lo

    1992-01-01

    We address the problem of processing electroencephalographic (EEG) data to monitor the time series of the components of a current dipole source vector at a given location in the head. This is the spatial filtering problem for vector sources in a lossy, three dimensional, zero delay medium. Dipolar and distributed sources at other than the desired location are canceled or attenuated with an adaptive linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformer. Actual EEG data acquired from a human subject serves as the interference in a case where the desired source is simulated and superimposed on the actual data. It is shown that the LCMV beamformer extracts the desired dipole time series while effectively canceling the subjects interference.

  16. Adaptive filters for monitoring localized brain activity from surface potential time series

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, M.E. |; Leahy, R.M.; Mosher, J.C. |; Lewis, P.S.

    1992-12-01

    We address the problem of processing electroencephalographic (EEG) data to monitor the time series of the components of a current dipole source vector at a given location in the head. This is the spatial filtering problem for vector sources in a lossy, three dimensional, zero delay medium. Dipolar and distributed sources at other than the desired location are canceled or attenuated with an adaptive linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformer. Actual EEG data acquired from a human subject serves as the interference in a case where the desired source is simulated and superimposed on the actual data. It is shown that the LCMV beamformer extracts the desired dipole time series while effectively canceling the subjects interference.

  17. Radar monitoring of agricultural land use - Some problems and potentials at the local level.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1971-01-01

    A study was made of some of the changing land use practices in a small area of the American Winter Wheat Belt as they might relate to remote sensing. In addition, interviews were conducted with farmers and local country agents in order to determine some of the needs regarding land use and farming practices as perceived by these people. A list of elements of land use is given which provides potential variables and parameters to be considered in interpreting radar imagery. The results of interviews provide a better concept of what potential remote sensing users at the primary level need and want.

  18. Global monitoring of influenza: potential contribution of national networks from a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2006-06-01

    The aim of global monitoring of influenza is to help decision making in regular seasonal influenza and in the case of a new pandemic. FluNet is the main tool for information sharing among the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network, as well as the public. It allows 112 WHO National Influenza Centers in 83 countries access to remote data entry. Weekly information on recent isolates and epidemiological situations are available to the public through many functionalities, for example, maps (animated or static), charts and raw data are embedded in the system for data display. Thus far, FluNet has collected weekly influenza surveillance data from up to 1997. A major outcome of this global network is the influenza vaccine composition, which is proposed twice a year (i.e., for both hemispheres) on the basis of the collected data. However, FluNet is far from performing comprehensive monitoring of influenza at a global level; 109 WHO member states still do not participate in the network and participating national influenza centers have only limited resources, which do not allow them to implement a reliable, accurate and real-time epidemiology of influenza in the areas they deserve. By following the time and space dynamics of an influenza strain, an epidemiologically valid system would make assessment of decisions after adopting preventive measures (e.g., closing schools, travel restriction, use of antivirals or of protective masks and mass immunization) possible. This international cooperation in public health fields must be considerably reinforced in the future, and should encourage database linkage with environmental information, allowing for the evaluation of the role of climate change, animal behavior or pollution involvement in disease.

  19. A potential to monitor nutrients as an indicator of rangeland quality using space borne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramoelo, A.; Cho, M. A.; Madonsela, S.; Mathieu, R.; van der Korchove, R.; Kaszta, Z.; Wolf, E.

    2014-02-01

    Global change consisting of land use and climate change could have huge impacts on food security and the health of various ecosystems. Leaf nitrogen (N) is one of the key factors limiting agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. Leaf N can be used as an indicator of rangeland quality which could provide information for the farmers, decision makers, land planners and managers. Leaf N plays a crucial role in understanding the feeding patterns and distribution of wildlife and livestock. Assessment of this vegetation parameter using conventional methods at landscape scale level is time consuming and tedious. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the landscape, which engenders an opportunity to assess leaf N over wider rangeland areas from protected to communal areas. Estimation of leaf N has been successful during peak productivity or high biomass and limited studies estimated leaf N in dry season. The objective of this study is to monitor leaf N as an indicator of rangeland quality using WorldView 2 satellite images in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Series of field work to collect samples for leaf N were undertaken in the beginning of May (end of wet season) and July (dry season). Several conventional and red edge based vegetation indices were computed. Simple regression was used to develop prediction model for leaf N. Using bootstrapping, indicator of precision and accuracy were analyzed to select a best model for the combined data sets (May and July). The may model for red edge based simple ratio explained over 90% of leaf N variations. The model developed from the combined data sets with normalized difference vegetation index explained 62% of leaf N variation, and this is a model used to estimate and map leaf N for two seasons. The study demonstrated that leaf N could be monitored using high spatial resolution with the red edge band capability.

  20. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G.; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators. PMID:26154173